A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The status of health in rural populations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Sexual activities of humans.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The status of health in urban populations.
Size and composition of the family.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain. (1/379)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin.  (+info)

How and why public sector doctors engage in private practice in Portuguese-speaking African countries. (2/379)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the type of private practice supplementary income-generating activities of public sector doctors in the Portuguese-speaking African countries, and also to discover the motivations and the reasons why doctors have not made a complete move out of public service. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative survey. SUBJECTS: In 1996, 28 Angolan doctors, 26 from Guinea-Bissau, 11 from Mozambique and three from S Tome and Principe answered a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: All doctors, except one unemployed, were government employees. Forty-three of the 68 doctors that answered the questionnaire reported an income-generating activity other than the one reported as principal. Of all the activities mentioned, the ones of major economic importance were: public sector medical care, private medical care, commercial activities, agricultural activities and university teaching. The two outstanding reasons why they engage in their various side-activities are 'to meet the cost of living' and 'to support the extended family'. Public sector salaries are supplemented by private practice. Interviewees estimated the time a family could survive on their public sector salary at seven days (median value). The public sector salary still provides most of the interviewees income (median 55%) for the rural doctors, but has become marginal for those in the urban areas (median 10%). For the latter, private practice has become of paramount importance (median 65%). For 26 respondents, the median equivalent of one month's public sector salary could be generated by seven hours of private practice. Nevertheless, being a civil servant was important in terms of job security, and credibility as a doctor. The social contacts and public service gave access to power centres and resources, through which other coping strategies could be developed. The expectations regarding the professional future and regarding the health systems future were related mostly to health personnel issues. CONCLUSION: The variable response rate per question reflects some resistance to discuss some of the issues, particularly those related to income. Nevertheless, these studies may provide an indication of what is happening in professional medical circles in response to the inability of the public sector to sustain a credible system of health care delivery. There can be no doubt that for these doctors the notion of a doctor as a full-time civil-servant is a thing of the past. Switching between public and private is now a fact of life.  (+info)

Evaluation of a quantitative determination of CD4 and CD8 molecules as an alternative to CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in Africans. (3/379)

In the developed word, monitoring HIV-infected patients is routinely determined by CD4+ T lymphocyte absolute counts. The reference procedure, flow cytometry, is expensive, requires sophisticated instrumentation and operators with specific training. Due to these limitations, CD4 counting is often unavailable in developing countries. The Capcellia assay is an enzyme-linked immunoassay for quantitative determination of CD4 and CD8 molecules. We evaluated this method in West Africa on blood samples collected from 39 HIV-uninfected and 44 HIV-infected adult subjects. CD4 concentration ranges were determined according to the clinical stages of the disease. We then studied the relationship between the two methods in the HIV-infected patients. The Spearman's rank correlation was 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.76, P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, determination of limits of agreement revealed discrepancies between the two methods, especially for CD4 counts > 0.4 x 10(9)/l, which are discussed. We conclude that the Capcellia assay is a convenient means to determine the immunodepression level where flow cytometric instrumentation is unavailable, and can be complementary to CD4 T lymphocyte enumeration.  (+info)

Partial sweeping of variation at the Fbp2 locus in a west African population of Drosophila melanogaster. (4/379)

Departure of molecular variation from neutral equilibrium was studied in a highly recombining region of the Drosophila genome. A 2.2-kb region including the Fbp2 locus was sequenced for 10 chromosomes from a D. melanogaster sample from West Africa and for the related species D. simulans. Of the 33 variable sites present in the 1.3-kb transcription unit, 32 made up a single haplotype present in half of the D. melanogaster sample. This pattern significantly departed from predictions of the neutral drift-mutation equilibrium model. The major haplotype presented a diagnostic restriction site which was investigated in 226 chromosomes from three distant European and African populations. It was found at a high frequency (31%) in the population from which the sequenced sample originated, but was nearly absent from the other two (below 4%), suggesting that the major haplotype frequency resulted from a local selective sweep event. Partial sweeping of variation in regions of high recombination rates has previously been found for American and European populations of D. melanogaster. Our study shows that this phenomenon also occurs in African populations, which are in the ancestral range of this species.  (+info)

Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application. (5/379)

Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies.  (+info)

Sequence diversity of TT virus in geographically dispersed human populations. (6/379)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered DNA virus originally classified as a member of the Parvoviridae. TTV is transmitted by blood transfusion where it has been reported to be associated with mild post-transfusion hepatitis. TTV can cause persistent infection, and is widely distributed geographically; we recently reported extremely high prevalences of viraemia in individuals living in tropical countries (e.g. 74% in Papua New Guinea, 83% in Gambia; Prescott & Simmonds, New England Journal of Medicine 339, 776, 1998). In the current study we have compared nucleotide sequences from the N22 region of TTV (222 bases) detected in eight widely dispersed human populations. Some variants of TTV, previously classified as genotypes 1a, 1b and 2, were widely distributed throughout the world, while others, such as a novel subtype of type 1 in Papua New Guinea, were confined to a single geographical area. Five of the 122 sequences obtained in this study (from Gambia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Brazil and Ecuador) could not be classified as types 1, 2 or 3, with the variant from Brazil displaying only 46-50% nucleotide (32-35% amino acid) sequence similarity to other variants. This study provides an indication of the extreme sequence diversity of TTV, a characteristic which is untypical of parvoviruses.  (+info)

Effect of strategic gastrointestinal nematode control on faecal egg count in traditional West African cattle. (7/379)

This paper reports on the effect of strategic anthelmintic treatments and other determinants on faecal egg counts (FEC) of Trichostrongyles in N'Dama cattle of a west African village. Initially, 527 animals from 13 private N'Dama cattle herds were monitored in a longitudinal study from October 1989 to December 1994. Each herd was stratified by age and animals were sequentially allocated to two groups with similar age distributions. One group received a single anthelmintic treatment of fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg BW), in October 1989 (n = 250), whereas the other group remained untreated (n = 277) throughout the study. In the next rainy season (June to October), the treated animals were treated twice (in July and September). The same treatment schedule was used in the subsequent rainy seasons until December 1994. Biannual anthelmintic treatments decreased the level of FEC between 31% (late dry season) and 57% (rainy season), when compared to untreated controls. The highest levels of FEC were found during the rainy season from June to October. FEC levels decreased until 4 years of age, after which they remained on a constant low level. The variability of returns to anthelmintic treatments between herds did not seem to be influenced by FEC at the herd level. The financial evaluation of anthelmintic interventions cannot be predicted from FEC and must necessarily rely on the direct monitoring of livestock productivity parameters.  (+info)

Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa.(8/379)

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Western Africa - Western Africa - Colonial rule: In fact, of course, the very existence of colonial rule meant that the fabric of African societies was exposed to alien forces of change of an intensity and on a scale unparalleled in the previous history of western Africa. Hitherto remote territories like Niger and Mauritania, where there had been very little change since the introduction of Islam, were from about 1900 suddenly caught up in the same tide of aggressive material changes that had for some time been affecting the coastal societies in Senegal or in the southern Gold Coast and Nigeria. From the African point of view, there
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Brooks, George E. - Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781452088716
UCSF researchers have been actively involved with capacity building and technical assistance for HIV care and prevention in Western Africa. Prevention and Public Health Group (PPHG) (formerly the Institute for Global Health) supports PEPFAR implementation in Nigeria, among other countries.The International Teaching and Education Center for Heath (I-TECH) is involved with the development of electronic laboratory information systems for 3 central laboratories, and rapid scale-up for HIV care and treatment services in Cote dIvoire.. UCSF researchers also work on malaria in the region, exploring malaria drug resistance and supporting countries in their malaria elimination efforts. The Proctor Foundation addresses trachoma in The Gambia and Niger. ...
GENEVA, 22 May 2019-The West Africa Commission on Drugs, UNAIDS and the Global Commission on Drug Policy today presented the Model Drug Law for West Africa to ministers of health of the Economic Community of West African States.. Drug laws in western Africa are not having the intended effect. Neither drug use nor drug trafficking have been effectively reduced. Drug trafficking in western Africa has reached such an extent that the drug trade threatens stability in the region. Data from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime from 2014 show that the use of cannabis in western Africa is much higher than globally―12.4% of people in the region had used cannabis in 2014, whereas only 3.9% of the global population had done so―and the problematic use of prescription and synthetic drugs is increasing. The rise in prison populations owing to pre-trial detention and drug-related offences has led to serious prison overcrowding in most countries.. People who use drugs need help and care, not ...
This book tells the story of the much overlooked experience of first and second generation West African immigrants and refugees in the United States during the last forty years. Interrogating the ... More. This book tells the story of the much overlooked experience of first and second generation West African immigrants and refugees in the United States during the last forty years. Interrogating the complex role of post-colonialism in the recent history of black America, the book highlights the intricate patterns of emigrant work and family adaptation, the evolving global ties with Africa and Europe, and the translocal connections among the West African enclaves in the United States. The book explores issues of cultural identity formation and socioeconomic incorporation among this new West African diaspora. Bringing the experiences of those of recent African ancestry from the periphery to the center of current debates in the fields of immigration, ethnic, and African American studies, the book ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the spread of Ebola in West Africa an international health emergency.WHO officials said a coordinated international response was essential to stop and reverse the spread of the virus.The announcement came after experts convened a two-day emergency meeting in Switzerland.So far more than 930 people have died from Ebola in West Africa this year.The United Nations health agency said the outbreak was an extraordinary event.The possible consequences of further international spread are particularly serious in view of the virulence of the virus, the intensive community and health facility transmission patterns, and the weak health systems in the currently affected and most at-risk countries, it said in a statement.TAG:WHO: Ebola an international emergencyEbola outbreak in West Africa global emergency - CNN.comWHO declares Ebola outbreak an international public health ..WHO declares Ebola epidemic a global emergency - YahoWHO: Ebola an international ...
The idea of developing an action plan for the conservation of West African small cetaceans and manatees was launched at the workshop on
south africa phosphate companies grinding mill equipment. south africa phosphate companies ca mining offers the latest mining jobs in western africa we are recruitment specialist in western africa and offer mining jobs in ...
FAOs DRM programme in West Africa and the Sahel seeks to protect, reinforce and restore the livelihoods and food security of the most vulnerable populations affected by slow or sudden onset crises
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING CONCERNING THE CONSERVATION OF THE MANATEE AND SMALL CETACEANS OF WESTERN AFRICA AND MACARONESIA Among the States of western Africa and Macaronesia: The undersigned, Acknowledging the role of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) in the conservation and management of aquatic mammals;
So is there anything I am worried about? And why do I think the outbreak in western Africa is so big and has been going on for so long? Im worried that citizens in the U.S. would never be as forthcoming about turning themselves in for isolation as the people in northern Uganda were. And I think this is the crux of the problem in western Africa today.. Remember I said the path to isolation starts when a person presents to the isolation ward? Well, that step is essential. The reason Im not worried about the two people being treated for Ebola virus in the United States right now is that they are in a hospital being cared for by experts. Not only does it increase their chance of fighting the disease-because they will get the best support possible-but it decreases the chances of anyone they love getting the disease.. These two did the right thing. When they thought they had Ebola they followed the normal procedures and went into isolation. At Lacor Hospital, I saw the same thing. People there ...
SEVILLE, Spain, Nov. 19, 2012 /PR Newswire/ --  Abengoa, the international company that applies innovative technology solutions for sustainable ...
In collaboration with the Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the US National Institutes of Health, six IeDEA regions working in low- and middle-income countries have created training opportunities for participants of FIC D43 HIV research and training programs, as well as for IeDEA regional investigators.. The FIMP is designed to help trainees develop skills in study design, data management, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of research involving large HIV clinical databases generated within IeDEA. As part of the FIMP, mentees will have access to IeDEA regional data for analyses that are conducted under the supervision of their respective IeDEA regions.. ...
Agriculture research and development (R&D) in West Africa was in a bleak state in 2008.. Several analyses at the time concluded that majority of PhD-qualified researchers were due to retire by 2025 creating a void in the quest for innovative solutions to tackle pressing and emerging challenges facing agricultural development.. Against the growing threat of climate change, weather fluctuations, soil degradation, population growth, gender disparities, youth unemployment, etc. West African countries recommitted to invest in the training a new generation of agriculture scientists to take on these challenges.. With a loan from the World Bank and the support of CORAF, about 13 West African countries involved in the West Africa Agriculture Productivity Program funded post-graduate studies for young researchers.. Overall, about 1000 young scientists including about 30 percent women received scholarships to pursue master degrees and Ph.Ds. in priority areas. The Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Virus: This clone belongs to a unique set of HIV-2 biological clones from West African immigrants in The Netherlands. Clones were obtained from patients with non-progressive, aviremic or progressive, viremic HIV-2 infection. The HIV-2 biological clones were isolated after limiting dilution co-culture of patient PBMC or plasma with CD8-depleted PBMC from healthy blood bank
The Ebola River runs through the Democratic Republic of the Congo and it was in that region in the mid 70s that a new virus was discovered. Since then, six distinct varieties of the virus have been isolated with Ebola Zaire making the news recently for its rise in western Africa. It belongs to the…
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
SES-4 will be a hybrid satellite featuring high powered C-band coverage and incremental global capacity which is ideal for video distribution, government and VSAT services. The satellites Ku-band payload will provide enhanced coverage and capacity across Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Western Africa and Latin America. SES-4 will bring a substantial increase in the total capacity available at 338 degrees east.. The state-of-the-art spacecraft has been specifically designed for its orbital location, with C-band beams serving the eastern hemisphere of Europe/Africa, full Americas coverage as well as a global beam to support mobile and maritime customers.. Four high powered regional Ku-band beams will provide service to Europe, the Middle East, West Africa, North America and South America with extensive cross-strapping between C- and Ku-band transponders providing enhanced connectivity.. SES-4 sports a total of 52 C-band and 72 Ku-band transponders and has an anticipated service life of 15 ...
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of
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The Authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government on Saturday adopted ECO as the name of the single currency to be issued in January 2020.
This humble little building in a back alley of Tangier is the final resting place of the greatest traveler in history.. Ibn Battuta was born in Tangier in 1304. In 1325 he left to go on the Hajj and ended up visiting not only Mecca, but crisscrossing much of the Middle East and sailing far down the east coast of Africa. Then he headed east, passing through central and Southern Asia and making it as far as Beijing before coming back and taking a jaunt through much of western Africa.. While Im not too keen on citing Wikipedia as a source, it does have some detailed maps of Ibn Battutas journeys. In all, he traveled an estimated 75,000 miles, three times as much as Marco Polo, but is far less known in the West because Marco Polo was European and Ibn Battuta was Arab. So it goes.. Reading his accounts shows you that travel hasnt really changed all that much: loneliness, illness, hospitality and fascinating sights were the hallmarks of adventure travel then as they are now. He had only made it as ...
Public health measures in the developed world have dramatically reduced mortality from viral epidemics. But when epidemics do occur, they can spread quickly with global air travel. In 2009, an outbreak of H1N1 influenza spread across various continents. In early 2014, cases of Ebola in Guinea led to a massive epidemic in western Africa. This included the case of an infected man who traveled to the United States, sparking fears the epidemic might spread beyond Africa.. Until the late 1930s and the advent of the electron microscope, no one had seen a virus. Yet treatments for preventing or curing viral infections were used and developed long before that. Historical records suggest that by the 17th century, and perhaps earlier, inoculation (also known as variolation) was being used to prevent the viral disease smallpox in various parts of the world. By the late 18th century, Englishman Edward Jenner was inoculating patients with cowpox to prevent smallpox, a technique he coined ...
In recent years, patriotism has increased amongst the nations of Johnny Foreigner, spreading throughout the peoples of Middle East, Asia, Africa and South America like a wild fire. Patriotism in foreigners is called nationalism, and is a virulent and terrible thing, as nobody is allowed to be proud of their own country but us.. Outbreaks of Patriotism were seen in several Central and South American states during the 18th and 19th centuries, along with other gifts from their European Colonial benefactors such as clothes, cholera and smallpox. However, patriotism became pandemic in many places such as Peru, Bolivia and Cuba during the 20th century.. An unusual strain of patriotism was discovered throughout the Middle East in the latter half of the 20th century. Known as the Anti-American Strain (Imperius Wankiyank) the virus spread from the Cashmir in the East through to Western Africa. Causing intense heat to the temple, forcing victims to wear tight towels, the virus literally exploded in ...
Talk radio host Michael Savage pointed out the absurdity of sending 4,000 U.S. troops into those western Africa countries in which thousands are dying, supposedly from Ebola. Of course some of those soldiers will get infected and possibly spread the virus here in the U.S. when they return. But while thousands are dying supposedly of Ebola in Africa, hundreds of thousands there are dying of malaria, and hundreds of thousands of people are dying each year of seasonal flu, both facts according to this Guardian article.. But the denial in the clueless MSM that Obama and his minions would possibly intentionally try to cause harm to Americans was expressed by Jake Tapper of CNN, in which heresponded to Michael Savages remarks by stating, Its hard to even know where to start with that one - the idea that the president wants to infect soldiers and then Americans. Its so unhinged, we should probably not bother dignifying it with fact-checking.. No, God forbid news reporters would ever check facts, ...
Beautiful and shy, African golden cats are medium-sized wild cats found in the forests of central and western Africa. Continue reading to know about the physical characteristics, the habitat, the diet, and the life span of these fascinating cats.
Kindomihou Valentin, Ambouta Karimou Jean Marie, Sinsin Brice: Diversity of Soil Fertility Management Practices in the Sudanian Zone of Benin (Western Africa)
Birds, birding and bird watching visiting in Cape Verde Islands Birding tours Birdfinders, Birdquest and Rockjumper organise tours to the Cape Verde Islands. Guides There are no birding guides known in the Cape Verde Islands. Trip reports The following are quotes from birders who have visited Cape Verde. The Birds of the Cape Verde Islands by Cornelis J. Hazevoet is an
10.2760/797541 (online) - This report is part of the JRC Climate Change Induced Migration (CLICIM) project. CLICIM aims at the provision of evidence on the nexus between climate change and population dynamics in Africa. In this report, we analyse the relationship between climate change, population and migration in a selected territory within the Sahel - an already documented case of climate related migration. We base the analysis on the recent JRC net migration estimates at high geographical detail, produced in the context of the CLICIM project. Our contribution is twofold. Firstly, the report provides a mapping of the population exposure to climate change in the selected territory over the period 1975-2015. In particular, it identifies the geographical distribution of populations affected by droughts and how their demographic dynamics have changed over time. Second, the report develops a modelling exercise to investigate the climate change-migration nexus. Results from the model confirm a significant
Both WHO and some national public health agencies such as the CDC monitor and prepare for emerging infectious diseases. An emerging infectious disease is either new to the human population or has shown an increase in prevalence in the previous twenty years. Whether the disease is new or conditions have changed to cause an increase in frequency, its status as emerging implies the need to apply resources to understand and control its growing impact.. Emerging diseases may change their frequency gradually over time, or they may experience sudden epidemic growth. The importance of vigilance was made clear during the Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic in western Africa through 2014-2015. Although health experts had been aware of the Ebola virus since the 1970s, an outbreak on such a large scale had never happened before (Figure 12.14). Previous human epidemics had been small, isolated, and contained. Indeed, the gorilla and chimpanzee populations of western Africa had suffered far worse from Ebola than ...
Chocolate, which you probably know, comes from the cacao bean. Most of the cacao farms are over in Western Africa, Asia and Latin America. Hersheys, Mars, and Nestle are some of the worlds largest cacao (also known as cocoa) purchasers from these countries, mostly in Western Africa. The chocolate industry, especially this time of year, has a high demand on CHEAP chocolate in massive quantities. On average, cacao farmers earn way below the poverty line of $2 a day; and if that wasnt bad enough, because they need cheap cacao quickly in large quantities, they have resorted to using child labor. Often times, these children are sold to these large farms by their family members with a promise of high pay and good living conditions. Little do they know that they are working for basically pennies, eating things like corn paste, rarely get any water, and may never see their families again. But other times, these children are literally abducted from their villages without parental consent, often seeing ...
Digital Photography Review: All the latest digital camera reviews and digital imaging news. Lively discussion forums. Vast samples galleries and the largest database of digital camera specifications.
Abstract The research project on the epidemiology and control of malaria conducted in the Garki District, Kano State, jointly by the Government of Nigeria and the World Health Organization included among its objectives the study of the baseline epidemiology prior to the introduction of any control measures. The present paper analyzes the project's data with respect to the relationships among the three species of Plasmodium present, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. Parasitemia with P. falciparum or P. malariae is more likely in the presence than in the absence of the other species. Among persons positive for P. falciparum, those with a higher density of parasitemia are more likely to have P. malariae also than those with a lower density of P. falciparum parasitemia. There is a pronounced seasonal alternation in prevalence between P. falciparum and P. malariae.
The report, in placing Cape Verde in 2050 as one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with the aggravating factor of coming in sixth position in the ranking of countries on the continent with the highest percentage of urban population, is expected to put the governing class on red alert regarding policies and measures to be undertaken in the coming decades.. The situation calls for planning strategies and the responsible use of land (which is an extremely scarce resource in Cape Verde), as well as measures in the areas of health, education and the encouragement of rural activities as a way of maintaining current rural populations in place and attracting new inhabitants to the countryside.. Such measures will be necessary to keep Cape Verde from having highly disorganized cities featuring a young population devoid of direction and perspectives. The programs and measures to be developed will have to be elaborated for the long term, and will require a great deal of funding and ...
The West African Students Union (WASU), founded in London in 1925 and active into the 1960s, was an association of students from various West African countries who were studying in the United Kingdom. WASU was founded on 7 August 1925 by twenty-one law students, led by Ladipo Solanke and Herbert Bankole-Bright. Solanke had founded the Nigerian Progress Union (NPU), for London-based students with a Nigerian background, the previous year. With the support of Amy Ashwood Garvey, it had begun to campaign for improved welfare for all African students in London, and for assorted measures for progress in Britains African colonies. As early as 1923, Solanke had proposed that the Union of Students of African Descent (USAD), a Christian social organisation dominated by students from the West Indies (and which had grown out of the earlier West African and West Indian Christian Union, founded in 1917), should incorporate itself into the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA). In 1925, ...
Cape Verde Country Risk Report 2017 Cape Verde Country Risk Report 2017 Core Views Economic activity in Cape Verde will accelerate over the comingquarters as the country - Market research report and industry analysis - 11170827
Cabo Verde, also called Cape Verde, a country comprising a group of islands, lit 385 miles off Africas west coast. Cabo Verde is named for the westernmost cape of Africa, in French is Cap-Vert. Cape Verde is nearby Senegal
Russian authorities have charged nine West African immigrants with allegedly stealing 900 million rubles ($28.8 million) from hundreds of foreign companies.
Africa is one of the endemic regions of HBV infection. In particular, genotype E is highly endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa such as West African countries where it represents more than 90% of total infections. Madagascar, which is classified as a high endemic area for HBV and where the most prevalent genotype is E, might play a relevant role in the dispersion of this genotype due to its crucial position in the Indian Ocean. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin, population dynamics, and circulation of HBV-E genotype in Madagascar through high-resolution phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Malagasy isolates were intermixed and closely related with sequences mostly from West African countries. The Bayesian tree highlighted three statistically supported clusters of Malagasy strains which dated back to the years 1981 (95% HPD: 1971-1992), 1986 (95% HPD: 1974-1996), and 1989 (95% HPD: 1974-2001). Population dynamics analysis showed an exponential
This summer, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa a global emergency. As a result, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) issued travel advisories for certain Central and West African countries. Please click here for the latest updates from PHAC.. McGill University is following the PHACs recommendation for students, faculty and staff considering travel to these countries. Those who are planning to visit these regions should consult at the pre-travel clinic at the J.D. MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases in the Montreal General Hospital of the MUHC.. The Ebola virus disease has no vaccine or specific cure and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, no transmission of the virus has occurred outside of Central or West Africa and no Ebola cases have been reported in Canada.. The Ebola virus is transmitted only through close contact with a sick person (or animal), via blood and other body fluids, and through contaminated objects, such as ...
ROLL OF EMIGRANTS THAT HAVE BEEN SENT TO THE COLONY OF LIBERIA, WESTERN AFRICA, BY THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY AND ITS AUXILIARIES, TO
ROLL OF EMIGRANTS THAT HAVE BEEN SENT TO THE COLONY OF LIBERIA, WESTERN AFRICA, BY THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY AND ITS AUXILIARIES, TO
Background: The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in Western Africa is the largest in recorded history and control efforts have so far failed to stem the rapid growth in the number of infections. Mathematical models serve a key role in estimating epidemic growth rates and the reproduction number (R0) from surveillance data and, recently, molecular sequence data. Phylodynamic analysis of existing EBOV time-stamped sequence data may provide independent estimates of the unobserved number of infections, reveal recent epidemiological history, and provide insight into selective pressures acting upon viral genes.. Methods: We fit a series mathematical models of infectious disease dynamics to phylogenies estimated from 78 whole EBOV genomes collected from distinct patients in May and June of 2014 in Sierra Leone, and perform evolutionary analysis on these genomes combined with closely related EBOV genomes from previous outbreaks. Two analyses are conducted with values of the latent period that have been used ...
FREETOWN (AFP) - A woman in Sierra Leone has died from the Ebola virus, a health ministry official announced on Wednesday, the second person in the west African country to succumb to the haemorrhagic fever.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
The West African Sahel region is a corner of the world that Steven Maranz, PhD, knows well.. He spent part of his childhood there and worked with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in the region. Maranz is currently a visiting scientist with the David H. Murdock Research Institute, a provider of collaborative and contract research services located on the NC Research Campus in Kannapolis.. His appreciation for the culture in Western Africa as well as a concern for the debilitating health issues plaguing the region led him to research the potential of a microbial approach to issues of malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. An idea that is moving from concept to reality thanks to the support of a Bill and Melinda Gates Challenge grant.. He is researching microbes that can be added to foods to produce the carotenoids the human body needs to make vitamin A. When carotenoids are consumed in foods like carrots, sweet potato, squash and cantaloupe, the body is able to ...
Book Surfactivity Guest House, Cape Verde on TripAdvisor: See 35 traveller reviews, 58 candid photos, and great deals for Surfactivity Guest House, ranked #1 of 13 B&Bs / inns in Cape Verde and rated 5 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Free Essay: Essay #2 The islands of Cape Verde were exposed and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century. Cape Verde later became a trading center for...
Improved water source; urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde was last measured at 91.20 in 2012, according to the World Bank. Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Improved water source - urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde.
Cape Verde Imports from United Kingdom of Beverages, spirits and vinegar was US$99.58 Thousand during 2019, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. Cape Verde Imports from United Kingdom of Beverages, spirits and vinegar - data, historical chart and statistics - was last updated on October of 2020.
Silver Ore Jaw Crusher Supplier Cape Verde. Rock crushers and separators cape verde cec 102x115 impact crusher with only 450 original hours closed circuit option available call 8886803433 for more info sell your rock crusher for free supplier of cone and jaw crushers screens manganese liners and spare parts for all machines crushing mining equipment cme was established in perth in.. Read More ...
HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for |50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of
Coastal erosion is threatening homes and livelihoods in Togo. Photo by: Eric Kaglan, World Bank Togolese families often place talismans, thought to contain magical or spiritual properties, outside their homes facing the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of protecting their dwellings from encroaching tides. Unfortunately, dozens of villages have been devoured since ...
"To me there's no such thing as a black woman in Ghana; I am a woman in Ghana. We are all black," said American Lakeshia Ford.
These seeds are ready for the press. The fruit itself is turned into Palm oil, while the nut is used for Kernel oil. This is the local variety grown by smallholders. (Copyright Jan-Joseph Stok / Greenpeace). A perfect illustration of this false dilemma is Herakles Farms rhetoric in relation to their latest project in Cameroon. Clearing of forest has recently begun; but this forest is important because it provides a key corridor between five protected areas including the iconic Korup National Park. This concession sits within the Guinean forested region of western Africa, which has been identified as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hotspots on earth, and is roughly 10 times the size of Manhattan, the island that is home to the headquarters of Herakles Farms.. The forests of Cameroon store huge amounts of carbon, critical to maintaining the global climate and preventing huge emissions of CO2, but they are also essential for local communities. These forests provide a home and income ...
These seeds are ready for the press. The fruit itself is turned into Palm oil, while the nut is used for Kernel oil. This is the local variety grown by smallholders. (Copyright Jan-Joseph Stok / Greenpeace). A perfect illustration of this false dilemma is Herakles Farms rhetoric in relation to their latest project in Cameroon. Clearing of forest has recently begun; but this forest is important because it provides a key corridor between five protected areas including the iconic Korup National Park. This concession sits within the Guinean forested region of western Africa, which has been identified as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hotspots on earth, and is roughly 10 times the size of Manhattan, the island that is home to the headquarters of Herakles Farms.. The forests of Cameroon store huge amounts of carbon, critical to maintaining the global climate and preventing huge emissions of CO2, but they are also essential for local communities. These forests provide a home and income ...
Bafing River, river in western Africa, rising in the Fouta Djallon massif of Guinea and flowing generally northeast for about 200 miles (320 km). After passing the town of Bafing Makana in Mali, its only important riparian settlement, it curves around to flow approximately north-northwest, to form
What Is African Mango? Losing weight is a challenge for most people,but fortunately, African mango can make this process a little simpler. African mango, which is also known as Irvingia gabonesis, is a fruit that is native to the rainforests in Western Africa. Today, the extract from African mango is frequently used as a supplement. What Are Some of the Benefits of Using African Mango? Weight loss is one of the main benefits that can be reaped from using African mango. Researchers have...
The Gambia is an English speaking country in Western Africa surrounded on all sides (but the coast) by Senegal. The Gambia makes up the coastline of The Gambia River.
Genetic studies have revealed that most African Americans trace the majority (75-80%, on average) of their ancestry to western Africa. Most of the remaining ancestry traces to Europe, and paternal lines trace to Europe more often than maternal lines. This genetic pattern is consistent with the One Drop Rule, a social history wherein children born with at least one ancestor of African descent were considered Black in the United States. The question of how many European Americans have DNA evidence of African ancestry has been studied far less. We examined genetic ancestry for over 77,000 customers of 23andMe who had consented to participate in research. Most live in the United States. A subset of about 60,000 shows genetic evidence of fewer than one in 16 great-great-grandparents tracing ancestry to a continental region other than Europe. They are likely to consider themselves to be entirely of European descent. We conducted two analyses to understand what fraction of this group has genetic ...
I argue that the same two arguments should then also be applied to other local health care workers who are on the forefront of treating patients with Ebola in Western Africa. WHO report states that more than 240 health workers got infected and more than120 health care workers; mainly local doctors and nurses have died due to Ebola while carrying out their duties during this outbreak (2). Being locals, they were a resource, knowing the communities, understanding the grass root reality, speaking the local language and hence crucial to provide care to the patients. Many African countries already face major shortage of trained health care professionals (3). Death of these health care workers has further weakened the health care delivery system. If American health care professionals received the experimental drug for supererogatory reasons, the local health care workers also qualify for the same unless supererogatory reasons require traveling to a foreign country to provide health care in dangerous ...
In 2009, malaria, a disease transmitted by the bite of an infective Anopheles mosquito, caused an estimated 225 million clinical cases and 781,000 deaths worldwide, of which more than 90% occurred in children aged ,5 years in Africa. Approximately half of the worlds population, or 3 billion persons, are at risk for acquiring the illness. Malaria is transmitted most intensely in central and western Africa, where in some areas ,40% of children aged ,10 years are infected and residents can be bitten by more than one infective mosquito every day of the year.. ...
Biafra is a portion of eastern and southern Nigeria that many will rather call their own separate country. The Biafra Manifesto is a seminal dissemination of this potential conflict in Nigeria, at the tip of Western Africa, that could kill a million people and displace millions more. Biafra is a beautiful dream to some, an imperative hope to some and an ugly, hopeless rhetoric to some. In a world where global and conscious reaction to conflict rises post scriptum The Biafra Manifesto raises a cry for the world to stop and look before the storm, not after; as it did in Rwanda in 1994. There is now only one power on earth that can stop the movement of Biafra from escalating to the next devastating carnage in Africa. The Biafra Manifesto clearly identifies what that power is - and how best to use it, before it is too late ...
As a security actor, Nigeria provides a contrasting picture. While the country has asserted its role as a major security player in western Africa and on the African continent, where it has taken part in numerous peace operations; at home, its security forces have had difficulty tackling multiple internal security threats, including terrorism, sectarian conflicts and local insurgencies.
A total of 752 individuals from The Gambia, west Africa who are representative of the major ethnic groups in the capital, Banjul, were serologically typed for HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens. Although all were typically African in their antigenic profiles, some marked frequency differences were found between the ethnic groups. Genetic distance comparisons with several other African populations showed that, although these west African populations clustered closely together, the positions of the various ethnic groups in The Gambia were consistent with historical and linguistic evidence of their affinities with one another and with other African populations. Despite the potential confounding effects both of selection by infectious diseases and of genetic drift caused by local differences in population structure, HLA frequencies appear to be of value in measuring inter- and intraregional population affinities in sub-Saharan Africa.
A total of 752 individuals from The Gambia, west Africa who are representative of the major ethnic groups in the capital, Banjul, were serologically typed for HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens. Although all were typically African in their antigenic profiles, some marked frequency differences were found between the ethnic groups. Genetic distance comparisons with several other African populations showed that, although these west African populations clustered closely together, the positions of the various ethnic groups in The Gambia were consistent with historical and linguistic evidence of their affinities with one another and with other African populations. Despite the potential confounding effects both of selection by infectious diseases and of genetic drift caused by local differences in population structure, HLA frequencies appear to be of value in measuring inter- and intraregional population affinities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Western Australia; China (reconstituted in Taipei); India; Japan; Tahiti (Regular); Gabon; Ivory Coast; Madagascar (National); ... Mauritius; Morocco (Regular); South Africa; Togo (National) Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil (Grande Oriente); Brazil (Bahia); Brazil ...
"Dr Tunji Olaopa, OON - Africa Institute of Public Policy". www.aipp.edu.ng. Obaebor, Oghenefego (31 May 2018). "Undergraduates ... Tometi, Tokunbo (January 25, 2016). "Ibadan School of Government and Public Policy (ISGPP) And the Reform Business". Western ... Ogbodo, Dele (20 August 2015). "Nigeria: Buhari Confers National Productivity Award On Olaopa, 10 Others". All Africa. ... was honoured with the Thabo Mbeki Award for Public Service and Scholarship in early 2018 at the closing ceremony of the Africa ...
The teams are all in Confederation of African Football's (CAF) Zone 2, i.e. Western Africa. In some years, when a team withdrew ... The Amílcar Cabral Cup was an international association football tournament for Western African nations. The competition ...
"Western Africa". Britannica Academic. Whitcomb, Thomas (1975). "New Evidence on the Origins of the Kunta -- II". Bulletin of ... They also have had great influence in the northern and western Africa. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Kunta ... One group went into the west while the second group moved to the Central Western Sahara and the South Western Sahara. The Kunta ... Hall, S. Bruce (2011-06-06). A History Of Race In Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960. African Studies. ISBN 978-1107002876. Robison ...
"A model of good health" (PDF). This Is Africa. "Global acclaim as Kwara wins OECD health innovation prize in Paris". Western ... In Africa, for the great majority of the population, adults and children, treatment was not available and many of the HIV/AIDS ... Sub-Saharan Africa has a shortage of institutions and standards that can ensure objective measurement of quality. SafeCare is a ... In order to enable the private companies in sub-Saharan Africa to grow and deliver the necessary services, a private investment ...
... western Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-17. Hughes, R. H. (1992). A Directory of African Wetlands. IUCN. ... ISBN 978-2-88032-949-5. Hughes, R. H. (1992). A Directory of African Wetlands. IUCN. p. 374, 376. ISBN 9782880329495. Retrieved ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Irrigation Development Programme - Phase I" (PDF). African Development Bank Group. B. ... Koenig, Dolores; Diarra, Tiéman; Sow, Moussa (1998). Innovation and Individuality in African Development: Changing Production ...
GlenBridge is a member of Autism South Africa, an organisation which aims to improve the lives of people with autism. The ... The school was intended for severely handicapped children and it became part of the Western Cape Education Department in 1981 ... GlenBridge Special School and Resource Centre is an English medium Grade 1 - 12 public school in Cape Town, South Africa that ... "Group members". Autism South Africa. Retrieved 24 August 2014. About Us, GlenBridge Special School. Retrieved 24 August 2014 ...
"Katsina Ala River , river, western Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-02-09. v t e v t e. ...
Website, USIU-Africa. "History of USIU-Africa". USIU-Africa Website. Retrieved 2020-08-08. "Willam Rust and the early troubles ... Ross, Bob (Summer 2014). "A Look Back at California Western's Remarkable Journey". Cal Western School of Law. Retrieved 27 ... California Western School of Law kept its separate name and identity and remained on the Point Loma campus until 1973, when it ... "Cal Western University Player". calwesternfootball.com. Retrieved 2020-08-08. Zimmerman, Paul. "Best of Dr. Z: 1991 Sid Gillman ...
"Africa: 100 Millionth Person Receives Lifesaving Meningitis Vaccine". All Africa. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013. ... "APHIAplus-Western Kenya". USAID Kenya website. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013. " ... PATH works in Africa, Asia, and other regions to slow the spread of HIV/AIDS and provide support for people affected by the ... In South Africa, PATH leads a five-year project to improve the health and development of 750,000 pregnant women and children by ...
The South African. "BP Visitors' Choice Award 2013". National Portrait Gallery. "2013 Cultural Awards Winners". Western Cape ... Lionel Smit (born 22 October 1982, Pretoria, South Africa) is a South African artist, known for his contemporary portraiture ... Born in 1982 in Pretoria, South Africa, Smit was exposed to sculpture through his father Anton Smit, who worked from his studio ... Lionel Smit has also enjoyed success in his home country of South Africa, where his work has featured in local publications ...
White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 0.7% Other Mixed), 6.3% Black (3.8% African, 1.5% Caribbean, 1.0% Other Black), ... Turner, Robin (7 March 2013). "So Where's the Main Threat to the Welsh Bid to Be City of Culture?". Western Mail. Archived from ... New Africa Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-9987160211. "A History of Leicester". Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved ... New Africa Press. ISBN 978-9987160211. Williamson, David (1998). The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens ...
"Former Archbishop Dead". Western Daily Press. 28 June 1938. p. 5 col B. Retrieved 2014-09-19 - via British Newspaper Archive. ... Phelps and his family emigrated to South Africa in 1909, he was successively warden of St Peter's Home in Grahamstown and ... Botha 2006, p. 198-. "New Primate Of South Africa Dr. Phelps Elected". The Times. London. December 19, 1930. "ARCHBISHOP OF ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Botha, Cynthia (2006). "Southern Africa". In Hefling, Charles; Shattuck, Cynthia (eds ...
Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 41 Segal, Ronald. Political Africa. Lond: Stevens, 1961. p. ... Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 52 Hodgkin, Thomas. African Political Parties. Harmondsworth: ... UFG was during its entire existence a rival of the African Democratic Rally (RDA). Diallo supported French colonial rule in ...
"Africa :: Cabo Verde - The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. "Kingdoms of Africa - Central Africa". ... "Western Sahara profile". 14 May 2018 - via www.bbc.co.uk. "Central America :: Saint Lucia - The World Factbook - Central ... The Central African Empire was declared on 4 December 1976. The Central African Republic was restored on 20 September 1979. ... "Africa :: Sao Tome and Principe - The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. "Africa :: Seychelles - The ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Borrow, Nik; Demey, Ron (2001). Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. p. 615. ISBN 0- ... is a species of chat in the family Muscicapidae which occurs in rocky habitats in much of western Sub-Saharan Africa. There are ... northern Ivory Coast and eastern Burkina Faso east patchily to western South Sudan It is sometimes considered a subspecies of ...
Birds of Western Africa. Part II. The Naturalist's Library. Volume 12. London: Henry G. Bohn. p. 74. Jobling, J.A. (2018). del ... It is the only West African swallow with a wing patch. Wingspans average 99 cm (39 in). The pied-winged's call is a short "chut ... It is native to parts of West Africa. The pied-winged swallow was described by the English ornithologist William Swainson in ... They have been recorded as vagrants in western Cameroon. Breeding takes place beginning in April or May and runs through June. ...
Retrieved 2018-09-30.old-form url Borrow N, Demey R (2004). Birds of Western Africa. New Jersey (USA): Princetown University ... However ranges barely overlap between those three species: Crimson seedcrackers live in Western African countries but north to ... Western and Southern Cameroon, Central African Republic, SW Chad, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, ... "Longevity summary from 69 years of Estrildidae ringing data in southern Africa". African Zoology. 53 (1): 41-46. doi:10.1080/ ...
Public collections: Iziko South African National Gallery, University of Cape Town, University of Western Cape; Western Cape ... Work from the Western Cape, South African National Gallery, Cape Town. 1991: C Till et al., Cape Town Triennial, Rembrandt van ... South Africa; Groote Schuur Hospital; Constitutional Court of South Africa; SASOL and SANLAM. Private collections: Archbishop ... 1994 Large mural for the University of the Western Cape 1997 Commissioned by the City to do "Freedom of the City" painting of ...
Birds of Western Africa. Part 2. London: Henry G. Bohn. pp. 17-31. van den Hoek Ostende, L.W.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Keijl, G.O. ( ... As a traveller in Africa, Levaillant tended to describe the African people with sympathy. He shared Rousseau's idea of the " ... He called the African fish eagle Vocifer for its distinctive and loud yelping calls made while throwing back its head. He was ... He described many new species of birds based on birds he collected in Africa and several birds are named after him. He was ...
"Aphyosemiom bivittatum (Lönnberg 1895)". Killifish of Western Africa. Retrieved 16 October 2016. Butler, Rhett. "Two Stripe ...
... which drew North African merchants to the western Sudan. The military achievements of these and later western Sudanic rulers, ... Practically all of Western Africa consisted of slave societies, in which warfare to capture new slaves-and perhaps sell them to ... African-Americans such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey (Afro-Jamaican) raised strong Pan-African conscience. Sir Alan ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Kaberry, Phyllis (January 1952). "Western Africa: Part II. The Peoples of Sierra Leone ...
Africa World Press. pp. 271-. ISBN 978-0-86543-757-9. "Aïcha Fofana". University of Western Australia. Retrieved 4 February ... University of Western Australia. 1997. L'Africaine de Paris no 2. University of Western Australia. 1998. Boyd-Buggs, Debra; ... University of Western Australia. Retrieved 4 February 2016. "Excellence on fait le ménage". University of Western Australia. ... Her writings are often centred on improving social conditions for African women. Aïcha Fofana died unexpectedly in Bamako on 16 ...
Under Western Eyes. Mudimbe, V. Y. 1988. The Invention of Africa. Narayan, Uma. 1997. Dislocating Cultures. -- 1997. Contesting ... a religion culturally foreign to Kenya and to most of Africa. In postcolonial countries of Africa, Africans and non-Africans ... Western scholarship about non-Western peoples and cultures, by proposing that Western Europe simply be considered as culturally ... with the colonial south of Africa (Cape Town). Upon arriving to Africa, Europeans encountered various African civilizations ...
Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 73 Schmidt, Elizabeth. Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, ... Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 94 Schmidt, Elizabeth. Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, ... Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 98 Schmidt, Elizabeth. Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea, ... Western African studies. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007. p. 172 Coleman, James Smoot, and Carl Gustav Rosberg. Political ...
tropical western + central Africa; Madagascar, China, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, numerous islands of the Pacific aka หญ้า ฮี ย ... Centotheca is a genus of African, Asian, and Pacific Island plants in the grass family. Species Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv ...
Borrow, Nik; Demey, Ron (2001). Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. "Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht ... It is found in central, eastern, and south-eastern Africa. It is found in forest edge, woodlands, gardens and towns. The ... Retrieved 26 November 2013.old-form url Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Peter (2003). Birds of Africa south of the Sahara. Struik. ISBN 1- ... Cameroon and Central African Republic P. b. eremobius - (Hartlaub & Emin, 1887): Found in north-eastern Democratic Republic of ...
Critically Endangered); Western Cape, South Africa. From the foothills of the Riviersonderend Mountains between Stormsvlei and ... Species Athanasia is native to southern Africa. The name is derived from the Greek a-, 'without', and thanatos 'death', ...
Western Europe Chart 10: West Africa and Brazilian Northeast. Chart 11: Guinea Gulf; Chart 12: Western Africa; Chart 13: ... Eastern Africa; Chart 14: Southwest islands in the Indian Ocean; Chart 15: Red Sear and Persian Gulf; Chart 16: From Persian ... From the Brazilian northeast to the west of Africa; Chart 7: South Atlantic islands; Chart 8: North Atlantic, with Bacallaos ...
It is found across northern Africa from Mauritania through the Middle East to north-western India. Its natural habitat is dry ... Borrow, Nik; Demey, Ron (2001). Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. p. 565. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. "Black-crowned sparrow-lark ( ... The black-crowned sparrow-lark occurs across North Africa, from the Cape Verde archipelago east through the Sahel of northern ... Africa, through the Arabian Peninsula and into Pakistan and India. The black-crowned sparrow-lark occurs in arid and semi-arid ...
South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Find this book in the University of Western Ontario catalogue. * Find this book in the University of Windsor Library Catalogue ... Find this book on the University of South Africa catalogue. * Find this book on the University of the Witwatersrand Library ... Find this book in the Trinity Western University Library catalogue. * Find this book in the York University Libraries catalogue ...
Harris County Transit provides public transportation.[44] The Baytown Park and Ride lot is located on the western side of San ... Henrietta Bell Wells, first African-American woman to participate in debate team in Wiley College and to be a lawyer ... The district serves all of Baytown, Highlands, outlying areas of East Harris County, and a small portion of western Chambers ... African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 14.42% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanics or ...
Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2011-01-14.. *^ "Camp Independence Marker". Historical Marker Database. California ... African American, 98 (14.6%) Native American, 8 (1.2%) Asian, 1 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 28 (4.2%) from other races, and 35 ( ...
Fasanmade OA, Odeniyi IA, Ogbera AO (June 2008). "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and management". African Journal of Medicine ... This may be due to enhanced sensitivity to a Western lifestyle in certain ethnic groups.[127] Traditionally considered a ... Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa.[29] The nutritional status of a mother during fetal ... of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of cases in Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.[13] Among those who ...
The Crisis of Social Democratic Trade Unionism in Western Europe: The Search for Alternatives (Routledge, 2016). ... Trade unions and workplace democracy in Africa (Routledge, 2016).. *Kjellberg, Anders. "The Decline in Swedish Union Density ... In Western Europe, professional associations often carry out the functions of a trade union. In these cases, they may be ... Trade unions in western Europe: Hard times, hard choices (Oxford UP, 2013). ...
Western & Southern Open. Cincinnati, United States. ATP World Tour Masters 1000. Hard, outdoor. 15 - 21 August 2011. Partner: ... Match for Africa and Joining Forces for the Benefit of Children. Seasons. *2005 ... 2011 Western & Southern Financial Group Masters. Cincinnati, USA. ATP World Tour Masters 1000. ...
At an elevation of 180 feet (55 m) below sea level,[3] Calipatria is the lowest elevation city in the western hemisphere. The ... Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.6% Asian, ,0.1% Pacific Islander, 42.7% from other races, and 2.3% from two ... African American, 80 (1.0%) Native American, 95 (1.2%) Asian, 25 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 2,455 (31.9%) from other races, and ...
... or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment.[8] ... In Africa, traditional medicine is used for 80% of primary healthcare, and in developing nations as a whole over one-third of ... "Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western Reserve University. Archived from the original on 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2010-09-23.. ... Before the 1970s, western practitioners that were not part of the increasingly science-based medical establishment were ...
The Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and then disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish-Arabian region ... The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a ... Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was partly responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, and ... Mountain building took place in western North America, Europe, and East Asia. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are ...
"History : Riley & McCormick Western Wear, features quality western wear, cowboy hats, cowboy boots, white hats, western shirts ... South African-born composer Malcolm Forsyth lived in Edmonton from 1968 until his death in 2011. Perhaps his best-known ... Teams in senior leagues such as the Western Canada Hockey League, and junior leagues such as the Western Hockey League, played ... Junior hockey leagues such as the Western Hockey League and the Alberta Junior Hockey League play an important cultural role in ...
Western Desert. Western Torres Strait Islander. Yir Yoront. Yolŋu. Hawai'i. Haoilona ʻŌlelo. Sāmoa & America Sāmoa. Sāmoan. ... Africa. Algeria. Algerian. Ghardaia. Ghana. Adamorobe. Nanabin. Kenya. Kenyan. Mali. Tebul. LaSiMa. Nigeria. Bura. Magannar ... Central African Republic, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar and Zimbabwe.. ≈ 500,000 in the USA ...
Only 1,600 of them were estimated to still be living on traditional dibins by 2003.[20] The western Hammar Marshes and the ... North/East Africa(2.8%): M1 2.8%. *Sub-Saharan Africa(4.9%): L 4.9% ... occasionally with a Western-style jacket over the top) and a keffiyeh ("headcloth") worn twisted around the head in a turban, ...
Western Days (1968), and Valley Center Western Days (1980). The Western Days Parade was added in 1970. In 2002, a rodeo was ... African American, 2.84% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 6.45% from other races, and 2.96% from two or ... On Independence Day weekend, the town celebrates their western heritage and the United States with the Valley Center Western ... The annual event began as the Valley Center County Fair (1950), then became Western Week (1963), Western Days Country Festival ...
... many of his plant varieties and practices relate specifically to Japan and even to local conditions in subtropical western ... from Africa to the temperate northern hemisphere. ...
In July 1979, Pol Pot established a new headquarters, Office 131, on the western flank of Mount Thom.[360] He dropped the name ... an economic historian based at London's School of Oriental and African Studies. He met with Pol Pot, but was murdered shortly ... The Khmer Rouge Western Zone regional chief Koh Kong and his followers began launching small-scale attacks on government ... On taking power, the Khmer Rouge spurned both the Western states and the Soviet Union as sources of support.[301] Instead, ...
... which carried Hindu spirituality and which could counter Western materialism. The notions of white supremacy and Western ... Vivekananda as a student was educated in contemporary Western thought.[3] He joined Brahmo Samaj briefly before meeting ... His influence can still be recognised in popular western spirituality, such as nondualism, New Age and the veneration of Ramana ... The marked feature of these movements was that they countered the notion of western superiority and white supremacy propounded ...
1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 2 Passerines (Concise ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1457-1460. ... P. mauritanica - Malherbe, 1845: North Africa (Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia) (now considered a separate species, the ...
Nketia, Kwabena (1961: 78) African Music in Ghana. Accra: Longmans. *^ Kubik, Gerhard (1999: 54) Africa and the Blues. Jackson ... Clave is a Spanish word and its musical usage as a pattern played on claves was developed in the western part of Cuba, ... Cuban music has been popular in sub-Saharan Africa since the mid-twentieth century. To the Africans, clave-based Cuban popular ... a b c Peñalosa, David (2009: 81). The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins. Redway, CA: Bembe ...
Considered by music authorities as the co-founder of Western swing,[1][2][3] he was widely known as the King of Western Swing ( ... African Americans were his playmates, and his father enjoyed watching him jig dance with the black children.[10][11] ... Wills did not fit into the popular Nashville country and western stations, although he was usually labeled "country and western ... The King of Western Swing - Bob Wills Remembered. Rosetta Wills. 1998. p. 165. ISBN 0-8230-7744-6. The author has a magazine ...
Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (African Union). *Pasteur Institute (in Cambodia) ...
South Africa[edit]. *University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), BSc(Eng) Aeronautical & MSc (Eng) Aeronautical (Aerospace) ... Case Western Reserve University (ABET). *Capitol Technology University (ABET). *Clarkson University (ABET) ...
And it happens all the damn time, whether here in the western world or in South Africa. This is common. There is absolutely no ... syndicated) article from South Africa). -- tariqabjotu 03:26, 15 December 2006 (UTC) *SA is Anglophone and has close ties to ... It may be common place for people to go around killing large numbers of people in South Africa but it most certainly isn't in ... You may be right that a similar event in Africa or Central Asia may not receive as much international attention, but that's not ...
Galician (/ɡəˈlɪʃən/,[5] /-ˈlɪsiən/[6]; galego [ɡaˈleɣʊ]) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. It ... African Portuguese; the Galician-Portuguese still spoken in Spanish Extremadura, Fala; and other dialects. ... In the coastal western areas the opposition is /ʃ/ - /s/, /s/ being produced in some regions as a laminal or in some others as ... animal); central and western Galician animás; eastern Galician animais; Asturian Galician animales (/l/ is preserved).[41] ...
Western alveolo-palatal affricates চ [tɕɔ], ছ [tɕʰɔ], জ [dʑɔ] correspond to eastern চ [tsɔ], ছ [tsʰɔ~sɔ], জ [dzɔ~zɔ]. The ... Chatterji, SK (1921). "Bengali Phonetics". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 2: 1. doi:10.1017/ ... Unlike in western scripts (Latin, Cyrillic, etc.) where the letter-forms stand on an invisible baseline, the Bengali letter- ... Rangpuri, Kharia Thar and Mal Paharia are closely related to Western Bengali dialects, but are typically classified as separate ...
The crisis of social democratic trade unionism in Western Europe: the search for alternatives. Surrey, England, UK; Burlington ... Franklin, Robert Michael (1990). Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African-American Thought. Fortress ... Benjamin Radcliff (25 September 2013). Western nations with social safety net happier. CNN. Retrieved 20 October 2014. ...
In Africa, wild animals including fruit bats are hunted for food and are referred to as bushmeat.[78][79] In equatorial Africa ... On 30 November 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the Bundibugyo District in Western Uganda ... 8.3 2013-2016 West Africa *8.3.1 2014 spread outside West Africa ... 2013-2016 West Africa. Main article: West African Ebola virus ... Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ...
From 21 April 1942, it served with 22nd Guards Brigade under command of 2nd South African Division in the Battle of Gazala.[54] ... It served with this division throughout the rest of the Western Desert Campaign and the Tunisia Campaign, in particular, the ... it joined The Cavalry Division and served with it on the Western Front for the rest of the war.[31] In practice, the batteries ...
... s are however found in many African and Middle-Eastern languages, most notably Arabic, and in Native American ... Two uvular R phonemes are found in various languages in north-western Europe including French, some Occitan dialects, a ... as well as in a few African and Native American languages. (Ejective uvular affricates occur as realizations of uvular stops in ...
Western Leopard Toad · African Red Toad · African Common Toad ... Frogs in Africa. African clawed frog African dwarf frog African ... Toads in Africa. Altiphrynoides malcolmi · Altiphrynoides osgoodi · Amietophrynus langanoensis · Amatola Toad · Cape Clawed ... Boreal chorus frog · Northern green frog · Pickerel frog · Spring peeper · Western chorus frog · Wood frog ... Newts in Africa. Iberian ribbed newt · Algerian Ribbed Newt · Edough Ribbed Newt ...
1977). Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa, the Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 1: Ostrich ... "Invasive Alien Bird Species Pose A Threat, Kruger National Park, Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd - South Africa Safari Travel ... Jiguet, Frédéric; Audevard, Aurélien (21 March 2017). Birds of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East: A Photographic Guide ... Also in the east, it ranges to south-eastern and south-western Australia[49] and New Zealand[50] in the Southern hemisphere.[22 ...
Western Africa - Colonial rule: In fact, of course, the very existence of colonial rule meant that the fabric of African ... was exposed to alien forces of change of an intensity and on a scale unparalleled in the previous history of western Africa. ... Its African American ruling elite were orphaned members of a very rapidly changing Western society, who felt it essential to ... By the 1960s Liberia was on the way to becoming one of the richer western African countries, and the ruling elite began to feel ...
Africa is much bigger than you think. Traditional maps have downplayed the size of the continent in comparison to other parts ... Whats the real size of Africa? How Western states used maps to downplay size of continent. By Sophie Morlin-Yron, for CNN ... The distortion is largest near the poles: Greenland, which looks about the same size as the whole of Africa on the Mercator, is ... "The term power of representation and representation of power sums up quite well how maps and the rise of the Western nation- ...
Older than the Pyramids, as sublime as any temple, Egyptâ s Western Desert is a vast sweep of elemental beauty. The White ... Explore Western Desert holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. , ... Western Desert. 1. White Desert. Upon first glimpse of the 300-sq-km national park of the White Desert, youll feel like Alice ... One of the must-see sights in the western oases is the extraordinary medieval/Ottoman town of Al Qasr, which lies on the edge ...
Access hourly, 10 day and 15 day forecasts along with up to the minute reports and videos for Kalbaskraal, South Africa from ...
Western Africa (northern section): Non-Portraits. Challenge #55 in the around the world in 80 ways series. Hosted by ... As we move (roughly) south thru Africa, the last weeks and this weeks challenge will cover the following LONG list of ...
Western Africa - The formation of African independence movements: There thus developed a general feeling among the ... In 1946 politicians in French West Africa organized a federation-wide political association, the African Democratic Rally (RDA ... The result, during 1948-50, was the virtual suppression of the RDA in Africa ... Africa: Western Africa. Western Africa contains a remarkable diversity of ethnic groups. It can be divided into two zones, the ...
Bridging the Gap Africa founder Harmon Parker who has led efforts to build more than 60 bridges in the region over the past 20 ... Bridging the Gap Africa representatives perform a safety inspection of one of the footbridges the organization has built in ... According to Bridging the Gap Africa (BtGA) founder, Harmon Parker, the flooding and mudslides come on the heels of an earlier ... To learn more about Bridging the Gap Africa and how to help the people impacted by the flooding in Kenya, visit http://www. ...
An Africa beyond Western aid is a concrete dream to pursue by Africans especially at this juncture of Covid-19 global pandemic ... "Africa Beyond Western Aid" traditionally explains an Africa being able to stand solely on its own economically; fully dependent ... Africa beyond Western Aid hold the view that, if we as citizens or nationals of the continent creates enabling environment ... The Africa beyond Western Aid initiative is actually a national agenda instead of a government agenda. That means its ...
... in our daily reviews of Western press commentary, the topics are mixed because no one subject claims most commentators ... Most important, Western leaders should keep letting Mr. Putin know that the sort of behavior dished out to NTV keeps his ... Their out-of-court agreement with South Africa ends the legal suit, it is true. But a little-noticed clause provides for ... The population is poorly educated and distrustful of Western nostrums, prone to take pills all at once or sell them on the ...
Knysna is located along South Africas beautiful and famed Garden Route in the Western Cape province. This small town boasts an ... Western Cape: fun in the sun, from the mountains to the sea Western Cape is South Africas premier province for fun in the sun ... KKnysna is located along South Africas beautiful and famed Garden Route in the Western Cape province. This small town boasts ... Sea kayaking in Western Cape: ocean views like no other Sea kayaking off the coast of Western Cape province is superb exercise ...
TGS provides valuable, multi-client data library to oil and gas explorers and producers globally through four product lines. Multi-client geophysical data, multi-client geological data, and imaging services. It is among the strongest, most diverse and highest quality in the marketplace. TGS data management receives, inventories and stores seismic data tapes and materials for multi-client 2D and 3D seismic surveys ...
But efforts to maintain the status quo could renew unrest, adding to the current instability across North Africa. ... On North Africas western flank, long-simmering conflict causes unease Morocco has strengthened its hold on the contested - and ... In an interview with Western journalists, Moroccan government spokesman Mustapha Al Khalfi cast Western Sahara as a model of ... Laayoune, Western Sahara If this small, dusty town surrounded by sparse desert feels forgotten, thats because it mostly is. ...
Western Illinois University. Department of African American Studies. 232 Morgan Hall. 1 University Circle. Macomb, IL 61455 USA ... Western Illinois University Black Alumni. African American Studies has built a strong relationship with WIU black alumni and ... Western Illinois University Foundation. Through the WIU Foundation, African American Studies provides its alumni opportunities ... African American Studies Lecture Series. African American Studies presents annually a lecture series to provide a forum through ...
Western African Aquatic Mammals. Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of ...
Find accommodation in the Western Cape South Africa in hotels, guest houses, b&bs, game lodges, national parks, self-catering ... South Africa Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape ... African Sun Guest House is situated at the foot of the Outeniqua Mountains in George along the Garden Route. It features a ... African Relish is a Recreational Cooking School, set in the Karoo town of Prince Albert. Here our guests will enjoy luxury ...
Find accommodation in the Western Cape South Africa in hotels, guest houses, b&bs, game lodges, national parks, self-catering ... South Africa Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape ... This welcoming architect-designed beach house, ideally situated along South Africas magnificent Garden Route, features four en ...
Western Cape (province) is known for its mountain views, wildlife and cafés. Book hotels near Table Mountain and Newlands ... Choose from 2480 Western Cape (province) hotels with huge savings! ... Enter your travel dates to view the best offers on hotel rooms in Western Cape, South Africa now, including last minute deals! ... Travel to Western Cape & Explore. Explore Western Cape with Expedias Travel Guides to find the best prices on flights, cars, ...
Human papillomaviruses in Western Africa: prevalences and risk factors in Burkina Faso. ... HPV Human papillomavirus Genotyping STI Burkina Faso Africa Cervical cancer This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... West Africa: viral sequence analysis and epidemiology. Br J Cancer 93:1068-1076CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... West-African women over 35 years of age. Int J Cancer 103:803-809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
2019 by Routledge Routledge is proud to be re-issuing this landmark series in association with the International African Ins ... East Central Africa, North-Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Central Africa, Western Africa, and Central Africa Belgian ... Peoples of the Middle Niger Region Northern Nigeria: Western Africa Part XV. ISBN , Quantity: ... Routledge is proud to be re-issuing this landmark series in association with the International African Institute. The series, ...
So what are Western governments and their North African partners up against? Its a murky picture, but here are some outlines: ... Where does North African militancy come from?. Much Islamist militancy in North Africa traces its origins to 1990s Algeria, ... Also in Mali are Ansar al Din and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO). With AQIM, these groups have seized ... North Africa is home to various armed groups, from ideologically driven Islamists to criminal gangs. While their aims and ...
HEC Paris opened a representative office in Abidjan to consolidate its position in Western & Central African countries. ... The Abidjan office supports HEC Pariss development actions in West Africa This fall, the HEC representative office in West and ... HEC Launches Lead Campus Certificate for Africa HEC Paris has created Lead Campus 2019, an international leadership program ... This is a key element of its Africa Strategy 2015-2025 program which seeks to attract the academic... ...
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African American History NEW EXHIBIT OPENING: Rev. E. Theophilus Caviness. Explore the life of one of Clevelands most ... 2019 - Western Reserve Historical Society. All Rights Reserved. Design of this website provided by The George Gund Foundation ... Western Reserve Historical Society. 10825 East Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Ph: (216) 721-5722 Email: [email protected] ... Join us on February 10th, from 1-4pm, as we celebrate some of Clevelands historic African-American communities at the ...
Africas Last Colony: Western Saharan Independence Movement Mourns Loss of Polisario Front Leader. StoryJune 02, 2016. ... Eighty-four countries as well as the African Union recognize Western Sahara as an independent nation. In March, Morocco ... StoryAug 31, 2018Four Days in Occupied Western Sahara-A Rare Look Inside Africas Last Colony ... Eighty-four countries, as well as the African Union, recognize Western Sahara as an independent nation. ...
... broke the media blockade and visited the occupied Western Sahara in the northwest of Africa to document the decades-long ... Morocco occupies Western Sahara, Africas last colony.. For Democracy Now!, Im Amy Goodman, with John Hamilton, Mike Burke and ... Occupied Western Sahara: A rare look inside Africas last colony. December 13, 2018 ... "Four Days in Western Sahara: Africas Last Colony" was directed by John Hamilton and produced with our news director Mike Burke ...
CLICIM aims at the provision of evidence on the nexus between climate change and population dynamics in Africa. In this report ... Alessandrini, A., Ghio, D. and Migali, S., Population dynamics, climate change and variability in Western Africa: the case of ... Publication , Population dynamics climate change and variability western africa case sahel regions ... Population dynamics, climate change and variability in Western Africa: the case of Sahel regions. ...
Western Cape, South Africa for today, tomorrow, and the next 14 days, with accurate temperature, feels like and humidity levels ... Weather for the week in Wilderness, South Africa. Looking at the weather in Wilderness, South Africa over the week, the maximum ... Weather today in Wilderness, South Africa is going to be Patchy rain possible with a maximum temperature of 15°c and minimum ... The national weather service for Wilderness, South Africa is reporting Friday 1st October to be the wettest day in the coming ...
In the Middle East and North Africa region, non-communicable diseases such as heart disease (up by 44%), stroke (up 35%), and ... "The Middle East and North Africa is undergoing a rapid transition toward diseases that dominate in the US and Western Europe, ... In Middle East and North Africa, Health Challenges are Becoming Similar to Those in Western Countries. September 4, 2013 ... "Responding to the changing burden of disease in the Middle East and North Africa, the World Bank has launched a new health ...
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... economic and social issues in South Africa and Africa, as well as international affairs. Polity strives to provide our readers ... When elephants fight: will the US-China trade war hurt South Africa? By: South African Institute of International Affairs 19th ... South Africas renewables focus shifting from costs to jobs and transformation. By: Terence Creamer 5th April 2018 The themes ... By: News24Wire 12th April 2018 The South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) has taken to the streets of Cape Town and ...
  • Libreville - Six countries in Central and Western Africa have breathed life into long-running plans to allow visa-free movement of people among their nations. (businesslive.co.za)
  • But efforts to maintain the status quo could renew unrest, adding to the current instability across North Africa. (csmonitor.com)
  • But further prolonging of the status quo may cause the long-simmering conflict to flare again, possibly adding to instability and unrest across North Africa . (csmonitor.com)
  • Islamic militant networks in North Africa have become a growing concern for the US, something that came into sharp focus with the recent hostage situation in Algeria, as well as the Islamist fighters controlling half of Mali . (csmonitor.com)
  • Around the world, leaders are vowing to strike back hard at Islamist militancy that is surging across North Africa . (businessinsider.com)
  • North Africa is home to various armed groups, from ideologically driven Islamists to criminal gangs. (businessinsider.com)
  • Much Islamist militancy in North Africa traces its origins to 1990s Algeria, when the Army's decision to cancel elections that an Islamist party was expect to win tipped the country into a decade of civil strife. (businessinsider.com)
  • Elsewhere in North Africa, small apparently independent groups - sometimes just a dozen or so people - have staged occasional bombings in recent years ( Morocco ) and gotten into firefights with police ( Tunisia ). (businessinsider.com)
  • WASHINGTON, September 4, 2013 - In the Middle East and North Africa region, non-communicable diseases such as heart disease (up by 44%), stroke (up 35%), and diabetes (up 87%) are causing more premature death and disability than they did in the past. (worldbank.org)
  • These are some of the findings published September 4 by the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) in a report titled The Global Burden of Disease: Generating Evidence, Guiding Policy: Middle East and North Africa Regional Edition . (worldbank.org)
  • The report explores changes in the leading causes of premature mortality and disability in the Middle East and North Africa and compares the performance of countries. (worldbank.org)
  • This publication also explores the different diseases that cause substantial disability in the Middle East and North Africa, such as low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anemia, anxiety disorders, and diabetes. (worldbank.org)
  • The Middle East and North Africa is undergoing a rapid transition toward diseases that dominate in the US and Western Europe, such as heart disease, depression, and diabetes ," said Dr. Christopher Murray, IHME Director and one of the lead authors on the GBD study. (worldbank.org)
  • The Western Sahara (WS) is a 266,000 square kilometer area between North Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • This fall, the HEC representative office in West and Central Africa supported the promotion of the Executive MBA and Masters programs at HEC Paris. (hec.edu)
  • The overall goal of the project is to enhance sorghum and pearl millet productivity in West and Central Africa through cultivation of nutritious hybrids, contributing to food security, income generation, and improved nutrition. (icrisat.org)
  • K K nysna is located along South Africa's beautiful and famed Garden Route in the Western Cape province. (southafrica.net)
  • Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome in the Western cape province of South Africa: a population-based study. (nih.gov)
  • Using the past to step forward: fetal alcohol syndrome in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. (nih.gov)
  • Throughout Nigeria two more very important West African civilizations arose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nigeria presented the greatest challenge to British and African policymakers alike. (britannica.com)
  • In July 2018, HEC Paris opened a representative office in Abidjan to consolidate its position in the Côte d'Ivoire and in other Western & Central African countries like Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Togo, and Senegal. (hec.edu)
  • In 2014, he played a pivotal role in quashing an outbreak of Ebola in Nigeria, and he was the first to sequence coronavirus samples in sub-Saharan Africa, before later identifying the arrival of the so-called "South African variant" in Nigeria. (vice.com)
  • While there is a substantial consensus regarding the centre of origin of Bantu languages (the Benue River Valley, between South East Nigeria and Western Cameroon), the identification of the area from where the population expansion actually started, the relation between the processes leading to the spread of languages and peoples and the relevance of local migratory events remain controversial. (csic.es)
  • Former US Ambassador to the United Nations, Ambassador Andrew Young, yesterday criticised the $15 billion spent by donor countries to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa, saying the hefty sum would have been more beneficial to the continent if it was channeled to agriculture, healthcare, water and electricity. (africaresource.com)
  • It says that that AIDS in Africa has always been diagnosed differently than AIDS in the US. (africaresource.com)
  • In the Western Cape of South Africa, epidemiological studies have identified the R220 cluster of the Beijing genotype as a major contributor to a recent outbreak of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • During the early days of independence, newly formed African states such as Tanzania, Ghana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique were significantly improving healthcare outcomes for their citizens by prioritising public health investment. (vice.com)
  • When countries in Africa began to declare their independence, these newly formed countries were left hundreds of years behind the Western world, with corrupt governments in control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conference essentially constituted the division of the African continent among leaders of Western countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, all African countries except Morocco joined together to form the African Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global educational inequalities pose major issues for a number of African countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1960s Liberia was on the way to becoming one of the richer western African countries, and the ruling elite began to feel sufficiently secure to share both some of its political power and some of its prosperity with the native peoples. (britannica.com)
  • Even in any exception, Africa should rather engage with other countries competitively through trade, investment and political corporation to enhance peaceful global coexistence among all nations. (ghanaweb.com)
  • His Excellency Nana Addo Dankwa Akuffo-Addo in his speech at the 61st Independence Day, said Ghana as well as all African countries can easily achieve this collective goal by tapping into opportunities and religiously exploiting all natural and human resources at their disposal to their benefit. (ghanaweb.com)
  • African countries are highly dependent on foreign aid from Western countries and International Monitoring Fund (IMF). (ghanaweb.com)
  • An Africa beyond Western aid is a concrete dream to pursue by Africans especially at this juncture of Covid-19 global pandemic which has necessitated the need for countries and regions to adapt, improvise, and adopt new ways of sustainability in all mannerism, as long as it is in the right direction. (ghanaweb.com)
  • Unlike in neighboring countries, the possibility of unrest in Western Sahara is not related to Islamist terrorist groups, but a result of young Saharawis - the indigenous people of Western Sahara - growing increasingly impatient with the stalemate. (csmonitor.com)
  • If unchecked, violence could intensify, at least in North African countries. (businessinsider.com)
  • An Ebola virus outbreak continues to claim lives in the western African countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, but officials said they are seeing a slowing of new cases that may be a sign of a turning point. (newsmax.com)
  • Eighty-four countries as well as the African Union recognize Western Sahara as an independent nation. (democracynow.org)
  • In the second part , Moran writes that "the Western approach to aiding developing countries, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, [has] done inadvertent harm," and discusses how the global financial crisis is affecting aid to the continent. (kff.org)
  • R. africae has been detected by PCR in many African countries, including Niger, Mali, Burundi, and Sudan ( 6 ), and in most countries of equatorial and southern Africa ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • Various timescales of the SPEI drought index between 1960 and 2015 in six West African countries. (his.se)
  • This includes one-third of African-born doctors (who, Smith says, cost nearly $200,000 to train), all of whom are now working in rich OECD countries. (newenglishreview.org)
  • Heads of African countries have flocked to Russia for a first of its kind summit, where Moscow will be offering business ties and security arrangements alternative to 'colonial-style' relations with the West. (rt.com)
  • Countries like India, South Korea, and Gulf monarchies have interests in Africa too. (rt.com)
  • Oil palm and rubber plantations are very similar in many respects, but there is something that clearly differentiates them: oil palm is a native species in many West African countries -and part of the culture of local peoples- while rubber is clearly an alien species brought in by the Colonial powers. (wrm.org.uy)
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in South Africa and other low-resource countries. (nih.gov)
  • The Western Area of Sierra Leone is the "hotspot" in this Ebola outbreak at the moment, with the highest transmission of any of the 3 most affected countries. (who.int)
  • If we were able to produce a vaccine on the continent, the issue of access would have been far less overwhelming, but African countries don't want to invest and who else is going to come in and invest? (vice.com)
  • So far, 42 African countries have joined the COVAX vaccine-sharing scheme designed to provide doses to low and middle-income nations. (vice.com)
  • In several African countries, including Egypt, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Somalia, more than 90 percent of women ages 15 to 49 have undergone such surgeries. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised 4 and are now similar to ambient air quality standards in developed countries. (scielo.org.za)
  • 13 out of the 29 so called 'border countries' in the world (with low income but growing constantly), are African. (bearingpoint.com)
  • Beyond parcel delivery, numerous African countries are using digitalization and a sense of community to get a fresh perspective on retail. (bearingpoint.com)
  • 8,9 however, African countries close to the tone, gender, dietary vitamin D intake, certain anthropometric equator appear to have sufficient, or even above sufficient measurements and lifestyle factors. (who.int)
  • South African Institute of International Affairs 19th April 2018 When US President Donald Trump announced that he would ask Congress to impose a 25% tariff on more than 1 300 Chinese imports amounting to an. (polity.org.za)
  • Sashnee Moodley 16th April 2018 The South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) will on Tuesday make a submission to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Labour on the. (polity.org.za)
  • News24Wire 12th April 2018 The South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) has taken to the streets of Cape Town and was marching on Parliament on Thursday to make known. (polity.org.za)
  • 28th March 2018 The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) in the Western Cape under the leadership of Minister Gugile Nkwinti took a farmer to the Clanwilliam. (polity.org.za)
  • It is anticipated that while every province will, unfortunately, witness an increase in their numbers, areas where there is high economic activity will experience an exponential rise - beginning with Gauteng and Western Cape and followed by Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. (allafrica.com)
  • In this paper, we use 1DD GPCP rainfall product to investigate the differences in the space-time structures of the 25 - 70-day intraseasonal variability of rainfall, over the Western Central Africa (WCA) and the Eastern Central Africa (ECA), with different climate features. (scirp.org)
  • To learn more about Bridging the Gap Africa and how to help the people impacted by the flooding in Kenya, visit http://www.bridgingthegapafrica.org . (prweb.com)
  • Historically, the wildlife, natural resources, and culture have made Africa a highly valuable continent to the western world. (wikipedia.org)
  • As if the continent was free property, Africa was divided and shared among the Western world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AU works to combat the historical effects of colonization and apartheid to unify African nations in the mission to address the complex, multifaceted social, economic, and political challenges facing the continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa beyond Western Aid hold the view that, if we as citizens or nationals of the continent creates enabling environment necessary for sociocultural and politico-economical progression, the continent will be left with no other alternative than to excel in all shades of development. (ghanaweb.com)
  • The UN 's special envoy Christopher Ross recently acknowledged the impasse in informal talks between Morocco and independence movement Polisario Front over the future of the disputed Western Sahara , on the northwestern corner of the continent. (csmonitor.com)
  • Distribution of Rickettsia africae in the African continent and serologic evidence of spotted fevers in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • As Smith points out, one-third to one-half of all African degree-holders have exited the continent-Throughout his long career, 1984 Democratic Presidential candidate Walter Mondale railed against this so-called "brain drain" effect. (newenglishreview.org)
  • Over the past decade, the African continent has become a battleground for geostrategic competition involving China, the US, and the EU, which compete with each for military access, economic superiority, and soft power supremacy. (rt.com)
  • The second - oldest lighthouse in South Africa was built here in 1848, an exclamation mark at the continent ' s tip. (southafrica.net)
  • Africa has the lowest vaccination rate of any continent, with less than 2% of all COVID-19 vaccines administered worldwide. (vice.com)
  • Scientists VICE World News spoke with all agreed that had a vaccine been developed on the continent, the severe access challenges plaguing African nations could have been avoided. (vice.com)
  • Africa represents over 16 percent of the global population, and Sub-Saharan Africa is where 70 percent of pathogens with pandemic potential emerge, yet the continent is home to less than 0.1 percent of vaccine production facilities. (vice.com)
  • We’re encouraged to be tested, because, as the MTV ads say, “knowing is beautiful.†We also know that AIDS drugs are all that’s stopping the entire African continent from falling into the sea. (africaresource.com)
  • Africa is a promising continent for retailers, with a middle-class of 350 million people (note 2). (bearingpoint.com)
  • 88% of Nigerian Millennials and 71% of South African Millennials paid with an app on their mobile last year (note 4), and m-payment is a domain in which the continent is a leader. (bearingpoint.com)
  • SEVILLE, Spain, Nov. 19, 2012 /PR Newswire/ -- Abengoa, the international company that applies innovative technology solutions for sustainable development in the energy and environment sectors, has begun construction of the Nungua desalination plant in Ghana, the first in western Africa. (environmental-expert.com)
  • GENEVA, Switzerland, May 31, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ - IOM Ghana and officials of the Ghana Health Service are this week launching a TB REACH project which aims to increase tuberculosis (TB) detection amongst refugees and host communities, miners and mining communities, border communities and vulnerable urban communities. (wordpress.com)
  • The IOM team will use a mobile TB diagnostic van equipped with a GeneXpert MTB/RIF machine to reach at least 317,000 individuals in the Western Region of Ghana. (wordpress.com)
  • South Africa has approximately 300 estuaries along its coastline (Whitfield 2000). (scielo.org.za)
  • Morocco has sought to place the discussion of Western Sahara in this context, implying that the area could become part of the Sahel security problem without Morocco's control. (csmonitor.com)
  • Seroprevalence for spotted fever group rickettsiae is high in the Sahel regions of Africa ( 5 ), although there may be different emergent and classic rickettsioses in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • The Hermanus Wine Route, the southernmost in Africa, produces top quality, world renowned wines. (sahistory.org.za)
  • You can drive through the Agulhas National Park on your way to Cape Agulhas, the southernmost tip of Africa. (southafrica.net)
  • A cardinal rule for all colonial administrations in Africa before the 1930s was that colonies ought not to be a financial burden on the metropolitan governments and their taxpayers: the cost of colonial administration and development should be covered by the local revenues they could raise. (britannica.com)
  • The result, during 1948-50, was the virtual suppression of the RDA in Africa by the colonial administrations. (britannica.com)
  • Morocco has strengthened its hold on the contested - and resource-rich - Western Sahara. (csmonitor.com)
  • A heavily mined, 1,500-mile-plus earthen wall separates Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara from the small, mostly desert territory controlled by the Polisario, which claims Western Sahara as the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic. (csmonitor.com)
  • The UN sent peacekeeping forces into the territory in 1991 with a mandate to hold a referendum on the future of Western Sahara, but that vote never happened. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Polisario demands a vote with an option for independence, but two decades after the UN peacekeeping forces arrived, that's looking increasingly unlikely, says Anna Theofilopoulou, a former UN official who covered Western Sahara for 14 years and served on the negotiating team of the previous UN envoy, former US Secretary of State James Baker . (csmonitor.com)
  • I do not see that there is going to be a real referendum or self determination and Western Sahara will be independent," she says. (csmonitor.com)
  • He is the co-author of the book Western Sahara: War, Nationalism, and Conflict Irresolution . (democracynow.org)
  • A leader of the independence movement in Western Sahara died Tuesday. (democracynow.org)
  • Mohamed Abdelaziz was the leader and co-founder of the Sahrawi people's Polisario Front movement, which has demanded independence ever since Morocco took over most of Western Sahara in 1975. (democracynow.org)
  • In March, Morocco expelled U.N. staffers from Western Sahara after Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon referred to Morocco's rule over the region as "occupation" during a visit to refugee camps in the Algerian town of Tindouf, located in southwestern Algeria. (democracynow.org)
  • broke the media blockade and visited the occupied Western Sahara in the northwest of Africa to document the decades-long Sahrawi struggle for freedom and occupying power Morocco's violent crackdown. (greenleft.org.au)
  • The international media has largely ignored the occupation-in part because Morocco has routinely blocked journalists from entering Western Sahara. (greenleft.org.au)
  • exclusive: "Four Days in Western Sahara: Africa's Last Colony. (greenleft.org.au)
  • If it wasn't for these natural resources, Morocco never would have invaded Western Sahara. (greenleft.org.au)
  • Western Sahara-the center of a 4-decades-long struggle for independence from Morocco, its neighbor to the north. (greenleft.org.au)
  • The story of Western Sahara is one of colonialism, plunder and resistance. (greenleft.org.au)
  • And it's here in Western Sahara where the scholar Noam Chomsky says the Arab Spring first began in late 2010, before the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. (greenleft.org.au)
  • But the struggle in Western Sahara dates back much longer. (greenleft.org.au)
  • For nearly a century, Western Sahara was colonized by Spain. (greenleft.org.au)
  • On October 31st, 1975, both Morocco from the north and Mauritania from the south invaded Western Sahara as Spain withdrew. (greenleft.org.au)
  • Days after Moroccan troops invaded, King Hassan II ordered hundreds of thousands of Moroccan citizens to enter Western Sahara in what became known as the Green March. (greenleft.org.au)
  • Just days after the Moroccan invasion, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger privately told President Gerald Ford he hoped for a, quote, "rigged UN vote" at the Security Council to confirm Morocco's claim over Western Sahara. (greenleft.org.au)
  • This panel features activists and academics who will speak about the various legal, political, and economic dimensions of the Western Sahara conflict. (tuftsgloballeadership.org)
  • Fertiliser distributor Nutrien, the result of a merger between Potash Corp and Agrium, has been blacklisted by financial institutions over its imports from Western Sahara. (africaintelligence.com)
  • The Western Sahara is the bigger African territory inscribed in the Non-Self-Governing Territories list recognized by the Special Political and Decolonization Committee of the UN General Assembly. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • It is actually disputed by both the Polisario Front, the nationalist movement of Sahrawi people created in May 1973 to fight against the Spanish domination, which declared its independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in February 1976 and today is established in 20 percent of the territory, and Morocco, occupying the Western Sahara from 1975. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • The Moroccan occupation of Western Sahara has never been recognized by any other national government. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • Besenyὅ 2009 in English offers an updated version of a general historical framework from Antiquity to recent developments of the Western Sahara affair. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • The catalogue records all species and infraspecific taxa of benthic marine algae or seaweeds known for the mainland coast of West Africa (northern boundary of Western Sahara southwards to the southern boundary of Namibia), and the western Atlantic islands between Madeira and the Salvages in the north to Ascension and St Helena in the south, including those lying relatively close to the African mainland. (nhbs.com)
  • The lack of progress has allowed Morocco to strengthen its hold on the resource-rich territory, even as the prospect of a referendum to decide Western Sahara's future - which the UN and the Polisario demand - has dimmed. (csmonitor.com)
  • It also already has a strong economic foothold in some African nations like Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa or Tunis, playing on its strong points. (rt.com)
  • 2002) The Blacksmith's Art from Africa Life Force at the Anvil. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the foreword of this book, Professor Hoeppli gives his motivation and approach to the study of the parasitic diseases in Africa and the Western Hemisphere as follows: "Numerous diseases caused by zooparasites play an important role in Africa and occur likewise in the Western Hemisphere, especially in Central and South America and the West Indies. (ajtmh.org)
  • Early documentation of parasitic diseases in Africa and the Western Hemisphere and information obtained by the study of the slave trade are means to answer this difficult question. (ajtmh.org)
  • The agreement gathers six francophone states - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo - in a bloc called the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (Cemac). (businesslive.co.za)
  • African tick-bite fever is the second most frequently identified cause for systemic febrile illness among travelers, following malaria ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Over 90% of malaria cases and death occur in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly within children less than five years old whom account for 61% of the total malaria-related deaths in 2017. (ufl.edu)
  • Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • complex populations may be a threat for the sustainability of malaria vector control activities across Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mandy Nevel, veterinary manager with Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board (AHDB) which offers support to Britain's food producers, said: "It is extremely concerning that African Swine Fever has been identified in Belgium. (novinite.com)
  • Is Canada ready for African swine fever? (producer.com)
  • Canada's main objective is to keep African swine fever out of the country's hog herd, but the industry is also taking about how to respond if it does arrive. (producer.com)
  • This week The Western Producer takes a look at the scary prospect of African swine fever being found in Canada. (producer.com)
  • Over the last few months, the major topic at those meetings has been African swine fever. (producer.com)
  • African swine fever is a hemorrhagic disease of pigs not currently found in North America. (producer.com)
  • Morocco's army, with the help of U.S. military aid, drove the Polisario to Western Sahara's Eastern Desert. (greenleft.org.au)
  • The North American fertilizer giant, Agrium Inc of Canada, reportedly became the leading importer of Western Sahara's phosphates in 2014, Africa Mining Intelligence has learned. (africaintelligence.com)
  • R. africae and African tick-bite fever have not previously been reported in Senegal, and few positive human serum samples have been documented in western Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, it was suggested that persons from South America, Melanesia, and Africa whose serum exhibits different isolated Gag reactivities did not have genuine HTLV-1 or HTLV-2 infections ( 19 , 21 , 22 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Bridging the Gap Africa founder Harmon Parker who has led efforts to build more than 60 bridges in the region over the past 20 years - many of which have been destroyed by the catastrophic floods and mudslides - responded to the disaster, saying in a statement: 'The magnitude of these floods has devastated the region. (prweb.com)
  • The intraseasonal timescale is critical in Central Africa, because the resources of the region are highly rainfall dependent. (scirp.org)
  • based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect. (scielo.org.za)
  • Over the next 15 months, IOM will partner with Ghana's national, regional and district TB control programmes in five locations (Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolitan, Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality, Prestea-Huni Valley Municipality, Ellembelle District and Jomoro District) in the Western Region. (wordpress.com)
  • They practiced nomadism throughout the entire western Saharan region. (oxfordbibliographies.com)
  • Western Cape is South Africa's premier province for fun in the sun: Cape Town is surrounded by world-class wine routes, stunning scenery and unique West Coast and Garden Route flora and fauna. (southafrica.net)
  • African Sun Guest House is situated at the foot of the Outeniqua Mountains in George along the Garden Route. (places.co.za)
  • This welcoming architect-designed beach house, ideally situated along South Africa's magnificent Garden Route, features four en-suite bedrooms, a private splash pool and a living area that opens out onto a timber deck with a view of the Indian Ocean. (places.co.za)
  • RF TA0T9D - Black African oystercatcher on the beach near Boggams Bay / Mossel Bay, on the Oystercatcher Trail, Garden Route, South Africa. (alamy.com)
  • The national weather service for Wilderness, South Africa is reporting Friday 1st October to be the wettest day in the coming week with around 20.80mm or 0.8 inches of rainfall. (worldweatheronline.com)
  • Validation of TRMM and other rainfall estimates with a high-density gauge dataset for West Africa-part I: validation of GPCC rainfall product and pre-TRMM satellite and blended products," Journal of Applied Meteorology , vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1337-1354, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • From the mid-1900s, Africa slowly gained its independence through a series of coups and uprisings. (wikipedia.org)
  • While colonial administrators often had a narrow, 19th-century concept of government as an arbiter, rather than as an active protagonist of change, the Liberians felt a need actively to enlist the support of Western capital and enterprise if they were to consolidate their rule over African peoples and to maintain the independence of their republic. (britannica.com)
  • SEAVIEW ENTERPRISES is located in PLETTENBERG BAY, Western Cape, South Africa and is part of the Nonresidential Building Construction Industry. (dnb.com)
  • Seeking only to reap the economic and territorial benefits, settlers created quick local governments instead of industrializing Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • So what are Western governments and their North African partners up against? (businessinsider.com)
  • Through their Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs), the IMF and World Bank handed out conditional loans to over 40 African nations, which required governments to implement financial reforms based on free-market strategies of growth. (vice.com)
  • The extant of the chart, reach well into the coastlands of West Africa to the bight of Benin makes apparent its utility to those engaged in underhanded trades. (geographicus.com)
  • Africa as a nation, is capable of feeding on its internally mobilised resources required for absolute development without having to wholly depend on external aid. (ghanaweb.com)
  • On the Mercator map, Africa -- sitting on the equator, reasonably undistorted -- is left looking much smaller than it really is. (cnn.com)
  • The map covers from, roughly, the Arctic Circle to the Equator and from western Florida and Cuba to Sardinia and Denmark. (geographicus.com)
  • The Africa beyond Western Aid initiative is actually a national agenda instead of a government agenda. (ghanaweb.com)
  • This project is an initiative of the Western Cape Government. (westerncape.gov.za)
  • For years, the editorial says, high drug prices in South Africa have stymied efforts to control often-fatal AIDS. (rferl.org)
  • This chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease is taking South Africa by storm, particularly as one of the many side effects of antiretroviral treatments is diabetes. (payfast.co.za)
  • This yogurt will be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea, which is the main cause of death and illness in children in Africa, and a potentially fatal issue for those living with HIV-AIDS. (uwo.ca)
  • managed to get into the Western Saharan city of Laayoune, becoming the first international news team to report from the occupied territory in years. (greenleft.org.au)
  • The main street of Knysna, lined with small boutiques and shops, is actually a part of the N2 highway, which passes directly through the centre of the town en route to the Eastern Cape and beyond. (southafrica.net)
  • Diabetes is a one of the main causes of premature death, and in many parts of Africa life expectancy is reduced to a single year for a person who requires insulin to survive. (payfast.co.za)
  • In Part Two, the main subject-the early documentation of parasitic diseases in Africa and the New World and their transmission by the slave trade-is dealt with. (ajtmh.org)
  • Logistics is the key challenge for digital and bricks & mortar retailers in Africa, with three main dimensions: the mediocre quality and lack of transport infrastructures, the lack of postal addresses, and the difficult and heterogeneous frontier management. (bearingpoint.com)
  • The term 'power of representation and representation of power' sums up quite well how maps and the rise of the Western nation-state system -- and with that, empire and colonialism -- are linked," says Marianne Franklin, professor of Global Media and Politics at Goldsmiths, University of London. (cnn.com)
  • African American Studies strives to be a leader in its outreach programs and desires to directly impact the scholarly and community service activities of Western Illinois University, the Macomb community, west central Illinois and others parts of our immediate and global world. (wiu.edu)
  • Through this technological advantage, Europe was able to successfully claim Africa, its people, and its resources as its own. (wikipedia.org)
  • In South Africa, approximately one in five people over the age of 35 has type 2 diabetes and more than 50% of them are unaware they have it. (payfast.co.za)
  • Diabetes SA is the only non-profit organisation in South Africa providing a service for people with diabetes and their families. (payfast.co.za)
  • People in the town of Bouar, in western Central African Republic (CAR), have been living in fear since the end of December, when the town became one of the theatres for the latest cycle of violence in the country. (allafrica.com)
  • More than 500 000 people die in South Africa every year of which 12% are due to violence, motor vehicle accidents and unnatural head injuries. (westerncape.gov.za)
  • The popular view of AIDS is held up by concerned people desperate to help the millions of Africans stricken with AIDS, the same disease that first afflicted young gay American men in the 1980s. (africaresource.com)
  • African American Studies has built a strong relationship with WIU black alumni and collaborates in ventures that will bring immediate and long-term benefits to communities in Illinois, the United States and the world. (wiu.edu)
  • Although ongoing surveys and taxonomic studies are advancing our knowledge of the biodiversity of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), our understanding of the origins of this diversity and of regional faunas, the relationship of these to the wider Indo-Pacific and of the historical and contemporary processes responsible for the distributions of diversity remains poor. (saiab.ac.za)
  • For the past two decades, mediation efforts to end the longest-running conflict in Africa have foundered, and the world has largely turned its attention elsewhere. (csmonitor.com)