All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.
Areas set apart as burial grounds.
Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The status of health in rural populations.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Sexual activities of humans.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acquired immunity and postnatal clinical protection in childhood cerebral malaria. (1/1101)

By analysing data on the age distribution of cerebral malaria among sites of different transmission intensities, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the epidemiological patterns seen is that (i) cerebral malaria is caused by a distinct set of Plasmodium falciparum antigenic types; (ii) these antigenic types or 'CM strains' are very common and induce strong strain-specific immunity; and (iii) the postnatal period of protection against cerebral malaria is much longer than the period of protection against other forms of severe disease. The alternative hypothesis that cerebral malaria may be caused by any 'strain' of P. falciparum is compatible with the data only if a single exposure is sufficient to protect against further episodes. This is not consistent with observations on the history of exposure of patients with cerebral malaria. Finally, it is clear that although the delayed peak in incidence of cerebral malaria (with age) can be generated by assuming that subsequent exposures carry a higher risk of disease, such an explanation is not compatible with the observation that severe disease rates are low among infants and young children in areas of high transmissibility.  (+info)

Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.(2/1101)


Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (3/1101)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (4/1101)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans. (5/1101)

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

An approach to the problems of diagnosing and treating adult smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in high-HIV-prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa. (6/1101)

The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines.  (+info)

Rebound mortality and the cost-effectiveness of malaria control: potential impact of increased mortality in late childhood following the introduction of insecticide treated nets. (7/1101)

The efficacy and relative cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the control of malaria in children under 5 years of age have recently been demonstrated by several large-scale trials. However, it has been suggested that long-term use of ITNs in areas of high transmission could lead to mortality rebound in later childhood, which would reduce the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and at the extreme could lead to negative overall effects. A model is presented in which the cost and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per child aged 1-119 months were estimated for a sub-Saharan African population with and without an ITN intervention. The rebound rate, defined as the percentage increase in age-specific all-cause mortality and malaria specific-morbidity, was varied to estimate the threshold at which the intervention was no longer cost-effective. Rebound was considered over two possible age ranges: 5-9 years and 3-6 years. With mortality and morbidity reductions due to ITNs in children aged 1-59 months and rebound in the 5-9 years age class, one could be reasonably certain that the cost per DALY averted is below $150 up to a rebound rate of 39%. Up to an 84% rebound rate it is highly likely that the intervention will be DALY-averting, that is the DALYs averted by the intervetion outweigh DALYs incurred through rebound effects. These thresholds are sensitive to the age range over which reductions and rebound in morbidity and mortality occur. With reductions confined to children aged 1-35 months and rebound in the 3-6 years age class, the cost per DALY is highly likely to fall below $150 only up to a 2.5% rebound rate, and with a rate in excess of 11% one can no longer be reasonably certain that the intervention is DALY-averting. These rates apply to the whole population. If there is no rebound amongst children who did not comply with the intervention, the actual increases in morbidity and mortality required to reach these thresholds amongst compliers would be much higher. The age range over which rebound occurs is a critical determinant of the thresholds at which one can no longer be reasonably certain that ITNs remain cost-effective in the long term. Based on empirical estimates of age-specific malaria mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, it appears unlikely that this threshold rate would be reached if rebound occurs over the 5-9 years age range. By contrast, if rebound occurs over the ages of 3-6 years, the increase in mortality rates required to reach this threshold falls within the observed range of malaria-specific mortality rates for this age group. It is essential that long-term surveillance is included as part of ITN interventions, with particular attention to the age range over which rebound may occur.  (+info)

Assessing the use of nuclear medicine technology in sub-Saharan Africa: the essential equipment list. (8/1101)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the survey was to determine the core equipment required in a nuclear medicine department in public hospitals in Kenya and South Africa, and evaluate the capital investment requirements. METHODS: Physical site audits of equipment and direct interviews of medical and clinical engineering professionals were performed, as well as examination of tender and purchase documents, maintenance payment receipts, and other relevant documents. Originally, 10 public hospitals were selected: 6 referral and 4 teaching hospitals. The 6 referral hospitals were excluded from the survey due to lack of essential documents and records on equipment. The medical and technical staff from these hospitals were, however, interviewed on equipment usage and technical constraints. Data collection was done on-site and counter-checked against documents provided by the hospital administration. RESULTS: A list of essential equipment for a nuclear medicine department in sub-Saharan Africa was identified. Quotations for equipment were provided by all major equipment suppliers, local and international. CONCLUSION: A nuclear medicine department requires eight essential pieces of equipment to operate in sub-Saharan Africa. Two additional items are desirable but not essential.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Subnational estimation of modern contraceptive prevalence in five sub-Saharan African countries. T2 - A Bayesian hierarchical approach. AU - Li, Qingfeng. AU - Louis, Thomas A.. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Wang, Chenguang. AU - Tsui, Amy O.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Author(s).. PY - 2019/2/20. Y1 - 2019/2/20. N2 - Background: Global monitoring efforts have relied on national estimates of modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) for many low-income countries. However, most contraceptive delivery programs are implemented by health departments at lower administrative levels, reflecting a persisting gap between the availability of and need for subnational mCPR estimates. Methods: Using woman-level data from multiple semi-annual national survey rounds conducted between 2013 and 2016 in five sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda) by the Performance, Monitoring and Accountability 2020 project, we propose a Bayesian Hierarchical Model with ...
Through extensive systematic searching focusing on sub-Saharan Africa and with no date restrictions, we found 42 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, including seven that examined children. The previous systematic reviews in global populations mentioned in the introduction (Brown and colleagues, 2009 [16]; and Powles and colleagues, 2013 [15]) examined papers published between 1988-2008 and 1980-2011, and identified five and 11 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, respectively. Brown and colleagues [16] did not find any estimates for African children, while Powles and colleagues [15] did not include children in their systematic review.. We have found that sodium intake in many adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa is above the 2 g intake recommended as an upper limit by the WHO, and also above this limit in some populations of children. Indeed, there have been no estimates of sodium intake for adult populations that fell below this ...
We examine the impact of resource windfall on the standard of living both in the short-run and long-run, using a sample of 130 countries, 1963-2007. Then, we systematically investigate the effect of resource windfall on welfare in three different groups of countries: We find that in the short-run resource windfall is welfare enhancing in the whole sample, especially via increases in income and decreases in inequality. However, in SSA countries, the size of welfare improvement is small and it is smaller and almost zero after one year in fragile Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. In the whole sample, a resource windfall shock leads to significant welfare growth even in the long-run, but we couldnt find any significant long-run effect of resource windfall in SSA countries.
It is very difficult to obtain recent, reliable data form any Sub-Saharan country (except South Africa), which makes it hard to provide detailed information. Rolf Burckhardt from a personal experience states that there are definitely opportunities for animal feed production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, one has to be aware of the pitfalls.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human heredity and health (H3) in africa kidney disease research network. T2 - A focus on methods in sub-Saharan Africa. AU - Osafo, Charlotte. AU - Raji, Yemi Raheem. AU - Burke, David. AU - Tayo, Bamidele O.. AU - Tiffin, Nicki. AU - Moxey-Mims, Marva M.. AU - Rasooly, Rebekah S.. AU - Kimmel, Paul L.. AU - Ojo, Akinlolu. AU - Adu, Dwomoa. AU - Parekh, Rulan S.. PY - 2015/12/7. Y1 - 2015/12/7. N2 - CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries ...
Background: Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective: We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design: Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results: We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200489) with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had ...
CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), or stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), is the only known natural ligand for the HIV-1 coreceptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CXCL12 gene (SDF1-3A) has been associated with disease progression to AIDS in some studies, but not others. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene are generally rare and have not been implicated in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. This study analyzed the SDF1-3A SNP and performed mutation screening for polymorphic markers in the CXCR4 gene to determine the presence or absence of significant associations with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The study consisted of 257 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 113 HIV-1-seronegative controls representing a sub-Saharan African population belonging to the Xhosa ethnic group of South Africa. The SDF1-3A SNP was associated with an increased risk for HIV-1 infection (P = 0.0319) whereas no significant association was observed between the occurrence of the SDF1-3A SNP and
EDITORIALS. World TB Day 2010: Eradicating tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa needs effective and committed north-south partnerships The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 24 March of each year as World TB Day, to mark the anniversary of Robert Kochs discovery in 1882 of the cause of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regrettably, this is not a day for celebration. Instead, governments, policy makers, scientists and funders must reflect on the paradoxical fact that, although effective and cheap therapy has been available for over 60 years, TB kills nearly 1.8 million people every year, that is, 5 000 people every day! Together with HIV/AIDS and malaria, TB remains one of the most important causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. World TB Day provides an opportunity to reflect on the poor state of TB control globally, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries (SSA).1 The WHO, donor governments and other funding agencies have focused much of their ...
Dolutegravir, the current first-line treatment for HIV, may not be as effective as hoped in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests new research published on World AIDS Day. The study finds that this so-called wonder drug may be less effective in patients resistant to older drugs.. As HIV copies itself and replicates, it can develop errors, or mutations, in its genetic code (its RNA). While a drug may initially be able to supress or even kill the virus, certain mutations can allow the virus to develop resistance to its effects. If a mutated strain begins to spread within a population, it can mean once-effective drugs are no longer able to treat people.. HIV treatment usually consists of a cocktail of drugs that includes a type of drug known as a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). However, in recent years, HIV has begun to develop resistance to NNRTIs. Between 10% and 15% of patients in much of sub-Saharan Africa are infected by a strain of HIV resistant to these drugs. If a patient ...
DHL Express, the worlds leading international express services provider, has expanded its network of DHL Service Points in Sub-Saharan Africa from the initial 300 to over 1000, in just a few short months. The move is an aggressive expansion into the market which is aimed to further cement the companys leading position in Africa but also to offer local consumers and small businesses an efficient, convenient way of shipping overseas.. The logistics and express company, which is present in 52 Sub-Saharan Africa markets, has been looking to improve access for cash and account customers, creating enhanced accessibility for customers and increasing connectivity between African markets and the over 220 countries and territories that DHL currently serves worldwide.. In our recent 2012 Global Connectedness Index, which measures the state of globalization around the world, Sub-Saharan Africa remained the globes least connected continent, comments Charles Brewer, Managing Director for DHL Express ...
Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002�April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two noncommensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that ...
Using a matched employer-employee data set of manufacturing plants in three sub-Saharan countries, I compare the marginal productivity of different categories of workers with the wages they earn. A methodological contribution is to estimate the firm level production function jointly with the individual level wage equation using a feasible GLS estimator. The additional information of individual workers leads to more precise estimates, especially of the wage premiums, and to a more accurate test. The results indicate that equality holds strongly for the most developed country in the sample (Zimbabwe), but not at all for the least developed country (Tanzania). Moreover, the breakdown in correct remuneration in the two least developed countries follows a distinct pattern. On the one hand, wage premiums exceed productivity premiums for general human capital characteristics (experience and schooling). On the other hand, salaries hardly increase for more firm-specific human capital characteristics ...
BOX 1 Six CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATED PRODUCTION In addition to appropriate irrigation technology, a number of conditions must be met for successful small-scale irrigated horticultural development to occur availability of suitable land, water, and labour resources and non irrigation inputs to production, access to markets, and capital resources (Norman, 1992, Alien and Perry, 1996) Availability of Land Resources A horticultural development programme is justified if it has strong potential for achieving increased production and incomes Land is one of the most important factors of production linked to this achievement It must exist in adequate quantities and with the appropriate physical properties for an expansion of irrigated horticultural production to occur Experience in several sub-Saharan countries confirms that land availability is not a constraint to increased irrigated production and that resulting increases in irrigated surface area is one of the main contributing ...
Understanding patterns of genetic diversity is a crucial component of medical research in Africa. Here we use haplotype-based population genetics inference to describe gene-flow and admixture in a collection of 48 African groups with a focus on the major populations of the sub-Sahara. Our analysis presents a framework for interpreting haplotype diversity within and between population groups and provides a demographic foundation for genetic epidemiology in Africa. We show that coastal African populations have experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes as a series of admixture events over the last 7,000 years, and that Niger-Congo speaking groups from East and Southern Africa share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions associated with the adoption of new agricultural technologies. We demonstrate that most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of large-scale population movements over the
EDITORIALS. Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa - a potential time bomb The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) reported worldwide each year, and 1.7 million people die from the disease.1 The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains very high at over 300 new cases of TB per 100 000 population in 2007.2 The TB epidemic in SSA is fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and up to 70% of adults with TB are co-infected with HIV.2 There are few data on drug-resistant TB from SSA,3 probably owing to poor TB programme performance, inadequate laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing (DST), and poor surveillance, data collection and reporting procedures. The WHO estimated that 69 000 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2008 in Africa, which is most probably an underestimate.1. The global focus on TB control is on early diagnosis and treatment of people in the community in high TB- and TB/HIV-endemic countries. People concentrated ...
Sub-Saharan Africas Broadcasting Landscape and Nine Key Markets. The report is a joint publication with one of the continents leading providers of mobile-based research and insights GeoPoll.. Market research data on broadcast audiences in Sub-Saharan Africa is always difficult to get and not always reliable. This reports provides key audience data for nine African markets from the very big to the much smaller. The countries covered are: Nigeria; Ethiopia; Tanzania; Kenya; DRC; Uganda; Ghana; Cameroon and Rwanda. It provides the following for each country:. - The ownership of key broadcast market ...
This week at CROI David Maman from Médecins sans Frontières presented a study that showed that breastfeeding mothers in sub-Saharan Africa are often
Sub-Saharan Africa does not yet have enough eye health workers to help the millions of people suffering from eye disease in this region. This article explains the challenges in sub-Saharan Africa and the efforts underway to train and empower more eye health workers.
Genetics evidence published in recent years suggests that certain strains of plague (Yersinia pestis) in sub-Saharan Africa may be centuries old. This raises questions whether there is correlation with the suspected depopulations in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the late medieval period. This symposium, for the first time ever, brings together historians, geneticists, archeologists, art historians, anthropologists, and linguists to examine these questions. ...
© Busby et al.Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of gene-flow within the last 4000 years. Our in-depth analysis provides insight into haplotype sharing across different ethno-linguistic groups and the recent movement of alleles into new environments, both of which are relevant to
A U.N. study of neonatal mortality around the world found that Africa has the highest rate, at 28 deaths for every 1,000 live births. In a study pertaining to 14 sub-Saharan African countries, [Michigan State University medical geographer Sue] Grady and her student investigators found that neonatal mortality was significantly associated with, among other factors, home births, where babies are delivered without the supervision of a trained professional. … Grady said newborn deaths in East and West Africa could be dramatically reduced if babies were delivered in medical facilities with trained personnel standing by… (Berman, 6/7).. ...
Doctors with africa CUAMM is an NGO working for the promotion and protection of health in Africa.The organization actively operates in 7 sub-Saharan African countries with long-term healthcare projects, within a framework of social inclusion.
In a simple and hard-hitting way, the film depicts how the staple food crop cassava is destroyed in Sub-Saharan African countries by viruses carried by whiteflies. It draws attention to the way the 1,100-strong CONNECTED Virus Network is bringing together world-class researchers from across the globe to address these issues.. Early in 2019 Eve Bannister and Charlotte May were successful in a process which saw students pitch to the CONNECTED Network to create a film which, with the co-operation of their tutors, would form a key component of their second year of studies.. Their brief was to create a 90-second outreach animation about plant diseases impact, primarily aimed at non-expert laypeople, and to draw attention to the importance of the CONNECTED Network in helping address these issues. It takes the example of the cassava crop to show the impact of two damaging diseases spread by insects.. CONNECTED Network Director, Prof. Gary Foster (University of Bristol) explains: The film uses ...
<p>Childhood cancer diagnosis low in Africa, South Africa ponders air pollution tax, goats attack Malawi seed programmes, and more.</p>
This synthesis paper provides evidence on the impact of regional banking on financial inclusion, deepening and stability, particularly in the context of the rapid rise across sub-Saharan Africa of pan-African banks (PABs) - namely bank subsidiaries headquartered in African countries. The evidence is based on existing literature and research funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) through the Development and Economic Growth Research Programme (DEGRP).
mothers2mothers (m2m) is an Africa-based NGO that unlocks the potential of women to eliminate paediatric AIDS and create healthy families across ten sub-Saharan African countries. m2m trains, employs, and helps empower women living with HIV to work as community healthcare workers in understaffed health centres and underserved communities. Through a peer-to-peer approach, these Mentor Mothers deliver a range of health services, advice, and support to women and their families. Started in Cape Town, South Africa in 2001 with an initial focus on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, m2m has innovated and built on its strengths and now provides family-centred support for a range of related health and social issues spanning pregnancy, birth, childhood, and adolescence. It also partners with governments and other NGOs on the adoption of its programme to spread the Mentor Mother Model and its benefits. m2m has a track record of scaling its services and proven impact. To date, m2m has reached ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of motor, cognitive, language and social-emotional impairment related to HIV infection in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Literature searches using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Additionally, the reference lists of previous reviews were checked to ensure that all eligible studies were identified. Cohens d, a measure of effect size, was computed to estimate the level of impairment. RESULTS: Six reports met the inclusion criteria. In infancy a consistent delay in motor development was observed with a median value of Cohens d = 0.97 at 18 months, indicating a severe degree of impairment. Mental development showed a moderate delay at 18 months, with a median value d = 0.67. Language delay did not appear until 24 months of age, d = 0.91. Less clear findings occurred in older subjects. CONCLUSION: Although HIV has been shown to affect all domains of child functioning, motor development is the most apparent in terms of severity, early onset, and persistence
People in Africas Sub-Sahara region, a relatively undeveloped area, are generally satisfied with their sex lives, with the most common rating -- reported by 18 percent of survey respondents -- being a perfect 10, according to Baylor University research to be presented Monday at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association.
Three months ago sub-Saharan Africa confirmed its first COVID-19 case in Nigeria. Although infections have risen and continue to grow, early and swift action by
Research in some sub-Saharan African countries does not provide sustainable solutions to the vital problems of hunger and poverty, underdevelopment, disease, poor educati..
Hunger, disease and poverty continue to extract a painful toll throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Large percentages in the 10 African countries surveyed say there
With today marking World AIDS day, here are some stories on HIV/AIDS reported in the lead up to the occasion.. Efforts to get lifesaving antiretrovial drugs to HIV-positive patients in many sub-Saharan African countries are routinely failing at the last mile, an international medical group said on Monday. (AFP UNICEF says the number of adolescents dying from AIDS has tripled over the last 15 years, most having acquired the disease when they were infants. (Al Jazeera On the occasion of World AIDS Day, certain groups at high risk for HIV and AIDS in Kenya remain marginalized when it comes to accessing testing and treatment - LGBT. (VOA Hunger and poverty are just some of the threats facing the AIDS orphans of Qudeni, a village that, like thousands of other villages in South Africa, is struggling not just with the virus but the aftermath of a generation of parents lost to AIDS. (Reuters A look into ...
You cannot eat a sweet with the wrapping, young men from South Africa told researchers as part of a recent World Bank study, explaining why they refuse to wear condoms despite a high and well-known risk of HIV. Men often dont see condoms as manly, and women feel unable to insist.. What does this mean? A 2011 Gallup poll of 19 sub-Saharan African countries, home to more than two-thirds of the worlds HIV-infected population, found most adults know how to prevent the spread of HIV. But while 72 percent agreed people should use latex condoms every time they have sex, only 40 percent said they ever had.. ...
According to a new study, adults with HIV in rural sub-Saharan Africa who receive antiretroviral drugs early in their infection may reap benefits.
未知 (‎2008)‎. HIV drives childrens pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86 (‎5)‎, 324 - 325. World Health Organization. ...
In fact, recent evidence on urban/rural adult mortality differences in sub-Saharan Africa suggests an urban disadvantage - read more ||
Objective Antimicrobial resistance has arisen across the globe in both nosocomial and community settings as a consequence of widespread antibiotic consumption. Poor availability of laboratory diagnosis means that resistance frequently goes unrecognised and may only be detected as clinical treatment failure. In this review, we provide an overview of the reported susceptibility of common community acquired bacterial pathogens in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia to the antibiotics that are most widely used in these areas. Methods We reviewed the literature for reports of the susceptibility of prevalent pathogens in the community in SSA and Asia to a range of commonly prescribed antibiotics. Inclusion criteria required that isolates were collected since 2004 and that they were obtained from either normally sterile sites or urine. The data were aggregated by region and by age group. Results Eighty-three studies were identified since 2004 which reported the antimicrobial susceptibilities of common bacterial
TY - JOUR. T1 - Art in sub-saharan africa. T2 - The value of viral load monitoring. AU - Sigaloff, Kim C.E.. AU - de Wit, Tobias F.Rinke. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. UR - U2 - 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00109-5. DO - 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00109-5. M3 - Article. C2 - 26423247. AN - SCOPUS:84947035249. VL - 2. SP - e261-e262. JO - Lancet. JF - Lancet. SN - 0140-6736. IS - 7. ER - ...
Buy In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa by Institute of Medicine at ISBN/UPC: 9780309054300. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
Title of PhD project / theme Environmental temperature and child growth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia Supervisory team Supervisors: Dr Lucy Tusting (Assistant Professor) - LSHTM Email: [email protected]
Sub-Saharan Africa | Country profiles are practical business assessments of corruption in individual countries. Use the profiles to assess the levels of risk, relevant legislation and local information networks for doing business.
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Novartis announced today a new strategy to broaden patient reach and availability of its portfolio of medicines in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to the largest underserved patient population in the world.
Between now and 2100, three out of every four people added to world population will live in sub-Saharan Africa. Thats what the medium variant of
mothers2mothers (m2m) is an Africa-based NGO that unlocks the potential of women to eliminate paediatric AIDS and create healthy families across ten sub-Saharan African countries. m2m trains, employs, and helps empower women living with HIV to work as community healthcare workers in understaffed health centres and underserved communities. Through a peer-to-peer approach, these Mentor Mothers deliver a range of health services, advice, and support to women and their families.
From deadly droughts and destroyed crops to shrinking water sources, communities across sub-Saharan Africa are struggling to withstand the onslaught of global record-breaking temperatures.
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Downloadable! Trade integration of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries agriculture is pointed out as a powerful driver of agricultural growth, especially if it increases processing of agricultural products. But there is no consensus on which negotiations for increased trade integration to put first. Static effects of regional and multilateral tariff reduction shocks are simulated with the Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium computable general equilibrium model in order to compare them and test their coherence with the objective of enhanced value-added in agriculture. A new method is tested to treat existing data issues in the GTAP 7 database that usually lead to overestimations of gains from some trade integration.
Sub-Saharan Africans migrate to North Africa, Europe, North America, and beyond. The research offered here focuses generally on two aspects of sub-Saharan migration: the outcomes for these migrants and their children once they have settled in their countries of destination, the United States among them, and the roles that diasporas and development policies can play in the economic improvement of these African nations.
"South African Politician, Malema, Attacks Jonathan, Says President "Irresponsible" Over Silence on Baga". Sahara Reporters. ... of the left-wing Economic Freedom Fighters party in South Africa and former head of the Youth League of the ruling African ... suggesting it was indicative of an ingrained bias towards African affairs. Others condemned the degree to which the government ...
South Africa. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015. "Diezani Alison-Madueke Maintained Rooms In Two New ... "UK Government Okays Diezani's Trial For 'Money Laundering'". Sahara Reporters. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017. "EFCC ... "FORMER MINISTER DIEZIANI ALISON-MADUEKE IS ILL AS PICTURE REVEALS". Ben Television , Sky 458 , Breaking - Nigeria, Africa and ... says Sanusi made the allegations to retaliate after she didn't help him to get appointed as the president of the African ...
"South Africa's ruthlessly efficient fight against coronavirus". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-04-24. "Sahara Flow". ... He is the son of South African photographer and activist Gisèle Wulfsohn. Turpin grew up in Johannesburg, South Africa where he ... The project garnered Turpin a brand showcase of selected artists as well as fashion-oriented placements in the South African ... In mid-March 2020, during South Africa's coronavirus lockdown, Turpin and collaborator Lenny-Dee Doucha released their single " ...
Sunday Times South Africa. Retrieved 2018-08-04. "The Top 6 Bestselling OkadaBooks Authors For The Year 2016. #4 Is Quite ... "Kiru Taye : A Romance And Exotic Writer Speaks". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved 2018-08-02. annetijie (February 27, 2015). " ... "Africa: The Limits of Imagining Pleasure - Writing the History of African Sex". This is Africa. June 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018-08 ... her books were the subject of an exploratory discussion on the genesis and acceptance of pleasurable sex among Africans, and ...
"South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2012 ... South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-02). "Moroccan objections taint Asian-Africa meeting". South African ... South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-01). "Asia-Afro partnership meeting kicked off today". South African ... Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2012-03-23. "Welcome to the Embassy of the Republic of South Africa in Algiers". SA Embassy ...
Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria, extending south-west from the southern Sahara Desert ... 1997). "Mali". Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. Imrich Kusnir (1999). "Gold in Mali" ( ... Recurring droughts Wildfires in the south Occasional floods, for example in July 2007. Tropical thunderstorms in the south, ... The heat is more extreme to the north in the Sahara Desert; the maximum average high temperature of the year reaches 46 °C ( ...
"South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 9 September 2006. ... "South Africa recognises the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier ... "South Sudan does not recognize Western Sahara independent state: FM". Sudan Tribune. 30 September 2018. "Denmark to vote on ... Africa Analysis Ltd. 1997. p. 109. Retrieved 7 August 2011. The Polisario Front of Western Sahara suffered another diplomatic ...
United States Diplomatic Mission to South Africa (13 July 2010). "Interview of President Obama by South African Broadcasting ... "President of Republic consoles his Ugandan counterpart on victims of Kampala bomb attacks". Sahara Press Service. 14 July 2010 ... "sweep them out of Africa." Supranational bodies Malawi/African Union - President of Malawi and Chairman of the African Union ... An explosion went off directly in front of a large screen that was showing the telecast from South Africa, killing 49 people. ...
"Zuma condemns Kenya mall attack". South African Broadcasting Corporation. 22 September 2013. Archived from the original on 27 ... "President of Republic condoles Kenyan counterpart following mall attack". Sahara Press Service. 22 September 2013. Archived ... The African Union's Chairperson of the African Union Commission Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma condemned the attacks and reiterated ... "The African Union Strongly Condemns the Dastardly Terrorist Attacks against Innocent Civilians in Nairobi". The African Union ...
"African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 7 June 2013. "Nigeria Police ... The African Heritage Research Library was established in 1988. The ancient town also has a Police Mobile Training School The ... that was capital of an ancient city-state of the same name in the Igbomina area of Yorubaland in south-western Nigeria. Ìlá ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Cape Verde". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. ... "Cape Verde: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 195. ISBN ... the African version of the Portuguese radio station RDP. Nationwide radio stations include RCV, RCV+, Radio Kriola, the ... São VIcente which were one of the most coal refueling stopovers in West Africa. Online, recently some articles on A Semana is ...
Europa Publications (2003). Africa South of the Sahara. Psychology Press. p. 966. ISBN 1857431839 Seychelles Trading Company, ...
"Angola: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory. ... On December 16, 2015, a new private TV station, Palanca TV, began broadcasting from the South African satellite subscription TV ... 2015). "Angola: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Angola", Freedom of ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Congo-Brazzaville". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Republic of the Congo: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa ... Africa portal Republic of the Congo portal Cinema of the Republic of the Congo [fr] "Republic of the Congo: Media and ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Botswana". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Botswana". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New ... Patriot on Sunday The Sunday Standard The Voice The Midweek Sun Weekend Post Media of Botswana List of radio stations in Africa ...
Africa South of the Sahara. London: Europa Publications Ltd, 1991. p. 834 The Europa Year Book 1984: A World Survey. London: ... enterprise (a local trading company) by the South African concern South Atlantic Trade and Investment Company (SATIC). The ... The party supported closer links with South Africa. The founding of the party had been preceded by a controversy regarding the ... The founder of the party was G. A. D. 'Tony' Thornton, a businessman of dual South African and British nationality. Thornton ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Madagascar News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 2 July 2017 - via ... ISBN 978-0-8047-0279-9. "Madagascar: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries.. ... "Madagascar", Freedom of the Press, US: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Madagascar". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. ...
Africa South of the Sahara. 33. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-183-4. "President Rawlings inaugurates Takoradi Thermal Plant". ... Africa portal Energy portal List of power stations in Ghana Electricity sector in Ghana Europa Publications Limited (2003). ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ghana Receives First Nigeria Gas Via WAGP". African Business. Downstream Today. 2008- ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Djibouti". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Djibouti: Directory: Broadcasting and Communications". Africa South of the Sahara 2003. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa ...
Togo North Africa Algeria • Egypt • Libya • Mauritania • Morocco • Sudan • South Sudan •Tunisia • Western Sahara Central Africa ... Zimbabwe Southern Africa Botswana • Lesotho • Namibia • South Africa • Eswatini Dependencies Mayotte (France) • St. Helena (UK ... South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas Austin • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington (Olympia, Seattle) • West ... South Caucasus Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia, South Ossetia) • Armenia • Azerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh ...
"Uganda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Uganda: News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory. ... Media in Uganda List of radio stations in Africa Communications in Uganda "Uganda". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual ...
"Ethiopia: News". Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 February 2013. "About Us". Addis Ababa: Media & ... ISBN 978-0-7618-6002-0. "Ethiopia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Media in Ethiopia List of radio stations in Africa: Ethiopia Internet in Ethiopia Communications in Ethiopia Telecommunications ...
South Sudan •Tunisia • Western Sahara Central Africa Angola • Burundi • Cameroon • Central African Republic • Chad • The ... Zimbabwe Southern Africa Botswana • Lesotho • Namibia • South Africa • Swaziland Dependencies Mayotte (France) • St. Helena (UK ... Africa West Africa Benin • Burkina Faso • Cape Verde • Côte d'Ivoire • Gambia • Ghana • Guinea • Guinea-Bissau • Liberia • Mali ... South Caucasus Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia, South Ossetia) • Armenia • Azerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Chad". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Chad: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the ... "Chad", Freedom of the Press, USA: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Chad". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries ... African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Togo". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. ... "Togo: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2003. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2003. p. 1106+. ISSN ... Telesports TV Télévision Togolaise TV2 TV7 List of radio stations in Africa: Togo List of television stations in Africa: Togo ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Zimbabwe Newspapers and News on the Internet". Africa South of the Sahara. US. ... "Zimbabwe: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. ISBN ... Neil Dewar (1991). "Harare". In Anthony Lemon (ed.). Homes Apart: South Africa's Segregated Cities. Indiana University Press. ... 1890 - Fort Salisbury founded in Mashonaland by British South Africa Company. 1891 - Mashonaland Herald and Zambesian Times ...
"Gabon: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 450 ... Foreign Internet News Media includes: Africa Intelligence, Africa Time, Afrik, Afrol, All Africa, Ici Cemac, Index Mundi, IRIN ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory. ... In 1980, a commercial radio station, Africa No. 1 [fr], was founded. Broadcasting to a large area of the African continent, it ...
"AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA 1992". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) "Africa ... "Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa, Issues 5853-5930". 1978. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) 21St, 1992 (1991 ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Africa contemporary record; annual survey and documents, Volume 11. Africana Publishing ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa, Issues 2055-2063". 1979. Cite journal requires , ...
"Africa South of the Sahara". 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-16. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Deming, ... Griot of African Cinema". Research in African Literatures. 33 (4): 161-179. JSTOR 3820506. "Research in African Literatures". ... Africa World Press. pp. 31-39. ISBN 978-0-86543-819-4. Steinglass, Matt (2001). "Open Windows On Distant Worlds; In Burkina ... As of 2001, it was the most popular African film ever in Burkina Faso. The title's meaning is unclear: buud can mean both " ...
"African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 6 June 2013. CS1 maint: ... Published in the 20th century S.B. Aje (1956). "Public Libraries in Western Nigeria: a General Survey". West African Library ... World Guide to Libraries (25th ed.), De Gruyter Saur, 2011, ISBN 9783110230710 Glenn L. Sitzman (1988), "Nigeria", African ... doi:10.1016/0020-7837(77)90020-6. Anthony Olden (1995), "Northern Nigeria Regional Library", Libraries in Africa, Lanham, ...
... the latter two often considered derogatory in the present day-are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south ... North/East Africa(2.8%): M1 2.8%. *Sub-Saharan Africa(4.9%): L 4.9% ... Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 (Western Sahara). *Saudi Arabia. *Somalia. *Sudan. *Syria ...
Zweli Mkhize (South Africa). *Doni Monardo (Indonesia). *Alma Möller (Iceland). *Saeed Namaki (Iran) ...
South Africa *Prince Edward Islands. *South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ... Kerguelen Islands (Archipel des Kerguelen), a group of volcanic islands in the southern Indian Ocean, southeast of Africa, ... Crozet Islands (Îles Crozet), a group in the southern Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar; ... approximately equidistant between Africa, Antarctica and Australia;. *St. Paul and Amsterdam islands (Îles Saint Paul et ...
... peoples from central Asia or the Middle East migrated into Iberia as peoples from Africa crossed into Iberia from the south ... In Morocco B8::DQ2, in the Western Sahara A1-B8 haplotype if found and also DQ2.5 is found in high frequency, but not as a ... Another possibility is that if formed in West Africa, but because it was less selective in African holocene relative to ... One possible source is the HLA Cw*1701 : B*4201 : DRB1*0302 (The most common haplotype in African Americans is an extended ...
Africa South of the Sahara: A Geographical Interpretation. The Guilford Press.. *^ a b "How the autobiography of a Muslim slave ... African-American Muslims, also colloquially known as Black Muslims, are an African American religious minority. About 1% of ... The history of African American Muslims is related to African-American history, in general, and goes back to the Revolutionary ... South End Press, p. 37. ISBN 978-0-89608-480-3. *^ Uzra Zeya (1990-01) Islam in America: The Growing Presence of American ...
The template below (Africa topic) is being considered for merging. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. › ... who did not understand the various African languages. The pidgin evolved with later generations to become a casual language.[7] ...
South Africa * sw:South Africa. South America * sw:South America. South Korea * sw:South Korea. South Pole * sw:South Pole. ... Sahara * sw:Sahara. Saint Petersburg * sw:Saint Petersburg. Saladin * sw:Saladin. Salt * sw:Chumvi. Salvador Dalí * sw:Salvador ... Africa * sw:Africa. African Union * sw:African Union. Age of Enlightenment * sw:Age of Enlightenment. Agriculture * sw:Kilimo. ...
MSNBC Expands to South Africa. TVNEWSER. Published November 15, 2007. Accessed August 24, 2008. ... MSNBC Africa[sunting , sunting sumber]. Di Afrika bagian selatan, MSNBC memakai Free2View dimana menyiarkan acara MSNBC dari ... Class CNBC (20%) · CNBC Africa · CNBC Arabiya (menurut CNBC Europe) · CNBC-e · CNBC Nordic · TVN CNBC ... CNBC · CNBC Africa · CNBC Asia · CNBC Europe · CNBC Latin America · CNBC World ...
The African Union sent Thabo Mbeki, former President of South Africa, to mediate the conflict. The United Nations Security ... conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves, gold, and other goods. The southern terminals of the trans-Saharan ... in sub-Saharan Africa (following South Africa, Nigeria, and Angola).[77] ... Rugby union is also popular, and the national rugby union team qualified to play at the Rugby World Cup in South Africa in 1995 ...
Libya and Western Sahara), but also in West Africa (e.g. Guinea, Mali, Senegal) and can enhance the flavour of the tea, but it ... South Asia Books. pp. 94-95. ISBN 978-8120604131.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... The art of elevated pouring is used principally by people in Northern Africa (e.g. Morocco, Algeria, Mauritania, ... Nuclear microsatellites reveal the genetic architecture and breeding history of tea germplasm of East Africa. Tree Genetics & ...
"Civilizations in Africa: The Iron Age South of the Sahara". Washington State University. Archived from the original on 2007-06- ... Africa's Ancient Steelmakers. Time, September 25, 1978.. *^ Wilford, John Noble (1996-02-06). "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To ... The reputation of Seric iron of South India (wootz steel) grew considerably in the rest of the world.[18] Metal production ... East African steel has been suggested by Richard Hooker to date back to 1400 BC.[25][26] ...
Pan-African orogeny in Africa. Lake Ruker / Nimrod Orogeny in Antarctica, 1,000 ± 150 Ma. Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920 - 850 Ma), ... Sahara desert forms. Neolithic agriculture. 0.0117*. Pleistocene Late ('Tarantian') Eemian interglacial, Last glacial period, ... Kararan Orogeny (1,650 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia. 1800[j]. Orosirian The atmosphere becomes oxygenic. Vredefort and ... Ardipithecus in Africa.[29]. 5.333*. Miocene Messinian Messinian Event with hypersaline lakes in empty Mediterranean Basin. ...
Southern Africa. Further information: Bantu peoples in South Africa. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in ... In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, and ... In 2008, the High Court in South Africa ruled that Chinese South Africans who were residents during the apartheid era (and ... Changing Expressions of Coloured Identity in Post-Apartheid South Africa" (PDF). South African Historical Journal. 51: 168.. ...
The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa (modern South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, ... Martin Klein, 'Slave Descent and Social Status in Sahara and Sudan', in Reconfiguring Slavery: West African Trajectories, ed. ... The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division ... Between 1904 and 1908, Germany's colonies in German South-West Africa and German East Africa were rocked by separate, ...
For example, Female genital mutilation occurs in different cultures in Africa, Asia and South America. It is not mandated by ... Main article: Human rights in Africa. The African Union (AU) is a supranational union consisting of fifty-five African states.[ ... African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights *Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of ... "PROTOCOL OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE AFRICAN UNION" (PDF). African Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. ...
... south of the Sahara (from Mauritania and Senegal to Sudan), and tropical and subtropical eastern and southern Africa and Arabia ... This sap is used as arrow poison for hunting large game throughout much of Africa[3] and as a fish toxin.[4] ... Adenium swazicum is an African species native Swaziland and Mozambique. Ecology[edit]. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth ... Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. pp. 46-49. ISBN 978-90-5782-204-9.. ...
It occurs in dry open woodlands and moist savanna in Africa south of the Sahara, but is absent from the equatorial forest belt ... E. f. flavigaster occurs in a narrow belt across the southern edge of the Sahara, and its range is discontinuous with the other ... Ian Sinclair, Phil Hockey and Warwick Tarboton, SASOL Birds of Southern Africa (Struik 2002) ISBN 1-86872-721-1 ... Golden-breasted bunting - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. ...
Horn of Africa, Volume 15, Issues 1-4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p. 130. ... It connects major cities in the northern part of Somalia, such as Garowe, Bosaso and Galkayo, with towns in the south.[66] In ... "ISS Africa. Retrieved 2 August 2020.. *^ Remarks on the 1998 Charter of Puntland State of Somalia. United Nations Development ... including the Cape Guardafui which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa, Ras Hafun the easternmost place on the entire African ...
... the well-documented transfer of iron-rich rainfall falling in Brazil derived from sand-storms in the Sahara in north Africa. ... Rivers, lakes, and marshlands, such as (from top) South America's Amazon River, Russia's Lake Baikal, and the Everglades in ... in the African Great Lakes, 22% in Lake Baikal in Russia, 21% in the North American Great Lakes, and 14% in other lakes. Swamps ...
... durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?» (PDF). South African Journal of Science. 109 ... deler av Sahara) og på slettelandet rundt Kongofloden. I Asia forekommer hyener fra det østligste Tyrkia, Midtøsten og Den ... Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society and National Museum 82(202): 55-79. ... Single origin of Malagasy Carnivora from an African ancestor (PDF). Nature 421 (6924): 734-737. doi:10.1038/nature01303. PMID ...
El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny (1820). An account of Timbuctoo and Housa: territories in the interior of Africa. pp. 222-.. ... Other species of locusts caused havoc in North and South America, Asia, and Australasia; 173 outbreaks over a period of 1924 ... Eugenio Morales Agacino on expedition monitoring locusts in the desert of Spanish Sahara, 1942 ... "Desert Locusts Plague West Africa". Morning Edition. NPR. 15 November 2004.. *^ "Desert Locust Archives 2003". Food and ...
While segregation was racial in South Africa, in our country we live in religious segregation."[28] ... SEARCH: The Journal of the South East Asia Research Center for Communications and Humanities. 6 (1): 79-96. ISSN 2229-872X. ... Hui Muslims in The South Asian Studies, California, vol.16, No.3, August 1987, page 498, p.498 nt.8. ...
... a transitional ecoregion lying between the Mediterranean climate regions of North Africa and the hyper-arid Sahara Desert.[11] ... South of the coastal highlands of Cyrenaica is a large east-west running depression, extending eastward from the Gulf of Sidra ... Its western neighbor Tripolitania, the largest split-off from Africa proconsularis, became part of the Diocese of Africa, ... Baadj, Amar S. (19 June 2015). Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th ...
Telkom is a semi-privatised, part state-owned South African telecommunications company. ... the Sahara desert) requiring well-organised security for transport, storage, and distribution. ... Gollan, Robin (1963). The Coalminers of New South Wales: a history of the union, 1860-1960. Melbourne: Melbourne University ... Robin Gollan argues in The Coalminers of New South Wales that anti-competitive practices developed in the coal industry of ...
South Africa" (PDF). Science. 307 (5710): 709-714. Bibcode:2005Sci...307..709W. doi:10.1126/science.1107068. PMID 15661973. ... "Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea". Nature. 434 (7035): 886-889. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... July 2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145-151. doi:10.1038/ ... There is a long-running debate about whether modern humans are descendants of a single small population in Africa, which then ...
... acquired slaves as well as tribute paying states by conducting raids on communities to their south in West Africa.[9] They also ... Ludwig G. A. Zöhrer, Die Tuareg der Sahara, 1956, p.182 *^ Société d'anthropologie de Paris, Bulletins et mémoires de la ... Kel Gres: Zinder and Tanut (Tanout) and south into northern Nigeria.. *Kel Owey: Aïr Massif, seasonally south to Tessaoua ( ... Tamari, Tal (1991). "The Development of Caste Systems in West Africa". The Journal of African History. 32 (2): 221-250. doi: ...
... of the empire such as that of the Turkic tribes in Central Asia and peoples living in regions south of the Sahara in Africa ... Africa[edit]. North Africa[edit]. See also: Umayyad conquest of North Africa, Islamization of Egypt, and Islamization of Sudan ... In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the ... Principal cities of East Africa, c. 1500. The Kilwa Sultanate held sway from Cape Correntes in the south to Malindi in the ...
Lotuko mythology (South Sudan). East AfricaEdit. *Bantu mythology (Central, Southeast, Southern Africa) *Gikuyu people#Culture ... Traditional Berber religion (Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad ... "African Traditional Religion , South African History Online". Retrieved 2021-06-19.. ... African Religions and Western Scholarship. Kampala: East African Literature Bureau, 1970.. *Princeton Online, History of Africa ...
South Africa , Sudan , Swaziland , Tanzania , Togo , Tunisia , Uganda , Western Sahara/SADR , Zambia , Zimbabwe ... Bangsa king Africa. Algeria , Angola , Benin , Botswana , Burkina Faso , Burundi , Cameroon , Cape Verde , Central African ...
"South Carolina - African American Culture, Heritage". South Carolina Information Highway. Retrieved 2008-05-21.. ... via the lucrative Trans-Saharan trade between prominent tribes in the southern Sahara and the Arabs and Berbers in North Africa ... Powell, Richard (April 2005). African American Art. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. ... Soul food, a hearty cuisine commonly associated with African Americans in the South (but also common to African Americans ...
A definitive one-volume guide to all sub-Saharan African countries, providing invaluable economic and directory data. It ... Economic Trends in Africa South of the Sahara; Health and Medical Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa; State Failure in Africa; A ... A political map of contemporary Africa and a chronological list of the dates of independence of African countries. ... European Colonial Rule in Africa; Peace and Security Architecture and The Threat of Organized Crime to West Africa. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. ... Regional Committee for Africa, 8 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1958)‎ ... Regional Committee for Africa, 4 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1954)‎ ... World Health Organization; African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (‎African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, 2007)‎ ...
... and is the only book to describe and illustrate all of the birds found in Africa south of the Sahara Desert (the Afrotropic ... and is the only book to describe and illustrate all of the birds found in Africa south of the Sahara Desert (the Afrotropic ... Birds of Africa South of the Sahara provides unrivaled coverage of African birds in a single volume, ... Birds of Africa South of the Sahara provides unrivaled coverage of African birds in a single volume, ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. ... Regional Committee for Africa, 8 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1958)‎ ... Regional Committee for Africa, 4 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1954)‎ ...
The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South ... Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi ... Port Elizabeth, South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the ... The South African authorities stopped the shipment carrier on May 1, 2017 at the port of Port Elizabeth, in response to a ...
... credentials on Tuesday as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Sahrawi Republic to the Republic of South Africa ... South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al-Bashir Asgayar ... "We in South Africa will continue to be faithful to our allies who have remained with us in our struggle for the liberation and ... Pretoria, South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al- ...
The confidential document revealed that Jonathan called his South African counterpart, President Jacob Zuma of South Africa to ... were attributed to pressures on South African business interests in Nigeria. Mr. Louw is due for promotion to the South Africa ... Two South African Magistrates, Nonhle Jadezweni and PJ du Plessis, were contacted to issue the search warrant and warrant of ... Henry Okah Trial In South Africa Uncovers Role Of Jonathans Aides In Abuja Independence Day Bomb Saga An account of the role ...
Africa Yearbook Volume 14: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2017. Abbink, Jan African Studies Centre, Leiden ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8439-8148 ... Africa Yearbook, ISSN 1871-2525 ; 14 National Category Political Science Economics Other Social Sciences Identifiers. URN: urn: ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. University of Jos, Nigeria.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3352-6151 ...
Saeed Mohamed fled civil war in Somalia as a teenager to South Africa. Thirty years later, after building a successful career, ... Africa. Somali refugees give back in South Africa. Posted Saeed Mohamed fled civil war in Somalia as a teenager to South Africa ...
As fall armyworm continues to spread across Africa, policymakers and development partners have increased their efforts to stop ... Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Making the most of intra-African trade: Insights from the 2021 Africa Agriculture Trade Monitor ...
Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Making the most of intra-African trade: Insights from the 2021 Africa Agriculture Trade Monitor ...
An explanation of the global findings about this new vaccine from the lead researcher in the South African leg of the trial ... Some 22 mostly African and Arab countries have opened consulates in Western Sahara. ... Results from Novavax vaccine trials in the UK and South Africa differ: Why, and does it matter?. ... Factbox: Western Sahara leaders treatment in Spain angers Morocco. Read full article. ...
Africa in focus for universitys agricultural mission Riksdag push for Western Sahara vetoed ... H&M mulls production in South America and Africa Swedes scour Angola for mystery Swedish colony ... Africas toughest award: Why is it so hard to win? (Or is it?) ... claiming that French soldiers deployed in the Central African ... Swedish 9-year-old launches bun help to aid children in Africa ...
Africa South of the Sahara 2020. 49th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2020. 28th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... This comprehensive survey of the countries of East and South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand, along with 22 Pacific ... Drawing on historical cases of the American South before and after the Civil War, Europe - especially Germany - between the ...
The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than ... Kumalo South Africa 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1813. S/RES/1813(2008) ( ... Kumalo South Africa 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Document 619. S/2007/619 (2007) ... The representative of South Africa took exception to the way that one proposal was held more worthy than the other as well as ...
Cara Delevingne on coming face-to-face with a lion in South Africa for her latest Tag Heuer campaign. 17 Nov 2018, 12:00pm ... Kate Bosworth on Sahara storms and magical Montana. 18 Nov 2018, 08:00am ... "If wed wanted to go to the Antarctic, theyd have made it happen," said William Kentridge, the South African artist, who ... "Africa is a continent of hugely expanding cities, the legacy of some terrible architecture, as well as unique and fascinating ...
Which African country is the best to live in?. 10 of the Safest Places to Visit in Africa in 2020/2021 ... How can we help poverty in Africa?. End Poverty in Africa. *Action Against Hunger. Saving the lives malnourished children and ... IT IS INTERESTING: How much is a Rolls Royce SUV in South Africa? ... When did Heritage Day start in South Africa?. Heritage Day ... What is the main cause of poverty in Africa?. Poverty in Africa is caused by corruption and poor governance, poor land ...
For all official information and updates regarding COVID-19, visit the South African Department of Healths website at www. ... This was to stop "desert encroachment" and protect ecosystems and human communities in the south and north of the Sahara from ... The African Union and the Pan-African Agency of the Great Green Wall discarded this idea in 2012, shifting the focus of efforts ... Africas Great Green Wall is an ambitious initiative started in 2007 by the African Union. It is now running far behind ...
South Africa. Mandela Foundation to file urgent application against AfriForums Roets for displaying apartheid flag ... President Brahim Ghali of Western Sahara has called on the African Union to hold Morocco accountable for human rights ... Western Sahara celebrates 43 years of proclamation. 12 October 2018, 10:05 PM Thousands of Western Sahara refugees in Algerian ... Morocco king urges UN measures on Western Sahara. 25 February 2017, 9:28 PM Moroccos King Mohammed VI has called on the United ...
Results of search for su:{Africa South of the Sahara} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Structurally adjusted Africa : poverty, debt and basic needs / edited by David Simon ... [et al.]. by Simon, David ... Structural adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa / editors, Laetitia van Drunen and Fred van der Kraaij.. by Drunen, Laetitia van , ... Food supply situation and crop prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa. by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ...
Argentina, South America. armadillo, cavy, jaguarundi, puma,tinamou, tuco-tuco, etc.. Hot Desert. Sahara. North Africa. addax ... Desert Extremes: The biggest desert is northern Africas Sahara Desert; it covers roughly 3,500,000 square miles (9,065,000 ... A long-legged African wild cat.. Sheep. Sheep are mammals with thick, furry fur and hoofed feet.. Shrew. Shrews are tiny ... Gazelles live in herds in Africa.. Gecko. Geckos are the only lizards that make noise. Many geckos live in desert.. Gerbil. The ...
Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara. By on 6 November 2017 Migration, Rights to the ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara explores the complex rural migration patterns in ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara ... in South Africa.. "This atlas is an innovative contribution which will support the policy debate not only between governments ...
Do South America and Africa fit together?. The east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa seem to fit together ... How long does a fast mail take in South Africa?. Fastmail is a letter service in South Africa with a one-day delivery standard ... What are the main branches of South African law? The sources of South African ... What caused South America and Africa to separate?. Magma from below the Earths crust began pushing upward, creating a fissure ...
South Africa. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015. "Diezani Alison-Madueke Maintained Rooms In Two New ... "UK Government Okays Diezanis Trial For Money Laundering". Sahara Reporters. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017. "EFCC ... "FORMER MINISTER DIEZIANI ALISON-MADUEKE IS ILL AS PICTURE REVEALS". Ben Television , Sky 458 , Breaking - Nigeria, Africa and ... says Sanusi made the allegations to retaliate after she didnt help him to get appointed as the president of the African ...
A massive plume of dust from the Sahara desert in northern Africa has been traversing the atmosphere, thousands of feet above ... Even all the way to South Africa. We even restarted our weekly radio Bible study on Sunday nights again, thanks to your ... A massive plume of dust from the Sahara desert in northern Africa has been traversing the atmosphere, thousands of feet above ... Massive Sahara Dust Plume Will Hit New Orleans Friday A massive plume of dust from the Sahara Desert is blowing across the ...
Air Sahara has filed a caveat in the Allahabad High Court regarding the Rs 2,300 crore buy-out deal with Jet Airways, sources ... South Africas ANC to force Jacob Zuma to quit as president: Media reports ... Air Sahara files caveat in Allahabad HC Air Sahara has filed a caveat in the Allahabad High Court regarding the Rs 2,300 crore ... More pain awaits Virat Kohlis Indian cricket team in South Africa, hints Mark ... ...
South Africa, Angola, Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Cape Verde. The significance of these countries and US policy in Africa? JEREMY ... His latest book is called The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel is called The Dying Sahara, will be ... His latest book is The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel, The Dying Sahara, will be released next year ... His latest book is The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel, The Dying Sahara, will be released next year ...
You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara Site. You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara site. ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara 대한민국 (South Korea) Suisse (Switzerland) Suomi (Finland) Sverige (Sweden) 台湾地区 (Taiwan) Türkiye ( ... Middle East and North Africa Nederland (Netherlands) Norge (Norway) Österreich (Austria) Panama Portugal Paraguay Perú (Peru) ...
The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region) Andrew Spielman ... "The Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara." The authors emphasize that morphologically similar populations may differ in ... Health on the Horn of Africa: A Study of the Major Diseases of Somalia Robert Briggs Watson ... What we now have is a monumental life's work that describes the Diptera west of the 100th meridian from Alaska south to ...
  • Peace and Security Architecture and The Threat of Organized Crime to West Africa. (
  • I'm working a lot in West Africa, and there's a great lack of skills and confidence there, but extraordinary scope to do things. (
  • This book is a study linking filmmaking in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) with that in francophone West Africa and examining the factors (including Islam and the involvement of African and French governments) which have shaped post-independence production. (
  • Which country in West Africa experiences the greatest level of erosion? (
  • What is the landscape of West Africa? (
  • The African continent is commonly divided into five subregions: North or Northern Africa, West Africa, Central or Middle Africa, East Africa, and Southern Africa. (
  • Who was the first Arab trader to come to East Africa? (
  • The UN Statistics Division has subdivided the African continent into five regions, Northern Africa, Central or Middle Africa , Southern Africa, East Africa, and Western Africa. (
  • Rifting , the slow pulling apart of a tectonic plate, has produced the East Africa Rift system and its many basins and lakes. (
  • from Arabic: دار السلام ‎, romanized: Dār as-Salām, meaning: Place of Peace) is the largest city and former capital of is the largest city in East Africa and the seventh-largest in Africa, with a population of 6, page 2 Located on the Swahili coast, Dar es-Salaam is an important economic centre and one of Districts: List, Ilala, Kigamboni, Kinondoni, Ubungo. (
  • Patient interviews were con- ine-pyrimethamine (SP)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum ducted or medical charts were reviewed for potential risk malaria were identified in tourists visiting East Africa in the factors for infection and drug resistance by using a standard- late 1970s and early 1980s, which suggests that travelers may ized data extraction form. (
  • All of East Africa is dry except what? (
  • The South African authorities stopped the shipment carrier on May 1, 2017 at the port of Port Elizabeth, in response to a lawsuit filed by the Sahrawi Republic. (
  • Pretoria , South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al-Bashir Asgayar has presented his credentials on Tuesday as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Sahrawi Republic to the Republic of South Africa to His Excellency Mr. Jacob Zuma. (
  • The Ghanian-British architect had only just completed the National Museum of African American History and Culture on Washington's National Mall in 2016, when he received a knighthood in 2017, and popped up on Time magazine's most influential 100 the same year. (
  • Bir Lehlu, Western Sahara (4 May 2017). (
  • After Morocco's official return to the African Union on January 31, 2017, King Mohammed VI began an African tour on February 1, 2017. (
  • South Africa produced a historical-high summer oilseed crop of 2.5 million tons in the 2017/18 MY with a further increase in oilseed production projected for the 2018/19 MY to 2.6 million tons. (
  • The Regional Knowledge Exchange on the promotion of efficient rice farming practices and value chains in sub-Saharan Africa took place from 7 to 11 August 2017 in Elmina, Ghana. (
  • Port Elizabeth , South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi phosphate. (
  • This translates to 40% of the population living below the US$1.90-a-day poverty line in 2018 and Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for two-thirds of the global extreme poor population. (
  • London , July 28, 2018 (SPS) - The United Kingdom has reiterated its position of respecting the decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) regarding the EU-Morocco trade agreements, which excludes Western Sahara and its adjacent waters from the agreement. (
  • in the Vacations of Peace Program 2018, according to a press release from the Andalusian Federation of Associations in Charity with the Sahara (FANDAS). (
  • El-Aaiun (Occupied Territories), July 23, 2018 (SPS) - The Association for Resource Monitoring and the Protection of the Environment in Western Sahara (AMRPENWS) welcomed the decision of the US firm -Innophos Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: IPHS) to suspend its phosphate import operations from Western Sahara, dubbing it a new victory for the Sahrawi question. (
  • Birds of Africa South of the Sahara provides unrivaled coverage of African birds in a single volume, and is the only book to describe and illustrate all of the birds found in Africa south of the Sahara Desert (the Afrotropic Region), including Socotra, Pemba and islands in the Gulf of Guinea. (
  • Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari is about to take over the presidency of the Pan-African Agency of the Great Green Wall - the continent's effort to restore degraded cropland, grazing areas and woodlands bordering the Sahara Desert. (
  • This was to stop "desert encroachment" and protect ecosystems and human communities in the south and north of the Sahara from the harmful effects of desertification and drought. (
  • A massive plume of dust from the Sahara desert in northern Africa has been traversing the atmosphere, thousands of feet above the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and is now cloaking the Caribbean and closing in on the southeastern United States. (
  • NASA astronaut Doug Hurley took this photo from the International Space Station showing a plume of dust from the Sahara desert drifting across the Atlantic Ocean. (
  • These plumes of Saharan dust, termed Saharan Air Layer (SAL) by meteorologists, are whipped up by strong wind storms crossing the Sahara desert. (
  • Now Secretary Clinton will not be visiting the countries in and around the oil- and gas-rich Sahara desert - Mali, Niger, Chad, Algeria and Mauritania. (
  • He traces AFRICOM and the US military concern over al-Qaeda's presence in Africa back to the February 2003 kidnapping of thirty-two European tourists in Algeria's Sahara desert. (
  • The Tenere occupies much of southeastern Niger and is considered to be part of the larger Sahara Desert, which stretches across northern Africa. (
  • What is the main feature of North Africa and is the largest desert in the world? (
  • The fishing port of Essaouira is our last major stop in Morocco before we head south following the rugged Atlantic coastline towards Mauritania and the Sahara Desert . (
  • On this leg of the overland Africa trip, after crossing into Mauritania we will travel to the desert city of Nouadhibou . (
  • Less than 1 percent of AIDS drugs are sold in African nations south of the Sahara Desert, where 70 percent of new HIV infections and 90 percent of all AIDS deaths occur. (
  • I've twice run across the Sahara Desert in the Marathon des Sables. (
  • round 400,000 African elephants live south of the Sahara desert. (
  • A 1991 ceasefire brokered by the United Nations that ended 16 years of conflict between Morocco and the Polisario left the North African kingdom in control of all of the territory's main towns and the Polisario confined to a narrow strip of the desert interior. (
  • Representatives of 13 European states, the United States of America and the Ottoman Empire converged on Berlin at the invitation of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to divide up Africa among themselves "in accordance with international law. (
  • However, the possibility of VE-virus movement in or to Central America and México remains theoretical although knowledge available as of June 1969 is considered to be more compatible with either old endemic foci in western Panamá, Central America, and México or movement of virus within this territory, than with recent movement of virus from South to Central America. (
  • Unregulated and expanding target and bycatch fisheries take spiny dogfish in South America (Europe reports imports from this region), where population declines are reported. (
  • Accidentally released during a breeding experiment in Brazil in the 1950s, Africanized honeybees have steadily migrated northward across South and Central America and into the southern part of the United States. (
  • The cracids, with about 34 species, are restricted to tropical woodlands of Central and South America. (
  • The hoatzin ( Opisthocomus hoazin ) inhabits wooded river edges in northern and eastern South America . (
  • Painted ladies exist worldwide, unlike almost every other species of butterfly, although they have related species that seem to have evolved from them in Australia, and North and South America. (
  • Widespread in South America (except far south and the Andes), sub-Saharan Africa (except far south), warmer parts of Asia , coastal northern and eastern Australia , and islands in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. (
  • Most of South America , except for the far south and the Andes. (
  • Africa's Great Green Wall is an ambitious initiative started in 2007 by the African Union. (
  • Skirting South Africa's stiff immigration laws was difficult. (
  • OECD's periodic review of South Africa's economy. (
  • South Africa's macroeconomic framework has served the economy well, but should be strengthened to make the economy more resilient to external shocks. (
  • The initiative is about how you enhance Africa's budding innovation and startup ecosystem, and how you bring resources and tools and know-how to make sure that Africa organically can develop its own ecosystem on the ground. (
  • I've mountain biked 800 kms across South Africa's Western Cape in the Cape Epic. (
  • Adolescent HIV treatment in South Africa's national HIV programme: a retrospective cohort study. (
  • The King's tour started from the Republic of South Sudan and then continued into Ghana, Zambia, Guinea, and Cote d'Ivoire. (
  • The announcement was made less than a month after Morocco's return to the African Union and few days following King Mohammed VI's first official visit to Zambia. (
  • Angola is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and Namibia to the south. (
  • After independence, what next for South Sudan? (
  • News report in the Moroccan press talk of the Royal armed forces being in high alert and ready to interpose and of the Algeria backed Polisario remaining in full offensive in the Guerguerat area of the Western Sahara. (
  • Accepting Algiers's argument that the Western Sahara conflict is a case of decolonization and not a border dispute between Algeria and Morocco is at the root of the European Union (EU) shortcomings in dealing with conflicts in the Maghreb. (
  • The EU level of denial is mindboggling given the fact that EU members are well aware of the major role Algeria has played in prolonging the Western Sahara conflict. (
  • Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960. (
  • A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. (
  • In December, 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would recognise Morocco's claim over Western Sahara and open a consulate there, as part of a deal under which Rabat agreed to restore diplomatic relations with Israel. (
  • [13] On January 16, 2020, the African Development Bank (AfDB) allocated €8 million for technical assistance on the Ruzizi IV hydroelectric project. (
  • The size of Britain, Western Sahara is sparsely populated, with phosphate reserves and rich fishing grounds. (
  • A Panama court dismissed a case by the Western Sahara Polisario independence movement to block a Moroccan shipment of phosphate in Panama saying there was no evidence the cargo belonged to the group. (
  • The Saharawi people and their representative organizations, including the democratically elected SADR government, have long protested the illegal mining and export of high quality phosphate rock from an area of Western Sahara which has been under armed occupation by Morocco since 1975. (
  • A bulk vessel was detained in the South African port of Port Elizabeth for carrying phosphate rock plundered from occupied Western Sahara. (
  • The government of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (the SADR) and the Saharawi national liberation movement, the Polisario Front, announced that they have secured through legal means in South Africa the interception and detention of a shipment of phosphate mineral rock exported from Western Sahara which had been destined for a New Zealand importer. (
  • In September 2015 and September 2016 position statements about Western Sahara, the Fertilizer Association of New Zealand - a representative agency of both New Zealand companies involved - claimed the purchasing of the phosphate rock had a legal basis. (
  • One of the most important companies in the controversial phosphate business in Western Sahara is ending its involvement. (
  • How can we end poverty in South Africa? (
  • What is the main cause of poverty in Africa? (
  • Poverty in Africa is caused by corruption and poor governance, poor land utilisation and land tenure system, civil wars and unending political conflicts, poor infrastructure, diseases and poor health facilities, the World Bank and IMF policies, among others. (
  • Is poverty declining in Africa? (
  • In South Africa, a history of apartheid policies, concentrated poverty, social deprivation, and other risk factors related to violence within particular areas have created conditions that exacerbate exclusion, inequality, and poverty, especially among youth. (
  • Since Angola became independent in 1975, African languages have been taught in school. (
  • And then there's Accra, Ghana, where his 15-strong office is out to reconsider the warp and weft of contemporary architecture on the African continent. (
  • 48 countries share the area of mainland Africa, plus six island nations are considered to be part of the continent. (
  • AFRICOM , the US military command in Africa, which has been publicly opposed by every country on the continent except Liberia. (
  • 8 F Natural Environment -most of Africa is a series of plateaus of varying elevations "plateau continent" punctuated by several large basins, i.e. (
  • According to the data compiles by Global Africa Art Market Report , South Africa is the leading marketplace for modern & contemporary African art inside the continent. (
  • Author Benjamin Ofori-Amoah challenges common misconceptions and misrepresentations of Africa from a geographical perspective, harnessing the power of modern geographic mapping technology to explore this unique continent. (
  • Coverage of the entirety of Africa enables students to develop a cohesive portrait of the continent as a whole and identify the dynamism of its nations, cultures, and economies. (
  • Encouraging innovation across the continent means that more residents of developing African countries will be able to create solutions to more problems. (
  • Embarking on this expedition will give you an insight into the varied cultures of West and Central Africa and all the challenges this vast continent can throw at you. (
  • The Major Concentration African Studies provides students with an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the African continent. (
  • The confidential document revealed that Jonathan called his South African counterpart, President Jacob Zuma of South Africa to have Okah arrested to "prevent" the deadly blast. (
  • President Jacob Zuma has described the African Union's decision on Morocco as difficult but necessary. (
  • Reuters) - Brahim Ghali, leader of the Polisario Front which wants independence for Western Sahara, is receiving medical treatment in Spain, angering Morocco which annexed the former Spanish colony decades ago. (
  • MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara). (
  • MINURSO's mission was to monitor the cease-fire and to organize and conduct a referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, which would enable the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. (
  • A provision decrying human rights abuses by Morocco in Western Sahara had the backing of 14 members of the Security Council, but was deleted due to French objections. (
  • President Brahim Ghali of Western Sahara has called on the African Union to hold Morocco accountable for human rights violations in the occupied territories in Western Sahara as well for the exploitation of its natural resources. (
  • The seizure of the cargo under court order comes after Saharawi authorities successfully concluded a case against the European Union for extending a free trade agreement with Morocco into Western Sahara. (
  • Western Sahara: part of Morocco? (
  • United Nations - UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Sunday urged Morocco and the Polisario movement campaigning for the independence of Western Sahara to withdraw soldiers and fighters from a buffer strip who have sent tensions soaring. (
  • Rabat maintains that Western Sahara is an integral part of Morocco, despite UN resolutions calling for a referendum on self-determination. (
  • Both initially refused to comply, for lack of sufficient information or disclosure of course of action, but Mr. Du Plessis was told by the prosecutor that it would be in the interest of the Nigeria-South African bilateral relationship. (
  • This book has its origins in a conference on Dar es Salaam in the twentieth century, organised by the British Institute in Eastern Africa and the Department of History, University of Dar es Salaam"--P. v. ISBN Browse related items. (
  • Saeed Mohamed fled civil war in Somalia as a teenager to South Africa. (
  • Africa straddles the Equator which passes through 6 countries: Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya and Somalia. (
  • The Sahara Elite League (also known as Zonal League) was a four team cricket competition created by Cricket Kenya featuring a Twenty20 tournament, a one day cricket tournament and finally a three-day cricket tournament. (
  • Kilimanjaro (19K) and Kirinyaga (Mt.. Kenya) (17K) -Great Rift Valley from Mozambique to Red Sea -African rivers rise in the interior uplands and descend to the sea abruptly. (
  • The first-ever DEMO Africa conference will be held this week in Nairobi, Kenya, bringing a stage with Silicon Valley origins to a city that's quickly becoming its own continent's innovation hub. (
  • During the meeting with President Zuma, the new Saharawi ambassador recalled the historical relations that united the African liberation movements during the battle and the liberation struggle, in particular the outstanding relations between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Frente POLISARIO. (
  • The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than "welcomed" the report on the situation by the Secretary-General-"presumably because [it] dared to raise the issue of the human rights violations against the Saharawi people", and quoted the warning in the report about there being no mandate to address the issue of human rights. (
  • Thousands of Western Sahara refugees in Algerian refugee camps have held colourful celebrations to mark the 43rd anniversary of the proclamation of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). (
  • Saharawi authorities initiated legal proceedings in South Africa when it became clear that the ship would call into Port Elizabeth to reprovision during a month-long journey. (
  • Saharawi authorities have attempted to engage the companies involved, and did so in New Zealand along with the government because of that country's historical support for self-determination in East Timor (Timor-Leste) and Western Sahara. (
  • UPDATED: A senior Swedish aid worker has been suspended from his job at the United Nations for allegedly leaking an internal report claiming that French soldiers deployed in the Central African Republic have been abusing children. (
  • The atlas is the result of a partnership between the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), with technical support from the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn) in South Africa. (
  • The trade has continued despite the commitment of the United Nations in 1991 to ensure for the people of Western Sahara a self-determination process, something otherwise achieved throughout Africa. (
  • It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community to bring peace and development to Africa. (
  • The City of Cape Town has been declared the cleanest city in South Africa, winning the Metro Category of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism's Annual Cleanest Town/Cleanest Metro 2006/2007 awards at a prestigious ceremony in Gauteng on Thursday, 22 March. (
  • Africa AIDS Watch. (
  • Overall, the data reviewed here demonstrate that the dynamics of HIV in Africa are complex and achieving an AIDS-free generation necessitates acceptance of that complexity in all HIV surveillance, research, and prevention, treatment, and care programs. (
  • The problem is this: At Western market prices of $1,000 a month, the multidrug therapies are hopelessly out of reach in the very countries hit hardest by the epidemic -- in African and other developing nations where 90 percent of AIDS cases occur. (
  • But the quest to flood Africa with cheap AIDS drugs has run headlong into conflict with American trade policy. (
  • One of the best examples of this new front in the battle over AIDS drugs is South Africa, where a recently enacted law would override pharmaceutical company patents and allow "gray market" imports of cheap drugs from other countries. (
  • Some 11.5 million people in sub-Saharan Africa have died of AIDS since the epidemic began. (
  • What percentage of Africa is tropical grassland or savanna? (
  • Dumisa Ntsebeza SC has now joined Okah's defense team and will be with him at the South Gauteng High Court in Johanessburg in two weeks to try and secure his bail. (
  • Gauteng is the richest province in South Africa, and that is perhaps the reason why it is the most populous in the country. (
  • This text provides thorough coverage of the historical, cultural, economic, and political forces that continue to shape Africa, applying geographic context to relevant past and contemporary issues. (
  • Can you name the following geographic features of Africa? (
  • The mountains blocked Lake Kivu's former outlet to the watershed of the Nile and instead forced the lake overflow south down the Ruzizi and the watershed of the Congo . (
  • The Ruzizi River, flowing south into Lake Tanganyika, is part of the upper watershed of the Congo River . (
  • You asked: Where is malaria mostly found in Africa? (
  • The costs of inpatient care of children with severe malaria were assessed in four of the 11 sites included in the African Quinine Artesunate Malaria Treatment trial, conducted with over 5400 children. (
  • Analizar la relación coste-eficacia del artesunato parenteral en el tratamiento de la malaria grave infantil y su posible impacto en los presupuestos hospitalarios. (
  • En cuatro de los 11 centros incluidos en el Estudio comparativo de los tratamientos de la malaria con artesunato y quinina en África participaron más de 5400 niños. (
  • The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. (
  • A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. (
  • Is India colonizing Africa? (
  • Migration from India into Africa pre-dates European colonization. (
  • The Clinton administration, they charge, seems content to let multinational drug companies set American trade policy -- which is threatening access to life-saving medicines, not only in South Africa, but also in Thailand, India and poor countries around the world. (
  • Then he set off on a 400-mile trek to the Church of Scotland's Lovedale College in Johannesburg, South Africa. (
  • Rwanda is arguably the safest country in Africa, which is immediately apparent upon arrival in the relaxed and sophisticated capital Kigali. (
  • The region borders Senegal to the north, the Guinea-Bissau regions of Bafatá , Bissau and Biombo to the east, the Rio Geba /Guinea-Bissau region of Quinara to the south and the Guinea-Bissau region of Cacheu to the west. (
  • Situated on the west coast of Africa, Guinea-Bissau, formerly Portuguese Guinea , has a total area of 36,120 sq km (13,946 sq mi), about 10% of which is periodically submerged by tidal waters. (
  • A political map of contemporary Africa and a chronological list of the dates of independence of African countries. (
  • An account of the role played by aides to Goodluck Jonathan in trying to convince Heny Okah to dump the blame for the Independence Day bomb blast in Abuja on "Northern elements" are emerging, just as Mr. Okah's lawyers received the news of a January 4, 2011 date to appeal his denial of bail application which has enabled his continued detention in South Africa. (
  • In what country and year did the first black African nation to gain independence, within ___ years, most other areas had become independent of colonial rule? (
  • The EU role in pushing for the independence of the Western Sahara is a real failing in European policy in North Africa. (
  • Ethiopian Highlands contains the highest point in Africa which is called? (
  • Through a series of maps and in depth case studies, the 20 authors of the atlas, representing different research institutions, think tanks and international organizations from and outside Africa, explore the complexity of the interrelated causes that drive people in Africa to leave their homes. (
  • 25 Million people with HIV & AID's live in Sub-Sahara Africa. (
  • In the widespread HIV epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), it is proposed that key populations with specific HIV acquisition and transmission risk factors, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PUD), are less relevant because HIV transmission is sustained in the general population with average HIV acquisition and transmission risks. (
  • How many people does Africa have? (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of anti-HIV treatment on the work attendance of employed people in South Africa. (
  • South Africa needs structural reforms that would boost the potential of the economy, in particular, broadening competition, limiting the size and grip of state-owned enterprises on the economy, and improving the quality of the education system. (
  • We will visit the Roman City of Volubilis , a remarkably well-kept reminder of the Roman presence in North Africa 2000 years ago. (
  • The system, on the boundary between the African Plate (Nubian Plate) and the Somali Plate , has two branches, both oriented north-south. (
  • Will popular upsurge in the north help spur reform south of the Sahara? (
  • Large, roughly north-south oriented transverse dunes - known as zibar dunes - fill the image frame. (
  • North Africa is mostly which 'feature' along the Mediterranean Sea with a Med. (
  • We will then cross the Straits of Gibraltar by ferry to Ceuta , a Spanish enclave on the North African Coast . (
  • Southern European insects in spring are adults which fed up in North Africa. (
  • Early Tertiary mammals from North Africa reinforce the molecular Afrotheria clade. (
  • In turn, Zuma directly asked South African prosecutor, Shaun Abrahams, to get a Magistrate to issue a search warrant and an arrest warrant for Okah's arrest. (
  • Two South African Magistrates, Nonhle Jadezweni and PJ du Plessis, were contacted to issue the search warrant and warrant of arrest. (
  • Debass compared the mobile market of African countries to that of the U.S., where a saturated market means that users are presented with dozens of apps to solve each problem they search, be it in Google's Play Store or Apple 's App Store. (
  • Long-distance autumn migration across the Sahara by painted lady butterflies: exploiting resource pulses in the tropical savannah. (
  • The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today. (