AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Progress toward measles elimination--Southern Africa, 1996-1998. (1/197)

Despite routine measles vaccination coverage of >70% in southern Africa during the early 1990s, low-level endemic transmission and periodic epidemics of measles continued. Since 1995, six southern African nations (Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) have launched measles-elimination initiatives in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Regional Office (AFR). Strategies include programs to 1) achieve routine vaccination coverage of > or =95% with one dose of measles vaccine administered at age 9 months; 2) implement a one-time national catch-up measles vaccination campaign to interrupt indigenous transmission of measles; 3) implement periodic national follow-up measles campaigns to maintain interruption of measles transmission; and 4) establish case-based measles surveillance with laboratory confirmation. This report presents preliminary data about the progress toward measles elimination in the six southern Africa countries.  (+info)

Genetic differentiation of some Glossina morsitans morsitans populations. (2/197)

To study the population structure of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and singlestrand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) methods were used to estimate mitochondrial DNA diversity at four loci in six natural populations from Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, and in two laboratory cultures. The Zambian and Zimbabwean samples were from a single fly belt. Four alleles were recorded at 12S and 16S1, and five alleles at 16S2 and COI. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed their singularities. Chi-square contingency tests showed that allele frequencies differed significantly among populations. Mean allele diversities in populations averaged over loci varied from 0.14 to 0.61. Little loss in haplotype diversity was detected in the laboratory cultures thereby indicating little inbreeding. Wright's fixation index F(ST) in the natural populations was 0.088+/-0.016, the correlation of haplotypes within populations relative to correlations in the total. A function of its inverse allows an estimate of the mean equivalent number of females exchanged per population per generation, 5.2. No correlation was detected between pairwise genetic distance measures and geographical distances. Drift explains the high degree of differentiation.  (+info)

Y chromosomes traveling south: the cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba--the "Black Jews of Southern Africa". (3/197)

The Lemba are a traditionally endogamous group speaking a variety of Bantu languages who live in a number of locations in southern Africa. They claim descent from Jews who came to Africa from "Sena." "Sena" is variously identified by them as Sanaa in Yemen, Judea, Egypt, or Ethiopia. A previous study using Y-chromosome markers suggested both a Bantu and a Semitic contribution to the Lemba gene pool, a suggestion that is not inconsistent with Lemba oral tradition. To provide a more detailed picture of the Lemba paternal genetic heritage, we analyzed 399 Y chromosomes for six microsatellites and six biallelic markers in six populations (Lemba, Bantu, Yemeni-Hadramaut, Yemeni-Sena, Sephardic Jews, and Ashkenazic Jews). The high resolution afforded by the markers shows that Lemba Y chromosomes are clearly divided into Semitic and Bantu clades. Interestingly, one of the Lemba clans carries, at a very high frequency, a particular Y-chromosome type termed the "Cohen modal haplotype," which is known to be characteristic of the paternally inherited Jewish priesthood and is thought, more generally, to be a potential signature haplotype of Judaic origin. The Bantu Y-chromosome samples are predominantly (>80%) YAP+ and include a modal haplotype at high frequency. Assuming a rapid expansion of the eastern Bantu, we used variation in microsatellite alleles in YAP+ sY81-G Bantu Y chromosomes to calculate a rough date, 3,000-5,000 years before the present, for the start of their expansion.  (+info)

The ecology of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis in southern Africa. (4/197)

The only non-human host of Lassa virus so far identified is the multimammate mouse, Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, but its precise role in the natural Lassa fever cycle remains to be determined. This species is also an important link in the plague cycle in southern Africa and is one of the commonest rodents of Africa. It is a prolific breeder and can be kept and bred easily in captivity. It is thus an excellent laboratory animal, although it needs to be handled with care because it is aggressive towards man and bites readily. The current status of knowledge of its taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and role as a disease vector is reviewed, but attention is drawn to the possibly disastrous consequences of attempting to eradicate a vector species before the natural cycle of the disease and the ecology of the vector are fully understood.  (+info)

The biology, behaviour, and ecology of Mastomys natalensis in southern Africa. (5/197)

The multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, is the most widespread and common rodent in Africa south of the Sahara. It is an ideal carrier of normally non-human diseases to the domestic environment, not only because of its semi-commensal habit but also because of a combination of other behavioural and ecological factors. Of these, the most important is an exceptionally high propagation rate.  (+info)

Culture, sexuality, and women's agency in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. (6/197)

Using an ethnographic approach, the authors explored the awareness among women in southern Africa of the HIV epidemic and the methods they might use to protect themselves from the virus. The research, conducted from 1992 through 1999, focused specifically on heterosexual transmission in 5 sites that were selected to reflect urban and rural experiences, various populations, and economic and political opportunities for women at different historical moments over the course of the HIV epidemic. The authors found that the female condom and other woman-controlled methods are regarded as culturally appropriate among many men and women in southern Africa and are crucial to the future of HIV/AIDS prevention. The data reported in this article demonstrate that cultural acceptability for such methods among women varies along different axes, both over time and among different populations. For this reason, local circumstances need to be taken into account. Given that women have been clearly asking for protective methods they can use, however, political and economic concerns, combined with historically powerful patterns of gender discrimination and neglect of women's sexuality, must be viewed as the main obstacles to the development and distribution of methods women can control.  (+info)

Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups. (7/197)

"Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.  (+info)

Foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses exhibit genetically and geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (topotypes). (8/197)

Serotype O is the most prevalent of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus and occurs in many parts of the world. The UPGMA method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the VP1 gene from 105 FMD type O viruses obtained from samples submitted to the OIE/FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD. This analysis identified eight major genotypes when a value of 15% nucleotide difference was used as a cut-off. The validity of these groupings was tested on the complete VP1 gene sequences of 23 of these viruses by bootstrap resampling and construction of a neighbour-joining tree. These eight genetic lineages fell within geographical boundaries and we have used the term topotype to describe them. Using a large sequence database, the distribution of viruses belonging to each of the eight topotypes has been determined. These phylogenetically based epidemiological studies have also been used to identify viruses that have transgressed their normal ecological niches. Despite the high rate of mutation during replication of the FMD virus genome, the topotypes appear to represent evolutionary cul-de-sacs.  (+info)

The workshop will explore how the APRM process has unfolded in Southern Africa. It will also assess the current status of regional economic community (REC) engagement with the APRM, in particular the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The organising partners also hope to initiate dialogue with SADC and other African RECs to establish a deeper and more structured relationship between them and the APRM continental institutions. Workshop participants will make recommendations for ways in which the APRM and RECs can and should work more closely to enhance good governance practices.
For purposes of facilitating the delivery of services, SADC countries are divided into regions / provinces and local areas. In this article, it is argued that population density, ethnic groups and the size of SADC countries are important factors to be considered in the demarcation of each country into manageable administrative regions. The establishment of administrative regions, in turn, necessitates the creation of intergovernmental structures that are responsible for the co-ordination of the activities of two or more spheres of government.
The SAHGP includes scientists, medical practitioners, biostatisticians, ethicists, government representatives, lawyers and industry representatives, and is managed and led by southern Africans (emphasising the critical importance of sovereignty); its outputs will benefit southern African populations. The SAHGP will therefore focus specifically on southern African genomes; one of its most important objectives is to build local capacity for genomerelated research to ensure that this programme remains true to its objectives of being Africo-centric and is sustainable. Evidence suggests that humans evolved in Africa; consequently, the African gene pool is likely to hold import information regarding the selection of genetic variants in response to changing environments. However, this information has not been fully examined in Africa so as to understand population-specific disease burdens and the efficacy of various treatments. The programme aims to make a significant contribution to understanding DNA ...
3 SADC social protection instruments: towards a minimum floor. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has as its mission the promotion of sustainable and equitable economic growth and socio-economic development through efficient production systems, deeper cooperation and integration, good governance, and durable peace and security, so that the region emerges as a competitive and effective player in international relations and the world economy.19. In order to achieve its mission, member states have concluded various instruments, such as Charters, Protocols, and Codes. Amongst these are instruments which are geared towards the promotion of adequate social protection in the region. SADC social protection-related instruments include the Declaration and Treaty of the SADC (the SADC Treaty), the Charter of Fundamental Social Rights in the SADC (the Social Charter), the Code on Social Security, the Protocol on Gender and Development, the Protocol on Health, the Protocol on Education and the ...
The continued prevalence of such laws is driving people in same-sex relations underground, and making authorities stubborn to the fact that even prisoners are having sex in prison," Kelly told a workshop on the role of the media and parliamentary involvement on HIV and AIDS, held in the Zambian capital of Lusaka on March 17.. The priest said that instead of "criminalizing" sexual orientation, southern African countries should follow the South African example and legalize gay partnerships, "to ensure access to prevention and treatment, as well as the involvement of these people and prisoners in the battle against the epidemic.". Still, Kelly later told Ecumenical News International, "I am not saying I support men-to-men sex.". The Lusaka workshop was organized by the parliamentary forum of the Southern African Development Community, and Panos, a media and communication network.. Originally from Tullamore in Ireland, Kelly has lived and worked in Zambia for more than 50 years. He has been ...
This discussion paper is a joint production of the FAO Subregional Office for Southern and East Africa and FAO Land and Water Development Division as a response to the regional drought of 2001 and 2002 in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The paper attempts to diagnose the root causes of the failure of food production systems that depend upon the control of water in the all-important root zone. The continuing vulnerability of staple food production systems to periodic drought and the volatility of incomes that are derived from agriculture continue to confound the subregion. Food import bills use up hard-won foreign exchange and distribution logistics to food short areas are stretched to the limit. Turning this chronic vulnerability around, it is argued, will require an advance on two fronts. First, by enhancing profitable farm operations through improved farm management and water control. Second, by expanding the economic opportunities for farmers through progressive regulation
In depositing its "instrument of ratification" at the United Nations today, South Africa took the formal step to become the twenty-third state to ratify the Rome Treaty. The ICC will prosecute future cases of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The court will come into being after sixty states have ratified the treaty. "South Africas ratification is a major step forward on the path to establishing the court," said Brigitte Suhr, Counsel for the International Justice Program at Human Rights Watch. "South Africa has provided consistent leadership on behalf of an independent and effective ICC, and its ratification sends a strong message that this Court has strong support in every region. We believe its action today will help to spur additional ratifications in southern Africa and around the world." During the treaty negotiations for the ICC in Rome in 1998, South Africa, along with other states from the Southern African Development Community (SADC), played a key role in thwarting ...
To manage the disease outbreak and to prepare African countries reliant on banana for food security and income generation, a stakeholder workshop of the African Consortium for Foc TR4 (AC4TR4) was held in Stellenbosch, South Africa, 23-24 April 2014, on the theme: Development of a Strategy to address the threat of Foc TR4 in Africa. Representatives from the following organization took part: Southern African Development Community (SADC), The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the East African Community (EAC), Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPO), IITA, Bioversity International, Stellenbosch University, national research organizations, and commercial growers. ...
in the region has been uncoordinated and sporadic.. The drought of 2015/2016, which has been the most severe in 35 years, has forced policymakers to rethink this issue. As a result, the Southern African Development Community has recently drawn up a Regional Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan to co-ordinate adaptation and mitigation efforts in the region.. Many countries in Southern Africa have limited climate change frameworks for the agricultural sector, and still less for the livestock sector. The region is endowed with a rich diversity of livestock, contributing significantly to the agricultural gross domestic product.. Overall, the warmer temperatures and concurrent changes in heat exchanges are likely to cause heat stress in cattle raised on natural pastures and in feedlots.. Heat stress suffered by beef cattle will possibly reduce foraging time, feed intake, growth performance and carcass quality. Reproduction performance will also be compromised. For example, conception rates will ...
Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled the country during its first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990, but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Batswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties disputed how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. In May 2012, competitive elections involving 18 parties saw Prime ...
Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled the country during its first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990, but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Batswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties disputed how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. In May 2012, competitive elections involving 18 parties saw Prime ...
The chairman of the military junta, Major General Justin Metsing Lekhanya, was ousted in 1991 and replaced by Major General Elias Phisoana Ramaema, who handed over power to a democratically elected government of the BCP in 1993. Moshoeshoe II returned from exile in 1992 as an ordinary citizen. After the return to democratic government, King Letsie III tried unsuccessfully to persuade the BCP government to reinstate his father (Moshoeshoe II) as head of state. In August 1994, Letsie III staged a military-backed coup that deposed the BCP government, after the BCP government refused to reinstate his father, Moshoeshoe II, according to Lesothos constitution. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) engaged in negotiations to reinstate the BCP government. One of the conditions Letsie III put forward for this was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. After protracted negotiations, the BCP ...
Lusaka) - Government leaders gathered this week at a summit in Lusaka, Zambia should urgently press Zimbabwes government to end its broadscale attack on human rights, Human Rights Watch said in a briefing paper released today. Human Rights Watch called on the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to deploy human rights monitors to Zimbabwe to assess the situation.. The summit, which takes place on August 16 and 17, 2007 is expected to address the ongoing political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. At an extraordinary summit in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in March 2007, SADC asked South African president Thabo Mbeki to mediate talks between the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the two factions of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). Mbeki is expected to report back on the progress of the talks in Lusaka. "SADC members must take strong and effective action to deal with one of the regions most grave crises - Zimbabwe," said Peter ...
Opponents of President Robert Mugabe accused his government Tuesday of unleashing thugs to attack opposition supporters and seizing white-owned farms in an attempt to retain power. Mugabe, who has led Zimbabwe for 28 years, has virtually conceded that he did not win March 29 elections and appeared to be campaigning for an expected runoff against Morgan Tsvangirai by intimidating foes and fanning racial tensions. Tendai Biti, secretary-general of Tsvangirais Movement for Democratic Change, said he feared more violence unless the African Union and the Southern African Development Community step in. Police said they arrested five electoral officials on charges of tampering with the results, giving Mugabe some 4,993 votes less than were cast for him, the state-controlled newspaper the Herald reported. Mugabes land reform was supposed to take large commercial farms - much of Zimbabwes most fertile land - owned by about 4,500 whites and redistribute it to poor blacks.
President of Botswana Ian Khama who is the current chairman of the Southern African Development Community, is expected to intervene following widespread protests in Zimbabwe.
Doing business 2014 : Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) (English) This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: East Asia and the Pacific, Economic Community of Central African States, Middle East and North Africa, Southern African Development Community, and European Union. ... See More + The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a ...
At this point, water issues are being discussed by treaty negotiators as part of wider planning, prioritising and implementing of adaptation to a changing climate.. Dr. Ania Grobicki, GWP Executive Secretary, says that with growing numbers of countries expected to experience water scarcity, the current position of water in climate talks is inadequate.. "The GDP of many countries in the least developed countries is dependent on water. More than 50 percent of food for the world will come from Africa in the future, and this is dependent on availability of water," she says. "That is why this discussion should go beyond where its now.". More than 70 percent of the Southern African Development Communitys population depends directly on farming, overwhelmingly on rain-fed agriculture. The CSIRs projections are among many drawing attention to how predicted changes to rainfall, limited resources for adaptation and a lack of institutions and capacity to regulate river and stream flow will leave people ...
The virtual water trade is the idea that when goods and services are exchanged, so is virtual water. When a country imports one tonne of wheat instead of producing it domestically, it is saving about 1,300 cubic meters of real indigenous water. If this country is water-scarce, the water that is saved can be used towards other ends. If the exporting country is water-scarce, however, it has exported 1,300 cubic meters of virtual water since the real water used to grow the wheat will no longer be available for other purposes. This has obvious strategic implications for countries that are water-constrained such as those found in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) area.[2][3][4] Water-scarce countries like Israel discourage the export of oranges (relatively water intensive crops) precisely to prevent large quantities of water from being exported to different parts of the world. In recent years, the concept of virtual water trade has gained weight both in the scientific as well as in ...
Welcome to the archive of groundwater literature from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). See the about page for more information about this website. Click on a country below to browse country information or use the search form to find reports. Throughout the site references available to download in PDF format are indicated by ...
Copyright , Contact , Privacy policy , Terms & Conditions © SADC, BGS, GIZ and DFID 2017. This site is hosted by the British Geological Survey but responsibility for the content of the site lies with Southern African Development Community (SADC) not with the British Geological Survey. Questions, suggestions or comments regarding the contents of this site should be directed to [email protected] ...
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) secretariat will this week convene a two-day multi-sectoral stakeholder consultative meeting to develop a regional preparedness and response strategy to ...read more ...
Bush/ shrub encroachment is a great concern for rangeland managers in southern African savannas, especially because there is still no consensus about the main mechanisms behind the spread of woody species at the expense of grasses. Although much work has been done on the effects of fire, grazing, water and nutrient availability on rangeland productivity, the role of climate change, namely changes in CO2 concentrations and rainfall, and their potential interaction with manageable factors, such as grazing and fire, is not understood. This study focuses on investigating the combined role of elevated CO2, drought and land use on the balance between shrubs and grasses in southern African savannas. We used a climate gradient in Namibia, to set up experiments at a nested scale of realism and detail. I conducted semi-controlled to more controlled experiments in Germany, in the greenhouse and climate chambers, respectively. Here, the intention was to investigate how tree-grass interactions at a seedling ...
Kung Fu Clothing and more, you can find a lot of Kung Fu Uniform, Kung Fu Uniforms, Kung Fu Shirt, Kung Fu Suit, Shaolin Kung Fu, Tai Chi Kung Fu, Qigong Wushu, Wing Tsun Kung Fu, Taiji Uniform
SOUTHERN AFRICA - To curb the spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) from Zimbabwe, Botswana in 2003 started a massive project to erect a 2, 4-metre high electric fence to run 813 km along their common border, writes Ian Nkala.
African Development Bank / Natural resources for development DOHA, Qatar, February 19, 2009/African Press Organization (APO)/ -- Remarks by Vice President El Bakri I welcome the opportunity to address the plenary session today on Natural Resources for Development. As you are well aware, the African Development Bank is striving to mainstream standards of good…
On the occasion of the 9th African Development Forum (ADF) in Marrakech, Morocco, the African Development Bank spoke with Abdalla Hamdok, Deputy Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, on the way forward for development.
The African Development Bank is committed to Rwandas vision of transformation to a middle income economy as it commemorates the 20th anniversary of the genocide against the Tutsi in April 1994, said the President of the African Development Bank, Donald Kaberuka, while attending the commemoration...
The global HIV pandemic began to expand rapidly in southern Africa a decade later than was noted in central Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and North America. Multiple factors played a role in this rapid expansion which led Southern Africa to become the most heavily afflicted region for HIV/AIDS globally. In this issue of Current HIV/AIDS Reports, investigators with active research interests in the region have reviewed key elements of the causes of and responses to the epidemic. Putative causes of the high HIV prevalence in the region are discussed, including host and viral biology, human behavior, politics and policy, structural factors, health services, health workforce, migration, traditional healers role, and other issues. Regional epidemiological trends are described and forecasted. Issues related to the continuum of HIV care and treatment are highlighted. We hope that the reviews will prove useful to those policymakers, health care workers, and scientists who are striving to reduce the ...
Citation. Schuster, S. C., Miller, W., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Giardine, B., Kasson, L. R., Harris, R. S., Petersen, D. C., Zhao, F., Qi, J., Alkan, C., Kidd, J. M., Sun, Y., Drautz, D. I., Bouffard, P., Muzny, D. M., Reid, J. G., Nazareth, L. V., Wang, Q., Burhans, R., Riemer, C., Wittekindt, N. E., Moorjani, P., Tindall, E. A., Danko, C. G., Teo, W. S., Buboltz, A. M., Zhang, Z., Ma, Q., Oosthuysen, A., Steenkamp, A. W., Oostuisen, H., Venter, P., Gajewski, J., Zhang, Y., Pugh, B. F., Makova, K. D., Nekrutenko, A., Mardis, E. R., Patterson, N., Pringle, T. H., Chiaromonte, F., Mullikin, J. C., Eichler, E. E., Hardison, R. C., Gibbs, R. A., Harkins, T. T., Hayes, V. M.. Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa. Nature. 2010 Feb 18; 463(7283): 943-7.. PubMed Citation. Abstract. The genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa, the oldest known lineage of modern human, is important for understanding human diversity. Studies based on mitochondrial ...
Scorpions of Southern Africa, the go-to guide for identifying southern Africas rich scorpion fauna, has now been freshly designed, updated and expanded.
Abstract The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but ...
In vitro sensitivity of southern African reference isolates of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and pyrimethamine / J. A. Freese, M. B. Markus & J. ...
The Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology (SAJGO) focuses on womens cancer for local health care workers and gynaecologists. The journal covers all aspects of cancer prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment. The SAJGO is also a specialist journal catering for sub-specialist gynaecologic oncologists, for other specialists with a specific interest in breast and gynaecologic cancer, including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, geneticists, specialised nurses and research scientists.
Southern African Regional Poverty Network - Fill your calendar with corporate social responsibility and sustainability events with the help of CSRwire.
Evidence from numerous Pan-African savannah mammals indicates that open-habitat refugia existed in Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated by expanding tropical forests during warm and humid interglacial periods. However, comparative data from other taxonomic groups are currently lacking. We present a phylogeographic investigation of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans), a snake that occurs in open-habitat formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple parapatric mitochondrial clades occur across the current distribution of B. arietans, including a widespread southern African clade that is subdivided into four separate clades. We investigated the historical processes responsible for generating these phylogeographic patterns in southern Africa using species distribution modelling and genetic approaches. Our results show that interior regions of South Africa became largely inhospitable for B. arietans during glacial maxima, whereas coastal and more northerly areas remained habitable. This ...
Dr. Winstead presented a paper at the 1st biennial conference of the Journal of Southern African Studies in Livingstone, Zambia in August, 2015. The conference theme is Southern Africa Beyond the West: Political, Economic & Cultural Relationships with the BRICS Countries & the Global South. In addition to his paper and participating in a roundtable on setting the agenda of Southern African Studies in the 21st century and how African Studies should respond to the past two decades of change in Southern Africas position in the world, had meetings to exploring establishment of linkages between Howard University Center for African Studies and the Southern African Institute for Policy and Research (SAIPAR), an independent, educational research and development oriented research center in Zambia and one of the sponsors of the conference ...
New figures reveal that less than half (46.3%) of all adolescent and young girls (15-24) across seven East and Southern African countries are aware of their status, meaning far fewer young women in the region are accessing effective HIV treatment to save their lives.. Just 45% of all young women living with HIV in the region are virally suppressed, according to samples collected as part of the Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys conducted in Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe - an initiative funded by the US Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and conducted with the respective countries Ministries of Health, the US Centres for Diseases Control (CDC), and ICAP at Colombia University in the USA.. The surveys also reveal that of those aware of their status, 85.5% self-report being on ART, and 81.8% are virally suppressed. Using 90-90-90 estimates gives a viral load suppression prevalence of 32.4%, far lower than the 45% indicated ...
The literature dedicated to exploring rural livelihoods in southern Africa has devoted comparatively little attention to non-agricultural livelihoods, as several authors have pointed out. This gap in knowledge about non-agricultural livelihoods is also reflected in the literature looking at the effects of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Southern Africa. In general, research focusing on the effects of AIDS on livelihoods has also tended to neglect effects on young peoples abilities to create sustainable livelihoods for themselves in the future, and consequently, AIDS-affected young peoples abilities to engage in non-agricultural livelihoods have been even less explored.. This paper reports on a study with rural young people (aged 10-24 years) in Malawi and Lesotho, focusing on their opportunities to learn skills and access capital and assets to engage in income generating activities (IGAs). Participatory group exercises and individual interviews provide many examples of how young people learn ...
Based on an evidence-focused literature review, this paper examines existing knowledge on raising adolescents in east and southern African countries, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Country selection was based on the availability of relevant literature and data. The vast majority of studies on parenting and adolescent development is based on research from the global north. This research sought to deepen understandings of family life, care practices and support networks in the east and southern African region so as to inform policy and interventions that seek to improve adolescent-family relations and reduce risk behaviours. An evidence-informed model for understanding the ecology of adolescent-parent relationships in the cultural and economic contexts of the region is provided. In addition, a framework for exploring contextually-relevant dimensions of parenting through research and practice is offered ...
The African Development Bank (www.AfDB.org) has approved the Africa Disaster Risks Financing (ADRiFi) Programme, the institutions first climate risk management programme to boost resilience and
The Board of Directors of the African Development Fund (ADF) have approved grants totaling $9.52 million to strengthen responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in East
The recent increment in the capital base of the African Development Bank by $125 billion to $208 billion, should be commended as it could support improved health security across the continent.
The Board of the African Development Fund (ADF) on Wednesday approved a $685,000 grant to strengthen Zimbabwes capacity to manage disaster risks, including droughts, floods and tropical cyclones, through the Banks Africa Disaster Risk Financing (ADRiFi) programme.
Southern Africa: Southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe....
Nigerias agriculture minister was elected on Thursday to lead the African Development Bank, a major victory as the continents biggest economy clamors for a broader role in diplomacy and investment in the region.
Southern Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV worldwide, and South Africa has the highest number of HIV infected people. South Africa and other resource-limited countries provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people with HIV, with limited, standardized regimens for first line and second line. Patients who fail first line treatment are put on second line regimens, yet options for third line are very limited. The first study looks at predictors of first line treatment failure in South Africa and develops a predictive model that can estimate absolute risk of treatment failure over 5 years on ART, given a baseline profile of clinical and demographic factors. The model was developed with accelerated failure time models, using predictors that maximized discrimination between patients. The model can be used to identify patients who need adherence interventions, and to estimate how changes in baseline parameters in the population influence long-term need for second line ART. The second study ...
These are genera which are included both in the Jepson Manual of the Higher Plants of California and in the Plants of Southern Africa Checklist maintained by the South Africa National Biodiversity Institute. This may not be a complete list, because it was compiled rather hurriedly. The large number of shared genera is at least in part of course due to the introduction of many South African species into California, and probably also due to the common introduction of species from the Mediterranean into both South Africa and California, but obviously it says much else about the similar environments in the two places. I have gone through the Jepson Manual in an attempt to record those genera on this list that are composed exclusively of native species, those that are composed exclusively of non-native species, and those that are composed of both. The fact that a genera in California has a non-native species included in it is not in itself terribly significant because in many cases those non-native ...
The new MoU with Manitoba Province (Canada) focuses on youth development, the environment, and sustainable agriculture.. We have hosted a meeting of the South African Development Community (SADC) Ambassadors to Zimbabwe, demonstrating the attractions of the NW and the economic and developmental advantages our geographic position offers to the rest of SADC.. We thank the Minister of International Relations and Cooperation for helping open the possibilities of relation between some Indian provinces and the North West province.. Mr Speaker. We are happy that the President has moved to address the problem of South Africans who could not access bank bonds or quality for RDP houses.. We will commence this year with the rental stock (social housing). High rise is the way to go because all of us realise that land is inelastic. Human Settlements has constructed 13 200 housing units to date. Backlog for housing unit has moved from 249 000 to 207 000 whilst informal settlement backlog has moved from 50 000 ...
Like much of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Eastern and Southern Africa region has seen significant economic growth in recent years, largely relying on agriculture and extractives. However, it hasnt been able to keep up with the skilled labor demanded by the regions required economic transformation for further growth. Surveys reveal that firms in the region now face acute challenges in developing research and development (R&D) capacity and filling technical and managerial positions - not just due to inadequate production of college graduates that have been rising over the years, but also due to low quality and relevance of current education and training at the tertiary level.
Both private and public sector see a bewildering clinical array of patients taking failing antiretroviral (ARV) regimens. We intend this article to provide a practical guide to help clinicians understand and manage ARV drug resistance in an African context. <BR>ARV resistance is a rapidly evolving field, requiring expertise in dealing with a wide range of situations. Much of the information we have on ARV resistance is from populations in the developed world where clade B is the biggest problem, while in most of Africa clade C is the commonest infection. <BR>Southern Africa is faced with the daunting prospect of putting several hundred thousand people on ARV therapy (ART) in the next few years.1 ART is the only effective option available to people with advanced HIV disease, and is remarkably effective in improving quality of life, increasing lifespan, dramatically decreasing the burden of opportunistic disease, and returning people to productive life.2 <BR>The levels of adherence
Southern Africa. 70: 37. Bibcode:1971MNSSA..30...37C. "k1Coronae Australis". Alcyone.de. Retrieved 23 January 2015. "k2Coronae ... Corben, P. M. (1971). "Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colours for Bright Southern Stars". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. ...
Southern Africa. 24: 41. Bibcode:1965MNSSA..24...41L. Evans, D. S. (2006). "The Revision of the General Catalogue of Radial ... Lake, R. (1965). "Photometric Magnitudes and Colours for Bright Southern Stars (Sixth List)". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc ...
"Photoelectric magnitudes and colours for bright southern stars". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. Southern Africa. 25: 44. ... and Papua New Guinea as one of five stars which comprise the Southern Cross. It is also featured in the flag of Brazil, along ... star system located 321 light-years from the Sun in the constellation of Crux and part of the asterism known as the Southern ...
The Rhodes Trust has defined "Southern Africa" to include South Africa, and at various times, Botswana, East Africa, Ghana, ... "Southern Africa" region has included a number of countries in addition to South Africa: Botswana ( 4, 1996-2009) East Africa ( ... Southern Africa; USA; Zambia and Zimbabwe. Other countries or regions which have, at one time or another, nominated candidates ... Southern Africa and USA. In 1903, a further 5 scholarships were allotted to Germany. Although 2 Scholarships were awarded in ...
Southern Africa. 70: 37. Bibcode:1971MNSSA..30...37C. Houk, N.; Swift, C. (1999). "Michigan catalogue of two-dimensional ... Corben, P. M. (1971). "Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colours for Bright Southern Stars". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. ...
Southern Africa. 23: 136. Bibcode:1964MNSSA..23..136L. Wilson, Ralph Elmer (1953). "General catalogue of stellar radial ... Lake, R. (1964). "Photoelectric Magnitudes and Colours for 100 Southern Stars (Fifth List)". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. ...
Sources Murphy, Alan; Armstrong, Kate; Bainbridge, James; Firestone, Matthew D. (2010-03-11). Southern Africa. Lonely Planet. ... Ramokgwebana lies at the northern end of the only railway line in Botswana, which runs from Ramatlabama on the South African ...
Murphy, Alan; Armstrong, Kate; Bainbridge, James; Firestone, Matthew D. (2010-03-11). Southern Africa. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978- ... The first gold rush in Southern Africa began in 1867. In 1869 the Englishman Daniel Francis came to hunt for gold on the river ... Main, Michael (2001-10-31). African Adventurer's Guide to Botswana. Struik. ISBN 978-1-86872-576-2. Retrieved 2012-09-19. ...
Free Trade Agreement with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa grouping 20 states and the Southern African ... the Southern African Network for Biosciences (SANBio), based in Pretoria, the West African Biosciences Hub (WABNet), based in ... South African universities attracted 61 000 foreign students in 2009. Students from the other 14 countries of the Southern ... ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1. Kraemer-Mbula, Erika; Scerri, Mario (2015). Southern Africa. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 ( ...
African Books Collective. ISBN 99908-87-50-0. Murphy, Alan (2007). "Livingstonia". Southern Africa. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059 ... African Books Collective. ISBN 99908-87-15-2. McIntosh, Hamish (1993). Robert Laws: servant of Africa. Handsel. ISBN 1-871828- ... He went as far as to say that the Associations could prepare Africans to elect Europeans, and later Africans, to the ... Laws aimed to teach Africans the skills needed to run trades and small industries so they would not be at the mercy of the " ...
"Southern Africa". 16 April 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2017. ... John Leadstone, an ex-pirate nicknamed "Old Captain Crackers" who established a trading post on the west coast of Africa. Fox, ...
Southern Africa. Lonely Planet travel guide. p. 327. ISBN 9781740597456. ...
Southern Africa. 25: 44. Bibcode:1966MNSSA..25...44C. Gontcharov, G. A. (2006). "Pulkovo Compilation of Radial Velocities for ... de Vaucouleurs, A. (1957). "Spectral types and luminosities of B, A and F southern stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal ... Corben, P. M. (1966). "Photoelectric magnitudes and colours for bright southern stars". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. ...
Southern Africa. 29 (7). Bibcode:1970MNSSA..29....7C. Kharchenko, N. V.; et al. (2007). "Astrophysical supplements to the ASCC- ...
Southern Africa. 25: 44. Bibcode:1966MNSSA..25...44C. Keenan, Philip C.; McNeil, Raymond C. (1989). "The Perkins catalog of ... Corben, P. M. (1966). "Photoelectric magnitudes and colours for bright southern stars". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. ...
Southern African Catholic Bishops' Conference (1 January 1988). The Catholic directory of Southern Africa. Southern African ... Overland Through Southern Africa. Struik, 1998. ISBN 1868721051. Godfrey Mwakikagile (30 April 2010). Zambia: Life in an ... Alan Murphy; Kate Armstrong; James Bainbridge; Matthew D. Firestone (11 March 2010). Southern Africa. Lonely Planet. pp. 668-. ... Willie Olivier; Sandra Olivier (1998). Overland Through Southern Africa. Struik. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-86872-105-4. Retrieved 18 ...
"UBV Photometry of Some Southern Stars (Second List)". Monthly Notes of the Astron. Soc. Southern Africa. 32: 11. 1973. Bibcode: ...
Southern Africa". Theafricareport.com. Retrieved 2013-06-22. https://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21580163- ...
Southern Africa. 46: p. 72. Bibcode:1987MNSSA..46...72W. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski ... M.; Ilkiewicz, K. (April 2015). "SALT observations of southern post-novae". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 576: A119, 24 pp. Bibcode ...
Botha, Cynthia (2006). "Southern Africa". In Hefling, Charles; Shattuck, Cynthia. The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer ... Phelps and his family emigrated to South Africa in 1909, he was successively warden of St Peter's Home in Grahamstown and ... Botha 2006, p. 198-. New Primate Of South Africa Dr. Phelps Elected The Times Friday, Dec 19, 1930 "ARCHBISHOP OF CAPE TOWN. ...
Botha, Cynthia (2006). "Southern Africa". In Hefling, Charles; Shattuck, Cynthia. The Oxford Guide to The Book of Common Prayer ... An Anglo-Catholic opposition to the 1920 South African edition of the Book of Common Prayer was led by Darragh. The ... Lewis, Cecil; Edwards, G. E. (1935). South Africa: The Growth of the Church of the Province. London: Society For Promoting ... Dublin who served as a priest and school master in the Anglican Church in South Africa in the late nineteenth century, at ...
A Profile of Higher Education in Southern Africa. Volume 2: National Perspectives. Johannesburg: Southern African Regional ... The Republic of Botswana was one of the first countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to adopt a science ... Status of national innovation systems in the Southern Africa Development Community, 2015 Source of table: Mbula-Kraemer, Erika ... Mbula-Kraemer, Erika; Scerri, Mario (2015). Southern Africa. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. ...
... a median number for Southern Africa. This was a higher ratio than the average for sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: 91 researchers ... Southern Africa. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 535-555. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1. African ... Status of national innovation systems in the Southern Africa Development Community in 2015, in terms of their potential to ... In 2014, Malawian scientists had the third-largest output in Southern Africa, in terms of articles catalogued in international ...
List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 2(1-2): 1-152(pt. 1), 1-270(pt. 2). ... Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist "Pechuel-Loeschea , Species Dictionary , Southern Africa , iSpot Nature". www. ... Pechuel-loeschea, common name Stinkbush or Bitterbos, is a genus of African plants in the elecampane tribe within the sunflower ...
Southern Africa. p. 27. Bibcode:1923JASSA...1...27C. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Royal Observatory, C. of Good Hope (1913). ... Hough concentrated on the completion of Gill's programme and compiled five of the twelve volumes of the Southern African part ... CS1 maint: Extra text (link) "HOUGH, Sydney Samuel [FRS]". Astronomical Society of Southern Africa. "Hough, Sydney Samuel ( ... Biography of Sydney Samuel Hough at the S2A3 Biographical Database of Southern African Science publications by S.S. Hough in ...
South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Find this book in the College of Southern Nevada library catalog. * Find this book in the Colorado State University libraries ... Find this book on the University of South Africa catalogue. * Find this book on the University of the Witwatersrand Library ... Find this book in the Southern Methodist University library catalog. * Find this book in the Stanford University library ...
Populations of indigenous people in southern Africa carry a gene that causes lighter skin, and scientists have now identified ... The gene that causes lighter skin pigmentation, SLC24A5, was introduced from eastern African to southern African populations ... More information: Meng Lin el al., "Rapid evolution of a skin-lightening allele in southern African KhoeSan," PNAS (2018). www. ... The DNA and pigmentation sampling took place in the Northern Cape of South Africa in the southern Kalahari Desert and ...
Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used ... There is only limited data on the other Southern African countries. History of Southern Africa Kalahari Sub-Saharan Africa " ... five countries constitute Southern Africa: Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa Swaziland The Southern African Customs Union ( ... The term southern Africa or Southern Africa, generally includes Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South ...
GenderCC Southern Africa is located on the grounds of the GreenHouse Peoples Environmental Center in Johannesburg. Two members ... GenderCC Southern Africa GenderCC Southern Africa is located on the grounds of the GreenHouse Peoples Environmental Center in ...
Development Southern Africa, the journal of the Development Bank of Southern Africa, publishes articles that reflect innovative ... thinking on key development challenges and policy issues facing South Africa and other southern African countries.. ...
Southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, ... Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa*The consolidation of white rule in Southern Africa ... peoples and language groups of Africa (in Africa (continent): Central and Southern Africa) ... Southern Africa, southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, ...
... related legal terms and conditions of BP Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd ("BPSA") applying to your use of and access to the website ... You also agree that your information may be shared with other members of the BP Group outside South Africa. Except as set out ... and any matters related to the aforegoing shall be governed by he law s of South Africa, and any dispute arising between you ... confidential arbitration proceedings held in accordance with the prevailing rules of the Arbitration Foundation of South Africa ...
Investment policy in Southern Africa. The NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative supports members of the Southern African ... OECD Home Industry and entrepreneurshipInternational investmentInvestment for developmentInvestment policy in Southern Africa ... Unlocking investment potential in Southern Africa. Using NEPAD and OECD peer learning methods and instruments, this project ... This project is conducted within the institutional framework of the NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative, under the ...
Two monitoring platforms have been put in place: one within 50 metres of a sea floor well and a second 16 kilometres from any sea floor infrastructure. The platforms will be deployed for 25 years. During its first five years of operation, the harsh environment for data acquisition (at depths of approximately 1,400 metres) has affected the quality of some of the data we have been able to obtain from the observation modules. The modules are retrieved from the sea floor every 12 months for data offloading, instrument calibration and battery re-charging. We have gradually refined the operation and the system is now a proven concept for data acquisition. In 2014, we completed an independent review of data gathered by the DELOS equipment and by remotely operated vehicles, which covered parameters such as oxygen concentration, salinity, turbidity, and temperature. Photographic information was also analysed. The review found a very large and statistically significant month to month variation in the ...
Southern Africa is a region that includes several non-tropical countries in Africa. ... Southern Africa. From Wikitravel. Revision as of 05:08, 5 June 2009 by Inas. (talk , contribs) (removed located perth redirect) ... Southern Africa is an adventure haven. The region has some of the highest bungee jumping spots in the world; fantastic hiking ... The Drakensberg (mountains of the dragon) range stretches some 1000km through Southern Africa, from the Eastern Cape through ...
20 Bishopscourt Drive, Bishopscourt, Claremont, Western Cape, 7708, South Africa. Office:. +27 (0)21 763 1325. Fax:. +27 (0)21 ...
Southern Africa is a region that includes several non-tropical countries in Africa. ... Southern Africa. From Wikitravel. Revision as of 09:12, 16 March 2010 by Babbelas. (talk , contribs) (→‎Countries: added ... Southern Africa is an adventure haven. The region has some of the highest bungee jumping spots in the world; fantastic hiking ... The Drakensberg (mountains of the dragon) range stretches some 1000km through Southern Africa, from the Eastern Cape through ...
South Africa has over 150 000 Covid-19 cases. Do you know someone who has been infected? ...
... On this page you will find a calendar of events likely to be of interest to martial ... 10 September 1999: WTF Taekwondo: 7th All Africa Games (Johannesburg) 16-30 September 1999: Judo African Games (Johannesburg) ... 27-28 April 2001: South African Chinese Kuoshu Tournament (Modderfontein Sports Club, Modderfontein) The South African Chinese ... Martial Arts For Africa (MAA) the only association in South Africa that can offer you International recognition & instruction ...
The Southern African hedgehog is found throughout southern Africa, specifically in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and ... Southern African hedgehog range The Southern African hedgehog (Atelerix frontalis) is a species of mammal in the family ... The Southern African hedgehog is not a threat to humans; however, humans are a threat to the Southern African hedgehog, ... which are two medical problems that Southern African hedgehogs typically face. In South Africa, it is illegal to keep ...
A new linguistic analysis finds that modern language originated in sub-Saharan Africa and spread across the world with ... Africa turned out to have the greatest phonemic diversity - it is the only place in the world where languages incorporate ... "Language is such an adaptive thing that it makes sense to have a single origin before the diaspora out of Africa. Its also a ... "This suggests there was one major origin in Africa.". "Its a compelling idea," says Sohini Ramachandran of Brown University in ...
The Southern African free trade zone has been hailed as one of the most significant steps taken by the Southern African ... The Southern African free trade zone has been hailed as one of the most significant steps taken by the Southern African ... The Southern African union will build on the exisiting South African Customs Union, which links South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho ... In addition to the Southern and East African initiatives, a number of English-speaking countries in West Africa recently ...
Do you work for Southern Africa Federation of the Disabled? Become an administrator ...
SAS Southern Africa also invested in media exposure through our Business Analytics Survey and television interview with Desan ... Congratulations to Datacentrix for Reselling the first VA in Southern Africa into a brand new midmarket account. This is a ... We also made some significant inroads into Africa with new partner discussions and will finalise onboariding during Q3, with ...
Officials say the food situation in southern Africa is always precarious, but a total of 370,000 metric tons of food has been ... Hess says USAID and WFP were able to get food aid to six southern African nations in a timely manner. With the United States ... As you all know this chronic situation in southern Africa, lots of complications that have to do with chronic poverty and AIDS ... Hess acknowledges that while famine was averted this year, the food situation in the southern African region is always ...
The Southern Africa Water Wire, Water & Sanitation Water & Sanitation. Sharing Southern Africas Water. By Thabani Okwenjani ... Water officials from across Southern Africa are meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe, on Jun 5-6 to develop a mechanism to monitor the ... HARARE, Jun 5 2012 (IPS) - The Southern African Development Communitys protocol on shared watercourses is recognised as one of ... The water sector is critical in helping build regional integration in Southern Africa. Credit: Zukiswa Zimela/IPS ...
VOAs Scott Bobb reports from our Southern African Bureau in Johannesburg.. Relief officials in southern Africa say heavy rains ... Floods and heavy rains have destroyed the homes and crops of nearly 100,000 people in several countries in southern Africa. ...
Tebogo was selected as one of the young 200 South Africans in 2019 in the Business and entrepreneurship category as well as the ... Loic has 15 years experience at the helm of corporations, and as a CEO, in Africa and Europe has managed turnarounds, market ... Kudi is one of the market leaders in Agent Banking driving financial inclusion in Nigeria and Africa at large. He coordinates ... Darren Franks, Founder & CEO is a thought leader in talent acquisition strategies with a specialist focus on the African ...
The World Economic Forum named Darlene Menzies one of six top Female Technology Entrepreneurs in Africa for 2017. She is a ... Prior to starting both Far Ventures and Finchatbot he also Co-Founded TimeOne South Africa; an award winning online marketing ... He is a seasoned entrepreneur with experience in Business Strategy, Sales Management and Venture building across both Africa ... he is also committed to enabling entrepreneurial talent in Africa. He does this by sharing his lessons and knowledge as a ...
... SHA specialists and their local partners inspect wells in several villages in the Búzi ... Swiss Humanitarian Aid has allocated a total of CHF 2 million to help people in south-east Africa cope with the ensuing ... Idai is one of the most severe tropical storms to have hit south-east Africa in the last 30 years. ...
PO Box 7109, Newton Park, 6055, South Africa. Email:. Click here for email. ...
  • The tricky part with the fall armyworm is that it burrows into the plant whereas the African armyworm eats from outside," Coillard Hamusimbi, the head of agri-business at the Zambia National Farmers' Union, told Reuters. (reuters.com)
  • Eliot Zitsanza, the Zambia-based chief scientist at the International Red Locust Control Organisation for Central and Southern Africa, which assisted in a local study on the pest, said the South American experience suggested invaded fields could lose 30 to 40 percent of their crop. (reuters.com)
  • In particular, it focuses on Zambia (Northern Rhodesia at time of British domination), a landlocked country located in the centre of Southern Africa, whose historical evolution, since it was conquered at the beginning of the twentieth century, is deeply intertwined with the discovery, extraction and export of copper and with the import of fossil fuel. (seenthis.net)
  • The analysis of infrastructure development in postcolonial Zambia illustrates the competing strategies through which imperialist powers attempted to secure a new form of control on Africa and elucidates the role of logistics as a decisive tool to shape the African territory. (seenthis.net)
  • Three hotspots of species diversity have been highlighted in the report, including the area where the upper Zambezi meets the Kwando and Chobe rivers above Victoria Falls, the Komati and Crocodile river tributaries of the Incomati system in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and the Mbuluzi river basin, also in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and in Swaziland. (iucn.org)
  • South Africa has already declared drought status for five provinces, its main cereal producing regions, while Lesotho has issued a drought mitigation plan and Swaziland has implemented water restrictions as reservoir levels have become low. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The cases have escalated in number, and reach into other African countries as well, such as Congo and Swaziland in 2008. (worldatlas.com)
  • Each year for the past 28 years, he leaves his wife and three children in Swaziland to go and work in the mines of South Africa. (worldbank.org)
  • The first hint of the relationship between African dust and certain soils in the region of the Mediterranean is their reddish or reddish-brown color, similar to that of African aerosol filters, caused by their clay content", co-author of the study and researcher at the Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) at the Universidad Aut³noma de Barcelona, Anna à  vila explained to SINC. (redorbit.com)
  • Arrigo Pallotti is Associate Professor of History of Africa at the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the University of Bologna (Forlì Campus), Italy, and Research Fellow in the Centre for Africa Studies at the University of the Free State, South Africa. (routledge.com)
  • The black peoples of Southern Africa-the overwhelming majority of the region's population-can be divided into speakers of two language families, Khoisan and Bantu . (britannica.com)
  • Sangomas perform a holistic and symbolic form of healing by drawing on the embedded beliefs of the Bantu peoples in South Africa , who believe that ancestors in the afterlife guide and protect the living. (wikipedia.org)
  • President Cyril Ramaphosa has warned South Africans to prepare for difficult days ahead as Eskom power cuts continue to cripple the country. (polity.org.za)
  • The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies revealed their plan to expand the anti-AIDS programme to help 50 million people in Southern Africa to fight the dreaded disease. (medindia.net)
  • Of the estimated 34 million people living with HIV/AIDS across the world, almost three quarters live in Eastern and Southern Africa, Sheila Tlou, the Director of the Regional Support Team for the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS ( UNAIDS ) told a media briefing in Geneva. (un.org)
  • One of the most popular holiday activities in Southern Africa is wildlife safaris in search of spotting the Big Five (lion, elephant, buffalo, leopard, rhino). (wikitravel.org)
  • The reserve has the largest concentration of Black and White Rhino in Africa and, provided conditions are right, our guides will lead us on foot to some of the more concealed places in search of these magnificent animals. (tripadvisor.co.uk)
  • An article by Tim Forssman on mg.co.za - Unearthing the neglected role of hunter-gatherers in social transformation - reports on the rich cultural sequences in the archaeological record of southern Africa that supplement hunter-gatherer histories, and how hunter-gatherers, in the middle Limpopo Valley area, participated in complex social organisations and contributed to these systems. (bradshawfoundation.com)
  • The Oldowan horizon in Wonderwerk Cave (South Africa): archaeological, geological, paleontological and paleoclimate evidence. (nature.com)
  • Archaeological and genetic evidence indicate that anatomically modern humans arrived in Europe from an African source at least 45,000 years ago, following the initial dispersal out of Africa , . (plos.org)
  • Kudi is one of the market leaders in Agent Banking driving financial inclusion in Nigeria and Africa at large. (terrapinn.com)
  • In the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou, thousands of African immigrants, many of them small-scale clothing traders from Nigeria, have come seeking business opportunities. (npr.org)
  • Since the end of apartheid, South Africa has already benefited from new-found export markets north of the Limpopo - witness the cans of Castle lager that appeared in bars as far away as Zanzibar during the 1990s. (bbc.co.uk)
  • These range from politically powerful American corporations, which have a $1.8 billion investment in South Africa, to black Americans -- who constitute an important voting bloc and have become increasingly vocal in their condemnation of apartheid. (csmonitor.com)
  • The findings also suggest that there was intermingling during that period between the Hadza, the San in southern Africa and the Baka in central Africa, all of whom were traditionally hunter-gatherers. (seenthis.net)
  • In a new study, Uppsala University researchers together with South African researchers show that lactase persistence variants were at medium frequencies in the Khoe people, but at very low frequencies or absent among San hunter-gatherers. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1975)‎. The ecology of Praomys (‎Mastomys)‎ natalensis in southern Africa. (who.int)
  • In this selection of papers from the 2006 Literature and Ecology Colloquium, held in Grahamstown, South Africa, the complexities of forging imaginative and pragmatic senses of belonging in Southern Africa are explored from a variety of disciplinary perspectives: philosophical, historical, botanical, and anthropological as well as literary. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The Southern African hedgehog ( Atelerix frontalis ) is a species of mammal in the family Erinaceidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Southern African hedgehog hibernates during the winter and studies show that heterothermy helps keep the energy balance for this species during winter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results from the assessment of 1,279 freshwater species in southern Africa show that the more developed a country is, the more species are threatened with extinction. (iucn.org)
  • Case studies will be used to develop a series of Good Practice Guidelines to help developers and governments take freshwater species into consideration when planning water projects in Africa. (iucn.org)
  • LUSAKA (Reuters) - A maize pest that has devastated crops in southern Africa is a South American species which is harder to detect and eradicate than its African counterpart, agriculture officials and experts said on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • A new species of plant-eating dinosaur with tiny, 1-inch-long jaws has come to light in South African rocks dating to the early dinosaur era, some 200 million years ago. (uchicago.edu)
  • The single specimen of the new species was originally chipped out of red rock in southern Africa in the 1960s and discovered in a collection of fossils at Harvard University by Paul Sereno , paleontologist and professor at the University of Chicago and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence. (uchicago.edu)
  • Named Pegomastax africanus, or " thick jaw from Africa," the new species had a short, parrot-shaped beak up front, a pair of stabbing canines and tall teeth tucked behind for slicing plants. (uchicago.edu)
  • Heterodontosaurs appear to have divided similarly, the study argues, the northern species with simple triangular teeth like Tianyulong and the southern species with taller crowns like Pegomastax . (uchicago.edu)
  • Endangered in much of Africa and with their overall numbers sharply in decline, lions have surprisingly reached surplus levels in many public and private wildlife reserves in southern Africa, at a severe cost to other wildlife species. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The large number of shared genera is at least in part of course due to the introduction of many South African species into California, and probably also due to the common introduction of species from the Mediterranean into both South Africa and California, but obviously it says much else about the similar environments in the two places. (calflora.net)
  • Watch for the African "big five" in the region's finest wildlife reserves, meet with National Geographic-supported researchers in the field, and experience local life and culture in vibrant cities. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A veteran veterinarian delivered the first known biologically identical puppy twins in South Africa, researchers who tested the pups' DNA over several weeks confirm. (nbclosangeles.com)
  • It has complex Plateaus that create massive mountain structures along the South African border. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the South African hedgehog has evolved to become mostly omnivorous due to habitat loss and trash from human civilization being readily available. (wikipedia.org)
  • South African Foreign Minister Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma said monetary union would "depend on the level of integration. (bbc.co.uk)
  • That unadorned phrase pithily sums up the current state of United States-South African relations. (csmonitor.com)
  • The impending change in the White House comes at a time when the South African government clearly has delineated the path it intends to follow -- toward political partition between black and white. (csmonitor.com)
  • South African Prime Minister Pieter W. Botha has recently coined a new set of political catch phrases, such as "political independence, economic interdependence. (csmonitor.com)
  • Moreover, South African officialdom makes it clear that unless Western governments wish to aid in execution of this strategy, they had best remain neutral. (csmonitor.com)
  • Some Western allies would be much harder hit by the loss of South African minerals than others, and Western unity could hardly be fostered by such a move. (csmonitor.com)
  • For there is no doubt that the South African government has contingency plans to halt its mineral exports in retaliation against sanctions. (csmonitor.com)
  • We do have general contingency plans," acknowledges F. W. de Klerk, South African minister of mineral and energy affairs, "I think we would be very unwise if we didn't. (csmonitor.com)
  • With South African supplies off the world market, that situation presumably would change. (csmonitor.com)
  • In the evening, enjoy a traditional South African braai (barbecue) with your fellow travellers. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • South African president Thabo Mbeki's doctrine of delivering good governance in Africa in exchange for better trading opportunities in the developed world will be the prime victim. (iwpr.net)
  • By contrast, Zwelinzima Vavi, the leader of the Congress of South African Trade Unions, Cosatu - the key partner of Mbeki's ruling African National Congress - has said it is already too late to save Zimbabwe's electoral process, and that the political dice are so irretrievably stacked against the opposition that, with only three weeks to go, the election cannot possibly be free and fair. (iwpr.net)
  • And George Bizos, the renowned South African human rights lawyer who defended Nelson Mandela in the Rivonia trial 40 years ago, said in a recent interview in London, "Mr Mugabe would like this election to be certified as free and fair in the hope of getting some relief from the terrible situation which he has led his country to. (iwpr.net)
  • The trip should last from 5 to 7 weeks (end of July - beginning of September 2012) with two to three last weeks in South African Republic. (africaguide.com)
  • These healers are effectively South African shamans who are highly revered and respected in a society where illness is thought to be caused by witchcraft, pollution (contact with impure objects or occurrences) or through neglect of the ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional healers are consulted by approximately 60% of the South African population, usually in conjunction with modern biomedical services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entertainment line-up also saw the up and coming South African Band Bad Peter doing a private show, hip hop dance act by Timeless Attractions and a visual poi act to open the dance floor for DJ Lindilush - one of SA's top DJ's to get the guests on their feet. (engelvoelkers.com)
  • T T he name "shongololo" is Zulu for millipede, and that's what the South African Shongololo Express looks like as it crosses the horizon from one breathtaking destination to another, with five-star standards of service and the promise of an African adventure or encounters somewhere along the line. (southafrica.net)
  • Modern and traditional local cuisine is on offer with a selection of distinguished South African wines. (southafrica.net)
  • The cuisine varies from local South African to Cape Dutch to Malay to, quite often, that of the country you happen to be travelling through. (southafrica.net)
  • This leaves Diamond Fields as the only remaining player in South African waters. (globalissues.org)
  • In national surveys examining providers' practices and attitudes regarding the use of male circumcision for HIV prevention, many South African and Zimbabwean clinicians who provided STI or contraceptive services reported that they also performed male circumcisions (17%) or offered referrals (49%), and one in five (18%) said they usually or always counseled male patients about circumcision. (guttmacher.org)
  • The 20th Congress of WILPF further calls on the Security Council to declare mandatory sanctions against South Africa and for the total application by all governments of such sanctions. (wilpf.org)
  • Many freshwater fish, crabs, dragonflies, molluscs and aquatic plants are at risk of extinction in southern Africa if its rivers and lakes are not protected from developers, according to IUCN. (iucn.org)
  • Officials from the U.S. Agency for International Development and the World Food Program say enough food has been delivered to avert famine in southern Africa. (voanews.com)
  • Speaking at the opening ceremony, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Council President and Chief Veterinary Officer for South Africa, Dr. Mike Modisane stressed on the need for coordinated preparedness and response actions. (fao.org)
  • In an effort to develop country capacities in preparedness and response to animal health emergencies, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations organized a training workshop on Good Emergency Management Practices (GEMP) for Southern Africa. (fao.org)
  • Although sangoma is a Zulu term that is colloquially used to commonly describe all types of Southern African traditional healers, there are differences between practices: an inyanga is concerned mainly with medicines made from plants and animals, while a sangoma relies primarily on divination for healing purposes and might also be considered a type of fortune teller . (wikipedia.org)
  • This article addresses the logistical aspects of colonial and postcolonial governmental practices and the way in which such practices structured the African territory. (seenthis.net)
  • The archeological record in southern Africa, for example from domesticated animals and material artifacts, is particularly clear on demonstrating Khoe herding practices and population continuity in the southwestern Cape from about 2,000 years ago and onwards. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the bishops of IMBISA - the Inter-Regional Meeting of Bishops in Southern Africa - saw an "improvement in families praying and attending church together," they decried "the increasing secularization and de-solemnization of marriage through legislation, policies, practices and language do not confirm marriage as the earthly manifestation of Christ's union to his bride, the Church. (catholicculture.org)