African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.United StatesAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.AfricaNorth CarolinaMississippiChicagoGeorgiaAlabamaSouth CarolinaPrejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.BaltimoreHealthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.PhiladelphiaFocus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Los AngelesCultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Clergy: Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.MichiganSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.MissouriNorth AmericaSocial Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)CaliforniaLouisianaSocial Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)TexasHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.IndianaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.New York CityLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.PennsylvaniaRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.FloridaAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Transcultural Nursing: A nursing specialty created to answer the need for developing a global perspective in the practice of nursing in a world of interdependent nations and people. The focus of this nursing discipline is on the integration of international and transcultural content into the training. Courses include study in the area of cultural differences, nursing in other countries, and international health issues and organizations, as an example.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.South AmericaAfrican Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Masculinity: Male-associated sex-specific social roles and behaviors unrelated to biologic function.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.KansasReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.MarylandChristianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.IllinoisMothers: Female parents, human or animal.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Barbering: The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.ArkansasProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (1/9421)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

Prevalence and social correlates of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Harlem. (2/9421)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence, social correlates, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a predominantly Black, poor, urban community. METHODS: Associations of risk factor prevalences with sociodemographic variables were examined in a population-based sample of 695 men and women aged 18 to 65 years living in Central Harlem. RESULTS: One third of the men and women were hypertensive, 48% of the men and 41% of the women were smokers, 25% of the men and 49% of the women were overweight, and 23% of the men and 35% of the women reported no leisure-time physical activity over the past month. More than 80% of the men and women had at least 1 of these risk factors, and 9% of the men and 19% of the women had 3 or more risk factors. Income and education were inversely related to hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity. Having 3 or more risk factors was associated with low income and low education (extreme odds ratio [OR] = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0, 34.5 for education; OR = 3.7, CI = 1.6, 8.9 for income) and with a history of unstable work or of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged, urban communities are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These results highlight the importance of socioenvironmental factors in shaping cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

Evidence for a black-white crossover in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in an older population: the North Carolina EPESE. (3/9421)

OBJECTIVES: This cohort study evaluated racial differences in mortality among Blacks and Whites 65 years and older. METHODS: A total of 4136 men and women (1875 Whites and 2261 Blacks) living in North Carolina were interviewed in 1986 and followed up for mortality until 1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated, with adjustment for sociodemographic and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. RESULTS: Black persons had higher mortality rates than Whites at young-old age (65-80 years) but had significantly lower mortality rates after age 80. Black persons age 80 or older had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR of Blacks vs Whites, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.90) and of CHD mortality (HR 0.44: 95% CI = 0.30, 0.66). These differences were not observed for other causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in mortality are modified by age. This mortality crossover could be attributed to selective survival of the healthiest oldest Blacks or to other biomedical factors affecting longevity after age 80. Because the crossover was observed for CHD deaths only, age overreporting by Black older persons seems an unlikely explanation of the mortality differences.  (+info)

A critical approach to stress-related disorders in African Americans. (4/9421)

This article outlines an integrative, dynamic approach to stress and is, in part, a response to emergent debates within social science research and practice that suggest that African Americans are currently experiencing the reverberating psychological effects of slavery and oppression. It is the product of the work of an African-American mental health think tank situated at the Community Mental Health Council, Chicago, Illinois. We suggest the need to attend to biopsychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors that inform both exposure and responses to stress. Finally, consideration is given to matters of resiliency.  (+info)

Influence of maternal ethnicity on infant mortality in Chicago, 1989-1996. (5/9421)

This study compared infant mortality rates between large ethnic groups in Chicago from 1989-1996. Infant mortality information about ethnic groups was compared using data from annual reports published by the Epidemiology Program, Department of Public Health, City of Chicago and vital statistics documents in Illinois, which include information on ethnicity. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate the differences between the proportions. A P value of < .05 was considered significant. During the study period, there were 461,974 births and 6407 infant deaths in Chicago. African Americans contributed 212,924 (46.1%) births and 4387 (68.5%) deaths; Hispanics 132,787 (28.7%) births and 1166 (18.2%) deaths; and whites 99,532 (21.6%) births and 780 (12.2%) infant deaths. Compared with the other groups. African Americans suffered a twofold increased mortality (P < .00001) for five of the six most common causes of infant mortality. Deaths from congenital malformations, although significant, were not excessively increased among African Americans (P = .014). Hispanics demonstrated a higher mortality rate than whites (P = .01), especially for postnatal mortality and respiratory distress syndrome. These data confirm excessive infant mortality among African Americans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the apparent low mortality among some Hispanics compared with the other groups studied.  (+info)

HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men. (6/9421)

African-American men who have sex with men remain at disproportionately greater risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While high HIV seroincidence has been documented among homosexual African-American men, behavioral research has rarely studied the HIV risk issues confronting these men. This study assessed a sample of 253 men who have sex with men to determine if African-American (n = 79) and white (n = 174) men report different rates of HIV risk behaviors and differ in characteristics indicative of risk. African-American men who have sex with men were more likely to be HIV-seropositive, to report past treatment for gonorrhea and syphilis, and to have a recent unprotected sex partner known or believed to be HIV-seropositive. Multivariate analyses of covariance, controlling for group differences in age, education, and income, revealed that African-American men who have sex with men were less open about their sexual orientation, scored lower in HIV risk behavior knowledge, had more female sexual partners, and more frequently used cocaine in association with sex relative to white men who have sex with men. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention programs tailored to the needs and risk issues of African-American men who have sex with men are needed.  (+info)

Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu. (7/9421)

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

Plasma cortisol suppression response in the South African black population with glaucoma. (8/9421)

Plasma cortisol suppression was measured in 25 Black glaucomatous patients and in 19 Black patients of similar age and sex, but without glaucoma, who acted as controls. Initial serum cortisol levels were found to be slightly higher in the glaucomatous group. The response to systemically-administered cortisone was statistically more marked in the glaucomatous patients compared with the control group.  (+info)

New US study says money spent on prison system and war on drugs should go towards education. Mental health experts from Meharry Medical College School of Medicine have released the first comprehensive report on the correlation between the incarceration of African American males and substance abuse and other health problems in the United States. Published in Frontiers in Psychology on the 12th of November, the report looks at decades of data concerning the African American population rates of incarceration and subsequent health issues. The authors conclude that the moral and economic costs of current racial disparities in the judicial system are fundamentally avoidable, especially if more resources are spent on education and treatment.. "Instead of getting health care and education from civil society, African American males are being funneled into the prison system. Much of this costly practice could be avoided in the long-term by transferring funds away from prisons and into education," says Dr. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and Correlates of Recent Vaginal Douching among African American Adolescent Females. AU - DiClemente, R. J.. AU - Young, A. M.. AU - Painter, J. L.. AU - Wingood, G. M.. AU - Rose, E.. AU - Sales, J. M.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Study Objective: To describe the prevalence and correlates of vaginal douching among urban African American adolescents and to examine the association between douching and sexually transmitted infection (STI) status. Design: Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral data were collected through cross-sectional, self-administered surveys. Self-collected vaginal swabs were assayed using nucleic acid amplification tests for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. Setting: Sexual health clinic in a large metropolitan area of the southeastern United States. Participants: African American females (N = 701), ages 14-20, participating in a human immunodeficiency virus prevention intervention. Main Outcome Measure: The outcome of interest was ...
Objectives. Previous attempts at obtaining population estimates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 seroprevalence have been beset by problems of cooperation bias. As part of the fourth round of study with an urban African-American community cohort, the following investigation was aimed at assessing HIV-1 prevalence and the relative...
Race Women Stepping Forward. Collison, Michele N-K // Black Issues in Higher Education;05/27/99, Vol. 16 Issue 7, p24 Discusses the role scholarship by black women can and must play in African American studies and beyond. Attempt by Black women scholars to rebuild the canon of African American studies to include a feminist perspective; Criticism of most African American studies departments; Factors that make... ...
This study is designed to assess the effect of exercise training on insulin resistance in African American males. African American males have higher rates of diabetes and lower levels of fitness when compared to Caucasian males. A project such as this is necessary because there is evidence to show that exercise training can reduce the risk of developing diabetes, though no studies have been conducted in African American males. In addition, ARTIIS will test the effect adhering to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity and 2 days of 20 minutes of muscular strength activity), on insulin resistance in African American men. This study will provide important information that can either strengthen or refine current physical activity recommendations. Furthermore, this intervention will be delivered through community facilities in order to increase the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable ...
Achievement gaps between African American students and White students in onsite courses also exist in online courses (Rovai & Gallien, 2005; Rovai & Ponton, 2005; Xu & Jaggars, 2014), and gaps are often greater in online courses (Xu & Jaggars, 2014). Arroyo (2010) pointed to this issue by stating that, "Contrary to those who tout online education as the great leveler in higher education with the promise of granting access to one and all, what we actually have is the recipe for a widened achievement gap" (p. 38). Possible reasons why gaps between African American online students and White online students exist include differences in socio-economic status (Palmer et al., 2013), gaps in academic performance (Osborne, 2001), disparities in technology access (Fairlie, 2012a), lack of online technical support (Rovai & Gallien, 2005), and anxiety related to negative racial stereotyping (Osborne, 2001). Factors contributing to onsite academic success for African American males. Factors that helped ...
A group-randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the Project ÒRÉ intervention, a community-based adolescent social network HIV/STI intervention tailored to African American culture. Four community based organization sites (CBOs) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or attention control condition. In both conditions, sexually experienced African American adolescent females will recruit members of their friendship group for the five-hour program. In the experimental condition, the intervention group will receive the half-day Project ÒRÉ intervention. The attention control group will receive a standard health promotion control program which has been used previously with similar populations. All participants will complete pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up self-administered questionnaires. In the experimental condition, a subset of groups will participate in a process evaluation focus group immediately following the program ...
Hypertensive African Americans often respond poorly to beta-blocker monotherapy, compared with whites. There is evidence, however, that suggests that this response may be different if beta-blockers with vasodilating effects are used. This 12-week, multi-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of nebivolol, a cardioselective, vasodilating beta1-blocker, at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg once daily in 300 African American patients with stage I or II hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [SiDBP] | or =95 mm Hg and | or =109 mm Hg). The primary efficacy end point was the baseline-adjusted change in trough mean SiDBP. After 12 weeks, nebivolol significantly reduced least squares mean SiDBP (P| or =.004) at all doses of 5 mg and higher and sitting systolic blood pressure (P| or =.044) at all doses 10 mg and higher, compared with placebo. The drug was safe and well-tolerated, with no significant difference in the incidence of
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.bu.edu/portal/AIDS-and-HIV-infection-in-the-African-American/SWKDE-hJHIE/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.bu.edu/portal/AIDS-and-HIV-infection-in-the-African-American/SWKDE-hJHIE/,AIDS and HIV infection in the African-American community : hearing before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 16, 1994,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.bu.edu/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.bu.edu/,Boston University ...
Abstract: African Americans suffer disproportionately from higher rates of diet related chronic diseases compared with Caucasians. The purpose of this project was to design and implement a nutrition education intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among low-income, African American caretakers of young children. Study participants were low-income, African American residents of Guilford County, NC, and primary meal preparers and caretakers of a child less than 12 years of age. Participants (N=14) were recruited from community agencies (Guilford County WIC; Department of Social Services) and through a church with a high African American population. Participants received nutrition education classes that addressed barriers to healthy behaviors. Pre and post tests were given to assess changes in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy regarding dietary behavior. Overall, pre and post test results indicated a significant increase in nutrition knowledge, self reported ...
African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasian Americans and this discrepancy cannot be explained by measures of body weight or body composition. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity of African Americans and Caucasian Americans to glucocorticoids by measuring glucose and insulin responses to a meal challenge under conditions of placebo and glucocorticoid. A total of 160 healthy or overweight/obese African American and Caucasian American participants completed exercise testing and a liquid meal challenge during separate laboratory visits. Participants were evaluated following treatments with placebo and dexamethasone (4 mg). Main outcome measures were correlation between body composition measures (body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference) and insulin responses; insulin and glucose responses after a liquid meal challenge; and calculated HOMA. After dexamethasone treatment African Americans were significantly more hyperinsulinemic after a meal as indicated by
Ringwalt, C., Graham, P., Sanders-Phillips, K., Browne, D., & Paschall, M. (1999). Ethnic identity as a protective factor in the health behaviors of african-american male adolescents. In S. B. Kar (Ed.), Ethnic Identity as a Protective Factor in the Health Behaviors of African-American Male Adolescents Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Co., Inc ...
In partnership with the Grand Rapids Urban League and Grand Rapids Public School, GRCC provides institutional support to ensure the success of the African American Male Achievement Conference. Annually, the project convenes high school students from schools throughout Kent County. The conference aims to engage students in workshops and activities that affirm their identity and prepare them for the college experience and career opportunities.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in european and african american samples. AU - Otowa, Takeshi. AU - Maher, Brion S.. AU - Aggen, Steven H.. AU - McClay, Joseph L.. AU - Van Den Oord, Edwin J.. AU - Hettema, John M.. PY - 2014/11/12. Y1 - 2014/11/12. N2 - Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common mental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Since ADs are highly comorbid with each other, partially due to shared genetic basis, studying AD phenotypes in a coordinated manner may be a powerful strategy for identifying potential genetic loci for ADs. To detect these loci, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADs. In addition, as a complementary approach to single-locus analysis, we also conducted gene- and pathway-based analyses. GWAS data were derived from the control sample of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) project (2,540 European American and 849 African American subjects) genotyped on the ...
This announcement has been sent on behalf of our network supporters, the Harm Reduction Coalition:. African Americans and Hepatitis C. Thursday, July 25, 3:00 - 4:30 p.m. EDT. Register now!. Hepatitis C is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and a leading cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. It is also a neglected health condition, with: African Americans and Blacks have a higher prevalence of chronic Hepatitis C infection compared with non-Hispanic white Americans and are twice as likely to have ever been infected with Hepatitis C.. This webinar will provide information on the impact of Hepatitis C on African Americans and strategies to address the viral hepatitis C epidemic in the African-American community.. Click to register now!. The following will be discussed:. ...
Blacks/African Americans have been affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since early in the epidemic (1). Despite representing a smaller proportion (13.6%) of the U.S. population, blacks/African Americans accounted for half of the HIV diagnoses in adolescents and adults in 37 states during 2005--2008 (2). Data from the National HIV Surveillance System were used to estimate numbers, percentages, and rates of HIV diagnoses in blacks/African Americans during 2005--2008. Those data were reported to CDC through June 2009 from 37 states with mature (in operation since at least January 2005) HIV surveillance systems. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that during 2005--2008, blacks/African Americans were diagnosed with HIV infection more frequently than any other racial/ethnic population. During 2008, black/African American males and females were diagnosed with HIV infection at eight and 19 times the rates for white males and ...
... explores the major threats and roots affecting both Americas most racially polarized periods as well as the major issues plaguing the African American community. The author provides intelligent insight into the deeper roots of Americas long history and struggle with racism as well as the solution. The author shows through how a background investigation of medical science, culture, and social policy can propel or subdue an entire people group, and examines research on the A.C.E.S. (Adverse Childhood Experiences), which affects all communities regardless of race. This book is an exciting and well-researched exposé into one of Americas most electrifying socio-political movements. ...
HV is a crisis in African American communities, threatening the health and well-being of African American men and women across the United States. While African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV and AIDS of any racial/ ethnic group in the nation, prevention efforts have helped to maintain stability in the annual number of new HIV infections among African Americans for more than a decade. Additionally, recent CDC data found indications of an encouraging decline in new infections among African American women. Still, African American heterosexual women continue to be far more affected by HIV than women of any other race or ethnicity, and young black gay and bisexual men now account for more new infections than any other group in the United States ...
In the current study, a CNV map was generated using DNA from a population of 385 African Americans using 50 randomly chosen female African Americans as a reference. A total of 1362 CNV events were identified in the population. In addition, CNVs were identified in a population of 435 White individuals using the same 50 African American females as a reference. The same reference population was used so that the CNV distributions of the two populations would be directly comparable. Two regions of the genome exhibited large CNV frequency differences between the two populations, one on chromosome 15 and another on chromosome 17. No genes in these regions had obvious roles in ethnic differences.. A total of 140 of the African American DNAs were derived from cell lines. The process of creating the cell lines generated a duplication on chromosome 14 in 74% of the cell line-derived DNAs. Although this region is listed as copy number variant in the Database of Genomic Variants, none of the DNAs derived ...
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous research, academic disidentification was determined by looking for an attenuation of the correlation between academic self-concept and grade point average (GPA) of male and female students. The relationship between academic self-concept and grade point average significantly decreased for African American males, while it significantly increased for African American females. Demographic factors included age and sex, while psychological factors included academic self-concept, devaluing academic success, and racial identity. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that sex and academic self-concept were significant positive predictors of GPA, ...
SAGE - May 30, 2013. Many African American youth may develop high levels of allostatic load, a measure of physiological wear and tear on the body, by developing psychosocial competence under conditions of high risk related to socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was designed to test this hypothesis, which is based on John Henryism theory. In a representative sample of 489 African American youth living in the rural South, cumulative SES-related risks and teacher-reported competence were assessed at ages 11 to 13; depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and allostatic load were assessed at age 19. The data revealed that rural African American preadolescents who evinced high psychosocial competence under conditions of high cumulative SES-related risk displayed low levels of adjustment problems along with high allostatic load at age 19. Read more. ...
Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Psychiological Impact of Slavery on African Americans, with Ms. KShakill, Researcher, who talks about some of the psyc...
A number of technology companies have released their Equal Employment Opportunity reports (EEO-1 reports) for 2014 and what they show is that there remains a diversity issue. Twitter, Microsoft and Google employ zero African-American women in executive and management level positions. Facebook, Intel and Amazon employ one African-American female each in such positions. Executive and management level positions are held by white men 65% of the time, white females 14% of the time, Asian males 13% of the time, Asian females 3% of the time, Hispanic males 2% of the time, Hispanic females and African-American males 1% of the time, and African-American females less than 1% of the time. The statistics for all employees arent much better for many companies. Twitter, for example, employs 0% African-American females and 1% African-American males and Hispanic males and females. It employs 25% Asian males and 8% Asian females. The Tech industry is aware of the issue and there are efforts being made to ...
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S., and disproportionally affects African Americans. Given the evidence for genetic susceptibility to CHD in African Americans and lagging discovery efforts in this population, we propose to search for gene variants that contribute to incident CHD risk in African Americans.. Methods: We examined the evidence for association of genome wide genetic markers with incident CHD using the high density custom array MetaboChip using data from two U.S. cohort studies comprising 7,967 African American individuals (Womens Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Genome-wide ancestry estimates (principal components) were determined using Eigensoft. We used Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for age and population stratification. Study- and sex-stratified results were combined using fixed effect meta-analysis. A Bonferroni corrected P, 2.8 x 10-7 was considered a significant array ...
Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. -Sterling, S.R., B. Bertrand, S. Judd, T.L. Carson, P. Chandler-Laney, M.L. Baskin, 2017. Longitudinal analysis of nut-inclusive diets and body mass index among overweight and obese African American women living in rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2017;14:160595. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd14.160595.
According to U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher, African Americans are twice as likely to suffer a stroke than whites, making them more susceptible to stroke than any other ethnic group. Satcher spoke out on this health disparity during a stroke-screening event in Rockville, Md., called "Stroke Sunday.". "Strokes have a disproportionate impact among African Americans, but there is something we can do as a community to combat this disease," states Satcher, who is African American. "We can reduce our risk of stroke by lowering blood pressure, quitting smoking and keeping heart disease and diabetes in check.". Satcher stressed the importance of African Americans learning the five warning signs of stroke. These signs, as outlined by the American Stroke Association (ASA), are:. 1. Numbness or weakness of the arm, face or one side of the body ...
The Minority Gateway Satellite Clinic is located in the African-American community and evaluates and follows minority subjects (primarily African Americans) with or without memory and thinking problems and provides culturally sensitive care to patients and support to families. Established in 2001, the Minority Gateway Clinic is a clinical core satellite promoting the involvement of African Americans in aging and dementia research in the UK-ADC. It represents a special "Gateway" for African Americans to access clinical research endeavors. Our immediate goal is to recruit and follow elderly African Americans from intact cognition through intermediate states to dementia, focusing on the unique risk factor profiles in these participants that may contribute to cognitive transitions across the cognitive continuum. Involvement of African Americans in research is important because it is impossible to know whether research results will apply broadly to public health without such participation. ...
The mission of the African American Studies Department is to foster an understanding of and appreciation for the rich traditions of the African diaspora, to advance knowledge of African American history and culture, and to develop critical awareness of the status of peoples of African descent in our interconnected global society.. With this in mind, the African American Studies Option of the undergraduate degree program in Ethnic Studies exposes students to the history, politics, culture and contemporary social realities of African-descended people within the United States and globally. Its interdisciplinary approach provides students in the major and minor with skills in writing, critical thinking, and community building, and prepares students for further graduate study and a variety of professional paths including: business, the non-profit sector, public relations, education, human services, politics and government, and law. ...
The history of African American women and their participation in the birth control movement reflects a very conflicted set of ideals regarding African American women, the use of contraceptive practices and abortion. Prominent historical figures debated whether African American communities would benefit from birth control or if birth control was another methodical scheme put in place to suppress the African American community. During slavery times in the United States, black slave women were viewed as "breeding slaves" and "child bearing women"-simply vessels to meet the demands for labor in Southern agricultural areas. Through arranged marriages and forced mating with other slaves along with direct rape from slave owners, slave women were subject to frequent sexual exploitation. The women were even blamed for these phenomena as white male masters developed the "Jezebel" stereotype of black women as passionate, hypersexual beings who wanted to engage in sexual acts with anyone and everyone. In ...
Initially taken in 1838 to demonstrate the stability and significance of the African American community and to forestall the abrogation of African American voting rights, the Quaker and Abolitionist census of African Americans was continued in 1847 and 1856 and present an invaluable view of the mid-nineteenth century African American population of Philadelphia. Although these censuses list only household heads, providing aggregate information for other household members, and exclude the substantial number of African Americans living in white households, they provide data not found in the federal population schedules. When combined with the information on African Americans taken from the four federal censuses, they offer researchers a richly detailed view of Philadelphias African American community spanning some forty years. The three censuses are not of equal inclusiveness or quality, however. The 1838 and 1847 enumerations cover only the "old" City of Philadelphia (river-to-river and from Vine ...
African Americans are disproportionately affected by early-onset, high-grade malignancies. A fraction of this cancer health disparity can be explained by genetic differences between individuals of African or European descent. Here the wild-type Pro/Pro genotype at the TP53Pro72Arg (P72R) polymorphism (SNP:rs1042522) is more frequent in African Americans with cancer than in African Americans without cancer (51% vs 37%), and is associated with a significant increase in the rates of cancer diagnosis in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that p53 allele-specific gene expression may contribute to African American cancer disparities, p53 hemizygous knockout variants were generated and characterized in the RKO colon carcinoma cell line, which is wild-type for p53 and heterozygous at theTP53Pro72Arg locus. Transcriptome profiling, using RNAseq, in response to the DNA-damaging agent etoposide revealed a large number of p53-regulated transcripts, but also a subset of transcripts that were ...
The streets are gone," Dean Angelo, president of the Chicago police union, told me last month. The night before, Aug. 14, a Chicago police officers son had been killed in a shooting while sitting on his familys porch, one of 92 people killed in Chicago during the worst month for homicides in the Windy City since July 1993. The August victims who survived included 10-year-old Tavon Tanner, shot while playing in front of his house (the bullet ripped through Tavons pancreas, intestines, kidney and spleen); an 8-year-old girl shot in the arm while crossing the street; and two 6-year-old girls ...
Background/Purpose: Racial differences exist in the severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To enhance our knowledge about SSc in African Americans, we established a comprehensive clinical database from the largest multicenter cohort of African American SSc patients assembled to date (the Genome Research in African American Scleroderma Patients (GRASP) cohort). We compared the phenotypic manifestations of SSc in the GRASP cohort to that reported in the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) cohort1.. Methods: African American SSc patients were enrolled retrospectively and prospectively over a 30-year period (1987 to 2016), from 18 academic centers throughout the United States. 945 (94%) patients met the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc, with the remaining 64 (6%) meeting the 1980 ACR or CREST criteria. The cross-sectional prevalence of sociodemographic, clinical and serological features was evaluated using data obtained at the time of study ...
African American ReligionAfrican American religion during the period from 1754 to 1828 constituted a vibrant spiritual and institutional force that allowed African Americans to cope with and adapt to the circumstances confronting them in America. It enabled African Americans to resist white supremacy and even to engage in dialog with white Americans. Source for information on African American Religion: Encyclopedia of the New American Nation dictionary.
African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors ...
The minor in African and African American Studies is a multidisciplinary program that explores the cultures, contributions, and challenges of people of African descent around the world. This field of study seeks to develop greater respect for scholarship as a tool for problem-solving and provide students with a path towards gaining a deeper appreciation of racial and cultural differences in the United States and the wider world. In keeping with the universitys mission, recipients of a minor in African and African American Studies would be well-informed and empowered to enact positive change in the areas of social justice, equality, and improved race relations.. This program is housed in the department of Language, Literature, and Communication.. ...
Montgomery County is home to over 132,000 African American residents, or over 15% of the countys population. Between 2000 and 2006, the population of the countys Black and African American increased significantly (43%) - much more than Marylands Black and African American Population (24%).. Community Partnerships is committed to bringing together this vibrant community to tackle issues of common concerns. We will work closely with residents and community groups to address some common barriers to these communities including language access, connection with government and other communities, service delivery to these communities, and a range of other issues identified from the Leadership Summit in October 2007.. 2000 U.S. Census and 2007 American Community Survey. Community Links:. Census 2010 ...
This African American Party Invitation featuring a African American Naturalista ready to party the night away with a black and white striped background. Ideal for: African American 21st Birthday Party | African American 30 and Flirty Birthday | African American 40 and Fabulous or 40 and Phenomenal
Author(s): Haynes, Tiffany F; Cheney, Ann M; Sullivan, J Greer; Bryant, Keneshia; Curran, Geoffrey M; Olson, Mary; Cottoms, Naomi; Reaves, Christina | Abstract: Rural African Americans are disproportionately affected by social stressors that place them at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to understand mental health, mental health treatment, and barriers to treatment from the perspective of rural African-American residents and other stakeholders in order to devise culturally acceptable treatment approaches.Seven focus groups (N=50) were conducted with four stakeholder groups: primary care providers, faith community representatives, college students and administrators, and individuals living with mental illness. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit perspectives on mental health, mental health treatment, and ways to improve mental health in rural African-American communities. Inductive analysis was used to identify emergent themes and develop a conceptual model
African American Studies is an intellectual field of inquiry that examines the history of people of African descent from the colonial period through the present; how systems of racial inequality are produced through state policy, traditional western scholarly disciplines, and popular discourse; and the social, political and cultural movements that black people have developed to identify and resist the unequal material and political conditions that shape black social life in the African Diaspora. The undergraduate major and minor provides a strong foundation in the key theoretical concepts in the discipline, the historical formation of African American Studies as an interdisciplinary field of study, and prepares students to apply what they have learned in the classroom, in independent research and in internships with social justice/service organizations.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low parental monitoring predicts subsequent pregnancy among African-American adolescent females. AU - Crosby, Richard A.. AU - DiClemente, Ralph J.. AU - Wingood, Gina M.. AU - Harrington, Kathy. AU - Davies, Suzy. AU - Hook, Edward W.. AU - Oh, M. Kim. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Study Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that parental monitoring is associated with adolescents sexual risk behaviors. However, evidence associating low parental monitoring with greater odds of becoming pregnant has not been reported. The objective of this study was to prospectively assess the relationship of low perceived parental monitoring with incidence of biologically confirmed pregnancy among a sample of low-income African-American adolescent females. Design: A prospective study. Setting and Participants: African-American females 14-18 years of age were recruited from schools and health clinics in low-income neighborhoods. Adolescents completed an in-depth survey and interview at baseline ...
Introduction: Whether high sodium intake, assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24hrUNaEx), is associated with altered glycemic control, evaluated by hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), in the African American population remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between 24hrUNaEx and HbA1C in young overweight/obese African Americans.. Methods: A total of 106 apparently healthy overweight/obese drug-naïve African Americans were recruited. Subjects were asked to discard the first morning urine specimen and collect all remaining urine specimens for next 24-hr including a urine specimen of the following morning. HbA1C was measured from venous blood by ion-exchange chromatography.. Results: The means (± SE) of age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects (67%, 71/106 females) were 24.30±0.82 years and 35.51±0.70 kg/m2, respectively. Average 24hrUNaEx was 172.17±7.09 mEq/L/d, which corresponded to average sodium intake of 3.96±1.63 g/d. Pearsons correlation analysis revealed a positive ...
A professor at the University of Virginia conducted research on African Americans in the health professions to make available resources that scholars and educators could use to encourage more young African Americans to pursue health careers.
Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D(3) (~2,000 IU/day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African-American adults.
The United States is facing a maternal and infant health crisis, and African American women are at the center. African American women are dying from preventable, pregnancy-related causes at three to four times the rate of white women. Infants born to African American mothers die at twice the rate of infants born to white women. The impacts of structural racism on maternal health outcomes for women of color are felt both within and outside of medical institutions. Eliminating maternal and infant mortality demands acknowledging that racism is the driving force behind health disparities and centering women of color in policy and community-driven solutions. Join us for a discussion with women of color experts in the maternal and infant health field that focuses on policy solutions.. Opening remarks: ...
baker, community leader, cautious abolitionist, and patriarch of a talented African American family well known into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, was born in Burlington, New Jersey. His narrative records that he belonged to "the Estate of Samuel Bustill of the City of Burlington, but he Dying when I was Young I was Sold to John Allen of the Same City" (Bustill, p. 22). The name of Bustills mother is recorded only as Parthenia; Samuel Bustill, an English‐born lawyer who died in 1742, was his father as well as his owner.. Many sources, including Lloyd Louis Browns detailed history of the Bustill family in The Young Paul Robeson: On My Journey Now (1997), leave out the Allen family, and assert that Samuel Bustills widow, Grace, arranged for Cyrus Bustill to be apprenticed to Thomas Pryor Jr. However Bustill s own account .... ...
In a community-based sample of middle-age African Americans, we found that demographic and clinical characteristics as well as cardiac structure and function significantly differed among patients with HFpEF, HFrEF, and no HF. By comparing patients with HFpEF with those without HF, we found that older age, female sex, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and concentric hypertrophy were more common in patients with HFpEF. Similarly, diabetes mellitus, CKD, CHD, and left atrial enlargement were more common in patients with HFrEF than those with HFpEF. Survival differed among groups, with HFpEF portending a worse prognosis than no HF but not as severe as HFrEF. Together, these findings suggest that in African Americans, HFpEF and HFrEF may be distinct syndromes.. Representation of African Americans in observational studies and clinical trials is typically low; thus, HF in this population is not well understood (21,22). Moreover, few HF studies focus specifically on African Americans (23) ...
African Americans with ADHD are underdiagnosed. Review issues involving the health care system and disparities in care for African American adults, and learn how to assess patient and provider cultural biases toward ADHD symptoms and treatment.
Abstract. HIV disproportionately affects African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. To inform this epidemiological pattern, we examined cross-sectional sexual behavior data in 509 African American MSM. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which age, education, and sexual identity explain the likelihood of engaging in sex with a partner of a specific gender and the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors based on partner gender. Across all partner gender types, unprotected sexual behaviors were more likely to be reported by men with lower education. Younger, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with transgender partners, while older, non-gay identified men were more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behaviors with women. African American MSM do not represent a monolithic group in their sexual behaviors, highlighting the need to target HIV prevention efforts to ...
Portland Commissioner Jo Ann Hardesty announced Thursday that she has chosen Sara Boone as the citys next fire chief.. Boone has been with Portland Fire and Rescue for 24 years.. She became the first African American female firefighter for the agency in 1995. Now, shell be the citys first African American fire chief.. Boone said being a woman of color in such a white- and male-dominated field has been challenging but rewarding. Overall, she said, the fire bureau is "like family.". One of the goals she said she has for the bureau is not only to improve its service to the community, but the staffs work culture. "We always talk about the internal, or the fire service work culture, and our external mission," Boone said. "But I believe how we treat each other internally is a reflection of how we treat people externally.. "What I would like to see as a goal is that we really develop competencies when it comes to interpersonal skill sets, when it comes to communication, when it comes to ...
African Americans and recidivism[edit]. With regard to the United States incarceration rate, African Americans represent only ... Reducing recidivism among African Americans[edit]. A cultural re-grounding of African Americans is important to improve self- ... Recidivism is highest amongst those under the age of 18 who are male and African American, and African Americans have ... African Americans are disproportionately represented in the American prison system, representing approximately half the prison ...
African-American students in Connecticut, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Nebraska are more than four times as ... which has proved to classify disproportionately more African-Americans that European-Americans as intellectually disabled.[27] ... 2005) "African American Student Representation in Special Education Programs." The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 74, No. 4, ... African-Americans in Special Education[edit]. The studies found that grossly disproportionate numbers of minority students are ...
1An Afro-Latin American is any person from Latin America with origins in Africa. They can be Afro-South Americans, Afro-Central ... fought in both Europe and North America. It also took over all French territory in North America east of the Mississippi River ... Three Diasporas: African, Garifuna, and Central American[edit]. The distinction between diaspora and transnational migration is ... Based in part on their experience with slavery in other parts of the Caribbean and North America, the British separated the ...
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) has been the center of controversy about the education of African-American youths, ... "Dialects: African American Vernacular English". Links to "a variety of resources related to African American Vernacular English ... The English History of African American English, Blackwell. *^ Poplack, Shana; Tagliamonte, Sali (2001), African American ... a member of the African language family;[clarification needed] that African Americans particular language and their dialects; ...
African-American[edit]. Michael Joseph Brown writes that African-Americans responded to the assumption of universality in ... Brown, Michael Joseph (2004). Blackening of the Bible The Aims of African American Biblical Scholarship. Bloomsbury Academic. ... "American Scientist. 93 (3): 255.. *^ Bendroth, Margaret (27 February 2017). "Christian Fundamentalism in America". Oxford ... 2 African-American biblical criticism is contextual, based on liberation theology and black theology, and looks for what is ...
Asia, Africa, Latin America, Oceania. *Eduardo Suplicy, Brazil[115]. *Varun Gandhi, Indian Member of Parliament[116] ... At the 2016 North American Basic Income Guarantee Congress in Winnipeg, Vallée examined slavery as a historical example of a ... Standing, Guy (ed.). "Promoting Income Security as a Right: Europe and North America", Anthem Press, London, 2005 ... "Martin Luther King's Economic Dream: A Guaranteed Income for All Americans".. *^ "Bundestag will Petition zum bedingungslosen ...
Adams, Luther (2010-11-29). Way Up North in Louisville: African American Migration in the Urban South, 1930-1970. Univ of North ... leading many African Americans to seek new jobs in urban areas.[6] African Americans strove to find new opportunities such as ... Graph showing the percentage of the African American population living in the American South, 1790-2010. ... In addition, African Americans were still treated with discrimination in parts of the country, and many sought to escape this.[ ...
Main article: Afro-American peoples of the Americas. African American[edit]. Main article: African immigrants to the United ... Hungarian Americans, Polish Americans, Dutch Americans, Norwegian Americans, German Americans, Ukrainian Americans and Russian ... Haitian Americans, Barbadian Americans, Guyanese Americans, Bahamian Americans, Grenadian Americans, Vincentian Americans and ... Japanese Americans, Filipino Americans, Indian Americans, Indo-Caribbean Americans, Afghan Americans, Australian Americans, ...
African-American movements[edit]. Many slaves brought from Africa to the Western hemisphere were Muslim. Although it is thought ... "Mourides Celebrate 19 Years in North America" by Ayesha Attah. The African magazine. (n.d.) Retrieved 2007-11-13. ... a b Milton C. Sernett (1999). African American religious history: a documentary witness. Duke University Press. pp. 499-501. ... "Mythmaking in the African American Muslim Context: The Moorish Science Temple, the Nation of Islam, and the American Society of ...
20th century African American names[edit]. Since the civil rights movement of 1950-1970, African-American names given to ... including North and South America; North, East, Central and West India; Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. ... After the name Kayla was used for a character on the American soap opera Days of Our Lives, the name's popularity increased ... Lara and Larissa were rare in America before the appearance of Doctor Zhivago, and have become fairly common since. ...
African-American Catholics[edit]. Because the South was over 90% Protestant, most African-Americans who adopted Christianity ... Documents of American Catholic History 2nd ed. (1956).. Further reading[edit]. *Abell, Aaron. American Catholicism and Social ... Marty, Martin E. Modern American Religion, Vol. 1: The Irony of It All, 1893-1919 (1986); Modern American Religion. Vol. 2: The ... Cloud, Minnesota: North Star Press, 1994) 271pp.. *O'Toole, James M. The Faithful: A History of Catholics in America (2008) ...
My proposal: A Caucasian and an African-American girl. Another possibility is no caption at all. It could be argued that a ... A Caucasian and an African-American girl. I'm trying out a new caption, the caption should describe the photo without being too ... The image was taken near New York, so "African American" may be correct but it's *completely irrelevant*, or worse, the present ... Is the girl on the left a Caucasian-American? Would "A Caucasian-American and a Negro girl" be acceptable? Seems silly. - Xed ...
African-American culture - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this ... Mojo /ˈmoʊdʒoʊ/, in the African-American folk belief called hoodoo, is an amulet consisting of a flannel bag containing one or ... Brewer, Richard M. (1958). "How Hoodoo Lost His hand." From My People: 400 Years of African American Folklore. New York: ... Brewer, Richard M. (1958). "The Mojo." From My People: 400 Years of African American Folklore. New York: Indiana University ...
African-American influence, which absorbed elements of Native American and European-American culture, was strong on the cuisine ... Enslaved Africans and African Americans chose their independence by escaping to British lines, where they were promised freedom ... African Americans in Georgia: A Reflection of Politics and Policy in the New South (Mercer University Press; 2010) 264 pages. ... African Americans[edit]. Although blacks also participated in the Progressive movement, the state remained in the grip of Jim ...
African Americans[edit]. A number of African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans have changed their names out of the belief that the ... The modern use of the term applies mostly to African Americans and West Indians who are descended from enslaved Africans who ... Some organizations encourage African-Americans to abandon their slave names. The Nation of Islam is perhaps the best-known of ... The black nationalist US Organization also advocates for African-Americans to change their slave names.[8] ...
African Americans. Criminal activities. Drug trafficking, racketeering, armed robbery, assault and murder. ... Five Star General of Bloods Pleads Guilty, American Chronicle, September 8, 2005 ... North Carolina, Hazleton, East Stroudsburg[3] Pennsylvania, Scranton, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and Baltimore ...
Aside from Black American, these include Afro-American (in use from the late 1960s to 1990) and African American (used in the ... African American Journeys to Africa, pp. 63-64. *^ Martin Luther King, Jr. (28 August 1963). I Have a Dream (Google Video). ... "African American" in more formal settings.[114] In the U.S. census race definitions, Black and African Americans are citizens ... African Americans have 73.2-80.9% West African, 18-24% European, and 0.8-0.9% Native American genetic heritage, with large ...
At the end of World War II, the GI Bill furthered segregation practices by keeping African Americans out of European American ... African Americans were met with discrimination when trying to purchase a home in the overwhelmingly European American ... and that it would be unethical to sell a house in a European American neighborhood to African Americans because it would drive ... African Americans were systematically steered to these non-European American neighborhoods.[6] ...
The racial makeup of the MSA was 89.70% White, 1.22% African American, 1.53% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.29% Pacific ... Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Examining the Status of African Americans and Hispanics in ... Graves, John William (August 16, 2017). "African Americans". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Butler Center for ... The city of Gentry has a dense community of Hmong Americans, many resettled by the United States after the North Vietnamese ...
"African Americans." Handbook of Texas. Retrieved on December 17, 2011. Maxine D. Rogers, et al., Documented History of the ... Whites and Coloured South Africans are a majority in some parts of South Africa while being a minority in South Africa overall ... or North Africa, i.e. Caucasoids. This definition has changed through the years. Although the Census attempts to enumerate both ... as two waves of the Great Migration led more than 6.5 million African Americans to abandon the economically depressed, legally ...
History of the American People, Wilson depicted white European immigrants with empathy while African American immigrants and ... African Americans". Cooper (2009), pp. 407-408 Walter C. Rucker; James N. Upton (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. ... The president's African-American supporters, who had crossed party lines to vote for him, were bitterly disappointed, and they ... Partly in response to the demand for industrial labor, the Great Migration of African Americans out of the South began in 1917 ...
Bailey, Brandy (April 23, 2009). "A True Kentucky Pioneer: The Story of Kentucky's First Female and African-American Senator". ... Hudson, J. Blaine (2001). "African Americans". In Kleber, John E. The Encyclopedia of Louisville. Lexington, Kentucky: ... Kentucky's First Female African American Senator, Georgia Davis Powers". 9 Ways Blog. Gloria Feldt. Retrieved April 25, 2011. " ... African American Registry. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Betsy Brinson (February 24, 2000). Interview of Edward T. Brethitt. The ...
Strangites welcomed African Americans into their church during a time when some other factions (such as the LDS Church, until ... "African-Americans". Strangite.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. Three different websites exist for various branches of the ... Strang ordained at least two African Americans to the eldership during his lifetime. George J. Adams Current state of polygamy ... purporting to contain the last testament of an ancient Native American, one "Rajah Manchou of Vorito". These plates were found ...
... served African Americans, and the Florida Female College, later named the Florida State College for Women (the future Florida ... African Americans. Four of the institutions - the University of Florida at Lake City (formerly Florida Agricultural College) in ... of its student body African-American as of 2014. "State Library and Archives of Florida - The Florida Memory Project Timeline ( ...
"African Americans". www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. "Chicago and the Great Migration, 1915-1950". newberry.org. Retrieved ... The most commonly referenced borders by officials that are assigned to the West Side are North Avenue to the north and 31st ... On the north and moving northwest are mostly Puerto Rican and other Latino residents living in the communities of West Town and ... The North Western Railway had thousands of their employees establish a community in West Garfield Park. At this point, the West ...
3.2 Africa *3.2.1 South Africa. *3.2.2 Zimbabwe. *3.3 Central America and the Caribbean *3.3.1 Barbados ... South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Central America and the Caribbean. Barbados. * Find this book in the University of the West Indies (Cave Hill campus) Library ... Find this book on the University of South Africa catalogue. * Find this book on the University of the Witwatersrand Library ...
The situation in and in relation to the Central African Republic continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the ... Donald J. Trump, Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Central African Republic Online by Gerhard ... Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Central African Republic. ... or stability of the Central African Republic and neighboring states. ...
American Samoa national park, locations, information, lodging, plan your visit, outdoor activities, facts, location, kids and ... National park of American Samoa, plants, things to do, ... African marigold. Mamala. Omalanthus nutans. Euphorbiaceae ( ... American Samoa National Park. American Samoa National Park Information. American Samoa National Park Location. American Samoa, ... American Samoa National Park Governing Body. National Park Service. National Park of American Samoa Plan Your Visit. *American ...
The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for those aged 65 years and older. ... African Americans are living longer. The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for ... For example, African American adults are more likely to report they cannot see a doctor because of cost. All Americans should ... African Americans ages 35-64 years are 50% more likely to have high blood pressure than whites. ...
TB in the African-American Community. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... Note: persons identified as White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other ... However, Black or African American persons in the United States continue to be impacted by TB at a greater rate compared to ... Rates of TB in non-Hispanic Black or African American persons have been cut nearly in half (from 7.6 cases per 100,000 persons ...
The first shipload of enslaved Africans directly from Africa arrives in the West Indies. Prior to this time, Africans were ... The Spanish king allows the introduction of enslaved Africans into Spains American colonies.. 01-01. *Spanish Slavery ... The first Africans arrive in Hispaniola with Christopher Columbus. They are free persons.. 01-01. *Africans in the New World ... They bring along enslaved Africans, considered to be the first in the present-day United States. These Africans flee the colony ...
1, Columbia Universitys Board of Trustees announced it will develop a new Department of African-American and African Diaspora ... Columbia Senate Approves African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department The University Senate at Columbia University ... The new department will also establish a Ph.D. program in the field of African-American and African Diaspora Studies to produce ... Semantic Tags: African American Studies • African diaspora studies • Columbia University • Dr. Farah Jasmine Griffin. ...
African American History. From education and exploration to baseball and poetry, African Americans have made great ... During the 20th century, African Americans from Missouri made many cultural contributions. James Langston Hughes was born in ... Louis and became Americas first black novelist.. George Washington Carver, born a slave in Missouri, became a great scientist ... Joplin; he later became a great American poet. Jazz musician William "Count" Basie, moved to Kansas City in the late 1920s and ...
Pages in category "African Americans and education". The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list ... Historically segregated African-American schools in the United States‎ (3 C, 138 P) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:African_Americans_and_education&oldid=587181621" ...
A DAY Monthly Agendas:. Click the appropriate month for daily work and important links to course resources.. August+September. October. November. December. January. February. March. April. May ...
... that image should go into African American men, African American women, African American children, or African American families ... African American people, African American, African-American, Afro-Americans, Black Americans (en); Āfrikas amerikāņi (lv); ... African American diaspora),. etnische gemeenschap (Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, West Indian Americans, African ... An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans by Lydia Child, Boston African American National Historic Site, ...
African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ... African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ... African Americans - Childrens Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11). *black Americans, or African Americans - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 ... African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves-people who were brought from their African homelands by force to work ...
Farley about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to ... Green Party & African Americans Karen Grigsby Bates speaks with Green Party candidates Donna Warren and Jonathan D. Farley ... Farley about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to ... about the partys attempt to win African American votes with its stance on issues ranging from reparations to affirmative ...
... are the second largest minority group in America (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). While the term ... Racial Identity African American Student Black People African American Youth African American Adolescent ... and Africa. Some "African Americans" are recent arrivals while others have had ancestors who have been in America since before ... African Americans, numbering about 39 million, are the second largest minority group in America (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). ...
"Ricky Ford - American-African Blues". AllMusic. Retrieved July 5, 2017. *^ Candid Records album entry, accessed September 27, ... a b c Ford, Ricky American-African Blues (liner notes). Candid Records. CCD79528. ... American-African Blues was recorded in concert at Birdland, New York City, on September 16, 1991.[4] It is a quartet recording ... American-African Blues is an album by saxophonist Ricky Ford.[2][3] ...
Students immerse themselves in the experiences and accomplishments of extraordinary African Americans by speaking as them in ... On the day of the African American Wax Museum, students bring their posters to the cafeteria and hang them on the wall behind ... In honor of Black History Month, the fourth graders at our school participate in an African American Wax Museum every year. It ... In mid-January, fourth grade students are given a list of African Americans (both past and present) who were important figures ...
Massachusetts about African Americans and meet people in your local community who share your interests. ... African Americans Meetups in Cambridge Heres a look at some African Americans Meetups happening near Cambridge. Sign me up! ...
African American Cemeteries of Tidewater Virginia and North Carolina on Facebook. A community forum for the African American ... Guide to African-American Manuscripts *The Library of Virginia - Resources for African American Genealogical Research *African ... Large African American cemeteries in Virginia have included: *The African American Historic Cemeteries of Portsmouth VA on ... Guide to African American genealogy in Virginia. Strategies. African American research in Virginia can be divided into two ...
Start the morning right with African Americans Mugs from CafePress. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom ... Does your mug make a statement? Express yourself with unique African Americans Mugs from CafePress. If you want to express your ...
African Americans 21,584 works Search for books with subject African Americans. Search. ... Afro-Americans, Politics and government, Slavery, African American authors, Civil rights movements, History and criticism, ... Are you sure you want to remove African Americans from your list? ... United States, Southern States, Alabama, Africa, Virginia, ... Mississippi, Georgia, New York (State), California, South Carolina, New York, Illinois, North Carolina, Texas, Pennsylvania, ...
African Germans? And in New Zealand? African New Zealander? Is African American a unique characterization just to the United ... person born in South Africa or in Egypt and immigrating to America - Are they African American? See : (yes, again, the Mavis ... In the United States, Black people like to be refered to as African Americans. What are Black people called in Mexico? African ... Subject: African Americans Category: Reference, Education and News , General Reference Asked by: xanne-ga List Price: $2.00. ...
A long history of racism and cruel experimentation in health care are among the reasons African-American families oppose ... Recruiting African-Americans "takes a lot of effort and a lot of work," she said. "Every year, we bring it up again and revisit ... African-Americans suffer from these cognitive impairments at two to three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites, yet they are ... As an African-American and a former schoolteacher, Reeves is keenly aware of the history of racism in health care, including ...
Prince Hall, Founder of the African American Masonic Order Prince Hall.. A Charge Delivered to the African Lodge, June 24, 1797 ... freed African Americans, especially in the North, were active participants in American society. Black men enlisted as soldiers ... African American Women Preachers Although little is known about the preacher pictured here, Juliann Jane Tillman, African ... While some African Americans chose this option, the vast majority felt themselves to be Americans and focused their efforts on ...
African and African American subjects, themes, and materials used. Students read works of African American writers. ... Studies in African American Literature (3 s.h.) S. Core: WI.. An examination of African American literary forms with certain ... African and Afro-American (3 s.h.) S. An overview of the folk literature and oratory of African peoples on the African ... Introduction to African American Novel (3 s.h.) F S. An introductory survey of the Afro-American novel from the Clotel of the ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they ... Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they ... Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific ... Africa Is Way Bigger Than You Think. Africa is bigger than China, India, the contiguous U.S. and most of Europe-combined! ...
RBMSCL , Collections , Digitized Collections , African American Women African-American Women. Online Archival Collections. ... Retrieving African-American Womens History: Manuscript Sources at Duke. *Sallie Bingham Center for Womens History and Culture ... of her own ambivalence about her place as an African-American in society, and of the importance of religion and education in ... Afro-American Sources in Virginia: A Guide to Manuscripts. This web site was rated among the top humanities websites by the ...
  • With the increasing profitability of slavery and the slave trade, some Africans themselves sold captives to the European traders. (britannica.com)
  • Comments With Dr. James Haney Presents*Psychiological Impact of Slavery on African Americans, with Ms. KShakill, Researcher, who talks about some of the psychiological challenges faced by African Americans because of the institution of slavry and what can be done to overecom these challenges, Part 1. (youtube.com)
  • From the exploitive years of slavery and on through the oppressive years to follow, African Americans have fought dauntlessly to achieve social equality. (military.com)
  • This, of course, requires a commitment to the history and legacy of slavery, but also acknowledges how those people have produced central insights and cultural forms that have redefined not just America, but the world itself as well as how knowledge about that world is produced. (bu.edu)
  • this community college text investigates the conscious and unconscious strategies that led African Americans to emerge from slavery to become the most successful ethnic group in United States history. (lulu.com)
  • As a literary scholar and cultural historian who has spent a lifetime searching out African Americans' lost, forgotten and otherwise unheralded tales, I was honored to serve as a historical consultant on Steve McQueen's 12 Years a Slave, most certainly one of the most vivid and authentic portrayals of slavery ever captured in a feature film. (pbs.org)
  • The tableau was super-deliberate: The home turf of the Great Emancipator of Civil War and slavery days as launch pad for the highest-flying African-American White House candidacy yet. (wbur.org)
  • Rebellion: John Horse and the Black Seminoles, the first black rebels to beat American slavery, tells the story of an epic quest for freedom that changed American history. (cyndislist.com)
  • The Black Seminoles helped shape American politics toward slavery, inspired the emancipation movement, and led the largest slave rebellion in U.S. history, which historians have overlooked for 167 years. (cyndislist.com)
  • The Smithsonian chose six teams from among 22 submissions and gave them all of two months to solve a challenging set of design problems: a constricted site next to the Washington Monument, a charged subject (slavery, discrimination, race), and the perhaps unanswerable question, What should a museum of African-American history and culture look like? (slate.com)
  • The need to resist oppressions was certainly as much for African Americans who lived during the 1970s Folk Archives era as for those who experienced slavery and the Great Migrations. (jhu.edu)
  • The 13th Amendment ended slavery and the 14th Amendment extended full rights of citizenship to African Americans, the continuation of support for Jim Crow and segregation laws led to protests in which many African-Americans were violently injured out in the open at lunchroom counters, buses, polling places and local public areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 20th century, African Americans from Missouri made many cultural contributions. (mo.gov)
  • An introductory survey of the Afro-American novel from the Clotel of the early 19th century up to Roos in the 20th century. (temple.edu)
  • Africa in the 20th Century (3 s.h. (temple.edu)
  • Throughout much of the 20th century, millions of African Americans left the South to escape racial discrimination, oppression and lack of opportunity, says demographer Jessica Barron of the Frontline Solutions consulting firm in Durham, N.C. They headed toward industrial cities such as Chicago, Detroit and New York for work. (npr.org)
  • In the first half of the 20th century, African-Americans fled the former Confederate states for economic opportunity, to escape from institutional racism and, sometimes, for their lives. (forbes.com)
  • In "When African Americans Came to Paris," Browne, award-winning documentarian Joanne Burke, and writer/cameraman David Burke feature six short videos that offer a fascinating, early 20th century look at black Americans in Paris. (cnn.com)
  • They are part of an influx of African Americans to Mecklenburg County, where the African American population has ballooned by 64% since 2000. (npr.org)
  • The African American population here has ballooned by 64% since 2000. (npr.org)
  • As Matthew Restall states, "[F]rom the very onset of Spanish activity in the Americas, Africans were present both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary colonists" (Restall 2000:172). (nps.gov)
  • The Pluralism Project at Harvard University Twenty-four percent of American Muslims are black, according to American Muslim Council's Zogby poll of August 2000. (conservapedia.com)
  • In addition, we added a fourth category, demographic trends, measuring the change in the African-American population from 2000 to 2013 in these metro areas, to judge how the community is "voting with its feet. (forbes.com)
  • Since 2000, when the Census registered the first increase in the region's black population in more than a century, this trend has accelerated, with African-Americans leaving not just the Northeast or Midwest, but the West Coast as well. (forbes.com)
  • Rates of TB in non-Hispanic Black or African American persons have been cut nearly in half (from 7.6 cases per 100,000 persons in 2009 compared to 4.3 in 2019) over the past decade. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2019, TB disease was reported in 1,753 non-Hispanic Black or African American persons in the United States, accounting for nearly 20% of all people reported with TB nationally. (cdc.gov)
  • In the aftermath of the 2019 March for Life, dozens gathered at Emmanuel Church of God in Christ in Southeast D.C. Friday evening for the Sudden Uprising conference to speak out against abortion and to call for an end to federal birth control and contraceptive funding that they argue has helped reduce the African-American. (freerepublic.com)
  • Professor Bartolome de Albornoz of the University of Mexico writes against the enslavement and sale of Africans. (blackpast.org)
  • Equiano recounts his childhood in Africa until his capture and enslavement, his subsequent sale to European traders, the horrors of the middle passage, his bondage in the United States, and his life on board British merchant vessels from 1758 to 1788--first as a slave and later for hire. (loc.gov)
  • In all, 54% of all enslaved Africans brought to the New World between 1519 and 1700 disembarked in Spanish America (Eltis el at 2001). (nps.gov)
  • Thanks to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by David Eltis and David Richardson, we know that about 388,000 Africans were transported directly to the United States over the course of the slave trade, which ended officially in 1808. (pbs.org)
  • The toxic waste has spread to the large lagoon that divides this city of 5 million-once known as "the Paris of West Africa"-and may have contaminated drinking water and surrounding farm land as well. (slate.com)
  • From legendary entertainer Josephine Baker to internationally acclaimed artist Henry Ossawa Tanner to World War I's ragtime-and-jazz-playing "Harlem Hellfighters," Paris has embraced African-American culture like few other places. (cnn.com)
  • He's now researching a book on African-Americans at the worldwide Paris Exposition of 1900 and exploring their Parisian lives in the 19th and 20th centuries. (cnn.com)
  • Legendary Harlem-born author James Baldwin, who left for Paris in 1948, said "African-Americans discover in Paris the terms by which they can define themselves. (cnn.com)
  • Since you're a frequent reader of our website, we want to be able to share even more great America content with you and let you know about more ways to get involved with our media ministry. (americamagazine.org)
  • Every year I set aside time in the beginning of the month of February to research and learn about famous African Americans from yesterday and today. (scholastic.com)
  • This way every students learns about 10 or 11 famous African Americans. (scholastic.com)
  • List and Biographies of famous African Americans. (cyndislist.com)
  • Critique of African world-voice by examining Pan Africanism, Negritude, and African Nationalism. (temple.edu)
  • At the end of World War II , African Americans were poised to make far-reaching demands to end racism . (britannica.com)
  • The African pioneers who set out for the New World contributed greatly to the building and maintenance of colonial societies. (nps.gov)
  • Documenting African-American doctors in Alabama before World War II. (cyndislist.com)
  • The Revolutionary War, War of 1812, The Civil War, The Spanish American War and World War I. This is one of the first books ever to display the heroics of the men and women who fought especially during World War I. Many of the men displayed in this book were honored by the French for their heroism. (lulu.com)
  • This is considered to be one of the first civil rights books as it demonstrated how the African American military officers offered the services of their units to the Wilson Adminstration for special duties in different parts of the world. (lulu.com)
  • As a frequent reader of our website, you know how important America 's voice is in the conversation about the church and the world. (americamagazine.org)
  • Sadly, this agony was once common to millions of African-Americans, whose stories often went untold or unheard, let alone published and read by the world. (forbes.com)
  • and Abuja, Nigeria where I have spent the past week immediately following Election Day in the U.S. I have interacted with Africans from many nations, regions, tribes and allegiances during this period and clearly Africa is like a new world again, and America is its friend. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • What a difference I saw from the attitudes when I was last there six or twelve months ago: no heavy debates, but constructive dialogue about America resuming the role in leading the world in dialogue on the impact of the current financial crisis on their lives and when the impact would trickle down, which they fully expect, and share the hope that somehow Obama will be a savior. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • African Americans in The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World (2 ed. (oxfordreference.com)
  • And the sturdiest bridge between the church (a k a the West) and the world (a k a Africa) was language-"in song and speech"-which just happens to be the source and yield of Achebe's genius. (americamagazine.org)
  • A 1997 course by Katie Cannon at Temple University examines "the Black Women's Literary tradition to understand how it functions as a continuing symbolic expression and transformer of value patterns fashioned by the female members of the African American community" with a focus on ethical perspectives. (wabash.edu)
  • This report examines the issue from the points of view of ordinary black Americans, the police and social scientists. (berkeley.edu)
  • books.google.com - This work examines the experiences of African Americans under the law and how African American culture has fostered a rich tradition of legal criticism. (google.com)
  • The Juan Guerra de Resa Expedition of 1600 included African soldiers, their mulatto wives and children, and Isabel de Olvera, a mulatta woman. (nps.gov)
  • The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for those aged 65 years and older. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most celebrated of early black writers, African-born Phillis Wheatley was captured when she was about eight years old and sold to the Wheatley family in Boston as a household servant. (loc.gov)
  • It may have hidden in the ocean for millions of years, but life today poses numerous challenges for the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae), the "living fossil" fish that was famously rediscovered off the coast of South Africa in 1938. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fifteen years ago about 140,000 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) roamed the plains and forests of Africa. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Tenor saxophonist and American jazz pioneer John Coltrane lived here from 1952 until two years before his death in 1967. (nps.gov)
  • Between 1519 and 1600, 151.6 thousand Africans disembarked on the Spanish American mainland and another 187.7 thousand over the next 50 years. (nps.gov)
  • Where African-Americans took a significant step back in recent years was in household wealth, which plunged 31% during the recession, including a steep 35% decline in their retirement assets, which the Urban Institute suggests was partially due to the unemployed drawing down savings to cover living expenses. (forbes.com)
  • The colonial period, particularly during its latter years, produced the initial developments toward an African American Christianity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For 26 years, Seattle's African-American Writers' Alliance has held a reading at The Elliott Bay Book Company on the last Saturday in February. (kuow.org)
  • Commodity prices, particularly coffee, have been strong all year, although the recent declines will have a major impact on their ability to maintain GDP growth rates of 6 to 9% - which has been common in much of Africa in the past few years. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • After years of record prosperity, homeownership rates among black Americans have plunged to the lowest level in 16 years. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • And then add in the powerful belief among older, whiter, wealthier Americans that the most conspicuous victims of the economic tragedy of the last few years-minority folk and those struggling to join or stay in the middle class-are in fact the villains of the story, deserving open contempt and further punishment for their alleged irresponsibility. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • The first African settlers in the U.S. were indentured servants in Jamestown, Va., in 1619 (before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock) and freed after 7 years. (familysearch.org)
  • Indeed, as Achebe the African and Baldwin the African-American saw it, they themselves had been kept apart for those 400 years. (americamagazine.org)
  • Despite tremendous progress made over the past several years, instances of racism still continue to impact the mental health of African-Americans in a significant way. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Cultural mistrust and racism reaction among African American students. (springer.com)
  • It may surprise anyone who has been following the charges of racism that have flared up during the debate over President Obama's health care proposals, but the American public doesn't see race as the source of the strongest social conflict in the country today. (pewresearch.org)
  • Cain is actually in the mainstream amongst African-Americans on issues like abortion and even the role of racism in economic inequality," says Andra Gillespie , a political scientist at Emory University in Atlanta . (csmonitor.com)
  • they faced racism at home and death overseas in a war for many freedoms they did not enjoy in America. (berkeley.edu)
  • Certainly, although racism is still experienced, black Americans proactively use religio-cultural forms such as folk healing to construct views of life that advance their own humanity. (jhu.edu)
  • Discerning these meanings also entails tangling with layers of racism and centuries of separatism that created limited, unreal images of black Americans. (jhu.edu)
  • Such African cities as Djenné and Timbuktu, both now in Mali, were at one time major commercial and educational centres. (britannica.com)
  • African American research in Virginia can be divided into two general time periods - before and after the Civil War . (familysearch.org)
  • The number of African-American females diagnosed with HIV through heterosexual contact increased by 75% from 2,392 in 2005 to 4,189 in 2016, and there was also a 76% increase in HIV diagnoses among heterosexual black men in the same time period. (springer.com)
  • More than three and a half million African-American adults have gone online for the first time in the past year. (pewinternet.org)
  • 48% of all African-American Internet users have gone online for the first time in the past year. (pewinternet.org)
  • Beginning in the 1760s, the Baptist and Methodist movements reached out to African Americans in tangible ways, as did the Moravian Brethren at about the same time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The secret to survival for humans is in Africa if there is time. (lulu.com)
  • And Ashe accomplished all of this during a time when African Americans were still being hanged in the South, Melvin said. (aarp.org)
  • All the embassies I came in contact with stayed open all election night with food and drink and TV watching for the hundreds they invited - many stayed from 8pm (Africa time 12pmEST) until 7am or 8am when the full results were known. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In early April 1980, the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe met the Harlem-raised James Baldwin "for the first, and sadly last, time," at the annual meeting of the African Literature Association, held that year in Gainesville, Fla. Both men happened to arrive to the conference a day late, pushing back their much anticipated keynote address, a dialogue titled "Defining the African Aesthetic," from Wednesday to Friday evening. (americamagazine.org)
  • Still, time and again in Achebe's new collection of essays, The Education of a British-Protected Child , we see that nothing about the relationship between Africa and the West, with its overlapping histories of missionaries, colonizers and slave traders, has ever been simple or easy. (americamagazine.org)
  • By the time of the American Civil War a bit more than 49% of African Americans in Maryland were free. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black men enlisted as soldiers and fought in the American Revolution and the War of 1812. (loc.gov)
  • It is, therefore, not a surprise to me that African American soldiers in battle have displayed these same valiant and unwavering efforts. (military.com)
  • Made possible by AT&T, the Web site provides information for anyone interested in freedom and historical truth or in the valor of the African-American soldiers who fought during the war. (cyndislist.com)
  • List of the missing, dead and wounded Buffalo soldiers of the 10th United Stated Cavalry taken from the reports of officers following the action on San Juan Hill, Cuba during the Spanish American War. (cyndislist.com)
  • The 761st Tank Battalion, the first unit to enlist African-American soldiers to operate armored vehicles was activated on April 1, 1942, at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana and deployed to Europe, landing at Omaha Beach in France on October 10, 1944. (berkeley.edu)
  • 4. Zora Neale Hurston was an American folklorist, anthropologist, and author of four novels and over fifty short stories, plays and essays. (forbes.com)
  • She is the author of Race, Theft, and Ethics: Property Matters in African American Literature and The Cambridge Introduction to Zora Neale Hurston and is the co-editor of James Baldwin and Toni Morrison: Comparative Critical and Theoretical Essays and New Essays on the African American Novel: From Hurston and Ellison to Morrison and Whitehead . (google.com)
  • Students immerse themselves in the experiences and accomplishments of extraordinary African Americans by speaking as them in first person. (scholastic.com)