AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain. (1/379)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin.  (+info)

How and why public sector doctors engage in private practice in Portuguese-speaking African countries. (2/379)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the type of private practice supplementary income-generating activities of public sector doctors in the Portuguese-speaking African countries, and also to discover the motivations and the reasons why doctors have not made a complete move out of public service. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative survey. SUBJECTS: In 1996, 28 Angolan doctors, 26 from Guinea-Bissau, 11 from Mozambique and three from S Tome and Principe answered a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: All doctors, except one unemployed, were government employees. Forty-three of the 68 doctors that answered the questionnaire reported an income-generating activity other than the one reported as principal. Of all the activities mentioned, the ones of major economic importance were: public sector medical care, private medical care, commercial activities, agricultural activities and university teaching. The two outstanding reasons why they engage in their various side-activities are 'to meet the cost of living' and 'to support the extended family'. Public sector salaries are supplemented by private practice. Interviewees estimated the time a family could survive on their public sector salary at seven days (median value). The public sector salary still provides most of the interviewees income (median 55%) for the rural doctors, but has become marginal for those in the urban areas (median 10%). For the latter, private practice has become of paramount importance (median 65%). For 26 respondents, the median equivalent of one month's public sector salary could be generated by seven hours of private practice. Nevertheless, being a civil servant was important in terms of job security, and credibility as a doctor. The social contacts and public service gave access to power centres and resources, through which other coping strategies could be developed. The expectations regarding the professional future and regarding the health systems future were related mostly to health personnel issues. CONCLUSION: The variable response rate per question reflects some resistance to discuss some of the issues, particularly those related to income. Nevertheless, these studies may provide an indication of what is happening in professional medical circles in response to the inability of the public sector to sustain a credible system of health care delivery. There can be no doubt that for these doctors the notion of a doctor as a full-time civil-servant is a thing of the past. Switching between public and private is now a fact of life.  (+info)

Evaluation of a quantitative determination of CD4 and CD8 molecules as an alternative to CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in Africans. (3/379)

In the developed word, monitoring HIV-infected patients is routinely determined by CD4+ T lymphocyte absolute counts. The reference procedure, flow cytometry, is expensive, requires sophisticated instrumentation and operators with specific training. Due to these limitations, CD4 counting is often unavailable in developing countries. The Capcellia assay is an enzyme-linked immunoassay for quantitative determination of CD4 and CD8 molecules. We evaluated this method in West Africa on blood samples collected from 39 HIV-uninfected and 44 HIV-infected adult subjects. CD4 concentration ranges were determined according to the clinical stages of the disease. We then studied the relationship between the two methods in the HIV-infected patients. The Spearman's rank correlation was 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.76, P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, determination of limits of agreement revealed discrepancies between the two methods, especially for CD4 counts > 0.4 x 10(9)/l, which are discussed. We conclude that the Capcellia assay is a convenient means to determine the immunodepression level where flow cytometric instrumentation is unavailable, and can be complementary to CD4 T lymphocyte enumeration.  (+info)

Partial sweeping of variation at the Fbp2 locus in a west African population of Drosophila melanogaster. (4/379)

Departure of molecular variation from neutral equilibrium was studied in a highly recombining region of the Drosophila genome. A 2.2-kb region including the Fbp2 locus was sequenced for 10 chromosomes from a D. melanogaster sample from West Africa and for the related species D. simulans. Of the 33 variable sites present in the 1.3-kb transcription unit, 32 made up a single haplotype present in half of the D. melanogaster sample. This pattern significantly departed from predictions of the neutral drift-mutation equilibrium model. The major haplotype presented a diagnostic restriction site which was investigated in 226 chromosomes from three distant European and African populations. It was found at a high frequency (31%) in the population from which the sequenced sample originated, but was nearly absent from the other two (below 4%), suggesting that the major haplotype frequency resulted from a local selective sweep event. Partial sweeping of variation in regions of high recombination rates has previously been found for American and European populations of D. melanogaster. Our study shows that this phenomenon also occurs in African populations, which are in the ancestral range of this species.  (+info)

Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application. (5/379)

Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies.  (+info)

Sequence diversity of TT virus in geographically dispersed human populations. (6/379)

TT virus (TTV) is a newly discovered DNA virus originally classified as a member of the Parvoviridae. TTV is transmitted by blood transfusion where it has been reported to be associated with mild post-transfusion hepatitis. TTV can cause persistent infection, and is widely distributed geographically; we recently reported extremely high prevalences of viraemia in individuals living in tropical countries (e.g. 74% in Papua New Guinea, 83% in Gambia; Prescott & Simmonds, New England Journal of Medicine 339, 776, 1998). In the current study we have compared nucleotide sequences from the N22 region of TTV (222 bases) detected in eight widely dispersed human populations. Some variants of TTV, previously classified as genotypes 1a, 1b and 2, were widely distributed throughout the world, while others, such as a novel subtype of type 1 in Papua New Guinea, were confined to a single geographical area. Five of the 122 sequences obtained in this study (from Gambia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Brazil and Ecuador) could not be classified as types 1, 2 or 3, with the variant from Brazil displaying only 46-50% nucleotide (32-35% amino acid) sequence similarity to other variants. This study provides an indication of the extreme sequence diversity of TTV, a characteristic which is untypical of parvoviruses.  (+info)

Effect of strategic gastrointestinal nematode control on faecal egg count in traditional West African cattle. (7/379)

This paper reports on the effect of strategic anthelmintic treatments and other determinants on faecal egg counts (FEC) of Trichostrongyles in N'Dama cattle of a west African village. Initially, 527 animals from 13 private N'Dama cattle herds were monitored in a longitudinal study from October 1989 to December 1994. Each herd was stratified by age and animals were sequentially allocated to two groups with similar age distributions. One group received a single anthelmintic treatment of fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg BW), in October 1989 (n = 250), whereas the other group remained untreated (n = 277) throughout the study. In the next rainy season (June to October), the treated animals were treated twice (in July and September). The same treatment schedule was used in the subsequent rainy seasons until December 1994. Biannual anthelmintic treatments decreased the level of FEC between 31% (late dry season) and 57% (rainy season), when compared to untreated controls. The highest levels of FEC were found during the rainy season from June to October. FEC levels decreased until 4 years of age, after which they remained on a constant low level. The variability of returns to anthelmintic treatments between herds did not seem to be influenced by FEC at the herd level. The financial evaluation of anthelmintic interventions cannot be predicted from FEC and must necessarily rely on the direct monitoring of livestock productivity parameters.  (+info)

Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa.(8/379)

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*Benon Biraaro

He then served as the chief of the Strategic Planning and Management Unit of the Peace and Security Council at the African ... He then became the commander of the Infantry Division in the Western Region of Uganda. Following that he was appointed deputy ... USA Africa Strategic Studies Course at Nasser Military Academy, Cairo, Egypt Masters in Global Security Studies at Cranfield ...

*South African National Blood Service

Western Cape has a separate blood center, the Western Province Blood Transfusion Service. SANBS was founded in 2001 from a ... The South African National Blood Service, (SANBS), is a non-profit organisation that provides human blood for transfusion that ... operates in South Africa, with the exception of the Western Cape. The head office is in Weltevredenpark, Gauteng, near ... "South Africa lifts ban on gay men donating blood". Retrieved 2015-04-17. SANBS home page. ...

*Salt industry in Ghana

The salt can also be used to make chemical products which historically western Africa has not been capable of making. In 2002, ... Pambros Salt Production Limited, the largest salt producer in western Africa (producing 350,000 tonnes of salt in Ghana and ... The Journal of African Ornithology, however, has conducted comparative studies into two saline coastal wetlands that have been ... of the salt industry in Ghana will be important to the economy and the overall economic development of western Africa in supply ...

*Sorraia

The refuge created for them is in the Vale de Zebro region of south western Portugal, one of places so named because this is ... Genetic evidence has not supported an hypothesis that the Sorraia is related to the Barb horse, an African breed introduced to ... Analysis of mtDNA has been performed on Mustangs in the western United States that show similar mtDNA patterns between some ... as well as its relationship with other breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa. Members of the breed are small, ...

*Blacksmiths of western Africa

... which spread across Western Africa. Throughout Nigeria two more very important West African civilizations arose. The Ife and ... 2002) The Blacksmith's Art from Africa Life Force at the Anvil. Perani, Judith. Smith, Fred T. (1998) The Visual Arts of Africa ... The African Blacksmiths were the key to survival for the Nok, Ife, Oyo, Mande, and Bamana people. The everyday objects were not ... To these African civilizations, iron had become the key to their development and survival, and it was worshiped as such. The ...

*NEPAD African Western and Southern Networks of Centres of Excellence in Water Sciences

Calls of interest have been launched, proposals have been evaluated in the Southern African region and Western African region ... South Africa) Western Cape University (South Africa) University of Malawi (Malawi) University of Zambia (Zambia) University of ... Coordinators of the Network is the University of Stellenbosh of South Africa. Actual members Stellenbosch (South Africa) ... "Consolidation Plan for Africa" 2006 pp72 Munyaradzi Makoni (29 December 2009). "Southern Africa Links Water Research Expertise ...

*List of political parties in Western Africa by country

This is a List of political parties in Western Africa by country, linking to the country list of parties and the political ...

*Endemic birds of western and central Africa

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the World's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds. Birdlife International has defined the following Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs) in the region: São Tomé Principe Upper Guinea forests Cameroon and Gabon lowlands Cameroon mountains Each area has its own set of endemic species, but there are many further species endemic to the region as a whole. In addition the following are classified as Secondary areas (areas with at least one restricted-range bird species, but not meeting the criteria to qualify as EBAs): The following is a list of species endemic to the region: List of endemic bird areas of the ...

*South Western Railway (South Africa)

The South Western Railway Co. Ltd., Also called Knysna Forest Railway, was a 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge forest railway in the ... When the South African Railways (SAR) reached Knysna in 1927, the port lost most of its importance, together with the South ... The South Western Railway had a total of four steam locomotives. The machines were fitted with spark arrestors on the chimneys ... In the mid-1920s the South Western Railway helped constructing an embankment for the new cape gauge railway line to George. ...

*N1 Western Bypass (South Africa)

The Western Bypass is part of the N1 road that spans the length of South Africa, which is the beginning of the famed Cape to ... The Western Bypass is a section of the N1 and the Johannesburg Ring Road located in the city of Johannesburg, South Africa. The ... The Western Bypass ends at the Buccleuch Interchange, where it merges with the N3 and M1 freeways. The interchanges with which ... The Western Bypass is the longest section of the Johannesburg Ring Road. The freeway is mostly four lanes wide in either ...

*Maronite Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Western and Central Africa

The Maronite Apostolic Exarchate extends its jurisdiction over the Maronite faithful living in West and Central Africa. Its ... Maronite Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of West and Central Africa (in Latin: Exarchatus Apostolicus Africae Centralis et ... this is the first ecclesiastical circumscription of an Eastern Catholic Church established in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Its first ... also appointed apostolic visitor to the Maronite faithful residents in Southern Africa. Simon Faddoul, (since 13 January 2014) ...

*Western Province cricket team (South Africa)

Western Province cricket team is the team representing Western Cape province in domestic first-class cricket in South Africa. ... Western Province still competes under its provincial name in the UCB Provincial series. As Western Province, the team won the ... 1988-89 Under the reorganisation of professional South African cricket in the 1990s and more recently, Western Province joined ... 2002-03 South African Airways Provincial Three-Day Challenge (2) - 2010-11, 2013-14 South African Airways Provincial One-Day ...

*List of heritage sites in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

This is a list of the heritage sites in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, as recognized by the South African Heritage ... the provincial heritage resources authority of the Western Cape Province of South Africa, please see the entries at the end of ... In the instance of these sites the "identifier" code used is that of Heritage Western Cape rather than SAHRA. For performance ... For additional provincial heritage sites declared by Heritage Western Cape, ...

*White Oak Conservation

The Somali wild ass's remaining wild population of fewer than 2,000 is found in small, scattered pockets of western Africa. As ... "Africa's Western Black Rhino declared extinct". MSNBC. Retrieved 3 June 2013. "Diceros bicornis (Black Rhinoceros, Hook-lipped ... The Addra gazelle-a member of the antelope family found primarily in the grasslands and woods of Africa-is one of a few ... Native to lands across Africa, the roan antelope is in the family of "horse antelopes" and can weigh up to 750 pounds. They are ...

*Constantia, Cape Town

Elizondo, Lauren (24 August 2013). "Why You Should Know About South Africa's Western Cape Winelands". Dream Plan Go. Chisholm, ... It is considered to be one of the most prestigious suburbs in South Africa. The Constantia Valley lies to the east of and at ... Sheik Abdurachman is regarded as one of the three people that first brought Islam to South Africa. The kramat at Klein ... From the mid-1800s to the 1960s, Constantia remained a rural area of wine estates in which African and coloured residents ...

*Early history of Nigeria

"Western Africa". www.britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 November 2017. ... West African Journal of Archsmelting furnaces at Taruga dating from the 4th century BC provide the oldest evidence of ...

*Amílcar Cabral Cup

The teams are all in Confederation of African Football's (CAF) Zone 2, i.e. Western Africa. In some years, when a team withdrew ... The Amílcar Cabral Cup was an international association football tournament for Western African nations. The competition ...

*Afro-Antiguan and Barbudan

Codrington and others brought slaves from Africa's western coast to work the plantations. Africans started arriving in Antigua ... 16,000 Africans). Other African slaves came from the Windward Coast (11,000 Africans), the West Central Africa (9,000 Africans ... the Bight of Benin (6,000 Africans), Senegambia (5,000 Africans), Guinea and Sierra Leone (4,000 Africans). Settlers raised ... Most of the enslaved Africans brought to Antigua and Barbuda disembarked from the Bight of Biafra (22,000 Africans) and the ...

*Succulent Karoo

The ecoregion extends inland into the uplands of South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is bounded on the south by the ... "Southern Africa: Southern Namibia into South Africa , Ecoregions , WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2017-07-13. "Succulent ... The Succulent Karoo is a desert ecoregion of South Africa and Namibia. The Succulent Karoo stretches along the coastal strip of ... Monkey beetles, largely endemic to southern Africa, are concentrated in the Succulent Karoo and are important pollinators of ...

*Middle Stone Age

... southern Africa, which includes the numerous cave sites of South Africa; and western Africa. In northern and western Africa, ... Blombos Cave, South Africa Klasies River Caves, South Africa Sibudu Cave, South Africa Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa ... "Central Africa and the emergence of regional identity in the Middle Pleistocene" In Human Roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle ... Central Africa reflects similar patterning to eastern Africa, yet more archaeological research of the region is certainly ...

*White-crowned cliff chat

Borrow, Nik; Demey, Ron (2001). Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. p. 615. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. "Mocking Cliff-chat ( ... is a species of chat in the family Muscicapidae which occurs in rocky habitats in much of western Sub-Saharan Africa. There are ... Thamnolaea coronata coronata Reichenow, 1902: northern Ivory Coast and eastern Burkina Faso east patchily to western South ...

*African yellow warbler

Borrow, Nik; Demey, Ron (2001). Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. pp. 624-625. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. "African Yellow Warbler ... north-western & western Mozambique, eastern South Africa from the east of Limpopo south to the central Eastern Cape, and ... African yellow warbler - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. recordings on Xeno-Canto. ... western and southern Kenya and north -western and north-eastern Tanzania. Iduna natalensis major (E. J. O. Hartert, 1904) - ...

*Aphyosemion bivittatum

"Aphyosemiom bivittatum (Lönnberg 1895)". Killifish of Western Africa. Retrieved 16 October 2016. Butler, Rhett. "Two Stripe ...

*Baglafecht weaver

Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Peter (2003). Birds of Africa south of the ... Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Peter (2010). Birds of Africa south of the Sahara (2nd ed.). Cape Town: Struik Nature. pp. 670-671. ISBN ... It is found in Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, DRC, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Sudan ... is a species of weaver bird from the family Ploceidae which is found in eastern and central Africa. The origin of the word ...

*João de Lisboa

Western Europe Chart 10: West Africa and Brazilian Northeast. Chart 11: Guinea Gulf; Chart 12: Western Africa; Chart 13: ... Eastern Africa; Chart 14: Southwest islands in the Indian Ocean; Chart 15: Red Sear and Persian Gulf; Chart 16: From Persian ... From the Brazilian northeast to the west of Africa; Chart 7: South Atlantic islands; Chart 8: North Atlantic, with Bacallaos ...

*John Cole (cricketer)

John Cole (3 March 1933 - 25 May 2014) was a South African cricketer. He played first-class cricket for Western Province and ...

*African skimmer

Birds of Western Africa. A & C Black. p. 466. ISBN 0-7136-3959-8. "Rynchops flavirostris (African skimmer)". Biodiversity ... African skimmers are partial intra-African migrants, they arrive in southern Africa when the water level of rivers starts ... Iziko Museums of South Africa. Retrieved 2016-11-11. African skimmer - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds.. ... The African skimmer is generally uncommon and the total populations is estimated at 15,000-25,000 individuals. African skimmers ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Brooks, George E. - Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781452088716
UCSF researchers have been actively involved with capacity building and technical assistance for HIV care and prevention in Western Africa. Prevention and Public Health Group (PPHG) (formerly the Institute for Global Health) supports PEPFAR implementation in Nigeria, among other countries.The International Teaching and Education Center for Heath (I-TECH) is involved with the development of electronic laboratory information systems for 3 central laboratories, and rapid scale-up for HIV care and treatment services in Cote dIvoire.. UCSF researchers also work on malaria in the region, exploring malaria drug resistance and supporting countries in their malaria elimination efforts. The Proctor Foundation addresses trachoma in The Gambia and Niger. ...
Western Africa: free map, free outline map, free blank map, free base map, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF : boundaries, hydrography, main cities, names (white)
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the spread of Ebola in West Africa an international health emergency.WHO officials said a coordinated international response was essential to stop and reverse the spread of the virus.The announcement came after experts convened a two-day emergency meeting in Switzerland.So far more than 930 people have died from Ebola in West Africa this year.The United Nations health agency said the outbreak was an "extraordinary event"."The possible consequences of further international spread are particularly serious in view of the virulence of the virus, the intensive community and health facility transmission patterns, and the weak health systems in the currently affected and most at-risk countries," it said in a statement.TAG:WHO: Ebola an international emergencyEbola outbreak in West Africa global emergency - CNN.comWHO declares Ebola outbreak an international public health ..WHO declares Ebola epidemic a global emergency - YahoWHO: Ebola an international ...
FAOs DRM programme in West Africa and the Sahel seeks to protect, reinforce and restore the livelihoods and food security of the most vulnerable populations affected by slow or sudden onset crises
African Digital Art is a celebration of the culture of art, design and technology in Africa. Created and developed by Jepchumba, the platform covers a wide range of artistic production from; audio/visual production, animation, interactive projects, web, film, graphic art and design. Our focus is on artistic work or practice that utilizes digital technology as an essential part of the creative, presentation or distribution process ...
Child, Djenne Photo & image by Mark William Brunner ᐅ View and rate this photo free at fotocommunity.de. Discover more images here.
So is there anything I am worried about? And why do I think the outbreak in western Africa is so big and has been going on for so long? Im worried that citizens in the U.S. would never be as forthcoming about turning themselves in for isolation as the people in northern Uganda were. And I think this is the crux of the problem in western Africa today.. Remember I said the path to isolation starts when a person presents to the isolation ward? Well, that step is essential. The reason Im not worried about the two people being treated for Ebola virus in the United States right now is that they are in a hospital being cared for by experts. Not only does it increase their chance of fighting the disease-because they will get the best support possible-but it decreases the chances of anyone they love getting the disease.. These two did the right thing. When they thought they had Ebola they followed the normal procedures and went into isolation. At Lacor Hospital, I saw the same thing. People there ...
The Ebola River runs through the Democratic Republic of the Congo and it was in that region in the mid 70s that a new virus was discovered. Since then, six distinct varieties of the virus have been isolated with Ebola Zaire making the news recently for its rise in western Africa. It belongs to the…
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
The Niger River and smaller rivers and streams flow northward out of Lake Debo in landlocked Mali in Western Africa. This region is part of the Inner Niger Delta, an intricate combination of lakes, river channels, and swamps with occasional areas of higher elevation. Known as the Macina, this wet oasis in the African Sahel is one of the largest wetlands in the world and provides habitat both for migrating birds and for West African manatees. This Terra image from 2003 shows the region during the dry season. On the right, water in rivers, streams, and lakes appears blue. On the left, the water turns greener, perhaps because of sediment. The reddish ridges running from east to west in the bottom half of the image are dunes. The pale-gray or white areas between the dunes are flat areas of silt, clay, or sandy soil. Blue shows where water has filled in between some of the dunes. less ...
SES-4 will be a hybrid satellite featuring high powered C-band coverage and incremental global capacity which is ideal for video distribution, government and VSAT services. The satellites Ku-band payload will provide enhanced coverage and capacity across Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Western Africa and Latin America. SES-4 will bring a substantial increase in the total capacity available at 338 degrees east.. The state-of-the-art spacecraft has been specifically designed for its orbital location, with C-band beams serving the eastern hemisphere of Europe/Africa, full Americas coverage as well as a global beam to support mobile and maritime customers.. Four high powered regional Ku-band beams will provide service to Europe, the Middle East, West Africa, North America and South America with extensive cross-strapping between C- and Ku-band transponders providing enhanced connectivity.. SES-4 sports a total of 52 C-band and 72 Ku-band transponders and has an anticipated service life of 15 ...
Public health measures in the developed world have dramatically reduced mortality from viral epidemics. But when epidemics do occur, they can spread quickly with global air travel. In 2009, an outbreak of H1N1 influenza spread across various continents. In early 2014, cases of Ebola in Guinea led to a massive epidemic in western Africa. This included the case of an infected man who traveled to the United States, sparking fears the epidemic might spread beyond Africa.. Until the late 1930s and the advent of the electron microscope, no one had seen a virus. Yet treatments for preventing or curing viral infections were used and developed long before that. Historical records suggest that by the 17th century, and perhaps earlier, inoculation (also known as variolation) was being used to prevent the viral disease smallpox in various parts of the world. By the late 18th century, Englishman Edward Jenner was inoculating patients with cowpox to prevent smallpox, a technique he coined ...
In recent years, patriotism has increased amongst the nations of Johnny Foreigner, spreading throughout the peoples of Middle East, Asia, Africa and South America like a wild fire. Patriotism in foreigners is called "nationalism", and is a virulent and terrible thing, as nobody is allowed to be proud of their own country but us.. Outbreaks of Patriotism were seen in several Central and South American states during the 18th and 19th centuries, along with other gifts from their European Colonial benefactors such as clothes, cholera and smallpox. However, patriotism became pandemic in many places such as Peru, Bolivia and Cuba during the 20th century.. An unusual strain of patriotism was discovered throughout the Middle East in the latter half of the 20th century. Known as the Anti-American Strain (Imperius Wankiyank) the virus spread from the Cashmir in the East through to Western Africa. Causing intense heat to the temple, forcing victims to wear tight towels, the virus literally exploded in ...
Beautiful and shy, African golden cats are medium-sized wild cats found in the forests of central and western Africa. Continue reading to know about the physical characteristics, the habitat, the diet, and the life span of these fascinating cats.
Kindomihou Valentin, Ambouta Karimou Jean Marie, Sinsin Brice: Diversity of Soil Fertility Management Practices in the Sudanian Zone of Benin (Western Africa)
The MOU was concluded under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and came into effect on 3 October 2008. It will remain open for signature indefinitely. It aims to achieve and maintain a favourable conservation status for manatees and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia and their habitats and to safeguard the associated values of these species for the people of the region.
Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia. ...
The Ebola virus presents a particularly nasty way to die. "Early symptoms of the disease include … sudden fever, chills and muscle aches," the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, explains. "Around the fifth day after onset of symptoms, a skin rash can occur. Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, a sore throat, abdominal pain and diarrhea may follow. Symptoms become increasingly severe and may include jaundice, severe weight loss, mental confusion, shock and multi-organ failure.". There is no known cure or vaccine for the virus, and as many as 90 percent of those who contract the disease die from it.. But what are the odds of it infecting the U.S.? And could the porous southern border provide an avenue for Ebola to enter the country?. Though no case of the disease has ever been reported in the U.S., the World Health Organization admits the current outbreak in Western Africa - which has infected at least two Americans working in relief efforts there - is the worst on record. Doctors ...
Robert Plants fascination with the blues goes back to his early days as lead singer for Led Zeppelin. Plant says the roots of that uniquely American art form may be traced to the deserts of Western Africa. He tells NPRs Renee Montagne about the connection he discovered at the Festival in the Desert, a gathering of nomads and musicians in Mali. Hear an extended interview and songs from the 2003 festival CD.
Hi. Thank you for your question. As far as HIV-2 is concerned, this virus is only rarely found outside of Western Africa. This is a separate virus from HIV-1 (not a strain of HIV-1). The major...
A drastic action is all set to be planned against the deadliest ever Ebola virus as the epidemic spreads across western Africa and new cases emerge
Map of the Northern Hemisphere, including the Americas, "Mer du Sud," "Mer du Nord," western Europe, western Africa and eastern Asia, which shows major rivers and ports plus explorers navigational routes. Illustrations include Niagara Falls, Cape ...
Over the past few months, the spread of Ebola in Western Africa has been widely reported in the news.. Retail Council of Canada (RCC) is in regular contact with the Public Health Agency of.... ...
As a result of the rediscovery, genetic analyses have now been done on the species, and revealed something rather interesting - the species is a "living fossil," not possessing any close relatives in the world, and being the last species of a group which was previously endemic to Europe, some one million years ago.. When it was first discovered in the 1940s, the Hula painted frog was categorized within the Discoglossus group, but as the new genetic analyses have revealed the species doesnt really fit in that group at all. And unfortunately, isnt closely related to the strange Horror Frog either, and doesnt possess any its interesting traits.. When the genetic analyses are taken together with morphologic analyses of extant and fossil bones, it becomes clear that the Hula frog is quite different from its relatives - the painted frogs of northern and western Africa. Interestingly, the species is most closely related to a genus of fossil frogs - Latonia - which previously lived throughout much of ...
Benti: Town and seaport, western Guinea, western Africa. It lies at the head of the estuary of the Mélikhouré (Melacorée) River, 10 miles (16 km) upstream from the Atlantic coast. Important...
Support on gender, accountability to affected populations (AAP), programming and close monitoring to four national resilience and humanitarian projects in Western Africa and the Sahel ...
Abu-Rajab, R.B. and Findlay, H. and Young, D. and Jones, B. and Ingram, R. (2009) Weight changes following lower limb arthroplasty : a prospective observational study. Scottish Medical Journal, 54 (1). pp. 26-28. ISSN 0036-9330 Abubakari, A. R. and Jones, M. C. and Lauder, W. and Kirk, A. and Agyemang, C. O. and Bhopal, R.S. (2009) Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: the epidemic has arrived. Public Health, 123 (9). pp. 602-614. ISSN 0033-3506 Ahn, Song-ee and Rimpiläinen, Sanna and Theodorsson, Annette and Fenwick, Tara and Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt (2015) Learning in technology-enhanced medical simulation : locations and knowings. Professions and Professionalism, 5 (3). ISSN 1893-1049 Allen, Carolyn R. (2011) The use of email as a component of adult stammering therapy : a preliminary report. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 17 (4). pp. 163-167. ISSN 1357-633X Anderson, E.M. and Mandeville, R.P. and Hutchinson, S.J. and ...
Côte dIvoires leading apparel factory is growing, in part thanks to vital, timely assistance from the U.S. Government as it expands capacity and hires unemployed youth, the Director of USAID West Africa learned during an August 24 visit to Osey Collections factory. "Osez Osey!" [Dare, Osey!] said Mr. Alex Deprez, encouraging employees at the factory… Read More. ...
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is observed on the third Monday in January. This delicious soup, made with soul food ingredients, is perfect to serve at your upcoming MLK, Jr. celebration. - West African Peanut Soup Recipe - Quick Cooking at BellaOnline
West Africa is the western region of Africa. In the north the region is bounded by the Sahel, and in the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. The most densely populated area of Africa with many places to see.
Ebola death toll is nearing the 4,000 mark with 3,879 people killed out of 8,033 cases in West Africa by the end of October 5, warns the World Health Organization (WHO).
DAKAR, June 5 (Reuters) - The European Union committed 50 million euros ($56 million) on Monday to help the countries of West Africa's Sahel region set up...
Research and testing of potential vaccines is a slow-moving process. As authorities strive to contain the current West African epidemic, scientists are already looking toward the next outbreak.
Additionally, watchful assessment of the best means of utilizing these interventions (e.g., vaccination or treatment method of contacts vs . health care workers) are going to be demanded while stocks continue being limited. To the medium expression, at least, we must therefore face the likelihood that EVD will turn out to be endemic Amongst the human inhabitants of West Africa, a prospect that has never Formerly been contemplated. The potential risk of ongoing epidemic growth along with the prospect of endemic EVD in West Africa call for by far the most forceful implementation of current Handle actions and for that speedy progress and deployment of new medication and vaccines ...
At the One Step Patient Transfer Center, our goal is to ensure all patients receive the right level of care when time, speed, and skill are critical.
Both WHO and some national public health agencies such as the CDC monitor and prepare for emerging infectious diseases. An emerging infectious disease is either new to the human population or has shown an increase in prevalence in the previous twenty years. Whether the disease is new or conditions have changed to cause an increase in frequency, its status as emerging implies the need to apply resources to understand and control its growing impact.. Emerging diseases may change their frequency gradually over time, or they may experience sudden epidemic growth. The importance of vigilance was made clear during the Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic in western Africa through 2014-2015. Although health experts had been aware of the Ebola virus since the 1970s, an outbreak on such a large scale had never happened before (Figure 12.14). Previous human epidemics had been small, isolated, and contained. Indeed, the gorilla and chimpanzee populations of western Africa had suffered far worse from Ebola than ...
Chocolate, which you probably know, comes from the cacao bean. Most of the cacao farms are over in Western Africa, Asia and Latin America. Hersheys, Mars, and Nestle are some of the worlds largest cacao (also known as cocoa) purchasers from these countries, mostly in Western Africa. The chocolate industry, especially this time of year, has a high demand on CHEAP chocolate in massive quantities. On average, cacao farmers earn way below the poverty line of $2 a day; and if that wasnt bad enough, because they need cheap cacao quickly in large quantities, they have resorted to using child labor. Often times, these children are sold to these large farms by their family members with a promise of high pay and good living conditions. Little do they know that they are working for basically pennies, eating things like corn paste, rarely get any water, and may never see their families again. But other times, these children are literally abducted from their villages without parental consent, often seeing ...
May 15, 2017. The protagonists of cybercrime in the western part of the African continent are teenagers or even younger, high school students, boys, girls, men and women from all social classes. The majority of them for the past decade dropped out of school to devote themselves to cybercrime so as to earn a lot of money rapidly. Their office is the internet café, where they quarrel and joke in an ambiance of noisy excitement. When they earn money - up to millions of U.S. dollars - they loudly demand respect from everyone. They rent apartments and buy new cars and laptop computers.. ...
Gabons government was stepping up efforts to contain an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus, restricting access to an entire province affected by the disease.
SATURDAY, 11th of January, 1862, was a memorable day in the history of the Mission. It was the day on which the foundation was laid of the first church at Domingia, on the Great Pongo River, by King Katty, in the presence of a large number of people, and, as was reported, "amid the roars of cannon.". After this was done, and the new schoolmaster, Mr. Maurice, had been settled at his work at Fallangia, Mr. Duport started on a missionary tour up the Fattalah River, visiting and preaching in many of the towns. At the end of January he found it necessary to go to Freetown on business connected with the mission house; and while returning, the captain of the vessel carried him about eighty miles out of his way, to the north-west of the river, and entered the Rio Nunez. This was the first visit of any of our missionaries to this important river. For three days the vessel ascended the stream. The banks were lined on both sides with the establishments of French merchants and their Jaloff factors. [An ...
Digital Photography Review: All the latest digital camera reviews and digital imaging news. Lively discussion forums. Vast samples galleries and the largest database of digital camera specifications.
Day 1 We will leave London in the morning on a direct flight to Boa Vista. Arriving in the early afternoon we will catch an internal flight to Santiago, where we will check into our comfortable hotel for a three-night stay. If time permits, we will birdwatch locally and may see our first endemic bird, Cape Verde Sparrow. Three nights on Santiago.. Days 2-3 We will have two days to explore the island and search for three more endemic species: Cape Verde Buzzard, Cape Verde Swift and Cape Verde Swamp-warbler. Although the number of species on the islands is relatively small, there are several endemic sub-species that may be given specific status in the future and we will look for them all. At the top of the list will be the critically-endangered "Bournes Heron" (Purple Heron). This heron has evolved a rather strange feeding strategy, spending much of its time hunting on rocky mountain slopes rather than in marshes and reedbeds. We will also visit a small reservoir where, on our previous tour, we ...
Abstract The research project on the epidemiology and control of malaria conducted in the Garki District, Kano State, jointly by the Government of Nigeria and the World Health Organization included among its objectives the study of the baseline epidemiology prior to the introduction of any control measures. The present paper analyzes the project's data with respect to the relationships among the three species of Plasmodium present, P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. Parasitemia with P. falciparum or P. malariae is more likely in the presence than in the absence of the other species. Among persons positive for P. falciparum, those with a higher density of parasitemia are more likely to have P. malariae also than those with a lower density of P. falciparum parasitemia. There is a pronounced seasonal alternation in prevalence between P. falciparum and P. malariae.
The report, in placing Cape Verde in 2050 as one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with the aggravating factor of coming in sixth position in the ranking of countries on the continent with the highest percentage of urban population, is expected to put the governing class on red alert regarding policies and measures to be undertaken in the coming decades.. The situation calls for planning strategies and the responsible use of land (which is an extremely scarce resource in Cape Verde), as well as measures in the areas of health, education and the encouragement of rural activities as a way of maintaining current rural populations in place and attracting new inhabitants to the countryside.. Such measures will be necessary to keep Cape Verde from having highly disorganized cities featuring a young population devoid of direction and perspectives. The programs and measures to be developed will have to be elaborated for the long term, and will require a great deal of funding and ...
The West African Students Union (WASU), founded in London in 1925 and active into the 1960s, was an association of students from various West African countries who were studying in the United Kingdom. WASU was founded on 7 August 1925 by twenty-one law students, led by Ladipo Solanke and Herbert Bankole-Bright. Solanke had founded the Nigerian Progress Union (NPU), for London-based students with a Nigerian background, the previous year. With the support of Amy Ashwood Garvey, it had begun to campaign for improved welfare for all African students in London, and for assorted measures for progress in Britains African colonies. As early as 1923, Solanke had proposed that the Union of Students of African Descent (USAD), a Christian social organisation dominated by students from the West Indies (and which had grown out of the earlier West African and West Indian Christian Union, founded in 1917), should incorporate itself into the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA). In 1925, ...
... Core Views Economic activity in Cape Verde will accelerate over the comingquarters as the country - Market research report and industry analysis - 11170827
Africa is one of the endemic regions of HBV infection. In particular, genotype E is highly endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa such as West African countries where it represents more than 90% of total infections. Madagascar, which is classified as a high endemic area for HBV and where the most prevalent genotype is E, might play a relevant role in the dispersion of this genotype due to its crucial position in the Indian Ocean. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin, population dynamics, and circulation of HBV-E genotype in Madagascar through high-resolution phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Malagasy isolates were intermixed and closely related with sequences mostly from West African countries. The Bayesian tree highlighted three statistically supported clusters of Malagasy strains which dated back to the years 1981 (95% HPD: 1971-1992), 1986 (95% HPD: 1974-1996), and 1989 (95% HPD: 1974-2001). Population dynamics analysis showed an exponential
Background: The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in Western Africa is the largest in recorded history and control efforts have so far failed to stem the rapid growth in the number of infections. Mathematical models serve a key role in estimating epidemic growth rates and the reproduction number (R0) from surveillance data and, recently, molecular sequence data. Phylodynamic analysis of existing EBOV time-stamped sequence data may provide independent estimates of the unobserved number of infections, reveal recent epidemiological history, and provide insight into selective pressures acting upon viral genes.. Methods: We fit a series mathematical models of infectious disease dynamics to phylogenies estimated from 78 whole EBOV genomes collected from distinct patients in May and June of 2014 in Sierra Leone, and perform evolutionary analysis on these genomes combined with closely related EBOV genomes from previous outbreaks. Two analyses are conducted with values of the latent period that have been used ...
FREETOWN (AFP) - A woman in Sierra Leone has died from the Ebola virus, a health ministry official announced on Wednesday, the second person in the west African country to succumb to the haemorrhagic fever.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
The West African Sahel region is a corner of the world that Steven Maranz, PhD, knows well.. He spent part of his childhood there and worked with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in the region. Maranz is currently a visiting scientist with the David H. Murdock Research Institute, a provider of collaborative and contract research services located on the NC Research Campus in Kannapolis.. His appreciation for the culture in Western Africa as well as a concern for the debilitating health issues plaguing the region led him to research the potential of a microbial approach to issues of malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. An idea that is moving from concept to reality thanks to the support of a Bill and Melinda Gates Challenge grant.. He is researching microbes that can be added to foods to produce the carotenoids the human body needs to make vitamin A. When carotenoids are consumed in foods like carrots, sweet potato, squash and cantaloupe, the body is able to ...
Book Surfactivity Guest House, Cape Verde on TripAdvisor: See 35 traveller reviews, 58 candid photos, and great deals for Surfactivity Guest House, ranked #1 of 13 B&Bs / inns in Cape Verde and rated 5 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Improved water source; urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde was last measured at 91.20 in 2012, according to the World Bank. Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Improved water source - urban (% of urban population with access) in Cape Verde.
HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for |50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of
There are continuing challenges in various aspects of hypertension research and, obviously, these are reflected in the current issue of the Journal of Hypertension.. A major problem and societal challenge is the rapidly increasing prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Africa. An overview of recent studies published by Commodore-Mensah et al. (pp. 464-472) shows a high prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity in Western Africa (Nigeria and Ghana), with minimal differences between rural and urban populations, and populations living in Africa or migrated to industrialized countries. In another study from Nigeria, Nelissen et al. (pp. 487-494) report a high prevalence of 32% organ damage among hypertensive adults with almost a quarter of grade 1 hypertensive patients having signs of organ damage. As organ damage screening is often unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa, the authors suggest antihypertensive treatment for all patients with hypertension.. There ...
These seeds are ready for the press. The fruit itself is turned into "Palm oil," while the nut is used for "Kernel oil." This is the local variety grown by smallholders. (Copyright Jan-Joseph Stok / Greenpeace). A perfect illustration of this false dilemma is Herakles Farms rhetoric in relation to their latest project in Cameroon. Clearing of forest has recently begun; but this forest is important because it provides a key corridor between five protected areas including the iconic Korup National Park. This concession sits within the Guinean forested region of western Africa, which has been identified as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hotspots on earth, and is roughly 10 times the size of Manhattan, the island that is home to the headquarters of Herakles Farms.. The forests of Cameroon store huge amounts of carbon, critical to maintaining the global climate and preventing huge emissions of CO2, but they are also essential for local communities. These forests provide a home and income ...
These seeds are ready for the press. The fruit itself is turned into "Palm oil," while the nut is used for "Kernel oil." This is the local variety grown by smallholders. (Copyright Jan-Joseph Stok / Greenpeace). A perfect illustration of this false dilemma is Herakles Farms rhetoric in relation to their latest project in Cameroon. Clearing of forest has recently begun; but this forest is important because it provides a key corridor between five protected areas including the iconic Korup National Park. This concession sits within the Guinean forested region of western Africa, which has been identified as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hotspots on earth, and is roughly 10 times the size of Manhattan, the island that is home to the headquarters of Herakles Farms.. The forests of Cameroon store huge amounts of carbon, critical to maintaining the global climate and preventing huge emissions of CO2, but they are also essential for local communities. These forests provide a home and income ...
What Is African Mango? Losing weight is a challenge for most people,but fortunately, African mango can make this process a little simpler. African mango, which is also known as Irvingia gabonesis, is a fruit that is native to the rainforests in Western Africa. Today, the extract from African mango is frequently used as a supplement. What Are Some of the Benefits of Using African Mango? Weight loss is one of the main benefits that can be reaped from using African mango. Researchers have...
Genetic studies have revealed that most African Americans trace the majority (75-80%, on average) of their ancestry to western Africa. Most of the remaining ancestry traces to Europe, and paternal lines trace to Europe more often than maternal lines. This genetic pattern is consistent with the "One Drop Rule," a social history wherein children born with at least one ancestor of African descent were considered Black in the United States. The question of how many European Americans have DNA evidence of African ancestry has been studied far less. We examined genetic ancestry for over 77,000 customers of 23andMe who had consented to participate in research. Most live in the United States. A subset of about 60,000 shows genetic evidence of fewer than one in 16 great-great-grandparents tracing ancestry to a continental region other than Europe. They are likely to consider themselves to be entirely of European descent. We conducted two analyses to understand what fraction of this group has genetic ...
Genetic studies have revealed that most African Americans trace the majority (75-80%, on average) of their ancestry to western Africa. Most of the remaining ancestry traces to Europe, and paternal lines trace to Europe more often than maternal lines. This genetic pattern is consistent with the "One Drop Rule," a social history wherein children born with at least one ancestor of African descent were considered Black in the United States. The question of how many European Americans have DNA evidence of African ancestry has been studied far less. We examined genetic ancestry for over 77,000 customers of 23andMe who had consented to participate in research. Most live in the United States. A subset of about 60,000 shows genetic evidence of fewer than one in 16 great-great-grandparents tracing ancestry to a continental region other than Europe. They are likely to consider themselves to be entirely of European descent. We conducted two analyses to understand what fraction of this group has genetic ...
Genetic studies have revealed that most African Americans trace the majority (75-80%, on average) of their ancestry to western Africa. Most of the remaining ancestry traces to Europe, and paternal lines trace to Europe more often than maternal lines. This genetic pattern is consistent with the "One Drop Rule," a social history wherein children born with at least one ancestor of African descent were considered Black in the United States. The question of how many European Americans have DNA evidence of African ancestry has been studied far less. We examined genetic ancestry for over 77,000 customers of 23andMe who had consented to participate in research. Most live in the United States. A subset of about 60,000 shows genetic evidence of fewer than one in 16 great-great-grandparents tracing ancestry to a continental region other than Europe. They are likely to consider themselves to be entirely of European descent. We conducted two analyses to understand what fraction of this group has genetic ...
I argue that the same two arguments should then also be applied to other local health care workers who are on the forefront of treating patients with Ebola in Western Africa. WHO report states that more than 240 health workers got infected and more than120 health care workers; mainly local doctors and nurses have died due to Ebola while carrying out their duties during this outbreak (2). Being locals, they were a resource, knowing the communities, understanding the grass root reality, speaking the local language and hence crucial to provide care to the patients. Many African countries already face major shortage of trained health care professionals (3). Death of these health care workers has further weakened the health care delivery system. If American health care professionals received the experimental drug for supererogatory reasons, the local health care workers also qualify for the same unless supererogatory reasons require traveling to a foreign country to provide health care in dangerous ...
The body representing nations in western Africa has suspended Mali and has put a peacekeeping force on standby in the most direct threat yet to the junta that seized control of this nation in a coup last week.
A total of 752 individuals from The Gambia, west Africa who are representative of the major ethnic groups in the capital, Banjul, were serologically typed for HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens. Although all were typically African in their antigenic profiles, some marked frequency differences were found between the ethnic groups. Genetic distance comparisons with several other African populations showed that, although these west African populations clustered closely together, the positions of the various ethnic groups in The Gambia were consistent with historical and linguistic evidence of their affinities with one another and with other African populations. Despite the potential confounding effects both of selection by infectious diseases and of genetic drift caused by local differences in population structure, HLA frequencies appear to be of value in measuring inter- and intraregional population affinities in sub-Saharan Africa.
In August of 2005, humanitarian action in favour of severely and moderately malnourished children was finally triggered on a wide scale. Thanks to support from the Regional Office for Western Africa and Headquarters, the Niamey Country Office has played an effective, decisive role in the process by assuming technical leadership and a coordination role in the area of nutrition through its support to the Ministry of Public Health and in cooperation with NGOs in the field. The initial objective was to offer services best suited to the population that had not been available so far in order to save childrens lives. Quality assurance was developed through the adoption of a protocol for the management of malnutrition, the establishment of training programmes for its use, and the design of a monitoring system. Quality assurance has been in a state of constant improvement since September 2005, at which date a strengthening of qualified human resources clearly took place at the central as well as the ...
The key factors bolstering the market growth are the outbreak of Ebola in Central and Western Africa, and near tropical rainforests.
Cocoa closed a little lower. Ideas are that current low prices should create new demand and that the main crop harvest is over in Western Africa and much of Asia so that supplies on offer could also be less.
Bay Area researchers are being put on call to help analyze a deadly Ebola virus that has killed hundreds in Western Africa, while the government says an experimental vaccine is in the works.
Individuals who have been exposed to a communicable disease will be identified, notified and treated in accordance with the directives of the Public Health Department. Ebola Information (updated October 24, 2014) The University of Kansas is monitoring the Ebola outbreak in western Africa. At present, no immediate threat to our campuses has been identified.
The area of Bahia was one of the first to be settled by the Portuguese. In 1549 the Portuguese established the city of Salvador, which became the administrative and religions capital of the Portuguese colonies in South America until 1763. It was the center of sugar cultivation in Brazil from the 16th to the 18th Centuries. This high demand for sugar production resulted in the importantion of vast numbers of slaves from western africa; with more than 37 % of all slaves being sent to Brazil. The catholic archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia serves as the Cardinal Primate of all Brazil, and Salvador, the capital of the state, has the highest number of churches than any other state capital in Brazil. ...
Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) is a psychedelic plant that is native to central Western Africa that has shown the ability to alleviate addiction in individuals that have alcohol, cocaine, or heroin dependency. Currently, the pharmacological options that we have to treat these addictions are limited and fairly ineffective. Ibogaine (one of the alkaloid structures in Iboga) has shown to have some effectiveness in helping sufferers kick their particular habit. One single session with the plant can remove all cravings for up to six months and multiple sessions with the substance can remove cravings for years.
... is native to Eastern and Western Africa, the species reaches heights of 5 to 30 metres in length and has a trunk diameter of 7 to 11 metres. The oil is derived from the seeds of the Baobab tree and the pulp of the fruiBaobab C
Attacks on oil and gas production sites in the Niger Delta are threatening both production volumes and power supply of West African countries.
Short-horned flies of West Africa. Brachycera of West Africa. Checklist of Brachycera (Short-horned flies) species in West Africa
The Admixture Structure and Genetic Variation of the Archipelago of Cape Verde and Its Implications for Admixture Mapping Studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Guinea-Bissau policeman Edmundo Mendes got a tip that South American drug traffickers had dumped 2 tons of cocaine off the coast of his West African country and marked it with a buoy so confederates
Thanks to our partner: NOAA. For the month of January, average values for station „Espargos/Cape Verde" were calculated from climate data measured between the years 1994 and 2005.. ...
Hi, were going to Cape Verde over New Year and know that jabs are advised but are they compulsory? Has anyone here been and did you have them? Can
Youve arrived a day late, said Khyra, the local singer we befriended outside a bar on our first night in Cape Verde. Yesterday was the big night here in Praia.
Risk Alleles for Type 2 Diabetes in Sea Islanders and Evolutionary Lag: A Comparative Analysis (2016): Organizers are Kyle Summers, Keith Keene, and Toyin Babatunde, East Carolina University. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing globally, and affects some ethnic and racial groups differently. Some evidence indicates that these differences may be affected by different patterns of refined carbohydrate consumption across human history. Populations that were not exposed to diets high in refined carbohydrates until recently may be more susceptible to T2DM when exposed to these diets. This is known as evolutionary lag, and may explain some of the genetic variation associated with susceptibility to T2DM. We propose to test this hypothesis by comparing the genetic variation in genes associated with T2DM risk in an island-dwelling African American population (the Sea Islanders) to West African populations, to search for evidence of natural selection on these genes in the Sea Islanders. This can provide ...
On Dec. 26, 2013, a two-year-old boy living in the Guinean village of Meliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture was stricken with a rare disease, caused by the filament-shaped Ebola virus. The child is believed to be the first case in what soon became a flood-tide of contagion, ravaging the West African countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone and […]. Tags: Epidemiology, Human ...
HOUSTON - (July 31, 2014) - Sierra Leones president today declared a state of emergency over the largest outbreak of the Ebola virus in history. To date, Ebola has infected more than 1,200 people in three West African countries and killed close to 700 of them.
While his geographical settings vary from the conflict-stricken west African coast of Brazzaville Beach (1990) to the romantic vistas of the Philippine islands in The Blue Afternoon (1993), his recurrent character focus is the English personality and how it adapts - or fails to adapt - to the demands of a foreign landscape. Like Henderson Dores, the introverted Englishman turned extrovert Manhattanite in Stars and Bars (1984), Englishness under pressure is seen to undergo the most radical metamorphoses, and yet remain, at the same time, irrepressibly resilient.. In his 1981 debut novel, A Good Man in Africa, Boyd displayed his affiliation to an English tradition of the comic novel of expatriate life, together with his allegiance to one of his many literary mentors, Evelyn Waugh. In the figure of Morgan Leafy, a hapless British diplomat struggling to master the complexities of his posting to a corrupt west African country (the fictional Kinjanja), Boyd also echoed the post-war formula of the ...
Health,In West Africa a new methodology used to treat pregnant women sufferi...Complete elimination of the malarial parasite without any serious si...The study carried out among pregnant women who attended antenatal...Malaria parasites are becoming increasingly resistant to choloroquin...The extent of drug resistance is not as high in west Africa as it is...,New,method,to,treat,malaria,in,pregnant,women,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A herbicide developed by Swiss firm Syngenta, Gramoxone (paraquat), is being blamed for health problems in Burkina Faso. The West African country ...
South African hotel andgaming group Sun International said on Monday it haddecided to exit Nigeria due to weak economic growth and clasheswith regulators in the west African country.
At the end of our road lies Bamako, the capital of Mali. A vote was due there in two months time but the military have seen fit to take matters into their own hands, driven to rebellion themselves as the fight with the rebels of the north has grown more difficult.. On Wednesday, a small group of fairly low-ranking officers took control of the airwaves as a first step to taking control of the country. Now the whereabouts of the countrys president, Amadou Toumani Toure, aka ATT, are unknown. As are the precise plans of the officers now in charge.. And so we have left one west african country in the grips of democratic fever for its neighbour in the throws of a coup detat that few had seen coming.. The road from Dakar to Bamako is long. And hot. As weve inched closer to the Malian border, sparse and bear vegetation has grown thicker and greener. What lies ahead is unclear but the road stands as a reminder of the fragility of democracy in these parts and how easily it can be left behind altogether ...
A radical French Muslim suspected of having links to Islamist militants in northern Mali is arrested in the West African country, officials say.
Guinea has received confirmation that a mysterious disease that has killed up to 59 people in the West African country, and may have spread to neighboring Sierra
Rainfall in Ghana has declined so sharply in recent years that it is causing a severe water-and-power shortage and threatening to stunt the West African countrys economic growth.
Nigeria blasted as discriminatory a British plan to force visitors from the west African country and some other selected Commonwealth nations to provide a cash bond before they can enter Britain.
Stock Photo 1606-181544: Download Western Africa, Mauritania, Sénégal river valley, camper near Rosso Stock Photos. Search over 12 million royalty free images and rights managed stock photography
Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sierra-Leone/Health/Disease-prevention. "Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats, NationMaster." 1990-2009. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sierra-Leone/Health/Disease-prevention,.. Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sierra-Leone/Health/Disease-prevention, [assessed 1990-2009]. "Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1990-2009. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sierra-Leone/Health/Disease-prevention,.. "Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1990-2009.. "Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sierra-Leone/Health/Disease-prevention (assessed 1990-2009). "Sierra Leone Disease prevention Stats", NationMaster, ...
Toké on sea coast of Sierra Leone by Rev W H Maude. Return to W T Balmer". Distant view of village. William Maude served in Sierra Leone from 1867 to 1910, and in the Gold Coast district from 1915 to 1920.; Methodist Missionary work in West Africa had begun in 1811 with Cokes mission to Sierra Leone. A second station was opened on the River Gambia in 1821, and on the Gold Coast in 1834. Rev. Balmer served in the Sierra Leone and Gambia district from 1901 to 1909 whn he transferred to the Gold Coast briefly until 1911. He resumed his work in Sierra Leone from 1914 to 1921 ...
The national carrier Kenya Airways has temporarily suspended its commercial flights to Liberia and Sierra Leone.. The two West African countries have been hit by an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD) which has claimed the lives of 1,145 people in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, as of August 13, 2014.. Kenya Airways CEO Titus Naikuni said in a statement released Saturday that the operational decision will be effective at midnight on Tuesday August 19, 2014.. He added that the decision was based on the situation risk assessment by Kenyas Ministry of Health.. Mr Naikuni further said that those who had been booked on the suspended flights would get a full refund of all tickets earlier booked and paid for prior to the suspension.. NIGERIA, GHANA NOT SUSPENDED. He added that flights to Nigeria and Ghana had not been suspended.. "I wish to confirm that Kenya Airways will continue operating all its scheduled flights to Nigeria and Ghana.. "However, in the interest of public ...
13 new suspected cases were reported from four states during the last week of July, namely: Plateau (5), Ondo (5) Bauchi (2), and Ogun (1), including two deaths.. Since the resurgence of the current Lassa fever outbreak in December 2016, 681 suspected cases including 112 deaths (overall case fatality rate 16.4%) have been reported.. Nigeria is one of several West African countries in which Lassa fever is endemic, with seasonal outbreaks occurring annually between December and June. In 2016, Nigeria reported 273 suspected cases and 149 deaths (case fatality rate 55%) from 23 states. In 2017, Benin, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, and Togo experienced outbreaks that have since been controlled.. The current outbreak of Lassa fever in Nigeria, however, is continuing beyond the normal season.. This persistent Lassa fever outbreak comes against the background of a protracted humanitarian crisis in the northern part of the country, as well as outbreaks of cholera and hepatitis E.. Visit myLABBox.com for ...
According to the Ministry of Public Health, at least two deaths have been reported leaving a number of other people quarantined. The health ministry says they have the situation under control; however, they call for vigilance. Ms. Margueritte Maliévo Samba said, "I call all the Central African population in general and that of the Prefecture of Mbomou especially for calm and strict respect for preventive measures that were to wash hands regularly, avoid any manipulation with sick or dead animals and secretions of infected person and objects.". This is the 3rd time monkeypox has been reported in CAR. Previously it was seen in Mbomou in 2001 and two years ago in Haute Kotto.. Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease caused by the virus with the same name, which is found primarily in central and western Africa.. It is closely related to the smallpox virus (variola), the virus used in the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia), and the cowpox virus.. Infection with monkeypox is not as serious as its cousin, ...
Abstract. Histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is a rare disease outside central and western Africa. In Europe, all cases are imported. We report a case of an African histoplasmosis with isolated pulmonary involvement in a non-immunocompromised patient that occurred 40 years after his stay in a disease-endemic area. The patient was given itraconazole. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography was used to assess evolution during treatment. The outcome for the patient was favorable.
The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) and the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) historical timeline : Histoire du Programme de Lutte contre lOnchocercose (OCP) et du Programme Africain de Lutte contre lOnchocercose (APOC) (الفرنسية)

On North Africas western flank, long-simmering conflict causes unease - CSMonitor.comOn North Africa's western flank, long-simmering conflict causes unease - CSMonitor.com

But efforts to maintain the status quo could renew unrest, adding to the current instability across North Africa. ... On North Africas western flank, long-simmering conflict causes unease Morocco has strengthened its hold on the contested - and ... In an interview with Western journalists, Moroccan government spokesman Mustapha Al Khalfi cast Western Sahara as a model of ... Laayoune, Western Sahara If this small, dusty town surrounded by sparse desert feels forgotten, thats because it mostly is. ...
more infohttps://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2013/0125/On-North-Africa-s-western-flank-long-simmering-conflict-causes-unease

PayFast -
        Donate - Diabetes South Africa Western Cape BranchPayFast - Donate - Diabetes South Africa Western Cape Branch

Diabetes South Africa Western Cape Branch. In South Africa, approximately one in five people over the age of 35 has type 2 ... Approx 1 in 5 South Africans over the age of 35 yrs has type 2 diabetes and more than 50% do not even know they have it. ... Diabetes is a one of the main causes of premature death, and in many parts of Africa life expectancy is reduced to a single ... potentially debilitating and often fatal disease is taking South Africa by storm, particularly as one of the many side effects ...
more infohttps://www.payfast.co.za/donate/go/diabetessawc

Blacksmiths of western Africa - WikipediaBlacksmiths of western Africa - Wikipedia

... which spread across Western Africa. Throughout Nigeria two more very important West African civilizations arose. The Ife and ... 2002) The Blacksmiths Art from Africa Life Force at the Anvil. Perani, Judith. Smith, Fred T. (1998) The Visual Arts of Africa ... The African Blacksmiths were the key to survival for the Nok, Ife, Oyo, Mande, and Bamana people. The everyday objects were not ... To these African civilizations, iron had become the key to their development and survival, and it was worshiped as such. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacksmiths_of_western_Africa

Retina South Africa Western Cape Branch | Charity - Profile | BackaBuddyRetina South Africa Western Cape Branch | Charity - Profile | BackaBuddy

Retina South Africa is the only patient run group in South Africa dedicated to finding a miracle - a cure for Retinal blindness ... Retina South Africa Western Cape Branch. Retina South Africa is the only patient run group in South Africa dedicated to finding ... Retinal blindness affects many South Africans both young and old, and these conditions are genetic in nature and can affect ... The first ever clinical trial on the African continent to treat Retinal blindness ...
more infohttps://www.backabuddy.co.za/charity/profile/retina-sa-cape

NEPAD African Western and Southern Networks of Centres of Excellence in Water Sciences - WikipediaNEPAD African Western and Southern Networks of Centres of Excellence in Water Sciences - Wikipedia

Calls of interest have been launched, proposals have been evaluated in the Southern African region and Western African region ... South Africa) Western Cape University (South Africa) University of Malawi (Malawi) University of Zambia (Zambia) University of ... Coordinators of the Network is the University of Stellenbosh of South Africa. Actual members Stellenbosch (South Africa) ... "Consolidation Plan for Africa" 2006 pp72 Munyaradzi Makoni (29 December 2009). "Southern Africa Links Water Research Expertise ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEPAD_African_Western_and_Southern_Networks_of_Centres_of_Excellence_in_Water_Sciences

Claudia Dieckmann is raising money for Multiple Sclerosis South Africa Western Cape | GivenGainClaudia Dieckmann is raising money for Multiple Sclerosis South Africa Western Cape | GivenGain

swim4MS - Nina Swims the Robben Island Crossing , Help Claudia Dieckmann fundraise for Multiple Sclerosis South Africa Western ... This will be her maiden voyage of the challenge considered the "Everest" to every open water swimmer in South Africa. ...
more infohttps://www.givengain.com/ap/ninari4ms/

Africa - WesternAfrica - Western

TGS provides valuable, multi-client data library to oil and gas explorers and producers globally through four product lines. Multi-client geophysical data, multi-client geological data, and imaging services. It is among the strongest, most diverse and highest quality in the marketplace. TGS data management receives, inventories and stores seismic data tapes and materials for multi-client 2D and 3D seismic surveys ...
more infohttp://www.tgs.com/products-and-services/geophysical/data-catalog/africa-middle-east/africa-western/

Brazil | Western African Aquatic MammalsBrazil | Western African Aquatic Mammals

Western African Aquatic Mammals. Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of ...
more infohttps://www.cms.int/aquatic-mammals/fr/country/brazil

Israel | Western African Aquatic MammalsIsrael | Western African Aquatic Mammals

Western African Aquatic Mammals. Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of ...
more infohttps://www.cms.int/aquatic-mammals/es/country/israel

Western Africa (northern section):  Non-Portraits



: Digital Photography ReviewWestern Africa (northern section): Non-Portraits : Digital Photography Review

Western Africa (northern section): Non-Portraits. Challenge #55 in the around the world in 80 ways series. Hosted by ... As we move (roughly) south thru Africa, the last weeks and this weeks challenge will cover the following LONG list of ...
more infohttps://www.dpreview.com/challenges/Challenge.aspx?ID=9024&View=Results&Rows=4&Page=2

Oyo empire | historical kingdom in western Africa | Britannica.comOyo empire | historical kingdom in western Africa | Britannica.com

western Africa: The fall of the African kingdoms. At Oyo the traditional town chiefs, who commanded the army of the capital, ... western Africa: The southward expansion of Oyo. …century the northernmost Yoruba kingdom, Oyo, began to turn away from its ... Africa* In western Africa: The southward expansion of Oyo. * In western Africa: The fall of the African kingdoms ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/place/Oyo-empire

Human papillomaviruses in Western Africa: prevalences and risk factors in Burkina Faso | SpringerLinkHuman papillomaviruses in Western Africa: prevalences and risk factors in Burkina Faso | SpringerLink

Human papillomaviruses in Western Africa: prevalences and risk factors in Burkina Faso. ... HPV Human papillomavirus Genotyping STI Burkina Faso Africa Cervical cancer This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... West Africa: viral sequence analysis and epidemiology. Br J Cancer 93:1068-1076CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... West-African women over 35 years of age. Int J Cancer 103:803-809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00404-018-4860-z

WHO Says Ebola Outbreak in Western Africa May Be Slowing | Newsmax.comWHO Says Ebola Outbreak in Western Africa May Be Slowing | Newsmax.com

An Ebola virus outbreak continues to claim lives in the western African countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, but ... An Ebola virus outbreak continues to claim lives in the western African countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, but ... An Ebola virus outbreak continues to claim lives in the western African countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea, but ...
more infohttps://www.newsmax.com/thewire/ebola-outbreak-africa-slowing/2014/07/22/id/584124/

Visa-free movement gets legs in Central and Western AfricaVisa-free movement gets legs in Central and Western Africa

... 01 November 2017 - 18:18 Agency Staff ... Libreville - Six countries in Central and Western Africa have breathed life into long-running plans to allow visa-free movement ... The summit, in its statement, authorised a regional bank, the Development Bank of the Central African States, to allocate 1.7- ... Those two countries, along with Congo and the Central African Republic (CAR), completed the ratification process late in ...
more infohttps://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/world/africa/2017-11-01-visa-free-movement-gets-legs-in-central-and-western-africa/

Organ donation in South Africa | Western Cape GovernmentOrgan donation in South Africa | Western Cape Government

More than 500 000 people die in South Africa every year of which 12% are due to violence, motor vehicle accidents and unnatural ... Organ transplants are undertaken in both government and private hospitals in the Western Cape, and currently heart, kidney, ...
more infohttps://www.westerncape.gov.za/general-publication/organ-donation-south-africa

Abengoa Begins Construction on the First Desalination Plant in Western Africa, in Ghana on Environmental XPRTAbengoa Begins Construction on the First Desalination Plant in Western Africa, in Ghana on Environmental XPRT

No comments were found for Abengoa Begins Construction on the First Desalination Plant in Western Africa, in Ghana. Be the ... Abengoa Begins Construction on the First Desalination Plant in Western Africa, in Ghana. 0 ... the first in western Africa.. The desalination plant, which will require an investment of US$ 125 million, will have the ... This success follows the Companys recent award of a 10,000m3/d NIROBOX™ desalination plant in South Africa. Henry Charrabé, ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/news/abengoa-begins-construction-on-the-first-desalination-plant-in-western-africa-in-ghana-329503

Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries | ZanranMaternal mortality ratios for Western African countries | Zanran

Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries (1993, 2002), Maternal mortality ratios for Eastern African countries ( ... 1993, 2002), Maternal mortality ratios for Northern, Central and Southern African countries (1993, 2002)... ... statistics on Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries: ... Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries (1993, 2002) M aternal M ortality Ratios in Western African Countries ( ...
more infohttp://www.zanran.com/q/Maternal_mortality_ratios_for_Western_African_countries?filters%5Bsite%5D=www.sarpn.org.za&filters%5Btype_html%5D=1&filters%5Btype_img%5D=1&filters%5Btype_pdf%5D=1&filters%5Btype_xls%5D=1

Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries | ZanranMaternal mortality ratios for Western African countries | Zanran

... statistics on Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries: Maternal mortality ratio (maternal deaths per Number of ... Maternal mortality ratio Maternal deaths Lifetime risk 1 in: Region Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East and North Africa South Asia ... Data & statistics on Maternal mortality ratios for Western African countries - 9 results ... Ratio Maternal deaths WORLD TOTAL a DEVELOPED REGIONS Europe DEVELOPING REGIONS Africa b Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa ... ...
more infohttp://www.zanran.com/q/Maternal_mortality_ratios_for_Western_African_countries?filters%5Bsite%5D=www.asiapacificalliance.org&filters%5Btype_html%5D=1&filters%5Btype_img%5D=1&filters%5Btype_pdf%5D=1&filters%5Btype_xls%5D=1

Natures Nuclear Reactors: The 2-Billion-Year-Old Natural Fission Reactors in Gabon, Western Africa - Scientific American Blog...Nature's Nuclear Reactors: The 2-Billion-Year-Old Natural Fission Reactors in Gabon, Western Africa - Scientific American Blog...

Natures Nuclear Reactors: The 2-Billion-Year-Old Natural Fission Reactors in Gabon, Western Africa. ... seventeen natural nuclear fission reactors operated in what is today known as Gabon in Western Africa [Figures 1 and 2]. The ... The preservation of the Gabon reactors is a result of two factors: the long-term stability of the African craton, and the ...
more infohttps://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/natures-nuclear-reactors-the-2-billion-year-old-natural-fission-reactors-in-gabon-western-africa/

DIGITAL.CSIC: The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western AfricaDIGITAL.CSIC: The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa

The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa. ... in Central Western Africa. While there is a substantial consensus regarding the centre of origin of Bantu languages (the Benue ... of Bantu languages into the forest area and a subsequent demographic expansion and migration towards eastern and western Africa ... River Valley, between South East Nigeria and Western Cameroon), the identification of the area from where the population ...
more infohttps://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/43405

What Western And African Powers Face In Mali - Business InsiderWhat Western And African Powers Face In Mali - Business Insider

So what are Western governments and their North African partners up against? Its a murky picture, but here are some outlines: ... Where does North African militancy come from?. Much Islamist militancy in North Africa traces its origins to 1990s Algeria, ... Also in Mali are Ansar al Din and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO). With AQIM, these groups have seized ... North Africa is home to various armed groups, from ideologically driven Islamists to criminal gangs. While their aims and ...
more infohttps://www.businessinsider.com/western-african-powers-face-mali-challenges-christian-science-monitor-john-thorne-january-20-2013-1

Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate TradesWestern Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades

... Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com ... Western Africa And Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s Western-Africa-and-Cabo-Verde-1790s-1830s~~George-E-Brooks History>World Hist>World ... Western Africa And Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis Of Slave And Legitimate Trades George E. Brooks, Books, History, Western ... Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades. - gebunden oder broschiert ...
more infohttps://www.eurobuch.com/buch/isbn/9781452088716.html

Why do Western maps shrink Africa? - CNNWhy do Western maps shrink Africa? - CNN

Africa is much bigger than you think. Traditional maps have downplayed the size of the continent in comparison to other parts ... Whats the real size of Africa? How Western states used maps to downplay size of continent. By Sophie Morlin-Yron, for CNN ... The distortion is largest near the poles: Greenland, which looks about the same size as the whole of Africa on the Mercator, is ... "The term power of representation and representation of power sums up quite well how maps and the rise of the Western nation- ...
more infohttp://www.cnn.com/2016/08/18/africa/real-size-of-africa/index.html

Polity.org.za | News | South African News - Western CapePolity.org.za | News | South African News - Western Cape

... economic and social issues in South Africa and Africa, as well as international affairs. Polity strives to provide our readers ... When elephants fight: will the US-China trade war hurt South Africa? By: South African Institute of International Affairs 19th ... South Africas renewables focus shifting from costs to jobs and transformation. By: Terence Creamer 5th April 2018 The themes ... By: News24Wire 12th April 2018 The South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) has taken to the streets of Cape Town and ...
more infohttp://polity.org.za/topic/western-cape-company
  • Unlike in neighboring countries, the possibility of unrest in Western Sahara is not related to Islamist terrorist groups, but a result of young Saharawis - the indigenous people of Western Sahara - growing increasingly impatient with the stalemate. (csmonitor.com)
  • Meera Khan, 1986) have pointed out that GPX1*2 is present only among Subsaharans and in populations with a probable African genetic heritage, thus supporting the theory of "African marker" value of GPX1*2 (Meera Khan et al. (docme.ru)
  • Actual members Stellenbosch (South Africa) International Center for Water Economics and Governance in Africa (Mozambique) KwaZulu-Natal University (South Africa) Western Cape University (South Africa) University of Malawi (Malawi) University of Zambia (Zambia) University of Botswana (Botswana) The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR (South Africa) Polytechnic of Namibia (Namibia) Last development on the P9 network The coordinator is the Doctoral School on water from University of Cheikh Anta Diop. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project is an initiative of the Western Cape Government. (westerncape.gov.za)
  • News24Wire 12th April 2018 The South African Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) has taken to the streets of Cape Town and was marching on Parliament on Thursday to make known. (polity.org.za)
  • 28th March 2018 The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) in the Western Cape under the leadership of Minister Gugile Nkwinti took a farmer to the Clanwilliam. (polity.org.za)
  • SEVILLE, Spain, Nov. 19, 2012 /PR Newswire/ -- Abengoa, the international company that applies innovative technology solutions for sustainable development in the energy and environment sectors, has begun construction of the Nungua desalination plant in Ghana, the first in western Africa. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Calls of interest have been launched, proposals have been evaluated in the Southern African region and Western African region in order to identify and thus appoint Centre of excellences in Water sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provides information on this project, which focuses on the conservation of the endangered mountain gorillas of central Africa by providing them with veterinary care. (dmoztools.net)
  • Diabetes is a one of the main causes of premature death, and in many parts of Africa life expectancy is reduced to a single year for a person who requires insulin to survive. (payfast.co.za)
  • More than 500 000 people die in South Africa every year of which 12% are due to violence, motor vehicle accidents and unnatural head injuries. (westerncape.gov.za)
  • The public face of HIV is well-known: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that particularly preys on gay men, African Americans, drug users, and just about all of Africa, although we’re all at risk. (africaresource.com)
  • African American Studies presents annually a lecture series to provide a forum through which students can interact with faculty members and learn more about their areas of research. (wiu.edu)
  • This chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease is taking South Africa by storm, particularly as one of the many side effects of antiretroviral treatments is diabetes. (payfast.co.za)
  • Factsheet about this rare viral disease that occurs mostly in monkeys in central and western Africa. (dmoztools.net)
  • The current distribution of Bantu languages is commonly considered to be a consequence of a relatively recent population expansion (3-5 kya) in Central Western Africa. (csic.es)
  • We also detected substantial differences in local demographic histories, which concord with the hypotheses regarding an early diffusion of Bantu languages into the forest area and a subsequent demographic expansion and migration towards eastern and western Africa. (csic.es)
  • A heavily mined, 1,500-mile-plus earthen wall separates Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara from the small, mostly desert territory controlled by the Polisario, which claims Western Sahara as the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic. (csmonitor.com)
  • I do not see that there is going to be a real referendum or self determination and Western Sahara will be independent," she says. (csmonitor.com)
  • South African Institute of International Affairs 19th April 2018 When US President Donald Trump announced that he would ask Congress to impose a 25% tariff on more than 1 300 Chinese imports amounting to an. (polity.org.za)
  • The term 'power of representation and representation of power' sums up quite well how maps and the rise of the Western nation-state system -- and with that, empire and colonialism -- are linked," says Marianne Franklin, professor of Global Media and Politics at Goldsmiths, University of London. (cnn.com)
  • In Sub-Saharan African about 60 percent of the population lives and dies without safe drinking water, adequate food or basic sanitation. (africaresource.com)
  • To these African civilizations, iron had become the key to their development and survival, and it was worshiped as such. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of progress has allowed Morocco to strengthen its hold on the resource-rich territory, even as the prospect of a referendum to decide Western Sahara's future - which the UN and the Polisario demand - has dimmed. (csmonitor.com)
  • The UN sent peacekeeping forces into the territory in 1991 with a mandate to hold a referendum on the future of Western Sahara, but that vote never happened. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Polisario demands a vote with an option for independence, but two decades after the UN peacekeeping forces arrived, that's looking increasingly unlikely, says Anna Theofilopoulou, a former UN official who covered Western Sahara for 14 years and served on the negotiating team of the previous UN envoy, former US Secretary of State James Baker . (csmonitor.com)
  • African American Studies organizes visits and cultural programs in community colleges, high schools, and other venues as part of its desire to recruit more students into the African American Studies degree program. (wiu.edu)
  • Through the WIU Foundation , African American Studies provides its alumni opportunities to support the it's educational and community outreach endeavors. (wiu.edu)