African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.United StatesAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.AfricaNorth CarolinaMississippiChicagoGeorgiaAlabamaSouth CarolinaPrejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.BaltimoreHealthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.PhiladelphiaFocus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Los AngelesCultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.MichiganSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.MissouriNorth AmericaSocial Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)CaliforniaLouisianaSocial Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)TexasHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.IndianaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.New York CityLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.PennsylvaniaRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.FloridaAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transcultural Nursing: A nursing specialty created to answer the need for developing a global perspective in the practice of nursing in a world of interdependent nations and people. The focus of this nursing discipline is on the integration of international and transcultural content into the training. Courses include study in the area of cultural differences, nursing in other countries, and international health issues and organizations, as an example.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.South AmericaAfrican Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Masculinity: Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.KansasReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.MarylandChristianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.IllinoisMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Barbering: The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.ArkansasProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (1/9421)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

Prevalence and social correlates of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Harlem. (2/9421)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence, social correlates, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a predominantly Black, poor, urban community. METHODS: Associations of risk factor prevalences with sociodemographic variables were examined in a population-based sample of 695 men and women aged 18 to 65 years living in Central Harlem. RESULTS: One third of the men and women were hypertensive, 48% of the men and 41% of the women were smokers, 25% of the men and 49% of the women were overweight, and 23% of the men and 35% of the women reported no leisure-time physical activity over the past month. More than 80% of the men and women had at least 1 of these risk factors, and 9% of the men and 19% of the women had 3 or more risk factors. Income and education were inversely related to hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity. Having 3 or more risk factors was associated with low income and low education (extreme odds ratio [OR] = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0, 34.5 for education; OR = 3.7, CI = 1.6, 8.9 for income) and with a history of unstable work or of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged, urban communities are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These results highlight the importance of socioenvironmental factors in shaping cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

Evidence for a black-white crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE. (3/9421)

OBJECTIVES: This cohort study evaluated racial differences in mortality among Blacks and Whites 65 years and older. METHODS: A total of 4136 men and women (1875 Whites and 2261 Blacks) living in North Carolina were interviewed in 1986 and followed up for mortality until 1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated, with adjustment for sociodemographic and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. RESULTS: Black persons had higher mortality rates than Whites at young-old age (65-80 years) but had significantly lower mortality rates after age 80. Black persons age 80 or older had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR of Blacks vs Whites, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.90) and of CHD mortality (HR 0.44: 95% CI = 0.30, 0.66). These differences were not observed for other causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in mortality are modified by age. This mortality crossover could be attributed to selective survival of the healthiest oldest Blacks or to other biomedical factors affecting longevity after age 80. Because the crossover was observed for CHD deaths only, age overreporting by Black older persons seems an unlikely explanation of the mortality differences.  (+info)

A critical approach to stress-related disorders in African Americans. (4/9421)

This article outlines an integrative, dynamic approach to stress and is, in part, a response to emergent debates within social science research and practice that suggest that African Americans are currently experiencing the reverberating psychological effects of slavery and oppression. It is the product of the work of an African-American mental health think tank situated at the Community Mental Health Council, Chicago, Illinois. We suggest the need to attend to biopsychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors that inform both exposure and responses to stress. Finally, consideration is given to matters of resiliency.  (+info)

Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996. (5/9421)

This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied.  (+info)

HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men. (6/9421)

African-American men who have sex with men remain at disproportionately greater risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While high HIV seroincidence has been documented among homosexual African-American men, behavioral research has rarely studied the HIV risk issues confronting these men. This study assessed a sample of 253 men who have sex with men to determine if African-American (n = 79) and white (n = 174) men report different rates of HIV risk behaviors and differ in characteristics indicative of risk. African-American men who have sex with men were more likely to be HIV-seropositive, to report past treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis, and to have a recent unprotected sex partner known or believed to be HIV-seropositive. Multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for group differences in age, education, and income, revealed that African-American men who have sex with men were less open about their sexual orientation, scored lower in HIV risk behavior knowledge, had more female sexual partners, and more frequently used cocaine in association with sex relative to white men who have sex with men. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention programs tailored to the needs and risk issues of African-American men who have sex with men are needed.  (+info)

Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu. (7/9421)

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

Plasma cortisol suppression response in the South African black population with glaucoma. (8/9421)

Plasma cortisol suppression was measured in 25 Black glaucomatous patients and in 19 Black patients of similar age and sex, but without glaucoma, who acted as controls. Initial serum cortisol levels were found to be slightly higher in the glaucomatous group. The response to systemically-administered cortisone was statistically more marked in the glaucomatous patients compared with the control group.  (+info)

*Asian Americans in government and politics

... first African American, and first Asian American state attorney general in the United States. Other Asian-Americans serving in ... Scott is one-fourth Filipino and three-fourths African American, while Harris is one-half Indian and one-half African American ... "How Asian Americans Became Democrats". The American Prospect. Retrieved 2016-10-22. Jim Lobe, Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry ... In some areas where Asian Americans have large populations, Asian Americans have elected Asian American candidates at the city ...

*York, South Carolina

African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 3.65% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino ... "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31. "US ... Over the next two decades, before the outbreak of the American Civil War, Yorkville's population swelled to 2,000. In 1860 a ... York is located approximately 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Charlotte, North Carolina and 13 miles (21 km) west of Rock Hill, ...

*Jefferson County, Mississippi

85.7% were Black or African American, 13.7% White, 0.2% Native American and 0.3% of two or more races. 0.4% were Hispanic or ... Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.02% from other races, and 0.24% from ... Within the United States, in 2009 rural Jefferson County had the highest percentage of African-Americans of any county. It was ... U.S. Highway 61 Mississippi Highway 28 Mississippi Highway 33 Claiborne County (north) Copiah County (northeast) Lincoln County ...

*Zebulon, North Carolina

African American, 0.57% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 4.00% from other races, and 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or ... Zebulon is located in the northeast central region of North Carolina, where the North American Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal ... NC 96 is a primary north-south highway through the town. It connects Zebulon to Rolesville to the north and Selma to the south ... The town was named after Zebulon Baird Vance, the Governor of North Carolina during the American Civil War. The first election ...

*Harry Castlemon

He served in the Union Navy from 1862 to 1865, during the American Civil War, acting as the receiver and superintendent of coal ... "Oscar in Africa" ? "The Camp in the Foot-Hills", 1893 "Guy Harris, The Runaway", 1887 "A Ten Ton Cutter", 1897 "Carl the ... 1891). Serafin, Steven & Alfred Bendixen, Continuum Encyclopedia of American Literature (Continuum International Publishing ... and English and American Authors (J.B. Lippincott & Co. ...

*African trypanosomiasis

154-5 Schofield CJ, Kabayo JP (2008). "Trypanosomiasis vector control in Africa and Latin America". Parasit Vectors. 1 (1): 24 ... "East African Trypanosomiasis FAQs". Parasites - African Trypanosomiasis (also known as Sleeping Sickness). Centers for Disease ... "West African Trypanosomiasis FAQs". Parasites - African Trypanosomiasis (also known as Sleeping Sickness). Centers for Disease ... and LATEX/T b gambiense methods for serodiagnosis and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis in West and Central Africa ...

*African Americans

... (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or ... In 2010, 45% of African Americans owned their homes, compared to 67% of all Americans. The poverty rate among African Americans ... "African American" ethnic group category in 2010 for ethnic African Americans. Following lobbying led by the Arab American ... African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America ...

*Lists of African Americans

... first African-American mayors List of African-American leftists List of African-American abolitionists List of African-American ... African Americans in the United States Congress List of African-American jurists List of African-American United States ... disco List of African-American astronauts List of African-American inventors and scientists List of African-American ... African American portal Biography portal Lists portal Index of African American-related articles List of African-American ...

*African Americans in Maryland

African-American portal Maryland portal Maryland Commission on African American History & Culture African Americans in Maryland ... African Americans in Maryland are residents of the state of Maryland who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. ... which gave the vote to African Americans. The Civil War impacted the African Americans in Maryland in several ways with a few ... By the time of the American Civil War a bit more than 49% of African Americans in Maryland were free. Beginning in 1816, a new ...

*African Americans in Mississippi

... are residents of the state of Mississippi who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 ... List of African-American historic places in Mississippi Black History in Mississippi. ... African Americans were 37.4% of the state's population. Big K.R.I.T. - Rapper, record producer David Banner - Rapper, record ...

*African Americans in Alabama

... are residents of the state of Alabama who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. ... Census, African Americans were 26.5% of the state's population, the majority of whom are descended from slaves of West and ... Central African descent. History of slavery in Alabama "Alabama QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. ...

*African Americans in Louisiana

... are residents of the state of Louisiana who are of African-American ancestry. Between 1723 and ... almost half of the African slaves came from the Congo. Before the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), African Americans ... Louisiana African American Heritage Trail History of slavery in Louisiana Creoles of color "Louisiana: most African diversity ... African Americans left Louisiana by the tens of thousands during the Great Migration in the first half of the 20th century, ...

*African Americans in Florida

... are residents of the state of Florida who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. ... African Americans were 16.6% of the state's population. History of slavery in Florida List of African-American historic places ...

*100 Greatest African Americans

... is a biographical dictionary of one hundred historically great Black Americans (in no particular ... "significance in the general progress of African-Americans toward full equality in the American social and political system" " ... cultural and economic status of African Americans" "personal achievement that reveals the best qualities of the African ... ISBN 978-1-57392-963-9. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Prometheus ...

*African Americans in California

Post-WWII, African Americans boosted its population enormously in California. The population of African Americans grew slowly ... Taylor, Quintard (2000-01-01). "African American Men in the American West, 1528-1990". The Annals of the American Academy of ... The African American Experience in the Western States". The Journal of African American History. 91 (1): 1-3. "Serious Erosion ... with only 21,645 African American residents in 1910 compared to two million white residents. African American residents of ...

*African Americans in Tennessee

... arrived in North America via the Trans-Atlantic slave trade from West Africa. Early African American arrivals included those ... Currently, African Americans make up 13% of the legislature; all Black legislators are Democrats. No African American has ever ... Since 1860, Memphis' Shelby County has had the largest population of African Americans. Most of Tennessee's African Americans ... 2009-2015). Wharton had previously served as Shelby County's first African-American Mayor. As of 2012, African Americans make ...

*African Americans in France

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans, Afro-Americans) in France are a subgroup of the larger American ... African Americans, who are largely descended from Africans of the American colonial era, have lived and worked in France since ... In addition, the presence of newly arrived enclaves of blacks from many African and Caribbean nations offer African Americans ... African-American journalist William Gardner Smith who was also a novelist (e.g., Last of the Conquerors), who worked for the ...

*African Americans in Ghana

As reported by Valerie Papaya Mann, president of the African American Association of Ghana, thousands of African Americans now ... from African Americans Ghana-United States relations Ghanaian American Immigration to Ghana Afro-American settlement in Africa ... The history of African Americans in Ghana goes back to individuals such as American civil rights activist and writer W. E. B. ... "Ghana and The Right to Abode For African Americans", ChickenBones. "Ghana's New Money", Time magazine, August 21, 2006 African- ...

*African-American folktales

... are the storytelling and oral history of African-American culture. Many are unique, while others are ... African American Folktales. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-36295-8. "Folktales , African-American Writers: A ... they focused on British and Anglo-American folktales due to them thinking African Americans had a poverty-stricken literary ... In general, most African-American Folktales fall into one of seven categories: tales of origin, tales of trickery and trouble, ...

*African-American names

African American portal American names African-American culture Hispanic American naming customs List of most popular given ... African-American names are an integral part of the traditions of the African-American community. While many Black Americans use ... most African-American names closely resembled those used within European-American culture. Even within the White-American ... African American Cultural Recovery through African Name Acquisition and Usage" (PDF). Africology: The Journal of Pan African ...

*African-American bookstores

... , also known as black bookstores, are bookstores owned and operated by African Americans. These ... Although they are a variety of African-American business, African American bookstores have often been closely tied to radical ... specialize in works by and about African Americans and their target customers are often African Americans. ... One of the earliest African-American bookstores to achieve national prominence was Lewis Michaux's National Memorial African ...

*African-American teachers

... in the North, African Americans worked alongside with Whites. Many privileged African Americans in the North wanted their ... In 1950, African American teachers made up about half of African-American professionals. The Great Depression in the 1930s had ... African-American teachers educated African Americans and taught each other to read during slavery in the South. Slaves ran ... The African-American communities lost their leaders and role models. It created a distrust in schools from the Black community ...

*African-American art

African American portal African-American literature African-American music James A. Porter Colloquium on African American Art ... African-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans). Influenced ... Richard Powell, African American Art. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Oxford ... Important collections of African-American art include the Walter O. Evans Collection of African American Art, the Paul R. Jones ...

*African-American dance

African-American portal African-American culture African-American history African-American music American traditional informal ... African-American modern dance drew on modern dance and African-American folk and social dance along with African dance and ... There are a number of notable African-American modern dance companies using African-American cultural dance as an inspiration, ... "African-American" dance. Captive Africans from numerous societies in several African regions began pouring into the area as ...

*African-American neighborhood

African American portal List of African American neighborhoods List of U.S. metropolitan areas with large African-American ... Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, and The African American Museum in Cleveland were created by African ... Generally, an African American neighborhood is one where the majority of the people who live there are African American. Some ... This African American house design is found in both rural and urban southern areas, mainly in African-American communities and ...

*Camelpox

... is endemic throughout the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The Camelpox Virus (CMPV) that causes Camelpox is an ... "Iraq Special Weapons". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 4 April 2012. ...

*African-American businesses

African-American Civil Rights Movement (1865-95) List of 19th-century African-American civil rights activists African-American ... African Americans in the U.S. Economy (2005) ch 25-30, 42. Davis, Joshua Clark, "For the Records: How African American ... African American Economic Development and Small Business Ownership (1997). Rogers, W. Sherman. The African American ... Johnson's Ebony and Jet magazines were among the most influential African-American media by 1950. Most of the African-Americans ...
New US study says money spent on prison system and war on drugs should go towards education. Mental health experts from Meharry Medical College School of Medicine have released the first comprehensive report on the correlation between the incarceration of African American males and substance abuse and other health problems in the United States. Published in Frontiers in Psychology on the 12th of November, the report looks at decades of data concerning the African American population rates of incarceration and subsequent health issues. The authors conclude that the moral and economic costs of current racial disparities in the judicial system are fundamentally avoidable, especially if more resources are spent on education and treatment.. "Instead of getting health care and education from civil society, African American males are being funneled into the prison system. Much of this costly practice could be avoided in the long-term by transferring funds away from prisons and into education," says Dr. ...
Objectives. Previous attempts at obtaining population estimates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 seroprevalence have been beset by problems of cooperation bias. As part of the fourth round of study with an urban African-American community cohort, the following investigation was aimed at assessing HIV-1 prevalence and the relative...
This study is designed to assess the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance in African American males. African American males have higher rates of diabetes and lower levels of fitness when compared to Caucasian males. A project such as this is necessary because there is evidence to show that exercise training can reduce the risk of developing diabetes, though no studies have been conducted in African American males. In addition, ARTIIS will test the effect adhering to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity and 2 days of 20 minutes of muscular strength activity), on insulin resistance in African American men. This study will provide important information that can either strengthen or refine current physical activity recommendations. Furthermore, this intervention will be delivered through community facilities in order to increase the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable ...
This study is designed to assess the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance in African American males. African American males have higher rates of diabetes and lower levels of fitness when compared to Caucasian males. A project such as this is necessary because there is evidence to show that exercise training can reduce the risk of developing diabetes, though no studies have been conducted in African American males. In addition, ARTIIS will test the effect adhering to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity and 2 days of 20 minutes of muscular strength activity), on insulin resistance in African American men. This study will provide important information that can either strengthen or refine current physical activity recommendations. Furthermore, this intervention will be delivered through community facilities in order to increase the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable ...
Hypertensive African Americans often respond poorly to beta-blocker monotherapy, compared with whites. There is evidence, however, that suggests that this response may be different if beta-blockers with vasodilating effects are used. This 12-week, multi-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of nebivolol, a cardioselective, vasodilating beta1-blocker, at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg once daily in 300 African American patients with stage I or II hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [SiDBP] | or =95 mm Hg and | or =109 mm Hg). The primary efficacy end point was the baseline-adjusted change in trough mean SiDBP. After 12 weeks, nebivolol significantly reduced least squares mean SiDBP (P| or =.004) at all doses of 5 mg and higher and sitting systolic blood pressure (P| or =.044) at all doses 10 mg and higher, compared with placebo. The drug was safe and well-tolerated, with no significant difference in the incidence of
Abstract: African Americans suffer disproportionately from higher rates of diet related chronic diseases compared with Caucasians. The purpose of this project was to design and implement a nutrition education intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among low-income, African American caretakers of young children. Study participants were low-income, African American residents of Guilford County, NC, and primary meal preparers and caretakers of a child less than 12 years of age. Participants (N=14) were recruited from community agencies (Guilford County WIC; Department of Social Services) and through a church with a high African American population. Participants received nutrition education classes that addressed barriers to healthy behaviors. Pre and post tests were given to assess changes in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy regarding dietary behavior. Overall, pre and post test results indicated a significant increase in nutrition knowledge, self reported ...
African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasian Americans and this discrepancy cannot be explained by measures of body weight or body composition. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity of African Americans and Caucasian Americans to glucocorticoids by measuring glucose and insulin responses to a meal challenge under conditions of placebo and glucocorticoid. A total of 160 healthy or overweight/obese African American and Caucasian American participants completed exercise testing and a liquid meal challenge during separate laboratory visits. Participants were evaluated following treatments with placebo and dexamethasone (4 mg). Main outcome measures were correlation between body composition measures (body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference) and insulin responses; insulin and glucose responses after a liquid meal challenge; and calculated HOMA. After dexamethasone treatment African Americans were significantly more hyperinsulinemic after a meal as indicated by
Ringwalt, C., Graham, P., Sanders-Phillips, K., Browne, D., & Paschall, M. (1999). Ethnic identity as a protective factor in the health behaviors of african-american male adolescents. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Ethnic Identity as a Protective Factor in the Health Behaviors of African-American Male Adolescents Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co., Inc ...
This announcement has been sent on behalf of our network supporters, the Harm Reduction Coalition:. African Americans and Hepatitis C. Thursday, July 25, 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. EDT. Register now!. Hepatitis C is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. It is also a neglected health condition, with: African Americans and Blacks have a higher prevalence of chronic Hepatitis C infection compared with non-Hispanic white Americans and are twice as likely to have ever been infected with Hepatitis C.. This webinar will provide information on the impact of Hepatitis C on African Americans and strategies to address the viral hepatitis C epidemic in the African-American community.. Click to register now!. The following will be discussed:. ...
Blacks/African Americans have been affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since early in the epidemic (1). Despite representing a smaller proportion (13.6%) of the U.S. population, blacks/African Americans accounted for half of the HIV diagnoses in adolescents and adults in 37 states during 2005--2008 (2). Data from the National HIV Surveillance System were used to estimate numbers, percentages, and rates of HIV diagnoses in blacks/African Americans during 2005--2008. Those data were reported to CDC through June 2009 from 37 states with mature (in operation since at least January 2005) HIV surveillance systems. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that during 2005--2008, blacks/African Americans were diagnosed with HIV infection more frequently than any other racial/ethnic population. During 2008, black/African American males and females were diagnosed with HIV infection at eight and 19 times the rates for white males and ...
The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and ...
HV is a crisis in African American communities, threatening the health and well-being of African American men and women across the United States. While African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV and AIDS of any racial/ ethnic group in the nation, prevention efforts have helped to maintain stability in the annual number of new HIV infections among African Americans for more than a decade. Additionally, recent CDC data found indications of an encouraging decline in new infections among African American women. Still, African American heterosexual women continue to be far more affected by HIV than women of any other race or ethnicity, and young black gay and bisexual men now account for more new infections than any other group in the United States ...
The speech and language behaviors of African-American children, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status, have evoked considerable interest over the past two decades among scholars and practitioners alike. The present study examined (a) the extent to which phonological performance varied as a function of test-client congruence on three tests of articulation containing standard English assumptions among a group of African-American children who speak what is commonly referred to as Black English Vernacular (BEV); and (b) the extent to which the childrens test performance was likely to be misdiagnosed as being pathological when dialect considerations were not taken into account. Assessment implications of the data are discussed.. ...
In the current study, a CNV map was generated using DNA from a population of 385 African Americans using 50 randomly chosen female African Americans as a reference. A total of 1362 CNV events were identified in the population. In addition, CNVs were identified in a population of 435 White individuals using the same 50 African American females as a reference. The same reference population was used so that the CNV distributions of the two populations would be directly comparable. Two regions of the genome exhibited large CNV frequency differences between the two populations, one on chromosome 15 and another on chromosome 17. No genes in these regions had obvious roles in ethnic differences.. A total of 140 of the African American DNAs were derived from cell lines. The process of creating the cell lines generated a duplication on chromosome 14 in 74% of the cell line-derived DNAs. Although this region is listed as copy number variant in the Database of Genomic Variants, none of the DNAs derived ...
SAGE - May 30, 2013. Many African American youth may develop high levels of allostatic load, a measure of physiological wear and tear on the body, by developing psychosocial competence under conditions of high risk related to socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was designed to test this hypothesis, which is based on John Henryism theory. In a representative sample of 489 African American youth living in the rural South, cumulative SES-related risks and teacher-reported competence were assessed at ages 11 to 13; depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and allostatic load were assessed at age 19. The data revealed that rural African American preadolescents who evinced high psychosocial competence under conditions of high cumulative SES-related risk displayed low levels of adjustment problems along with high allostatic load at age 19. Read more. ...
Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Psychiological Impact of Slavery on African Americans, with Ms. KShakill, Researcher, who talks about some of the psyc...
A number of technology companies have released their Equal Employment Opportunity reports (EEO-1 reports) for 2014 and what they show is that there remains a diversity issue. Twitter, Microsoft and Google employ zero African-American women in executive and management level positions. Facebook, Intel and Amazon employ one African-American female each in such positions. Executive and management level positions are held by white men 65% of the time, white females 14% of the time, Asian males 13% of the time, Asian females 3% of the time, Hispanic males 2% of the time, Hispanic females and African-American males 1% of the time, and African-American females less than 1% of the time. The statistics for all employees arent much better for many companies. Twitter, for example, employs 0% African-American females and 1% African-American males and Hispanic males and females. It employs 25% Asian males and 8% Asian females. The Tech industry is aware of the issue and there are efforts being made to ...
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S., and disproportionally affects African Americans. Given the evidence for genetic susceptibility to CHD in African Americans and lagging discovery efforts in this population, we propose to search for gene variants that contribute to incident CHD risk in African Americans.. Methods: We examined the evidence for association of genome wide genetic markers with incident CHD using the high density custom array MetaboChip using data from two U.S. cohort studies comprising 7,967 African American individuals (Womens Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Genome-wide ancestry estimates (principal components) were determined using Eigensoft. We used Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for age and population stratification. Study- and sex-stratified results were combined using fixed effect meta-analysis. A Bonferroni corrected P, 2.8 x 10-7 was considered a significant array ...
In the United States, the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing most rapidly among African American women. The geographic distribution of AIDS ...
A master archivist and historian of African American literature, Gene Jarrett has assembled a compelling new collection of essays for this necessary addition to the study of African American writing and thought. The volume offers a comprehensive survey of the African American canon, but also goes in new directions, giving fresh emphasis to the earliest writing of African Americans as well as to the exciting field of Latino/-a writing in the African Diaspora. This is a field-defining collection."-Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard University. "A Companion to African American Literature is a pathbreaking collection that will revolutionize the study of African American literature and literary culture. Written by leading established and emerging scholars in the field, the essays both provide a comprehensive overview of African American literary trends and preoccupations and challenge our conventional understanding of racial and national identities, literary genres, and intertextual influences. ...
Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. -Sterling, S.R., B. Bertrand, S. Judd, T.L. Carson, P. Chandler-Laney, M.L. Baskin, 2017. Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2017;14:160595. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd14.160595.
According to U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher, African Americans are twice as likely to suffer a stroke than whites, making them more susceptible to stroke than any other ethnic group. Satcher spoke out on this health disparity during a stroke-screening event in Rockville, Md., called "Stroke Sunday.". "Strokes have a disproportionate impact among African Americans, but there is something we can do as a community to combat this disease," states Satcher, who is African American. "We can reduce our risk of stroke by lowering blood pressure, quitting smoking and keeping heart disease and diabetes in check.". Satcher stressed the importance of African Americans learning the five warning signs of stroke. These signs, as outlined by the American Stroke Association (ASA), are:. 1. Numbness or weakness of the arm, face or one side of the body ...
The history of African American women and their participation in the birth control movement reflects a very conflicted set of ideals regarding African American women, the use of contraceptive practices and abortion. Prominent historical figures debated whether African American communities would benefit from birth control or if birth control was another methodical scheme put in place to suppress the African American community. During slavery times in the United States, black slave women were viewed as "breeding slaves" and "child bearing women"-simply vessels to meet the demands for labor in Southern agricultural areas. Through arranged marriages and forced mating with other slaves along with direct rape from slave owners, slave women were subject to frequent sexual exploitation. The women were even blamed for these phenomena as white male masters developed the "Jezebel" stereotype of black women as passionate, hypersexual beings who wanted to engage in sexual acts with anyone and everyone. In ...
Initially taken in 1838 to demonstrate the stability and significance of the African American community and to forestall the abrogation of African American voting rights, the Quaker and Abolitionist census of African Americans was continued in 1847 and 1856 and present an invaluable view of the mid-nineteenth century African American population of Philadelphia. Although these censuses list only household heads, providing aggregate information for other household members, and exclude the substantial number of African Americans living in white households, they provide data not found in the federal population schedules. When combined with the information on African Americans taken from the four federal censuses, they offer researchers a richly detailed view of Philadelphias African American community spanning some forty years. The three censuses are not of equal inclusiveness or quality, however. The 1838 and 1847 enumerations cover only the "old" City of Philadelphia (river-to-river and from Vine ...
The streets are gone," Dean Angelo, president of the Chicago police union, told me last month. The night before, Aug. 14, a Chicago police officers son had been killed in a shooting while sitting on his familys porch, one of 92 people killed in Chicago during the worst month for homicides in the Windy City since July 1993. The August victims who survived included 10-year-old Tavon Tanner, shot while playing in front of his house (the bullet ripped through Tavons pancreas, intestines, kidney and spleen); an 8-year-old girl shot in the arm while crossing the street; and two 6-year-old girls ...
Background/Purpose: Racial differences exist in the severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To enhance our knowledge about SSc in African Americans, we established a comprehensive clinical database from the largest multicenter cohort of African American SSc patients assembled to date (the Genome Research in African American Scleroderma Patients (GRASP) cohort). We compared the phenotypic manifestations of SSc in the GRASP cohort to that reported in the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) cohort1.. Methods: African American SSc patients were enrolled retrospectively and prospectively over a 30-year period (1987 to 2016), from 18 academic centers throughout the United States. 945 (94%) patients met the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc, with the remaining 64 (6%) meeting the 1980 ACR or CREST criteria. The cross-sectional prevalence of sociodemographic, clinical and serological features was evaluated using data obtained at the time of study ...
Montgomery County is home to over 132,000 African American residents, or over 15% of the countys population. Between 2000 and 2006, the population of the countys Black and African American increased significantly (43%) - much more than Marylands Black and African American Population (24%).. Community Partnerships is committed to bringing together this vibrant community to tackle issues of common concerns. We will work closely with residents and community groups to address some common barriers to these communities including language access, connection with government and other communities, service delivery to these communities, and a range of other issues identified from the Leadership Summit in October 2007.. 2000 U.S. Census and 2007 American Community Survey. Community Links:. Census 2010 ...
Introduction: Whether high sodium intake, assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24hrUNaEx), is associated with altered glycemic control, evaluated by hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), in the African American population remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between 24hrUNaEx and HbA1C in young overweight/obese African Americans.. Methods: A total of 106 apparently healthy overweight/obese drug-naïve African Americans were recruited. Subjects were asked to discard the first morning urine specimen and collect all remaining urine specimens for next 24-hr including a urine specimen of the following morning. HbA1C was measured from venous blood by ion-exchange chromatography.. Results: The means (± SE) of age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects (67%, 71/106 females) were 24.30±0.82 years and 35.51±0.70 kg/m2, respectively. Average 24hrUNaEx was 172.17±7.09 mEq/L/d, which corresponded to average sodium intake of 3.96±1.63 g/d. Pearsons correlation analysis revealed a positive ...
A professor at the University of Virginia conducted research on African Americans in the health professions to make available resources that scholars and educators could use to encourage more young African Americans to pursue health careers.
The United States is facing a maternal and infant health crisis, and African American women are at the center. African American women are dying from preventable, pregnancy-related causes at three to four times the rate of white women. Infants born to African American mothers die at twice the rate of infants born to white women. The impacts of structural racism on maternal health outcomes for women of color are felt both within and outside of medical institutions. Eliminating maternal and infant mortality demands acknowledging that racism is the driving force behind health disparities and centering women of color in policy and community-driven solutions. Join us for a discussion with women of color experts in the maternal and infant health field that focuses on policy solutions.. Opening remarks: ...
In a community-based sample of middle-age African Americans, we found that demographic and clinical characteristics as well as cardiac structure and function significantly differed among patients with HFpEF, HFrEF, and no HF. By comparing patients with HFpEF with those without HF, we found that older age, female sex, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and concentric hypertrophy were more common in patients with HFpEF. Similarly, diabetes mellitus, CKD, CHD, and left atrial enlargement were more common in patients with HFrEF than those with HFpEF. Survival differed among groups, with HFpEF portending a worse prognosis than no HF but not as severe as HFrEF. Together, these findings suggest that in African Americans, HFpEF and HFrEF may be distinct syndromes.. Representation of African Americans in observational studies and clinical trials is typically low; thus, HF in this population is not well understood (21,22). Moreover, few HF studies focus specifically on African Americans (23) ...
African Americans with ADHD are underdiagnosed. Review issues involving the health care system and disparities in care for African American adults, and learn how to assess patient and provider cultural biases toward ADHD symptoms and treatment.
Abstract. HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education, and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types, unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to ...
Marilyn Yarbrough with Crystal Bennett. Excerpted from Marilyn Yarbrough with Crystal Bennett, Cassandra and the Sistahs: the Peculiar Treatment of African American Women in the Myth of Women as Liars Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 626-657, 634-655 (Spring 2000)(254 footnotes omitted). In colonial times, white men often viewed white women with suspicion and distrust. They associated white women with sexuality. However, as time passed, white women were no longer portrayed as sexual temptresses. They became celebrated as the nobler half of humanity and depicted as goddesses rather than sinners. White women were thereafter represented as virtuous, pure and innocent. The historical and social experiences of African women during slavery resulted in numerous images that defined African American women as deviant.. For centuries, African American women have been contrasted with white women. While the Victorian concept of true womanhood defined white women as possessing unquestionable moral ...
Cases come from all over the world. Patient identifiers have been redacted or patient consent has been obtained. The contents of this site have not been reviewed nor approved by Hennepin County Medical Center and any views or opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of Hennepin County Medical Center ...
A substantial body of literature suggests that cognitive impairment disproportionately affects African Americans. To date, research has uncovered disturbing racial disparities associated with the prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia and found prevalence rates of Alzheimers disease (AD) to be higher among African Americans (Potter et al., 2009). Furthermore, a 2002 report from the Alzheimers Association described AD in the African American community as an
In the African American community, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are major health threats (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2001; Hill, 1999). African Americans represent disproportionately more than half of the newly diagnosed cases of HIV (Balm in Gilead, 2001). The threat of HIV/AIDS to African Americans reaches across every age group. For instance, out of all the pediatric AIDS cases, the majority (65%) of the children in the United States living with AIDS are African American (CDC, 2001) and among adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19, African Americans represent over sixty percent of the reported cases (CDC, 2001). The infection rates among African American adults is equally alarming and surpassing cancer, heart disease, and homicide, HIV/AIDS ranks as the leading cause of death for African American adults between the ages of 25 and 44 (Balm in Gilead, 2001 ...
New York, NY - According to NY Department of Health and MentalHygiene report released January 30, 2007, one in eight adults in NewYork City has diabetes. Among those, African Americans have one ofthe highest rates at nearly 14.5%. Nationwide 2.6 million AfricanAmericans over the age of 20 have diabetes. Thats 10 AfricanAmericans for every 6 white Americans with diabetes. Of the 2.8million African Americans with diabetes, only 1.5 million have beendiagnosed. An estimated 730,000 dont even know they have thedisease!. Constance Brown-Riggs, a New York State Certified NutritionistDiabetes Educator and author of the new book Eating Soulfully andHealthfully with Diabetes, explains the reasons for this disparity.. "African Americans are more susceptible to diabetes thanwhites. They also have a higher rate of obesity, which alsoincreases the risk of diabetes. Another reason is cultural-thefood required to lower diabetic risk and control diabetes isatypical for many African Americans.". Her new book is ...
In this paper, cultural influences are examined in the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. Cultural definitions of material lifestyles are investigated as a correlate of disease risk in an African American community in the rural South. A new technique-called cultural consensus analysis - is used to test for a cultural model of...
Media Contact: Amy Wolf, (615) 322-NEWS. [email protected]. [Media Note: Vanderbilt has a campus broadcast facility with a dedicated fiber optic line for live TV interviews and a radio ISDN line. A high resolution photo of Carol Swain is available at www.vanderbilt.edu/news.]. Illegal immigration hurts African Americans. Vanderbilt professor believes Congressional Black Caucus is ignoring the issue.. NASHVILLE, Tenn.-New research by a Vanderbilt professor of law and political science found that illegal immigration is hurting African Americans and the Congressional Black Caucus is not doing enough about it.. In a new book of essays called Debating Immigration, which Carol Swain edited and contributed to, Swain said that African Americans are losing more jobs to illegal immigrants than other racial or ethic groups, yet low income black workers dont have political input in the debate.. "African Americans have been left devoid of a strong black voice in Congress on a topic that affects them deeply, ...
Drug reformers across America should take advantage of this historical announcement by the NAACP by calling their local NAACP chapters and urging their local leadership to invite a LEAP speaker as future guest speaker or to encourage the NAACP to sponsor a debate between LEAP and the pro-drug war opposition. This important acknowledgement of the drug wars failure and the racial disparity created in our criminal justice system as stated by the National leadership should provide plenty of incentive for the local chapters to book LEAP or other drug reform minded groups. African-Americans need a venue to address the endless problems in the African-American community associated with drug prohibition and how ending the drug war might solve some of these concerns.. The severity of drug abuse in the African-American community has made it difficult for its leaders to take a position critical of the drug war and there still are opponents such as Bishop Ron Allen in California who vehemently criticizes ...
Fewer than half of American adults get vaccinated despite strong recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and widespread availability of free and low-cost vaccines. Furthermore, African Americans are less likely to get the flu shot than white Americans, and concerns about side effects from the vaccine play a large role in this disparity. According to the CDC, only 41 percent of African American adults received the flu vaccine compared with 47 percent of white adults.
In this study, for the first time, we assessed the prognostic value of the codon 72 polymorphism of p53 in African American and Caucasian patients with colorectal cancers and showed that this polymorphism, specifically the Pro/Pro phenotype, is an independent factor of prognosis for African American patients. Similar frequencies of p53 mutations were observed in both African American and Caucasian patients. However, the incidence of the homozygous mutant variant Pro/Pro was higher in African American patients as compared with Caucasians; in contrast, the wild-type Arg/Arg variants were more common in Caucasians than in African Americans. In African American patients, colorectal cancers with Pro/Pro mutant phenotypes exhibited a higher incidence of p53 mutations, specifically of the disruptive type, and were associated with nodal metastasis and short overall survival. These aggressive phenotypic features of the Pro/Pro mutant phenotype were not observed in Caucasian patients. Thus, these findings ...
Background: Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an often-fatal pediatric cancer more frequent in European-American than African-American children. African-American children, however, are at higher risk for the more severe form of NBL, and have worse overall survival than European-American children. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated to NBL in children of European descent. Knowledge of their association to NBL in African-American children is still lacking. Methods: We genotyped and imputed SNPs located in three gene regions reported to be associated to NBL in children of European descent, and tested them for association in 390 African-American NBL patients compared to 2500 healthy, ethnically matched controls. Results: SNPs in the BARD1 gene region show a similar pattern of association to NBL in African-American and European-American children. The more restricted extent of linkage disequilibrium in the African-American population suggests a smaller candidate region ...
In this study, for the first time, we assessed the prognostic value of the codon 72 polymorphism of p53 in African American and Caucasian patients with colorectal cancers and showed that this polymorphism, specifically the Pro/Pro phenotype, is an independent factor of prognosis for African American patients. Similar frequencies of p53 mutations were observed in both African American and Caucasian patients. However, the incidence of the homozygous mutant variant Pro/Pro was higher in African American patients as compared with Caucasians; in contrast, the wild-type Arg/Arg variants were more common in Caucasians than in African Americans. In African American patients, colorectal cancers with Pro/Pro mutant phenotypes exhibited a higher incidence of p53 mutations, specifically of the disruptive type, and were associated with nodal metastasis and short overall survival. These aggressive phenotypic features of the Pro/Pro mutant phenotype were not observed in Caucasian patients. Thus, these findings ...
Body mass and dietary intake relationships were examined between 110 primarily African American children and their caregivers from three rural counties (Bullock, Macon, and Wilcox) in Alabama. Children were 9 to 13 years of age and included 76 girls and 34 boys; 108 children were African American and two were Caucasian. Children attended schools in which over about 90% of the school children received free or reduced price lunch. Caregivers were female with an age range from 17 to 93 years. The prevalence of overweight among the children was 37.1% and when children at risk of overweight were included, the prevalence was 57.1%. The prevalence of obesity among the female caregivers was 68.6%. Significant positive correlations were found between caregivers and boys for intakes of energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, zinc, potassium, sodium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin A. No significant correlations were found between ...
Male Survival Panel Planned In response to the recently state study of African American male, a panel discussion will be held at the Akron Community Service Center and Urban League, 250 East Market St. on Thursday, No vembcr 1, 1990 at 7:00 p.m. The Panel Discussion will be sponsored by the Akron Assault on Illiteracy Program (AOIP), Engineered Interior Enviromental Systems, and The Reporter. William Gra ham will be the moderator. The discussion group is coordinated by Howard Kookaru. "The survival of the African American male is a crucial issue as Black America enters the year 2000", said host William R. Ellis Jr.. Editor/Pub lisher of The Reporter. The public is invited. Free admission. Come early to get a seat at this historical panel meeting. For information call Howard Rookard at 434-7318; William R. Ellis Jr. at 2530007r. ? , - c j - ? 5T , 5 n ? ? i r ? , - - C , i - W ? " ,J At Reporter ? AK r ? Cincinnati ? Cleveland ? Columbus ? Elyria ? Lorain ? Mansfield ? Oberlin ? Ravenna ? ...
Addressing Reproductive and Child Health in the African American Community in Los Angeles: Strategies and Lessons Learned from the Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project (Oral ...
A new study is the first to examine the effectiveness of a widely used counseling approach to treating substance abuse among African Americans. The study found that African American women were more likely than men to continue a counseling approach to treating substance abuse, but their substance abuse issues continued. Published this month in "Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology," a journal of the American Psychological Association, the study investigated the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) compared with the standard treatment, Counseling as Usual (CAU)-two clinical approaches to treating substance abuse among African Americans. As a secondary analysis of a clinical trial by the Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), the study serves as a rare examination of both treatment retention rates and the effectiveness of MET in reducing drug abuse, specifically among African Americans.. Motivation Enhancement Therapy is designed to ...
IMPORTANT: ATCC strongly recommends that users download and read the ATCC ® Stem Cell Culture Guide: Tips and Techniques for Culturing Stem Cells (www.atcc-guides.org/stemcell) before initiating their cultures.
Genetic differences between African Americans and other ethnic groups appear to explain only a small part of the disparity in cardiovascular disease rates and outcomes.
ProQuest® African American Heritage is a groundbreaking new digital resource exclusively devoted to African American family history research.
Importance: Modern prevention guidelines substantially increase the number of individuals who are eligible for treatment with statins. Efforts to refine statin eligibility via coronary calcification have been studied in white populations but not, to our knowledge, in large African American populations. Objective: To compare the relative accuracy of US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommendations in identifying African American individuals with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective, community-based study, 2812 African American individuals aged 40 to 75 years without prevalent ASCVD underwent assessment of ASCVD risk. Of these, 1743 participants completed computed tomography. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nonzero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, abdominal aortic calcium score, and incident ASCVD (ie, myocardial infarction, ischemic
To determine if an intensive regimen of daily, high-dose interferon would improve the initial response rates to therapy for hepatitis C genotype 1 among African American and Caucasian patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis of a treatment trial conducted between October 1995 and June 1997. Patients were randomized to 24 weeks of therapy with interferon −α-2b at either 5 MU daily or 3 MU three times a week. On the standard interferon regimen (3 MU three times a week) African Americans and Caucasians had similar initial response rates. However, unlike Caucasians, African Americans did not have an increased initial virological response when treated with an intensive, daily dose regimen. Levels of HCV RNA decreased more slowly during the first 12 weeks of therapy among African Americans. Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard estimates for the different race and dose combinations revealed that Caucasians who received daily interferon were most likely to have an initial response (logrank, P , ...
African Americans: African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have nonblack ancestors as
Reducing the high morbidity and mortality associated with colorectal cancer among African Americans continues to be a major healthcare challenge in the United States. In response to this challenge, the leadership of the American College of Gastroenterology asked the Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity to develop a position paper on colorectal cancer in African Americans. The committee has done an extensive review of the literature on colorectal cancer screening and issues related to screening in African Americans to support their recommendations. One important goal was to improve awareness among primary care physicians and gastroenterologists of the important differences in colorectal cancer between African Americans and Caucasians. ...
This is the first study that prospectively and systemically evaluated the relationship between LVH, diastolic function, and adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. We previously reported that a high proportion of subjects (69%) had LVH at enrollment in the AASK cohort.15 In this report, we now demonstrate that echocardiographically defined LVH is a strong predictor of HF and other CVD events independent of clinical variables, including nighttime systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, and LV systolic and diastolic function.. Prior studies have shown LVH is associated with adverse outcomes across diverse populations1-3,27 and these events occur to a greater degree in African Americans with ECG-defined LVH compared with whites and Latinos.27 The prognostic significance of echocardiographically defined LVH in African Americans has not been extensively studied, although compared with whites, LVH in African Americans without CKD is associated with higher CV mortality.28 The ...
The aim of this study was to assess the differences in correlation of PPARGC1A polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in adults of African origins: African Americans and Haitian Americans. The case-control study consisted of ,30 years old, self-identified Haitian Americans ( cases and controls) and African Americans ( cases and controls) living in South Florida with and without T2D. Adjusted logistic regression indicated that both SNP rs7656250 (OR = 0.22, ) and rs4235308 (OR = 0.42, ) showed protective association with T2D in Haitian Americans. In African Americans, however, rs4235308 showed significant risk association with T2D (OR = 2.53, ). After stratification with sex, in Haitian Americans, both rs4235308 (OR = 0.38, ) and rs7656250 (OR = 0.23, ) showed protective association with T2D in females whereas in African American males rs7656250 had statistically significant protective effect on T2D (OR = 0.37, ). The trends observed for genetic association of PPARGC1A SNPs, rs4235308, and ...
AFRICAN AMERICAN & AFRICAN STUDIES 2011-2012 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. This catalog highlights titles appropriate for use in undergraduate and graduate-level African American and African courses. Subject areas include: African American Studies; African History, Politics, and Culture; Anthology and Reference; Biographies, Autobiographies and Memoirs; Hip Hop, Sports, and Popular Culture; History, Politics, and Society; and Literature and Fiction. Also contains examination copy ordering information for professors who would like to review books for adoption purposes.
Principal Investigator(s): Rachel Royce, PhD, MPH 1; Nickolas DeLuca, PhD2 Project Dates: October 2003 - March 2008 Project Overview: The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Division of Tuberculosis Elimination and RTI International are conducting a study, as a part of the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium, to address the excess burden of tuberculosis (TB) among African Americans in the southeast. In the southeastern states in the United States (US), where African Americans have historically faced great social and economic disadvantages, the TB rate among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites. This difference is referred to as TB disparity. This multi-phase research project was developed to understand the individual, institutional, and community-level barriers and facilitators to TB control in African Americans in the southeastern region of the US. During the first phase of this study, qualitative and qualitative research methods were used to gain ...
Abstract Disparate access to health care makes African Americans especially susceptible to diabetes and associated risk factors. This study analyzes the cost-effectiveness of aggressive treatment of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in an adult population of African Americans and general population with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the progression of cardiovascular disease among a cohort of African Americans and general population with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Data from published studies was used to construct the model. Patients in simulation either received aggressive treatment or treatment as usual. Lifetime costs, incremental costs, incremental quality adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental costs per QALY gained ($/QALY) were assessed. Conclusion. Aggressive treatment was more cost-effective in African Americans than in the general population for all ages under 65 years. The study highlights the economic and health benefits of ...
There are clear differences in terms of chronicity, and disease progression, among different ethnic and racial groups with regard to hepatitis C. Nowhere are these differences more pronounced than in the African American population when compared with other racial or ethnic groups with hepatitis C. For instance, African Americans are more likely to have been exposed to HCV and are less likely to resolve acute HCV infection compared to other racial/ethnic groups. There are some studies that suggest that African Americans may have slower natural HCV disease progression. The reasons for these differences are largely unknown because African Americans have not been adequately represented in clinical trials. There have been two studies, however, that have shed some light on these important questions-Virahep-C sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and Genentech and recent findings from studies of a variation of a certain gene called IL28B.. Bleeding Disorders & Hepatitis C ...
BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) have lower triglyceride (TG) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than other ethnic groups; yet, they also have higher risk for developing diabetes mellitus despite the strong relationship of dyslipidemia with insulin resistance. No studies directly compare adolescents and adults with regard to relationships among dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and insulin resistance. Here, we compare AA adolescents to adults with regard to the relationships of adiposity-related lipid risk markers (TG-to-HDL ratio and non-HDL-C) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA), and hs-CRP. METHODS: Two cohorts of healthy AA were recruited from the same urban community. Participants in each cohort were stratified by TG-to-HDL ratio (based on adult tertiles) and non-HDL-C levels. BMI, WC, HOMA, and hs-CRP were compared in adolescents and adults in the low-, middle-, and high-lipid strata.
Breast cancer mortality is higher among African Americans than for Whites; though their breast cancer incidence is lower [3]. This study examines whether or not this racial disparity was due to differences in the receipt of NCCN recommended breast cancer treatment. No racial differences were found for standard of care or addition to standard of care overall or by age, stage, and area of residence. African Americans and Whites received comparable recommended treatment even though there were racial differences by type of treatment received. Therefore, the higher mortality rate of African Americans compared to Whites was shown not to be due to treatment practices varying from the NCCN recommendations. However, the current study found that only two-thirds of women in the overall study population received standard of care for their breast cancer. While no racial differences were found, many breast cancer cases are not receiving standard of care according to the NCCN guidelines. This could be due to ...
Learn more about Sugar-Sweetened Fruit Drinks Linked to Increased Chance of Type 2 Diabetes in African American Women at Medical City Dallas African Americans are...
Contrary to popular belief, many records exist for researching African American genealogy. Some of these records are similar to those of European Americans, but African American sources diverge as American history meanders through prejudice, discrimination, and exclusionism. The 1896 U.S. Supreme Court Case, Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized the doctrine of "separate but equal." As segregation flourished, two distinct societies evolved. Parallel organizations and institutions developed and multiplied in both communities. The records of the two populations may compare in type, location, and quantity, but they are catalogued separately. In addition to these records, African American research also yields several kinds of records that are unique. This chapter examines many of the records available, dealing both with slave and non-slave related records. In cases where the records are the same as European American records, the text will attempt to show researchers how to use these sources to find African ...
Abstract: Effective diet-based interventions targeting youth at risk for developing hypertension (HTN) require understanding adolescent meal patterns and their relation to HTN. The purpose of this research was to determine usual meal patterns of African American adolescents and how these vary by gender and HTN risk status. Specific aims were: develop a method to visually represent meal patterns; describe differences in meal patterns between participants of differing genders and HTN risk categories; and explore relationships between meal patterns and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-eight African Americans (ages 17-20, 30F) at either high- (n=29) or low-risk (n=29) of developing HTN were interviewed about their week-day eating and activities. The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) was used to estimate intake of select foods and nutrients associated with blood pressure (BP). Height, weight, and BP were measured. A daily timeline for each ...
African Art Collection Includes works collected by Jonathan Campbell, professor and chair of the Department of Biology, and his wife, Tanya Dowdey.. CAAS Affiliate Faculty @yake80 quoted in @CNN Hollywoods African-American film renaissance.. CAAS is in the MavWire. Congratulations Dr. Krystal Beamon, Assistant Professor of Sociology and CAAS Faculty Fellow, on your new publication!. Business Diversity: Study led by Elten Briggs, associate professor of marketing, shows culture plays integral part in customer relations.. Dr. Sonja Watson appointed new Director of UT Arlington Womens and Gender Studies. NBC5 aired a story in which Dr. Jason Shelton was interviewed discussing the issues on the ongoing struggle for equality in American.. CBS11 aired a story in which Dr. Marvin Dulaney was interviewed discussing the issues on the ongoing struggle for equality in American.. Dr. Schnavia Hatcher, director of the UT Arlington Center for African American Studies, was featured in KTVT/CBS 11s coverage ...
According to a new study, the benefits to screening middle-aged African Americans for glaucoma may not out weight the cost.. The researchers said about two percent of Americans over the age of 40 are affected by glaucoma, a medical condition that is caused by too much pressure in the eye.. The team was looking to find out whether annual glaucoma screenings would help stave off vision impairment or loss in some people.. Dr. Joseph Ladapo, the studys lead author and an assistant professor at the New York University School of Medicine, and colleagues created a computer simulation using data on African Americans between 50 and 59 years old in the Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group and the Baltimore Eye Study.. They found that the rate of undiagnosed glaucoma in African Americans would drop 50 percent to 27 percent if regular screenings were adopted nationwide.. However, the number of African Americans blinded by glaucoma would just drop from 6.1 percent to 5.6 percent, and the group with ...
Studies have shown that perceived discrimination among minority adolescents leads to smoking, anger, alcohol use and abuse, depression or psychological distress, but a new study by UNL sociologist Bridget Goosby demonstrates that discrimination also directly impacts the overall health of African American adolescents.. According to the American Heart Association, African Americans are at a higher risk than whites to die of heart disease. Research over the last decade has demonstrated that discrimination against African Americans may be a direct cause of many of these health problems, but most of this research has been in adults.. Goosbys study is one of the first to examine the effects of discrimination in youth.. "We havent seen any studies that have been done in people this young before, although there have been calls to look at discrimination at earlier ages because there is a growing literature that shows discrimination is actually harmful for peoples health, particularly among African ...
MDD is a common and debilitating mental illness and the prevalence of depression among both African Americans and rural residents is understudied. Addie Weaver, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and colleagues examined the interaction of urban vs. rural residence and race/ethnicity on lifetime and 12-month MDD and mood disorder in African-American and non-Hispanic white women. The researchers used data from the U.S. National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey, which includes a substantial proportion of rural and suburban respondents, all of whom were recruited from southern states. Participants included 1,462 African-American women and 341 non-Hispanic white women. Overall, when compared with African-American women, non-Hispanic white women had higher lifetime prevalences of MDD (21.3% vs. 10.1%) and mood disorder (21.8% vs. 13.6%). And non-Hispanic white women also had higher prevalences of 12-month MDD than African-American women (8.8% vs. ...
A study from one of the largest public health systems in the country has found that African American patients experienced significantly worse outcomes.
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Did you know African Americans are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease leading to dialysis and transplant? Compared to other ethnic groups, the African American population has higher rates of diabetes and high blood pressure, which are the two leading causes of kidney disease.
Did you know African Americans are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease leading to dialysis and transplant? Compared to other ethnic groups, the African American population has higher rates of diabetes and high blood pressure, which are the two leading causes of kidney disease.
For the promotion of health and disease prevention including, but not limited to, the following programs: breast cancer prevention, diabetes screening and outreach, ovarian cancer screening, a statewide STOP stroke program and ongoing stroke prevention and education, hepatitis C prevention and management, multiple sclerosis screening, information, education, treatment programs and the Multiple Sclerosis Home Living Navigating Key Services program administered by the Central New England Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, renal disease prevention and management, Lyme disease prevention and research, colorectal cancer prevention, prostate cancer screening, education and treatment with a particular focus on African American males, osteoporosis education, a program to combat mental retardation in children suffering from a genetic effect causing phenylketonuria, maintenance of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis registry created pursuant section 25A of chapter 111 of the General Laws, ...
African American Women News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about African American Women From The tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
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African American smokers show greater brain activations in response to smoking cues, such as images of individuals smoking, than Caucasian smokers, according to researchers at the University of Minnesota. The study, published in the June issue of the journal Addiction Biology, measured increased brain activity in regions associated with emotion and reward, which may explain why African American smokers are less successful than Caucasians at quitting. Led by Kolawole Okuyemi, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Program on Health Disparities Research in the Medical School and associate professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, the study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure participants brain activation while viewing images of African American and Caucasian models who were either smoking (smoking cues) or engaging in everyday activities (neutral cues). "We found that African American smokers showed greater brain activations in response to smoking cues, ...
I will just be blunt," she said. "I think were looked at differently." Questions about access to health care and treatment for African American women diagnosed with breast cancer is one possible explanation for the disparity in survival rates.. "It comes up, because were not being paid attention to, because it is a problem that we need to make each other aware…it comes up with women in the African American community who have cancer," Cherry said.. However, equally important, is making sure black women understand the importance of early screening and early detection for better survival. Studies show that white women and black women with an early stage breast cancer, found on a mammogram, are both less likely to die from breast cancer. But, without more research, doctors like Gralow wont be able to understand all the reasons why African American survival rates are lagging behind.. "African American women, in general, even if they are on a clinical trial, and get treated the same way, dont do ...
Source is an expert in 19th Century Black America, African American religious history, African American Religious Thought, American pragmatism, Black Nationalism, Politics of Black America and Religion in the Americas
Written in a clear, accessible, storytelling style, African American Theater will shine a bright new light on the culture which has historically nurtured and inspired Black Theater. Functioning as an interactive guide for students and teachers, African American Theater takes the reader on a journey to discover how social realities impacted the plays dramatists wrote and produced.. The journey begins in 1850 when most African people were enslaved in America. Along the way, cultural milestones such as Reconstruction, the Harlem Renaissance and the Black Freedom Movement are explored. The journey concludes with a discussion of how the past still plays out in the works of contemporary playwrights like August Wilson and Suzan-Lori Parks.. African American Theater moves unsung heroes like Robert Abbott and Jo Ann Gibson Robinson to the foreground, but does not neglect the race giants. For actors looking for material to perform, the book offers exercises to create new monologues and scenes. Rich with ...
African Americans have disproportionately high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) that remain poorly understood. Biopsychosocial research on depression could prove informative regarding such disparities in CVD. Both major depression and less severe subclinical levels of depressive symptoms have been linked to increased risk for CVD in prospective studies. Given the evidence that subclinical depression is more prevalent in African Americans than Caucasians, it could contribute to population differences in CVD. Among the potential mechanisms underlying depression-CVD relations are hemodynamic, metabolic, and anthropometric risk factors for CVD that might be potentiated by depressive symptoms. Reports suggest that depression differentially influences CVD risk factors according to gender, but scant information is available about these variations among African Americans. This information gap was addressed by the examination of gender for interactive effects with depressive symptoms, as measured ...
Health,Providence RI African-American women need to be the first to receive...The commentary is in response to an article in the January edition of ...The HPV vaccine protects women from acquiring two types of HPV a sexu... Although the reason for the disparity of HPV in African American wome...The authors suggest that developing a school-based vaccine delivery pr...,African,American,women,need,to,receive,HPV,vaccine,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Justice Antonin Scalia is facing criticism for a comment he made during hearing arguments in a case challenging affirmative action at the University of Texas. MSNBC Chief Legal Correspondent Ari Melber reports on the details of Justice Scalias remarks and why some are suggesting his statements were outright racist.
Among the 40 million Americans with kidney disease, African Americans are 3.5 times more likely to be diagnosed. And while African Americans account for only 14% of the population, they make up 30% of all patients treated for kidney failure. They often wait up to ten years before getting a match for a transplant because there are fewer potential donors for Black people. Breakthrough medical research led by Dr. Karl Skorecki and his team based at Rambam Hospital in Israel has isolated genetic markers that are linked to contracting kidney disease, as the first step to prevention and cure ...
How to Teach About African American History. African American history is the study of the rich cultural and political history of an American cultural group and America in general. African American history lessons are taught extensively in...
â?¢ Public Health Issue: Heart disease in the African American population in Michigan, Indicator: Overweight and obesity, tobacco use â?¢ Analyze of the community and population using population health data sources needed.
I am a 46 yo African american female. I have had 2 incidences of breast discharge the first one approx 10 days ago .It was brownish in color and approx 6-7 nipple sized drops on my pajama top. The seco...
A submission from a reader: "34 year old, non-smoking African American female presenting with a recurring (for three years now), chronic (lasts for several weeks up to a few months) dry, non productive cough. No other symptoms (though the attached CT report says wheezing). No response to a variety of drug treatments over the years, including steroid shot, Levaquin, OTC Mucinex, OTC Claritin, Tussionex, Nasacort, OTC Prilosec, 6-day regimen of Metrol (4mg), Advair and Albuterol. First pulmonologist (who performed no diagnostic tests) diagnosed asthma and allergies. Nothing indicated on chest x-ray. Internal medicine doctor ordered CT scan (report attached). Second pulmonologist said subpleural cysts exist, which he indicated exist with UIP patients, but he said this was not UIP. Also said its not tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. Prescribed 20 mg of Prednisone twice a day to get rid of cough, said we will proceed once cough is gone. Said a lung biopsy or thoracic biopsy may be in order ...
Video Demonstrations of Difficult Conversations: Disruptive Faculty Member, Breast Surgeon: First African American Female Faculty Member, Advantages of being a new faculty member, Disadvantages of being a new faculty member
The African American Quality of Life Initiative began as the City of Austin assessed the conditions and sentiment of the Citys African American community through a series of community discussions and presentations to City Council.
One would think that in this day and age that there wouldnt be as many issues facing minorities as there are. African Americans in the United States have come far but many people in the African American community feel that they havent come far...
Buy hair wigs african american wholesale at cheap price. Discount hair wigs african american online store. Best quality and worldwide fast delivery - Rosewholesale.com.
objective. To compare the ability of quantitative optic disc topography and subjective optic disc evaluation to discriminate early glaucomatous from normal eyes in African Americans and whites.. methods. Monocular data from eyes of 88 African-American patients and 63 eyes of white patients with glaucoma were included in the analysis. Sixty-three eyes of African American normal subjects and 42 eyes of white normal subjects were used as a control group. Racial groups were defined by self-description. All subjects underwent topographic imaging, stereophotography, and standard perimetry. Glaucoma was defined by visual field defect alone. Stereophotos were graded in a masked fashion by three independent graders. The areas under the receiver operator curve (aROCs) were calculated for the overall stereophoto grade, each confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) parameter, and previously described discriminant functions. After adjustment for disc area and age, the aROC associated with each ...
We analyzed a representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren with respect to body satisfaction and perceived appearance. All three assessed ethnic groups displayed distinct characteristics. For Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics, perceptions of body appearance were similar for both genders and across the age spectrum, but African-American youths differed substantially from both other groups. African-American youths had much better perceived body appearance at the youngest age. Perceived appearance remained high in African-American girls over the age range, but dropped dramatically in African-American boys. There was also a non-negligible drop in positive perceived appearance among Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic girls towards the end of the analyzed age spectrum (older adolescence). Only Non-Hispanic White girls exhibited an increase in the proportion considering themselves too fat; the proportion doubled between 11 and 15 years of age. (In this age group BMI scores also increased among ...
African American women exhibit a higher rate of breast cancer mortality when compared with white women (1,2). Being diagnosed later, variation in treatment response, and larger tumor size have all been identified as factors that may contribute to differences in breast cancer survival time (3). Obesity is also more prevalent among African American women. Although the majority of women report weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis, African American women are at greater risk for this pattern (4). Being overweight is not only associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence but also with comorbid conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and depression, all of which may contribute to decreased quality of life and shorter survival time (5-10). By contrast, being more physically active is associated with improved quality of life and decreased body mass index (BMI) in cancer survivors, which in turn may contribute to longer survival time (11,12).. Until recently, women who have ...
Some African Americans followed an African diet and a group of rural Africans followed an American diet. In only 2 weeks, the African Americans showed a dramatic drop in risk factors for colon cancer and the Africans saw their risk factors rise.
As stated previously, acculturation has been investigated in conjunction with a number of physical, social and psychological variables. In a study of weight concern and body image among southern African American Females, Smith and Omari (2005) hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between cultural values (levels of acculturation) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in their sample. The premise of their study was that African American women with more traditional values would have higher BMI scores, primarily because it has been reported in the literature that African American women are comfortable with larger body size (Striegel-Moore et al., 1998). The hypothesis was not supported. They found that contrary to their expectations, acculturation was not significantly associated with BMI in African American females. This failure to detect an association between BMI and acculturation led to a question about the latent factor structure of the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-R) in ...
Many African American women are at risk for developing hair loss as a result of their popular hair styling techniques. Traction Alopecia is a hair loss condition caused by damage to the dermal papilla and hair follicle by constant pulling or tension over a long period. It often occurs primarily in persons who wear tight braids, especially "cornrows", that lead to high tension, pulling and breakage of hair. This condition is most prevalent in African American women who commonly wear tight braids when cornrowing and weaving their hair. It can also occur with the wearing of dreadlocks, tight ponytails, and single extensions. Traction Alopecia occurs most commonly in children, teenagers, and young adults. It is seen less often in the older individual.. Traction Alopecia can also be caused by overprocessing the hair - also a common practice in African American females.. This would include chemical straighteners, dyes, and bleaches which damage the keratin structure of the hair. As a result, the hair ...
In one major volume, Readings in African American Church Music and Worship brings together 40 chapters, essays, articles, and previously unpublished papers written during the twentieth century on music and worship in the African American church. The contents represent some of the greatest writings on the subject, from the wisdom of W. E. B. DuBois in 1903 to the scholarly development, practices, scholarship, and reflection on African American sacred music through 2000. Text Source: Abbington, James (editor) Number of Pages: 624 Language: English Edition Format: Print Copyright: 2001, GIA Publications, Inc. ...
African American and African Studies at Western Michigan University is dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of the past and present cultures and experiences of peoples of African ancestry or descent. We engage in the critical study of the black Diasporic cultural traditions, conditions, race and ethnic relations in Africa, the Caribbean basin, and especially North America, taking seriously the essential, organic role black peoples and their cultures have played in shaping the societies in which they live.. African American and African Studies emphasizes both an interdisciplinary approach and a global perspective in the study of the history and culture of peoples of African ancestry. We ask students to draw on a wide range of disciplines to fulfill their AAAS program requirements, including literature, history, sociology, economics, anthropology, music, drama, film and the visual arts.. The program major and minor provide opportunities to develop knowledge and skills in critical and ...
Books by Wilson Jeremiah Moses. Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925 (1988) / The Wings of Ethiopia (1990). Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent (1992) / Destiny & Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898 (1992) Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms: Social and Literary Manipulations of a Religious Myth (1993) Liberian Dreams: Back-to-Africa Narratives from the 1850s / Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History (2002). Creative Conflict in African American Thought (2004). * * * * *. Books by By Benjamin Quarles. Frederick Douglass (1948) / The Negro in the Civil War (1953) / The Negro in the American Revolution (1961). Lincoln and the Negro (1962) / The Negro in the Making of America (1964) / Black Abolitionists (1969). Allies for Freedom and Blacks on John Brown (1974) / Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography (1988). * * * * * Historiography and African Americans Benjamin Quarles The Negro In The Making Of America. By Wilson J. ...
Introduction: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare cause of ischemic stroke. Low-dose aspirin is currently recommended for the prevention of thrombotic events in ET. However, the benefit is controversial. Herein, we report a case of ischemic stroke induced by ET following discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy.. Case presentation: An 87- year-old African American male brought to ER with one episode of black stool (Guaiac positive). He had history of peripheral vascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, and a stroke that happened 6 years ago. He had been on oral aspirin 81mg and clopidogrel 75mg daily which were discontinued after admission. Laboratory studies showed significantly elevated platelet count of 640 x 10^9/L on admission. Two days later, he developed one episode of transient slurred speech and right side body weakness. At that time, his platelet count was 736 x 10^9/L. Five days later he developed slurred speech, difficulty swallowing and ...
For more than 25 years, the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (JoCoOA) in Smithfield, NC has established itself as one of the premier longitudinal research studies world-wide regarding the epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health, and multiple other sources, it is internationally recognized as the flagship study of the UNC Thurston Arthritis Research Center. It was one of the first studies in the US to examine the incidence, prevalence and progression of osteoarthritis in African American and white men and women in a rural county. The hallmark of this study is its population-based cohort. The strength of a population-based study is that results can be applied to the general population regarding lifetime risk or prevalence of a disease. Stability is of paramount importance in the life of a research study. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project has been continuously managed by the same research team, ...
Faith and religion has been at the forefront of many of the worlds and our nations social movements. From Catholics employing Liberation Theology in Latin America to the work of Christians addressing the underlying causes of hunger and poverty, the role of religion in the lives of individuals cannot be questioned. Nowhere is this truer than as it relates to role of the varied denominations commonly referred to as the Black Church in the lives and social movements of African Americans. The National Campaign recognizes this and in February partnered with Values Partnerships to host a powerful discussion on the Black Church and teen and unplanned pregnancy. Leading African American clergy and lay leaders from around the country and from different denominations shared their insights about these topics from their perspectives. For three hours the Campaigns conference room was crammed full of engaging, lively, and frank conversation about the role of Black church leaders in dealing with complicated ...
Background: This analysis assessed whether Blacks, Whites and Puerto-Rican (PR) Hispanics differed in their ability to identify the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) via open-ended questions following lead-in recognition and recall questions. Methods: The Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire was administered via a Random- Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey to a stratified random sample of Black, White and PR Hispanic adults in three U.S. cities. Results: The TLP Questionnaire was administered to 1,162 adults (356 African-Americans, 313 PR Hispanics, and 493 non-Hispanic Whites) in San Juan, PR, Baltimore, MD and New York City, NY. Recall question data revealed: 1) that 89% or more of Blacks, Whites, and PR Hispanics were not able to name or definitely identify the Tuskegee Syphilis Study by giving study attributes; and, 2) that Blacks were the most likely to provide an open-ended answer that identified the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as compared to Whites and PR Hispanics (11.5% vs 6.3% vs 2.9%, ...

Social Disorganization Theory - Sociology - Oxford BibliographiesSocial Disorganization Theory - Sociology - Oxford Bibliographies

They were also home to newly arrived immigrants and African Americans. In these areas children were exposed to criminogenic ... Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.. DOI: 10.7208/chicago/ ... American Sociological Review 39.3: 328-339.. DOI: 10.2307/2094293E-mail Citation » ...
more infohttp://www.oxfordbibliographiesonline.com/view/document/obo-9780199756384/obo-9780199756384-0192.xml

The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed | An Online Reference Guide to African American History by Professor Quintard Taylor,...The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed | An Online Reference Guide to African American History by Professor Quintard Taylor,...

The first shipload of enslaved Africans directly from Africa arrives in the West Indies. Prior to this time, Africans were ... The Spanish king allows the introduction of enslaved Africans into Spains American colonies.. 01-01. *Spanish Slavery ... The first Africans arrive in Hispaniola with Christopher Columbus. They are free persons.. 01-01. *Africans in the New World ... They bring along enslaved Africans, considered to be the first in the present-day United States. These Africans flee the colony ...
more infohttp://www.blackpast.org/timelines/african-american-history-timeline-1600

Columbia University Announces Creation of African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department - Higher EducationColumbia University Announces Creation of African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department - Higher Education

1, Columbia Universitys Board of Trustees announced it will develop a new Department of African-American and African Diaspora ... Columbia Senate Approves African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department The University Senate at Columbia University ... The new department will also establish a Ph.D. program in the field of African-American and African Diaspora Studies to produce ... Semantic Tags: African American Studies • African diaspora studies • Columbia University • Dr. Farah Jasmine Griffin. ...
more infohttps://diverseeducation.com/article/133471/

Charles H. Wright Museum of African American HistoryCharles H. Wright Museum of African American History

Museum of African American History opens minds and changes lives through the exploration and celebration of African American ... Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History. 315 East Warren Avenue • Detroit, MI 48201 • The Wright Museum® • ...
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African-American LiteratureAfrican-American Literature

A DAY Monthly Agendas:. Click the appropriate month for daily work and important links to course resources.. August+September. October. November. December. January. February. March. April. May ...
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African Americans | SpringerLinkAfrican Americans | SpringerLink

... are the second largest minority group in America (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). While the term ... Racial Identity African American Student Black People African American Youth African American Adolescent ... and Africa. Some "African Americans" are recent arrivals while others have had ancestors who have been in America since before ... African Americans, numbering about 39 million, are the second largest minority group in America (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). ...
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African Americans | Pew Research CenterAfrican Americans | Pew Research Center

The presentation provides data on Internet usage for African American and Hispanic individuals. ...
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African Americans | Pew Research CenterAfrican Americans | Pew Research Center

African-Americans and the Internet. African-American Internet users are heavy consumers of online information and online ... but African-Americans are the least likely to use the Internet and those who do go online are less active users than users of ...
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African-American WomenAfrican-American Women

RBMSCL , Collections , Digitized Collections , African American Women African-American Women. Online Archival Collections. ... Retrieving African-American Womens History: Manuscript Sources at Duke. *Sallie Bingham Center for Womens History and Culture ... of her own ambivalence about her place as an African-American in society, and of the importance of religion and education in ... Afro-American Sources in Virginia: A Guide to Manuscripts. This web site was rated among the top humanities websites by the ...
more infohttp://web.archive.org/web/20080828231516/http:/scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/collections/african-american-women.html

African Americans | Open LibraryAfrican Americans | Open Library

African Americans 21,584 works Search for books with subject African Americans. Search. ... Afro-Americans, Politics and government, Slavery, African American authors, Civil rights movements, History and criticism, ... Are you sure you want to remove African Americans from your list? ... United States, Southern States, Alabama, Africa, Virginia, ... Mississippi, Georgia, New York (State), California, South Carolina, New York, Illinois, North Carolina, Texas, Pennsylvania, ...
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African American OdysseyAfrican American Odyssey

Prince Hall, Founder of the African American Masonic Order Prince Hall.. A Charge Delivered to the African Lodge, June 24, 1797 ... freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. Black men enlisted as soldiers ... African American Women Preachers Although little is known about the preacher pictured here, Juliann Jane Tillman, African ... While some African Americans chose this option, the vast majority felt themselves to be Americans and focused their efforts on ...
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African American StudiesAfrican American Studies

African and African American subjects, themes, and materials used. Students read works of African American writers. ... Studies in African American Literature (3 s.h.) S. Core: WI.. An examination of African American literary forms with certain ... African and Afro-American (3 s.h.) S. An overview of the folk literature and oratory of African peoples on the African ... Introduction to African American Novel (3 s.h.) F S. An introductory survey of the Afro-American novel from the Clotel of the ...
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African American OdysseyAfrican American Odyssey

... Introduction , Overview , Object List Exhibit Sections: Slavery , Free Blacks , Abolition , Civil War ... After the turn of the century the distribution of the African American population shifted dramatically, as thousands migrated ... the period of his ascendancy as a leader was one of tremendous racial violence toward African Americans in various parts of the ... but with a few prominent African Americans, met in 1909 to form an organization that was soon named the National Association ...
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Category:African Americans and education - WikipediaCategory:African Americans and education - Wikipedia

Pages in category "African Americans and education". The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list ... Historically segregated African-American schools in the United States‎ (3 C, 138 P) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:African_Americans_and_education&oldid=587181621" ...
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African Americans - ConservapediaAfrican Americans - Conservapedia

The great majority of African Americans are descended from Africans brought to North America as slaves beginning four centuries ... African American is a politically correct term some use to describe the ethnic background of Americans with African ancestry. ... Many American conservatives believe that the use of terms such as "African-American" or "Mexican-American," collectively ... Currently "black" and "African American" are in favor, and "Afro-American" and "Negro" are out of favor. The situation before ...
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African Americans - ConservapediaAfrican Americans - Conservapedia

The great majority of African Americans are descended from Africans brought to North America as slaves beginning four centuries ... African American is a politically correct term some use to describe the ethnic background of Americans with African ancestry. ... Many American conservatives believe that the use of terms such as "African-American" or "Mexican-American," collectively ... Currently "black" and "African American" are in favor, and "Afro-American" and "Negro" are out of favor. The situation before ...
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African Americans | people | Britannica.comAfrican Americans | people | Britannica.com

African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ... African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ... African Americans - Childrens Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11). *black Americans, or African Americans - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 ... African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves-people who were brought from their African homelands by force to work ...
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African Americans Mugs - CafePressAfrican Americans Mugs - CafePress

Start the morning right with African Americans Mugs from CafePress. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom ... Does your mug make a statement? Express yourself with unique African Americans Mugs from CafePress. If you want to express your ...
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African American Engineers | ScienceBlogsAfrican American Engineers | ScienceBlogs

... of African American pioneers and the important role they have played in paving the way for modern-day African American STEM ... In observance of African American History Month in February, the USA Science & Engineering Festival recognizes the ... Recognizing African American STEM Innovators of the Past and Present, Including Festival Speakers!. ... PrEP use high but wanes after three months among young African women ...
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KUOW - African-AmericanKUOW - African-American

Listen to the voices of Seattles African-American Writers Alliance. For 26 years, Seattles African-American Writers ... Horace Cayton was an African-American sociologist born in Seattle in 1903. His father was born a slave; his mother was the ... Horace Cayton was an African-American sociologist born in Seattle in 1903. His father was born a slave; his mother was the ... The Central Area is the historic heart of Seattles African-American community. But many longtime residents have moved away ...
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African-American Vernacular English - WikipediaAfrican-American Vernacular English - Wikipedia

Spears, Arthur K. (2015), "African American Standard English", in Lanehart, Sonja, The Oxford Handbook of African American ... As with most African-American English, African-American Vernacular English shares a large portion of its grammar and phonology ... "African American Language in New York City", in Lanehart, Sonja, The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, Oxford: ... "What is African American English?", in Lanehart, Sonja, Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, ...
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Green Party & African Americans : NPRGreen Party & African Americans : NPR

Farley about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to ... Green Party & African Americans Karen Grigsby Bates speaks with Green Party candidates Donna Warren and Jonathan D. Farley ... Farley about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to ... about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to affirmative ...
more infohttps://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=828375?storyId=828375

African AmericanAfrican American

An Introduction to African American Religious History. This book provides a comprehensive overview of African American ... Crisis in the Village: Restoring Hope in African American Communities. Robert M. Franklin provides first-person advice and ... True to Our Native Land: An African American New Testament Commentary. This pioneering commentary sets biblical interpretation ... This volumes contributors dynamic and progressive African American church leaders advocate the prophetic powers of black ...
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Google Answers: African AmericansGoogle Answers: African Americans

African Germans? And in New Zealand? African New Zealander? Is African American a unique characterization just to the United ... person born in South Africa or in Egypt and immigrating to America - Are they African American? See : (yes, again, the Mavis ... In the United States, Black people like to be refered to as African Americans. What are Black people called in Mexico? African ... Subject: African Americans Category: Reference, Education and News , General Reference Asked by: xanne-ga List Price: $2.00. ...
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African-American StudiesAfrican-American Studies

... Browse Library of Congress Categories.. 100-120 of 137 African-American Studies ebooks. All languages ... From Interviews with Former Slaves, North Carolina Narratives, Part 1. Various Authors ...
more infohttp://manybooks.net/categories/AFR/6
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • After a terrible race riot in Springfield, Illinois, in August 1908, an interracial group, comprised mainly of whites, but with a few prominent African Americans, met in 1909 to form an organization that was soon named the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (loc.gov)
  • On or near the African coast had emerged the major kingdoms of Oyo, Ashanti , Benin , Dahomey , and the Congo. (britannica.com)
  • Many Cubans still locate their origins in specific African ethnic groups or regions, particularly Yoruba and Congo, but also Arar , Carabal , Mandingo, Fula and others. (google.com)
  • In particular, the African regions of the Bight of Biafra (modern Nigeria ), Senegambia (modern Senegal and Gambia ), West Central Africa (modern Angola and Congo ), and the Gold Coast (modern Ghana ) were hotspots for Virginia slave traders. (familysearch.org)
  • An overview of the cultural experience of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • Designed to acquaint students with important historical and philosophical investigations of the creative process and to explore interrelationships, similarities, and differences in the various cultural expressions of African peoples. (temple.edu)
  • After the turn of the century the distribution of the African American population shifted dramatically, as thousands migrated from the rural South to the urban North in search of better economic, social, and political opportunities. (loc.gov)
  • An introductory course in the understanding, reading and speaking of Hausa, a language spoken by more than 70 million people in West Africa. (temple.edu)
  • It took full-page advertisements on November 23, 1922, in The New York Times , The Atlanta Constitution , and several other leading newspapers entitled "The Shame of America," with the subheading "3436 People Lynched 1889 to 1922. (loc.gov)
  • They are considered 'African American' because their skin is darker, but actually do not share the heritage of those people like, say, Jesse Jackson. (google.com)
  • It includes people who are of full or partial African American background. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 1909 an interracial group assembled at the New York apartment of William English Walling to discuss proposals for an organization that would advocate the civil and political rights of African Americans. (loc.gov)
  • For 26 years, Seattle's African-American Writers' Alliance has held a reading at The Elliott Bay Book Company on the last Saturday in February. (kuow.org)
  • He took the American jazz tradition as it had developed by the late 1940s, with its established forms and harmonies, and radically transformed it, pioneering modal harmonies and incorporating influences from a variety of international sources. (nps.gov)
  • While some African Americans chose this option, the vast majority felt themselves to be Americans and focused their efforts on achieving equality within the United States. (loc.gov)
  • The great majority of African Americans are Protestants , with their own Baptist , Pentecostal , and Methodist churches. (conservapedia.com)
  • By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas petitions Spain to allow the importation of twelve enslaved Africans for each household immigrating to America's Spanish colonies. (blackpast.org)
  • However, a minority of linguists argue that the vernacular shares so many characteristics with African creole languages spoken around the world that it could have originated as its own English-based creole or semi-creole language, distinct from the English language, before undergoing a process of decreolization . (wikipedia.org)