Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.AfricaDesert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Cemeteries: Areas set apart as burial grounds.Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Myrtus: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.South CarolinaPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)South DakotaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.South AmericaTogo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acquired immunity and postnatal clinical protection in childhood cerebral malaria. (1/1101)

By analysing data on the age distribution of cerebral malaria among sites of different transmission intensities, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the epidemiological patterns seen is that (i) cerebral malaria is caused by a distinct set of Plasmodium falciparum antigenic types; (ii) these antigenic types or 'CM strains' are very common and induce strong strain-specific immunity; and (iii) the postnatal period of protection against cerebral malaria is much longer than the period of protection against other forms of severe disease. The alternative hypothesis that cerebral malaria may be caused by any 'strain' of P. falciparum is compatible with the data only if a single exposure is sufficient to protect against further episodes. This is not consistent with observations on the history of exposure of patients with cerebral malaria. Finally, it is clear that although the delayed peak in incidence of cerebral malaria (with age) can be generated by assuming that subsequent exposures carry a higher risk of disease, such an explanation is not compatible with the observation that severe disease rates are low among infants and young children in areas of high transmissibility.  (+info)

Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.(2/1101)

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Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (3/1101)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (4/1101)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans. (5/1101)

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

An approach to the problems of diagnosing and treating adult smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in high-HIV-prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa. (6/1101)

The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines.  (+info)

Rebound mortality and the cost-effectiveness of malaria control: potential impact of increased mortality in late childhood following the introduction of insecticide treated nets. (7/1101)

The efficacy and relative cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the control of malaria in children under 5 years of age have recently been demonstrated by several large-scale trials. However, it has been suggested that long-term use of ITNs in areas of high transmission could lead to mortality rebound in later childhood, which would reduce the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and at the extreme could lead to negative overall effects. A model is presented in which the cost and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per child aged 1-119 months were estimated for a sub-Saharan African population with and without an ITN intervention. The rebound rate, defined as the percentage increase in age-specific all-cause mortality and malaria specific-morbidity, was varied to estimate the threshold at which the intervention was no longer cost-effective. Rebound was considered over two possible age ranges: 5-9 years and 3-6 years. With mortality and morbidity reductions due to ITNs in children aged 1-59 months and rebound in the 5-9 years age class, one could be reasonably certain that the cost per DALY averted is below $150 up to a rebound rate of 39%. Up to an 84% rebound rate it is highly likely that the intervention will be DALY-averting, that is the DALYs averted by the intervetion outweigh DALYs incurred through rebound effects. These thresholds are sensitive to the age range over which reductions and rebound in morbidity and mortality occur. With reductions confined to children aged 1-35 months and rebound in the 3-6 years age class, the cost per DALY is highly likely to fall below $150 only up to a 2.5% rebound rate, and with a rate in excess of 11% one can no longer be reasonably certain that the intervention is DALY-averting. These rates apply to the whole population. If there is no rebound amongst children who did not comply with the intervention, the actual increases in morbidity and mortality required to reach these thresholds amongst compliers would be much higher. The age range over which rebound occurs is a critical determinant of the thresholds at which one can no longer be reasonably certain that ITNs remain cost-effective in the long term. Based on empirical estimates of age-specific malaria mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, it appears unlikely that this threshold rate would be reached if rebound occurs over the 5-9 years age range. By contrast, if rebound occurs over the ages of 3-6 years, the increase in mortality rates required to reach this threshold falls within the observed range of malaria-specific mortality rates for this age group. It is essential that long-term surveillance is included as part of ITN interventions, with particular attention to the age range over which rebound may occur.  (+info)

Assessing the use of nuclear medicine technology in sub-Saharan Africa: the essential equipment list. (8/1101)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the survey was to determine the core equipment required in a nuclear medicine department in public hospitals in Kenya and South Africa, and evaluate the capital investment requirements. METHODS: Physical site audits of equipment and direct interviews of medical and clinical engineering professionals were performed, as well as examination of tender and purchase documents, maintenance payment receipts, and other relevant documents. Originally, 10 public hospitals were selected: 6 referral and 4 teaching hospitals. The 6 referral hospitals were excluded from the survey due to lack of essential documents and records on equipment. The medical and technical staff from these hospitals were, however, interviewed on equipment usage and technical constraints. Data collection was done on-site and counter-checked against documents provided by the hospital administration. RESULTS: A list of essential equipment for a nuclear medicine department in sub-Saharan Africa was identified. Quotations for equipment were provided by all major equipment suppliers, local and international. CONCLUSION: A nuclear medicine department requires eight essential pieces of equipment to operate in sub-Saharan Africa. Two additional items are desirable but not essential.  (+info)

*Western Saharan cuisine

Sahara Press Service (April 16, 2013). "Western Sahara: Over 20 Tonnes of Food Aid to Saharawi Refugees". All Africa. Retrieved ... Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The Western Saharan cuisine has several influences, as ... Moroccan cuisine Western Sahara portal Food portal Africa portal The World Factbook 2008 Western Sahara Business Law Handbook: ... Africa: Western Sahara: Refugees Need Food". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2014. Sahara Press Service (February 3, ...

*Cricket in Kenya

The league was sponsored by South African Sahara Computers, African Cricket Association and others in 2008. Following a lack of ... Their first game was against a South African Non-European team in 1958. Kenya was represented by the East Africa team in the ... Season 2011/12 saw the launch of the 50 over a side East African Cup, and the Twenty20 East Africa Premier League. In addition ... the East African Cup (50 overs a side) and the East Africa Premier League (Twenty20) (see below) The Eastern Aces captained by ...

*Coelorrhina

This genus is widespread in Africa south of Sahara. Coelorrhina aurata (Westwood, 1841) Coelorrhina babaulti Allard, 1983 ...

*Ila Orangun

"African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 7 June 2013. among the town's ... The African Heritage Research Library was established in 1988. "About Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun". Osun State ... that was capital of an ancient city-state of the same name in the Igbomina area of Yorubaland in south-western Nigeria. Ìlá ...

*Seychelles Marketing Board

Europa Publications (2003). Africa South of the Sahara. Psychology Press. p. 966. ISBN 1857431839 Seychelles Trading Company, ...

*Hala'ib Triangle

2002). Africa South of the Sahara. Europa Publications. p. 985. ISBN 1-85743-131-6. "A View of Sudan from Africa: Monthly ... The closest Sudanese town south of the disputed area is Osief (Marsa Osief), located 26 kilometres (16 mi) south of latitude 22 ... Conversely, the area south of the line which had been administered by Egypt, Bir Tawil, is a terra nullius, claimed by neither ... While the whole area is north of the 22-degree line, a smaller area south of latitude 22°, referred to as Bir Tawil, joins the ...

*List of newspapers in Botswana

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Botswana". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Botswana". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... Guide Mmegi The Monitor The Patriot on Sunday The Sunday Standard The Voice Media of Botswana List of radio stations in Africa ...

*List of newspapers in Nigeria

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Nigeria". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Nigeria: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... "Nigeria". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... Africa Media Review. 2 (3) - via Michigan State University Libraries, African e-Journals Project. " ...

*Saint Helena Labour Party

Africa South of the Sahara. London: Europa Publications Ltd, 1991. p. 834 The Europa Year Book 1984: A World Survey. London: ... enterprise (a local trading company) by the South African concern South Atlantic Trade and Investment Company (SATIC). The ... The party supported closer links with South Africa. The founding of the party had been preceded by a controversy regarding the ... The founder of the party was G. A. D. 'Tony' Thornton, a businessman of dual South African and British nationality. Thornton ...

*List of newspapers in Madagascar

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Madagascar News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 2 July 2017 - via ... ISBN 978-0-8047-0279-9. "Madagascar: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... "Madagascar", Freedom of the Press, US: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Madagascar". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. ...

*Takoradi Thermal Power Station

Africa South of the Sahara. 33. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-183-4. "President Rawlings inaugurates Takoradi Thermal Plant". ... "Ghana Receives First Nigeria Gas Via WAGP". African Business. Downstream Today. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2011-02-12. "TICO shares ...

*List of newspapers in Uganda

"Uganda: News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved February 23, 2013. The Red Book 1922-23: ... "Uganda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... Media in Uganda List of radio stations in Africa Communications in Uganda "Uganda". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual ...

*List of newspapers in Rwanda

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Rwanda". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 15 ... "Rwanda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Media of Rwanda List of radio stations in Africa: Rwanda Telecommunications in Rwanda Rwanda daily News also was stated in 2017 ...

*Media of Chad

"Chad: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 236+ ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... 2015). "Chad: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Chad", Freedom of the ... See also: Radio in Chad (fr) and List of radio stations in Africa: Chad The government-operated Radiodiffusion Nationale ...

*Media of Cape Verde

African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Cape Verde". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. ... "Cape Verde: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 195. ISBN ... the African version of the Portuguese radio station RDP. Nationwide radio stations include RCV, RCV+, Radio Kriola, the ...

*List of newspapers in Ethiopia

"Ethiopia: News". Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 February 2013. "About Us". Addis Ababa: Media & ... ISBN 978-0-7618-6002-0. "Ethiopia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Media in Ethiopia List of radio stations in Africa: Ethiopia Internet in Ethiopia Communications in Ethiopia Telecommunications ...

*List of newspapers in Chad

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Chad". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Chad: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 236+ ... "Chad", Freedom of the Press, USA: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Chad". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries ... African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ...

*Media of Guinea-Bissau

"Guinea-Bissau: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 545. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... See also: List of radio stations in Africa: Guinea-Bissau Radio Bafata Rádio Bombolom Rádio Jovem Radio Mavegro Radio Nacional ... 2015). "Guinea-Bissau: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Guinea-Bissau ...

*Communications in Liberia

African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Liberia". Africa South of the Sahara. United States - via Stanford ... "Liberia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2003. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2003. p. ... "Liberia Newspapers and News on the Internet", Africa South of the Sahara, Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved 8 February ... New Democrat The New Republic Defunct newspapers and magazines include: Africa League African Nationalist Africa's Luminary ( ...

*List of libraries in Nigeria

List of universities in Nigeria List of polytechnics in Nigeria "African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. ... Published in the 20th century S.B. Aje (1956). "Public Libraries in Western Nigeria: a General Survey". West African Library ... The impact of technology on Asian, African, and Middle Eastern library collections. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810854481. C.C. ... World Guide to Libraries (25th ed.), De Gruyter Saur, 2011, ISBN 9783110230710 Glenn L. Sitzman (1988), "Nigeria", African ...

*Media of Angola

"Angola: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... On December 16, 2015, a new private TV station, Palanca TV, began broadcasting from the South African satellite subscription TV ... 2015). "Angola: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Angola", Freedom of ...

*Media of Burkina Faso

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Burkina Faso". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via ... Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 128+. ISBN 1857431839. Toyin ... See also: List of radio stations in Africa: Burkina Faso Two radio stations, one in Ouagadougou and one in Bobo-Dioulasso, are ... 2015). "Burkina Faso: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Burkina Faso ...

*List of newspapers in Kenya

link) (About Eldoret) Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Kenya". Africa South of the Sahara. ... "Kenya: News". Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford University. Retrieved 7 May 2013. James F. Scotton (1975). "Press in Kenya a ... "Kenya: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... African Print Cultures: Newspapers and Their Publics in the Twentieth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472- ...

*Timeline of Freetown

Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Sierra Leone". Africa South of the Sahara. US. Retrieved 8 June 2013 - via ... L. Proudfoot (1959). "Mosque-Building and Tribal Separatism in Freetown East". Africa: Journal of the International African ... LaRay Denzer (1987). "Women in Freetown Politics, 1914-61: A Preliminary Study". Africa: Journal of the International African ... 2005). "Freetown". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press ...

*List of newspapers in Mozambique

"Mozambique: News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 19 May 2013. "Mozambique: Media and ...

*Hurricane Inez

The origins of Inez were from a tropical wave that formed over the Sahara in central Africa on September 15 from the monsoon. ... When Inez passed south of Puerto Rico, its rainbands produced gusty winds along the island's southern coast, reaching 50 mph ( ... It moved westward in the prevailing winds, exiting the west coast of Africa on September 18. The precursor to Inez was a ... In the northern Gulf of Mexico, a helicopter crashed after evacuating workers from an oil platform about 65 mi (105 km) south- ...

*List of newspapers in Angola

1997). Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Africa World Press. ISBN 0865435510. "Angola". Africa South of the Sahara ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 20 May 2013. Festus Eribo; William Jong-Ebot, eds. ( ...
Through extensive systematic searching focusing on sub-Saharan Africa and with no date restrictions, we found 42 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, including seven that examined children. The previous systematic reviews in global populations mentioned in the introduction (Brown and colleagues, 2009 [16]; and Powles and colleagues, 2013 [15]) examined papers published between 1988-2008 and 1980-2011, and identified five and 11 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, respectively. Brown and colleagues [16] did not find any estimates for African children, while Powles and colleagues [15] did not include children in their systematic review.. We have found that sodium intake in many adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa is above the 2 g intake recommended as an upper limit by the WHO, and also above this limit in some populations of children. Indeed, there have been no estimates of sodium intake for adult populations that fell below this ...
We examine the impact of resource windfall on the standard of living both in the short-run and long-run, using a sample of 130 countries, 1963-2007. Then, we systematically investigate the effect of resource windfall on welfare in three different groups of countries: We find that in the short-run resource windfall is welfare enhancing in the whole sample, especially via increases in income and decreases in inequality. However, in SSA countries, the size of welfare improvement is small and it is smaller and almost zero after one year in fragile Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. In the whole sample, a resource windfall shock leads to significant welfare growth even in the long-run, but we couldnt find any significant long-run effect of resource windfall in SSA countries.
It is very difficult to obtain recent, reliable data form any Sub-Saharan country (except South Africa), which makes it hard to provide detailed information. Rolf Burckhardt from a personal experience states that there are definitely opportunities for animal feed production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, one has to be aware of the pitfalls.
CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), or stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), is the only known natural ligand for the HIV-1 coreceptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CXCL12 gene (SDF1-3A) has been associated with disease progression to AIDS in some studies, but not others. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene are generally rare and have not been implicated in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. This study analyzed the SDF1-3A SNP and performed mutation screening for polymorphic markers in the CXCR4 gene to determine the presence or absence of significant associations with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The study consisted of 257 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 113 HIV-1-seronegative controls representing a sub-Saharan African population belonging to the Xhosa ethnic group of South Africa. The SDF1-3A SNP was associated with an increased risk for HIV-1 infection (P = 0.0319) whereas no significant association was observed between the occurrence of the SDF1-3A SNP and
EDITORIALS. World TB Day 2010: Eradicating tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa needs effective and committed north-south partnerships The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 24 March of each year as World TB Day, to mark the anniversary of Robert Kochs discovery in 1882 of the cause of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regrettably, this is not a day for celebration. Instead, governments, policy makers, scientists and funders must reflect on the paradoxical fact that, although effective and cheap therapy has been available for over 60 years, TB kills nearly 1.8 million people every year, that is, 5 000 people every day! Together with HIV/AIDS and malaria, TB remains one of the most important causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. World TB Day provides an opportunity to reflect on the poor state of TB control globally, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries (SSA).1 The WHO, donor governments and other funding agencies have focused much of their ...
Research traced the evolution of an important mucin protein called MUC7 that is found in saliva. When we looked at the history of the gene that codes for the protein, we see the signature of archaic admixture in modern day Sub-Saharan African populations.
The economic slowdown in sub-Saharan Africa looks set to be mercifully brief. Recovery is now under way across the region. The regions relative resilience during this global recession, compared with previous global downturns, owes much to the health of its economies and the strengthening of policy frameworks in the run-up to the crisis. Countercyclical macroeconomic policies played an important role, with nearly two-thirds of sub-Saharan Africa countries experiencing a slowdown in 2009 increasing government spending to buttress economic activity. However, progress toward the Millennium Development Goals receded. Middle-income and oil-exporting countries were hit hardest by the collapse in world trade and commodity markets; the regions low-income countries escaped fairly lightly. Looking ahead, fiscal policies in sub-Saharan Africa generally need to be refocused toward medium-term objectives, macroeconomic policy buffers rebuilt, and financial systems strengthened.
Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002�April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two noncommensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that ...
BOX 1 Six CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATED PRODUCTION In addition to appropriate irrigation technology, a number of conditions must be met for successful small-scale irrigated horticultural development to occur availability of suitable land, water, and labour resources and non irrigation inputs to production, access to markets, and capital resources (Norman, 1992, Alien and Perry, 1996) Availability of Land Resources A horticultural development programme is justified if it has strong potential for achieving increased production and incomes Land is one of the most important factors of production linked to this achievement It must exist in adequate quantities and with the appropriate physical properties for an expansion of irrigated horticultural production to occur Experience in several sub-Saharan countries confirms that land availability is not a constraint to increased irrigated production and that resulting increases in irrigated surface area is one of the main contributing ...
EDITORIALS. Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa - a potential time bomb The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) reported worldwide each year, and 1.7 million people die from the disease.1 The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains very high at over 300 new cases of TB per 100 000 population in 2007.2 The TB epidemic in SSA is fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and up to 70% of adults with TB are co-infected with HIV.2 There are few data on drug-resistant TB from SSA,3 probably owing to poor TB programme performance, inadequate laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing (DST), and poor surveillance, data collection and reporting procedures. The WHO estimated that 69 000 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2008 in Africa, which is most probably an underestimate.1. The global focus on TB control is on early diagnosis and treatment of people in the community in high TB- and TB/HIV-endemic countries. People concentrated ...
This week at CROI David Maman from Médecins sans Frontières presented a study that showed that breastfeeding mothers in sub-Saharan Africa are often
Sub-Saharan Africa does not yet have enough eye health workers to help the millions of people suffering from eye disease in this region. This article explains the challenges in sub-Saharan Africa and the efforts underway to train and empower more eye health workers.
Genetics evidence published in recent years suggests that certain strains of plague (Yersinia pestis) in sub-Saharan Africa may be centuries old. This raises questions whether there is correlation with the suspected depopulations in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the late medieval period. This symposium, for the first time ever, brings together historians, geneticists, archeologists, art historians, anthropologists, and linguists to examine these questions. ...
© Busby et al.Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of gene-flow within the last 4000 years. Our in-depth analysis provides insight into haplotype sharing across different ethno-linguistic groups and the recent movement of alleles into new environments, both of which are relevant to
A U.N. study of neonatal mortality around the world found that Africa has the highest rate, at 28 deaths for every 1,000 live births. In a study pertaining to 14 sub-Saharan African countries, [Michigan State University medical geographer Sue] Grady and her student investigators found that neonatal mortality was significantly associated with, among other factors, home births, where babies are delivered without the supervision of a trained professional. … Grady said newborn deaths in East and West Africa could be dramatically reduced if babies were delivered in medical facilities with trained personnel standing by…" (Berman, 6/7).. ...
The latest Ease of Doing Business Index found the vast majority of sub-Saharan countries have improved their business environments in the past year, and six made the top 15 most improved.
<p>Childhood cancer diagnosis low in Africa, South Africa ponders air pollution tax, goats attack Malawi seed programmes, and more.</p>
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of motor, cognitive, language and social-emotional impairment related to HIV infection in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Literature searches using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Additionally, the reference lists of previous reviews were checked to ensure that all eligible studies were identified. Cohens d, a measure of effect size, was computed to estimate the level of impairment. RESULTS: Six reports met the inclusion criteria. In infancy a consistent delay in motor development was observed with a median value of Cohens d = 0.97 at 18 months, indicating a severe degree of impairment. Mental development showed a moderate delay at 18 months, with a median value d = 0.67. Language delay did not appear until 24 months of age, d = 0.91. Less clear findings occurred in older subjects. CONCLUSION: Although HIV has been shown to affect all domains of child functioning, motor development is the most apparent in terms of severity, early onset, and persistence
People in Africas Sub-Sahara region, a relatively undeveloped area, are generally satisfied with their sex lives, with the most common rating -- reported by 18 percent of survey respondents -- being a perfect 10, according to Baylor University research to be presented Monday at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association.
British and U.S. scientists say nearly 7 million pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with hookworms and, therefore, are at risk of anemia.
Research in some sub-Saharan African countries does not provide sustainable solutions to the vital problems of hunger and poverty, underdevelopment, disease, poor educati..
Hunger, disease and poverty continue to extract a painful toll throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Large percentages in the 10 African countries surveyed say there
You cannot eat a sweet with the wrapping," young men from South Africa told researchers as part of a recent World Bank study, explaining why they refuse to wear condoms despite a high and well-known risk of HIV. Men often dont see condoms as manly, and women feel unable to insist.. What does this mean? A 2011 Gallup poll of 19 sub-Saharan African countries, home to more than two-thirds of the worlds HIV-infected population, found most adults know how to prevent the spread of HIV. But while 72 percent agreed people should use latex condoms every time they have sex, only 40 percent said they ever had.. ...
Unprotected sex remains the primary mode of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the current study. The authors examined the influence of ...
未知 (‎2008)‎. HIV drives childrens pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86 (‎5)‎, 324 - 325. World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.010508 ...
Buy In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa by Institute of Medicine at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780309054300. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
... | Country profiles are practical business assessments of corruption in individual countries. Use the profiles to assess the levels of risk, relevant legislation and local information networks for doing business.
From deadly droughts and destroyed crops to shrinking water sources, communities across sub-Saharan Africa are struggling to withstand the onslaught of global record-breaking temperatures.
Downloadable! Trade integration of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries agriculture is pointed out as a powerful driver of agricultural growth, especially if it increases processing of agricultural products. But there is no consensus on which negotiations for increased trade integration to put first. Static effects of regional and multilateral tariff reduction shocks are simulated with the Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium computable general equilibrium model in order to compare them and test their coherence with the objective of enhanced value-added in agriculture. A new method is tested to treat existing data issues in the GTAP 7 database that usually lead to overestimations of gains from some trade integration.
While the world has focused on the traditional causes of premature death in Africa - communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, malnutrition,…
Doing business in sub-Sahara Africa can be full of disparate challenges, and anyone looking to identify a classic African consumer will struggle. Despite sharing a common border,...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
When DSM Nutritional Products' existing blending facility threatened to reach its production capacity a few years ago a decision was made to invest in a new plant at their Isando head-office in Johannesburg. DSM transferred all of its premix production to this plant at the beginning of March 2009.
Protein AA are needed for the synthesis of hundreds of different tissues, regulatory, receptor, blood, protective and secretory proteins.
We work primarily through women and girls, to build the knowledge, skills and means to transform their health, laying foundations for generations to come and improving maternal health across sub-Saharan Africa.
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The worlds first human test of a vaccine against the prevalent subtype of HIV in sub-Saharan African and Asia, where millions have the virus that cau
Variants in the DARC/ACKR1 gene associated with sub-Saharan African origins may explain why black women have worse breast cancer outcomes than white ...
Over the past three decades, the HIV epidemic has gained a stranglehold in sub-Saharan Africa, where 10% of the world‟s population comprises more than 60% of all people living with the disease. Recent initiatives to boost ...
Employers in sub-Saharan Africa say they can teach job skills, but what they need are employees with soft skills. What are these skills, and how can young people get them? ...
Sub-Saharan Africa, the region that has been hit the hardest by the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic, is making important progress toward lessening the effects of the virus. Since 2009, seven of those African nations have cut their rates of childrens HIV infections in half, the United Nations AIDS program announced on Tuesday.. Those countries include Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, and Zambia. All of them are considered "priority nations" in the UNs fight to combat AIDS. According to a new UNAIDS report, the 21 priority nations in Africa have seen a 38 percent drop in new HIV infections among children over the past four years.. The children who do become infected still struggle to access the HIV drugs they need. Only about three out of every ten HIV-positive children in most priority countries are getting treatment. Those numbers are "unacceptably low," according to UNAIDS.. Still, the report signals good news. "The progress in the majority of countries is a strong signal ...
Diversifying crop production has been proposed as a means of reducing food and nutrition insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, but previous empirical studies yield mixed results. Much of this evidence...
A long-debated question concerns the fate of archaic forms of the genus Homo: did they go extinct without interbreeding with anatomically modern humans, or are their genes present in contemporary populations? This question is typically focused on the genetic contribution of archaic forms outside of Africa. Here we use DNA sequence data gathered from 61 noncoding autosomal regions in a sample of three sub-Saharan African populations (Mandenka, Biaka, and San) to test models of African archaic admixture. We use two complementary approximate-likelihood approaches and a model of human evolution that involves recent population structure, with and without gene flow from an archaic population. Extensive simulation results reject the null model of no admixture and allow us to infer that contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of genetic material (≈2%) that introgressed ≈35 kya from an archaic population that split from the ancestors of anatomically modern humans ≈700 kya. Three ...
A long-debated question concerns the fate of archaic forms of the genus Homo: did they go extinct without interbreeding with anatomically modern humans, or are their genes present in contemporary populations? This question is typically focused on the genetic contribution of archaic forms outside of Africa. Here we use DNA sequence data gathered from 61 noncoding autosomal regions in a sample of three sub-Saharan African populations (Mandenka, Biaka, and San) to test models of African archaic admixture. We use two complementary approximate-likelihood approaches and a model of human evolution that involves recent population structure, with and without gene flow from an archaic population. Extensive simulation results reject the null model of no admixture and allow us to infer that contemporary African populations contain a small proportion of genetic material (≈2%) that introgressed ≈35 kya from an archaic population that split from the ancestors of anatomically modern humans ≈700 kya. Three ...
Mass drug administration is an effective way to control Schistosomoiasis; work from Francisca Mutapi and her team shows that it should be extended to include pre-school age children.. Mass administration of anti-parasite medication is currently taking place in 28 African countries. Despite infection afflicting as much as 60 per cent of the preschool population in these countries, the age group is not included in any of the treatment programmes.. Researchers claim that current clinical testing of schistosome vaccines is neglecting preschool children by targeting only primary pupils. They say that this raises the potential of future vaccinations continuing to exclude the younger age group.. Schistosomiasis affects 200 million people worldwide and is endemic in 43 African countries, with 90 per cent of cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, who carried out the study, found that infection can occur in babies as young as six months in high transmission ...
Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance.. ...
This study argues that the political economy of a country conditions the opportunities for evaluation to be used in policy processes. Consequently, evaluation capacity development practices need to be undertaken in a manner that works towards development with the prevailing political economy. Political economy issues become less evident as analysis moves from the policy space towards technical delivery, but still impacts upon the way evaluation processes unfold.. This argument has been developed through synthesising findings from the case studies in five African countries; namely, Ghana, Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. These studies mapped evaluation demand and supply with consideration for the political economy. In undertaking the mapping, this study found that there is potential rather than actual technical capacity to manage, undertake and demand evaluations. This is a major constraint on the use of evaluation. High-quality evaluations are more often commissioned and managed by ...
The Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa (TESSA) programme is a research and development initiative creating OER and course design guidance for teachers and teacher educators working in Sub-Saharan African countries. TESSA is a consortium of 18 national and international organisations including 13 institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa who are using the TESSA materials in a variety of teacher education programmes. The major funding for TESSA has come from the Allan and Nesta Ferguson Charitable Trust and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.. ...
Whether it is relative wealth or relative poverty that drives the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, is a controversial aspect of HIV/AIDS epidemiology. We suggest that the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa is changing. Previously, new infections were more rapidly acquired by those of relatively higher socioeconomic position (SEP). More recently, those of relatively low SEP are at greater risk. If confirmed, we further suggest in this paper that this pattern would be compatible with Cesar Victoras inverse equity hypothesis, first articulated in relation to child morbidity and mortality. The hypothesis suggests that those of higher SEP benefit first from new health interventions.1. Reviews draw different conclusions about the association between SEP and HIV infection within sub-Saharan African countries. Some authors stress that poverty is a key driver of HIV, and that poverty alleviation is the only sustainable solution.2 Others show that higher education and greater relative wealth are ...
Schistosomiasis is a waterborne parasitic disease in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly common in rural populations living in impoverished conditions. With the scale-up of preventive chemotherapy, national campaigns will transition from morbidity- to transmission-focused interventions thus formal investigation of actual or expected declines in environmental transmission is needed as end game scenarios arise. Surprisingly, there are no international or national guidelines to do so in sub-Saharan Africa. The article therefore provides an introduction to key practicalities and pitfalls in the development of an appropriate environmental surveillance framework.. ...
We restricted our analyses to patients receiving the common ART combination of nucleoside plus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We concentrated on this treatment regimen for two major reasons. Firstly, NRTI plus NNRTI regimens are likely to remain popular as first-line therapy because of their demonstrated efficacy, simplicity of therapy, pill number and tolerability [1]. Secondly, NNRTI/NRTI therapy is likely to remain the dominant regimen for first-line therapy in resource-constrained countries. Among the 42 antiretroviral products whose price the Clinton foundation negotiated for resource-constrained countries only two contain PIs [35]. There are 71 countries (including the vast majority of sub-Saharan countries) that can now benefit from this negotiation, representing more than 92% of the people living with HIV globally [36, 37]. It is important to note that, as a general trend, PIs are likely to remain prohibitively expensive for resource-constrained countries in the short ...
This study set out to investigate the influence of emergency major abdominal surgery on CD4 count among HIV positive patients. We found that major surgery did not significantly reduce CD4 count.. The exact mechanism of CD4 reduction is said to be due to several factors; cell lysis, autoimmune mechanism, anergy, effect of super antigens, apoptosis and virus specific immune responses [6].. Auto immune responses may be evoked by shared structural homology between MHC class II molecules and cellular humoral immune responses directed towards HIV proteins which cross react against self HLA antigens on T cells causing immune destruction.. The role of anergy in CD4 dysfunction is by binding of the glycoprotein 120 to CD4.. Molecules causing them to be refractory to further stimulation and destruction by HIV.. Super antigens are microbial or viral antigens capable of activation of many T-cells, in HIV infection; they render T-cells more susceptible to HIV.. All these factors are worsened by stress which ...
The prevalence of congenital corneal opacities (CCO) is estimated to be 3 in100,000 newborns. This number increases to 6 in 100,000 if congenital glaucoma patie
Goal oriented and target driven Dr. Uys has extensive experience and expertise in the strengthening of health systems over the last twenty years bridging the gap from private health care to public health care and focussing mostly in resource-poor and rural South Africa. Dr. Uys has also been involved in consultancy work for UNODC and the Trimbos Instituut based in The Netherlands in the development of and training in Standard Operating Procedures and Guidelines for TB/HIV care in prisons in eleven sub-Saharan countries as well as leading the consultancy support to UNICEF in the review and evaluation of the PMTCT Mother and Child programme in South Africa in preparation for the validation exercise for the elimination of MTCT. She has also done consultancy work for GEMS (Government Employees Medical Scheme) as independent evaluator of medical aid submissions. As a project manager for Foundation for Professional Development (FPD) since 2006 in the thatsit programme, a PEPFAR-supported HIV ...
<p>Women agricultural researchers in 11 Sub-Saharan countries will benefit from a second phase of the AWARD programme.</p>
BackgroundThe public health threats imposed by toxoplasmosis worldwide and by malaria in sub-Saharan countries are directly associated with the capacity of their closely related causative agents Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, respectively to colonize and expand inside host cells. Therefore, deciphering how these two Apicomplexan protozoan parasites access their hosting cells has been highlighted as a high priority research with the relevant perspective of designing anti-invasive molecules to prevent diseases. Central to the mechanistic base of invasion for both genera is mechanical force, which is thought to be applied by the parasite at the interface between the two cells following assembly of a unique cell junction but this model lacks direct evidence and has been challenged by recent genetic and cell biology studies. In this work, using parasites expressing the fluorescent core component of this junction, we analyse characteristic features of the kinematics of penetration of more than 1000 ...
It is only by addressing the challenge of income inequality that African countries can achieve decisive progress towards poverty reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), according to the UNDP study on Income Inequality Trends in sub-Saharan Africa: Divergence, Determinants, and Consequences.
<p>A Nigerian drink could be bad for the heart and liver, oil firms &quot;forced&quot; to employ Nigerian graduates, wind energy grows in Africa, and more.</p>
The health workforce crisis is a global issue. Known causes broadly include; failure to develop, employ/recruit and retain health workers. These are also due to complex relation to the economy and lack of adequate funds, poor work conditions/environment, migration health workers within countries (e.g. to the private sector and non-governmental organizations) and to other countries in search of better packages, and deaths of the existing health workers. The health work force falls far short of required minimum [13].. World Health Organization [14] reported an absolute shortage of 2.3 million physicians, nurses and midwives in 37 Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health statistics 2009 revealed a global average number of thirteen (13) physicians per 10,000 people. There was a wide disparity between the different regions with the European Region with an average of thirty two (32) physicians per 10,000 population while the African Region had an average of two (2) physicians per 10,000 ...
In 2014, UNAIDS announced the 90-90-90 treatment targets to curb the HIV epidemic by 2020: 90% of people living with HIV know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their HIV status access treatment and 90% of people on treatment have suppressed viral loads. Monitoring and evaluation are needed to track linkage and retention throughout the continuum of care. We propose a systematic review and meta-regression to identify the different methodological approaches used to define the steps in the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where most people with HIV live, and to assess the proportion of participants retained at each step. We will include cohort and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2016 that report on the HIV care cascade among adults in SSA. The PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases will be searched. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts, assess the full texts for eligibility and extract data. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus or
0:06-0:10) Sub-saharan African countries have some of the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. (0:10-0:14) Until recently, this included Ethiopia. (0:14-0:21) The 2011 demographic health survey indicated around 2.3 percent live with HIV. (0:21-0:24) As Ethiopias health development sector has grown, (0:24-0:28) the country has seen a reduction in HIV prevalence. (0:28-0:31) According to the HIV AIDS Prevention and Control Office, (0:31-0:36) the prevalence rate has been reduced from 2.1 percent in 2011, (0:36-0:40) to 1.3 percent in 2013. (0:40-0:44) USAID initiated the TransACTION program in 2009... (0:44-0:47) to target most-at-risk populations... (0:47-0:50) who are at a higher risk of contracting HIV. (0:50-0:54) USAID TransACTION was a five-year... (0:54-0:57) $14 million flagship prevention program... (0:57-1:01) implemented in 119 towns with the goal... (1:01-1:05) of reducing new HIV and sexually transmitted infections... (1:05-1:08) among most-at-risk and vulnerable populations... ...
With our Country Risk team forecasting Cote d Ivoire to be one of the fastest growing Sub-Saharan African countries over the next five years, we believe that the country s consumer sector will experience solid growth, with greater levels of investment likely to develop. Cote d Ivoire is not coming off as low a base as many West African economies; however, as incomes continue to rise over the next few years, we expect to see a much higher proportion of the population entering the market for fast-moving consumer goods. Although it lacks Nigeria s scale (a population in excess of ---mn) and Ghana s dynamic long-term economic outlook and business environment, Cote d Ivoire is expected to attract much more attention from fast-moving consumer goods firms over the next few years. Across Africa, the beer and soft drinks industries have shown themselves to be particularly sensitive to the performance of the wider economy, which is understandable given that in most cases per capita consumption levels of branded
Lancet brought up the subject in his opening remarks at the launch of the Lancet Commission report on the future of health in Africa.Fairy tales are usually not the subject of discussions at scientific research institutions. But on September 14, 2017, Dr. Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief at The "Sub-Saharan African countries have been described as a group of sleeping beauties, under the influence of a cruel fairy hoping for a Prince Charming," he said in his keynote remarks at the APHRC campus. "However, the message of the report is one of hope: the continent can attain the same opportunities for health and long life as the rest of the world by 2030." To realize this vision, a radical shift in policy and practice is necessary. Read more ...
Downloadable! This paper compares experiences in the application of different approaches to passenger travel data collection in francophone and anglophone cities of West, Central and Southern Africa. Its aim is to identify possible improvements through which common problems might be addressed. The paper draws from the available French and English literature on survey methods applied in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the authors experiences in designing and administering surveys in this context. Problems are discussed in terms of survey design and administration. Recommendations to address these problems relate to survey preparation, comparative instrument and cognitive testing, hierarchical multi-modal methods, interviewer selection and training methods, and survey administration and monitoring.
Temporal effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control during primary HIV-1 infection. A recent study by Vaidya et al. examined the role of HLA-B alleles in viral control during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and establishment of the early viral load set point (VLSP). The research concluded that the effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control is more evident during later stage of primary HIV-1 infection. The finding suggest that the mechanism of HLA-B*57 effect on viral control manifests during first several months after HIV-1 infection, which is a critical period in pathogenesis. Polymorphisms at position 97 of HLA-B is found to be the key factor. Source: Vaidya SA, Streeck H, Beckwith N, et al. Retrovirology. 2013;10:139. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-139.. Advanced HIV Disease at Entry into HIV Care and Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy during 2006-2011: Findings from Four Sub-Saharan African Countries. Early diagnosis, prompt enrollment and engagement in HIV care are the key to timely antiretroviral ...
A study showed that if patients take antiretroviral drugs as soon as possible after diagnosis, they are 96 percent less likely to infect their HIV-negative heterosexual partner than if they wait until the virus climbs to a specific concentration in their blood. The study involved clinical trials in five sub-Saharan African countries, Brazil, India, Thailand and the U.S. The finding was named Breakthrough of the Year by Science magazine in 2012. As a result, the WHO updated its guidelines to recommend that patients begin antiretroviral therapy immediately after diagnosis.. ...
The Guttmacher Institutes work in Sub-Saharan Africa has focused on researching access to and use of contraceptives, calculating the regional and country-level public health benefits of meeting womens reproductive health needs, and documenting adolescents needs for and access to sexual and reproductive health information and services.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, 30 percent of the population is malnourished, 76 percent of the population living in rural areas lacks access to improved sanitation, while 53 percent has no access to improved drinking water sources. Children suffer a large proportion of this resulting disease burden which results in preventable death and nutritional, cognitive and physical deficits. The Helmsley Charitable Trust funds integrated development approaches to ensure that children stay in school longer, achieve better learning outcomes and ultimately serve as agents of improved health and wellbeing within their own communities.. ...
In semi-arid and dry sub-humid sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), high poverty levels and a heavy reliance on small-scale rainfed agriculture make rural livelihoods difficult. Upgrading current farming systems, in a way that safeguards productivity beyond field-scale, is urgent. This thesis builds on a case study of the Makanya catchment in Tanzania, and focuses on the potential of small-scale water system innovations (SWSIs), such as rainwater harvesting and conservation tillage, for increasing on-farm productivity while supporting multi-functional landscapes. The thesis consists of five papers that approach questions of alternative development trajectories for smallholder agro-ecosystems, and effects of SWSIs on key system variables, from varying perspectives. Paper I presents a conceptual model for interpreting multi-equilibrium dynamics in dryland agro-ecosystems, and analyzes Makanyas development over the past 50 years. Paper II investigates farmers strategies to deal with drought and the impact ...
This review encompasses five chapters which, apart from the introduction, successively covers reproductive performance, prenatal losses, post-natal losses, general conclusions and recommendations. The review intends to determine the magnitude and causes of reproductive losses in sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Africa in order to identify recommendation domains or areas in need of interventions. Topics of discussion include fertility, parturition, fertilization failure, causes of embryo mortality, causes of abortions and stillbirths, neonational mortality, preweaning mortality and post weaning mortality ...
This review encompasses five chapters which, apart from the introduction, successively covers reproductive performance, prenatal losses, post-natal losses, general conclusions and recommendations. The review intends to determine the magnitude and causes of reproductive losses in sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Africa in order to identify recommendation domains or areas in need of interventions. Topics of discussion include fertility, parturition, fertilization failure, causes of embryo mortality, causes of abortions and stillbirths, neonational mortality, preweaning mortality and post weaning mortality ...
Malawis woodlands, like many of those in sub-Saharan African countries, have been sacrificed for building materials and fuel. Over time, this process of ecosystem degradation turns soil to clay by starving it of the nutrients that result from natural composting. As a result, rainwater - along with human and animal waste - runs off to rivers and streams rather than seeping down to maintain underground aquifers.. In order to maintain the aquifers and protect the natural process of healthy soil creation, Freshwater Project International funds the planting of 100 trees around every new borehole well that we drill. Our partners also train the communities where we work about the importance of protecting trees for the long-range future.. Benefits ...
The January Nutrition Society Paper of the Month is from Public Health Nutrition and is entitled Implications of inconsistent anaemia policies for children and adolescents in Africa Almost 50 % of children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are anaemic, which has profound effects on their intellectual and physical development and their chance of survival. Evidence-based policies are…
After successfully testing prototypes at Abengoa Solar and Sandia National Laboratories, the next step is to scale the project to industrial-sized models and ensure that the system is resistant to all weather challenges. The group is working to identify a manufacturing partner to produce the panels with EDS technology, after which they believe a product will be on the market within two years. The project has received funding from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Mass Clean Energy Council.2 While the project is currently focused in the U.S. Midwest, there is no denying its applicability across sub-Saharan Africa.. A shortage of electricity is considered to be one of Africas greatest development challenges. Seventy percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa is without access to electricity, and this rises close to 92% in rural regions. While the U.S. has a generation capacity of 3360 megawatts per million people, sub-Saharan Africa has only 91 megawatts.3. However, there is ...
Download Birds of Africa South of the Sahara (Princeton Field Guides) ebook by Peter HaymanType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt Publisher: Princeton University
View low-priced textbook options for Africa South of the Sahara, Third Edition : A Geograph on the eCampus.com Marketplace from our trusted third-party sellers.
The World Bank Group committed a record-breaking *$15.3 billion to Sub Saharan Africas development in fiscal year 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) supporting shared prosperity in the Region and focusing on increased efforts to reduce poverty.
Genetic analyses uncover lost human populations and surprising relationships, revealing a complex history of population movements in ancient Africa.
South Africa is the only nation in Africa where the rights of gays and lesbians are guaranteed by the constitution and which recognizes gay marriage.
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The website, fao.org/in-action/enteric-methane/en/, provides information and findings from the FAO project working on beef production systems in South America and Dairy Production systems in South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa.. ...
This is reality for millions of men, women, and children in sub-Saharan Africa who have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. As of 2013, that number was 24.7 million, which accounts for the vast majority of the worlds total reported cases, which by 2014 approached 37 million people, 2.6 million of whom were children. In 2013 alone, 1.5 million sub-Saharan Africans were newly infected. Since the first case was reported in 1981, a certain stigma has always lingered around the disease. Many in the United States refer to it as the "gay disease" or accuse those infected of bestiality. They may say that someone who has been diagnosed should avoid intimacy, believing that a person with HIV is incapable of functional relationships without infecting their partner. In Africa, the implications are even more harsh. Often believed to be a "curse from God," many regions exile an infected person from their community.. Worse, the stigma does not stop with individuals. It bleeds into the legal, political, and economic ...
Methods and results A literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, WHO Global Cardiovascular Infobase, African Journal On-Line, and African Index Medicus using the following search criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, and Africa/SSA. Epidemiological surveys that used the WHO STEPS approach or similar methods were also included. The overall prevalence of hypertension in SSA was estimated at 16.2% (95% CI 14.2% to 20.3%) with an estimated number of hypertensive individuals to be 74.7 million. The prevalence of hypertension varies widely from country to country. It is projected that the number of affected individuals will increase by 68% (125.5 million) by 2025. Mass migration of rural Africans to urban areas and rapid changes in lifestyle and risk factors account for the rising prevalence of hypertension.. ...
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OVERVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF OUR OFFICES. OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION. USTRs Office of Administration is responsible for all of the administrative and management services for the proper functioning of the Agency. This includes finance, budget and travel, human resources, facilities management, security (personal protection, physical, and information), continuity of operations, emergency preparedness, information technology and communications systems, and general administrative services. All USTR employees, in both Washington, DC and overseas locations, are directly served by the professionals of this Office. USTR employees in Geneva, Beijing, and Brussels receive much of their day-to-day support on-site from their host U.S. embassy/mission.. OFFICE OF AFRICAN AFFAIRS. The Office of African Affairs develops and coordinates U.S.-sub-Saharan African trade and investment policy. The office supports and enhances U.S.-sub-Saharan Africa trade and investment by implementing the African ...
The conditions and factors which influenced entry into the export market were addressed by the case studies, shedding some light on the path which was followed in the history of exporting and providing some insights into the process and activities which led to the first entry into export markets. Exporting strategy The case studies have shown that most exporting firms started by serving the domestic market. The strategy of exporting came later in response to developments in their domestic markets. Most of these enterprises started exporting to regional markets, mainly in countries which did not have similar industries. The share of exports in total output is usually small (about 5-15 per cent). With such a small share of exports in their total sales, some of these firms could sell in the export market at a loss, the loss being offset by more profitable sales in the domestic market. Firms in this category have tended to position themselves with a fairly broad competitive scope, reflecting the ...
In the post yesterday I reported what was generally known about the Horn of Africa, that its populations seem to lie between those of Sub-Saharan African and Eurasia genetically. This is totally reasonable as a function of geography, but there are also suggestions that this is not simply a function of isolation by distance (i.e., populations at position 0.5 on the interval 0.0 to 1.0 would presumably exhibit equal affinities in both directions due to gene flow). For example, you observe the almost total lack of "Bantu" genetic influence on the Semitic and Cushitic populations of the Horn of Africa, and the lack of Eurasian influence in groups to the south and west of the Horn except to some extent the Masai.. Tacking horizontally in terms of discipline, over the past few generations there has been a veritable cottage industry making the case for the recent origin of many ethno-linguistic populations through a process of cultural self-creation. Clearly there are many cases of this, some of them ...
BACKGROUND: While health outcomes of HIV/AIDS treatments in terms of increased longevity has been the subject of much research, there appears to be very limited research on the improved health related quality of life (HRQL ...
Eldis supports free and open access to useful and relevant research on global development challenges.. Eldis is hosted by the Knowledge, Impact and Policy team at the Institute of Development Studies in the UK but our services profile work by a growing global network of research organisations and knowledge brokers. These partners help to ensure that Eldis can present a truly global picture of development research. More…. ...
The proportion of women in sub-Saharan Africa who died because of pregnancy fell by more than a quarter between 1990 and 2008, according to estimates released yesterday.
Interview - Last year, the United States announced a new strategy toward sub-Saharan Africa that emphasizes increased trade and investment, including intra-African trade. Officials acknowledge that more work needs to be done, especially now that China has become Africas largest trading partner.
The largest study of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa to date reveals that programs to control parasitic diseases and access to better antenatal care could substantially reduce the prevalence of the disease in this region.
GlaxoSmithKline, British pharmaceutical giant, announced a five-year investment programme for sub-Saharan Africa to fuel the companys growth and to serve an area with pressing health needs.
Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the hot spots of Christian higher education growth worldwide, a trend that can be observed across the continent.
Analyzes the possibility for sub-Saharan Africa to reap the benefits of a demographic dividendReviews and defines the various conditions that must be met
EDITOR-We disagree with Latham and Prebles statement that HIV transmission through breast feeding is rare and has been exaggerated.1 Worldwide about 600 000 children a year are infected through mother to child transmission, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and breast feeding accounts for over a third of this number.2 At least 200 000 infections worldwide cannot be dismissed.. In underresourced areas, such as most of sub-Saharan … ...
... was last measured at 0.49 in 2014, according to the World Bank. Merchandise imports from developing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa are the sum of merchandise imports by the reporting economy from developing economies in the Sub-Saharan Africa region according to the World Bank classification of economies as of July 1, 2009. Data are expressed as a percentage of total merchandise imports by the economy. Data are computed only if at least half of the economies in the partner country group had non-missing data.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Merchandise imports from developing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa (% of total merchandise imports) in Kuwait.
The current scoping review aims to map available evidence regarding the distribution of HPV-related cancers, the risk factors, and its association with HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in order to reveal research gaps in this area. High-risk HPV types are the cause of all cervical cancers, anogenital cancers including the vulva, and anal and penile cancers [14, 15], as well as head and neck cancers [16]. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HPV and cervical cancer in the world [17]. HPV-related cancers are rising and they are a major public health concern exacerbating current disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa [18]. The burden of HPV-associated diseases is substantially increased where there is a HIV-1 co-infection [19], and with diverse HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of HPV-related cancers might still rise. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) include targets relevant to womens cancers, including a one-third reduction in premature mortality from ...
1. Nakhooda S, Caravani A, Neil Bird, Schalatek L (2011) Climate finance fundamentals: regional briefing for Sub Saharan Africa. Heinrich Böll Stiftung North America and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). Available: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7474.pdf. Accessed 4 December 2012.. 2. African Development Bank (2011) The cost of adaptation to climate change in Africa. Available: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Cost%20of%20Adaptation%20in%20Africa.pdf. Accessed 4 December 2012.. 3. WHO (2008) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: WHO.. 4. ByassP (2009) Climate change and population health in Africa: where are the scientists? Glob Health Action 2 doi:10.3402/gha.v2i0.2065. 5. HaySI, RogersDJ, RandolphSE, SternDI, CoxJ, et al. (2002) Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands. Trends Parasitol 18: 530-534.. 6. OmumboJA, WaweruSM, OmumboJA, ...
Beyond Pesticides, May 17, 2012) Rather than investing in safe, long-term solutions to prevent malaria mortality, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a strategic plan that calls for multiple toxic pesticides to combat mosquito resistance to insecticides that is showing up in sub-Saharan Africa. Insecticide resistance, according to the WHO report, is already rampant in 64 malaria-ridden countries and may result in as many as 26 million more cases of malaria a year, which could end up costing between $30 and $60 million annually for tests and medication. Mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African countries are becoming resistant to pyrethroid insecticides, which are used extensively for household spraying and treating bed nets, as well as to the organochloride compound DDT -which is still used in many parts of the world to control mosquitoes. In Somalia, Sudan and Turkey, resistance has spread to carbamates and organophosphates in addition to pyrethroids and organochloride pesticides. Rather ...
This study provides efficacy data on AS+AQ and AM-L, the two most widely adopted ACT regimens in sub-Saharan Africa, for Ghanaian children. The study also provides longitudinally collected safety data on neutrophil counts and neurological findings for Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with repeated courses of these two ACT regimens.. The results showed a high cure rate for both regimens after a standard 14- or 28-day follow-up. These results are consistent with efficacy results reported from several sub-Saharan African countries [2-4, 34], indicating a high overall cure rate with these regimens in the short (28-day) term. Because efficacy estimates could vary depending on the statistical analyses used to assess treatment outcome [35], and because recent guidelines recommend a change in treatment policy when failure rates exceed 10% [8], the use of the PP as well as an ITT analysis provided efficacy estimates that could be considered robust and operationally useful.. The ...
The burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been estimated traditionally in terms of infections and mortality. Neurocognitive sequelae have recently been identified that add to the burden caused by this parasite. We have attempted to provide estimates of the neurocognitive burden based upon more recent estimates of the population at risk and a detailed review of published studies in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little data on which to estimate the burden, and considerable limitations in extracting the data from the published studies to provide these estimates. However, we estimate that at least 1,300-7,800 children will have neurologic sequelae following cerebral malaria in stable endemic areas per year. The figure is likely to be considerably higher, since these estimates do not include neurocognitive impairment following non-cerebral malaria in children or adults in stable endemic areas, or populations in low stable or epidemic areas.
Of the 264 studies identified through the database search, 15 were determined to be eligible, and of these five were included.(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) All included studies were published between 2006 and 2009 and were conducted in Uganda, South Africa, Mozambique, and Botswana. One study analyzed data from 16 countires within sub-Saharan Africa (those already included as well as Burundi, Central African Republic, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. All studies were cost-effectiveness analyses, and the primary outcomes were cost per case of HIV infection averted and compared adult male circumcision to no circumcision. The studies were epidemiologic, stochiastic, and costing models. Four studies included a 3% discount rate and one study did not report discounting. The time frames ranged from 10 to 20 years. ...
article{8508426, author = {Gabri{\e}l, Sarah and Dorny, Pierre and Mwape, KE and Trevisan, C and Braae, UC and Magnussen, P and Thys, S and Bulaya, C and Phiri, IK and Sikasunge, CS and Makungu, C and Afonso, S and Nicolau, Q and Johansen, MV}, issn = {0001-706X}, journal = {ACTA TROPICA}, keyword = {HEALTH-EDUCATION INTERVENTION,RESOURCE-POOR COMMUNITIES,SYNTHETIC,PEPTIDE VACCINE,PORCINE CYSTICERCOSIS,GLOBAL BURDEN,MBEYA REGION,PIGS,OXFENDAZOLE,INFECTIONS,NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS,Taenia solium,Control,Sub-Saharan africa,One health}, language = {eng}, pages = {252--260}, title = {Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis : the best way forward for sub-Saharan Africa?}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.04.010}, volume = {165}, year = {2017 ...

0248.  A 20 hour trip... (Mauritania 01--revisit) - Nouakchott Travel Blog0248. A 20 hour trip... (Mauritania 01--revisit) - Nouakchott Travel Blog

Dakhla, Morocco... I stalled for another week or so in Agadir, then, on an impulse, I got on a bus going south... WAY south... ... Road to the left: Africa in all its splendor. I was thinking of going to Dakhla and catching a ride from there, as I dont like ... The place was full of soldiers coming back from being stationed in the Moroccan Sahara. I wasnt too hungry--I was drawn ... Rode all night... South of Tan Tan the bus stopped at a bustling travel stop village where a long row of butchers and grillers ...
more infohttp://www.travbuddy.com/travel-blogs/48951/0248-20-hour-trip-Mauritania-3

Court of South Africa: Seized phosphate shipment belongs to Sahrawi Republic | Sahara Press ServiceCourt of South Africa: Seized phosphate shipment belongs to Sahrawi Republic | Sahara Press Service

The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South ... Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi ... Port Elizabeth, South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the ... The South African authorities stopped the shipment carrier on May 1, 2017 at the port of Port Elizabeth, in response to a ...
more infohttp://www.spsrasd.info/news/en/articles/2018/02/23/13712.html

Africa South of the Sahara F Background Factors -Africa south of Sahara was cradle of human species -poorest of the nine major...Africa South of the Sahara F Background Factors -Africa south of Sahara was cradle of human species -poorest of the nine major...

Importance of the Treaty of Berlin 1884 which divided Africa up among the European powers. -All boundaries were artificial ... Christian influence in Africa, particularly Coptic Church in Ethiopia from first century AD -Roman Catholic priests came with ... 1 Africa South of the Sahara F Background Factors -Africa south of Sahara was cradle of human species -poorest of the nine ... Africa South of the Sahara F Background Factors -Africa south of Sahara was cradle of human species -poorest of the nine major ...
more infohttp://slideplayer.com/slide/3527408/

Africa Yearbook Volume 14 : Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2017Africa Yearbook Volume 14 : Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2017

Africa Yearbook Volume 14: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2017. Abbink, Jan African Studies Centre, Leiden ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8439-8148 ... Africa Yearbook, ISSN 1871-2525 ; 14 National Category Political Science Economics Other Social Sciences Identifiers. URN: urn: ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. University of Jos, Nigeria.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3352-6151 ...
more infohttp://nai.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1288717&c=5&searchType=ORGANISATION&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Henry Okah Trial In South Africa Uncovers Role Of Jonathans Aides In Abuja Independence Day Bomb Saga | Sahara ReportersHenry Okah Trial In South Africa Uncovers Role Of Jonathan's Aides In Abuja Independence Day Bomb Saga | Sahara Reporters

The confidential document revealed that Jonathan called his South African counterpart, President Jacob Zuma of South Africa to ... were attributed to pressures on South African business interests in Nigeria. Mr. Louw is due for promotion to the South Africa ... Two South African Magistrates, Nonhle Jadezweni and PJ du Plessis, were contacted to issue the search warrant and warrant of ... Henry Okah Trial In South Africa Uncovers Role Of Jonathans Aides In Abuja Independence Day Bomb Saga An account of the role ...
more infohttp://saharareporters.com/2010/12/21/henry-okah-trial-south-africa-uncovers-role-jonathan%E2%80%99s-aides-abuja-independence-day-bomb

Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara - UrbanAfrica.NetRural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara - UrbanAfrica.Net

Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara. By on 6 November 2017 Migration, Rights to the ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara explores the complex rural migration patterns in ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara ... in South Africa.. "This atlas is an innovative contribution which will support the policy debate not only between governments ...
more infohttps://www.urbanafrica.net/resources/rural-africa-motion-dynamics-drivers-migration-south-sahara/

POPLINE.orgPOPLINE.org

Population education in Africa South of Sahara. UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa ... Regional population communication unit for Africa. [Activities, 1974-1979]. UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. ... The Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, operational in Nairobi, Kenya in September 1974, and a sub-unit ... EDUCAFRICA: BULLETIN OF THE UNESCO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EDUCATION IN AFRICA. 1985; (12):1-234. ...
more infohttps://www.popline.org/apachesolr-angularjs-search/im_field_document_major_keywords%3A55225%20OR%20im_field_document_minor_keywords%3A55225?f%5B0%5D=im_field_document_major_keywords%3A55325&f%5B1%5D=im_field_document_major_keywords%3A56084

Politics & International Relations: Browse Products by Subject - RoutledgePolitics & International Relations: Browse Products by Subject - Routledge

Africa South of the Sahara 2020. 49th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2020. 28th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... This comprehensive survey of the countries of East and South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand, along with 22 Pacific ... Drawing on historical cases of the American South before and after the Civil War, Europe - especially Germany - between the ...
more infohttps://www.routledge.com/politics/products?group=textbooks&range=published&page=5&page=1

Efficiency, accountability and implementation: public sector reform in East and Southern Africa | EldisEfficiency, accountability and implementation: public sector reform in East and Southern Africa | Eldis

The study includes (in varying degrees of detail) Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and ... Efficiency, accountability and implementation: public sector reform in East and Southern Africa Efficiency, accountability and ... Removing user fees in the health sector: A review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries. B. Meessen / Oxford ... Five questions central to public sector reform in East and Southern Africa, and consistent with their proclaimed thrust, are ...
more infohttp://www.eldis.org/document/A28841

Urban poverty in Nigeria: a case study of Agege area of Lagos State, Nigeria | EldisUrban poverty in Nigeria: a case study of Agege area of Lagos State, Nigeria | Eldis

Africa South of Sahara. Focus countries. *Nigeria. Open full report. Poverty perceived: lessons from the poor in increasing ... Partnership for African Social and Governance Research, 2015. None of the recent efforts to study social protection in Nigeria ... O.A. Oni, S.A. Yusuf / African Economic Research Consortium, 2008. Vulnerability measures are becoming tools for evolving ... Nigerias political and economic prominence within Africa, along with the countrys position on the threshold of a major ...
more infohttp://www.eldis.org/document/A14380

Chelsea House Publishers: Biografii: General | Books ExpressChelsea House Publishers: Biografii: General | Books Express

Africa South of the Sahara. Modern World Cultures. De (autor) Joseph Oppong ... North Africa and the Middle East. Modern World Cultures. De (autor) Jeffrey A. Gritzner ...
more infohttps://www.books-express.ro/chelsea-house-publishers/b/100136300

Global Access Perspective | MedtronicGlobal Access Perspective | Medtronic

You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara Site. You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara site. ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara 대한민국 (South Korea) Southeast Asia Suisse (Switzerland) Suomi (Finland) Sverige (Sweden) Taiwan ... and we have offered suggestions on how to boost diabetes awareness in South Africa, among other initiatives. ... Middle East and North Africa Nederland (Netherlands) Norge (Norway) Österreich (Austria) Panama Portugal Paraguay Perú (Peru) ...
more infohttps://www.medtronic.com/za-en/transforming-healthcare/global-access-perspective.html

Search ResultsSearch Results

... explains numerical dominance of the exotic Polistes dominula wasp over a native congener in South Africa. ... Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks due to an exotic virus serotype A lineage (A/AFRICA/G-IV) in Algeria in 2017. ... The spread of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in Africa - what should be done next? ...
more infohttps://www.cabi.org/ISC/search?q=gl%3A%22Africa%22

Search ResultsSearch Results

Africa South of Sahara (2290). * Asia (2188). * North America (2060). * Italy (1895). ...
more infohttps://www.cabi.org/isc/search/index?q=de:%22geographical%20distribution%22

Cricket in Kenya - WikipediaCricket in Kenya - Wikipedia

The league was sponsored by South African Sahara Computers, African Cricket Association and others in 2008. Following a lack of ... Their first game was against a South African Non-European team in 1958. Kenya was represented by the East Africa team in the ... Season 2011/12 saw the launch of the 50 over a side East African Cup, and the Twenty20 East Africa Premier League. In addition ... the East African Cup (50 overs a side) and the East Africa Premier League (Twenty20) (see below) The Eastern Aces captained by ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cricket_in_Kenya

Immunisation  Flashcards by Lizzy Edmondson | BrainscapeImmunisation Flashcards by Lizzy Edmondson | Brainscape

africa south of the sahara 47 what vaccines exists against non infectious conditions ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/immunisation-7479262/packs/12259893

Coelorrhina - WikipediaCoelorrhina - Wikipedia

This genus is widespread in Africa south of Sahara. Coelorrhina aurata (Westwood, 1841) Coelorrhina babaulti Allard, 1983 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coelorrhina

What Are Desert Climate Zones? | Reference.comWhat Are Desert Climate Zones? | Reference.com

South Africas Sahara Desert is the largest such climate in the world at 3,500,000 square miles. Camels are common desert ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/desert-climate-zones-470ab89d7abba45f

Mohamed AmineMohamed Amine

Western Sahara: South African Foreign Affairs Ministrys Headlong Rush to Disrupt the UN Process. ... Western Sahara: South African Foreign Affairs Ministrys Headlong Rush to Disrupt the UN Process. ... Western Sahara: South African Foreign Affairs Ministrys Headlong Rush to Disrupt the UN Process. ... Western Sahara: UN Waiting for Kohler to Announce Genevas 2nd Roundtable Date. ...
more infohttps://www.moroccoworldnews.com/author/mohamed-amine/

Oio Region - WikipediaOio Region - Wikipedia

Pelissier, Rene (2003). "Guinea-Bassau Physical and Social Geography". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Psychology Press. p. ... the Rio Geba/Guinea-Bissau region of Quinara to the south and the Guinea-Bissau region of Cacheu to the west. There has not ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oio_Region

View all projects | IDRC - International Development Research CentreView all projects | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

Topic(s): SMALL FARMS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, BUSINESS ORGANIZATION, RURAL AREAS, TRAINING, Food security ... Topic(s): SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, Evaluation, CANADA, EAST AFRICA Region(s): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Canada, ... Topic(s): SMALL FARMS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, TANZANIA, MEDIA, AFRICA Region(s): Tanzania, Canada, United Kingdom, ... Poor soil fertility and land degradation result in low production yields and quality for indigenous vegetables in West Africa. ...
more infohttps://www.idrc.ca/en/view-all-projects/5356

Search for Blog | IFPRISearch for Blog | IFPRI

How can reliable water access contribute to nutrition security in Africa south of the Sahara? Mar 20, 2015Laia Domènech ... World Water Day: Feeding millions from the ground up - the promise of groundwater-fed irrigation in Africa South of the Sahara ... Financing of irrigation essential for Africa south of the Sahara to achieve sustainable development. Jul 13, 2015Claudia ... the promise of groundwater-fed irrigation in Africa South of the Sahara. ...
more infohttp://www.ifpri.org/blogs?f%5B0%5D=sm_topics%3Anode%3A12111&f%5B1%5D=sm_divisions%3Anode%3A195

Surveillance of Hospitalised Pneumonia and Bacterial Meningitis in Tône District, Togo, 2010-2013 - Full Text View -...Surveillance of Hospitalised Pneumonia and Bacterial Meningitis in Tône District, Togo, 2010-2013 - Full Text View -...

Africa south of the Sahara. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Pneumonia, Bacterial. Pneumonia. Meningitis. Meningitis, Bacterial ... The aim of this study is to estimate the burden of disease due to pneumococci, other bacteria and viruses in the African ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01747369?cond=%22Pneumonia%2C+Bacterial%22&rank=16

Surveillance of Hospitalised Pneumonia and Bacterial Meningitis in Tône District, Togo, 2010-2013 - Full Text View -...Surveillance of Hospitalised Pneumonia and Bacterial Meningitis in Tône District, Togo, 2010-2013 - Full Text View -...

Africa south of the Sahara. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Pneumonia. Meningitis. Pneumonia, Bacterial. Meningitis, Bacterial ... The aim of this study is to estimate the burden of disease due to pneumococci, other bacteria and viruses in the African ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01747369

AxiocersesAxiocerses

AFrica (south of Sahara). See [maps] Bush Scarlet *Zeritis amanga Westwood, 1881; in Oates, Matabeland: 351 ... On some New Species of South African Butterflies Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3) 1 (3) : 279-291 *Trimen, 1894. On a collection of ... S.Africa - E.Africa. See [maps] Eastern Scarlet Scarlet Butterfly *Chrysocrychia tjoane Wallengren, 1857; K. svenska ... 26, f. 10-11; TL: Moyabamba, East Africa *Axiocerses bambana; Clench, 1965, Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 19: 364; Stempffer, 1967, Bull ...
more infohttp://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/lycaenidae/theclinae/axiocerses/index.html
  • Port Elizabeth , South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi phosphate. (spsrasd.info)
  • Both initially refused to comply, for lack of sufficient information or disclosure of course of action, but Mr. Du Plessis was told by the prosecutor that it would be in the interest of the Nigeria-South African bilateral relationship. (saharareporters.com)
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the burden of disease due to pneumococci, other bacteria and viruses in the African meningitis belt prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction and to estimate the population impact of the vaccine after its implementation in 2014. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The article summarises: the intersection between HIV and disability, the work of Handicap International on HIV and AIDS among people with disabilities in Sub-Sahara Africa and South East-Asia, lessons learned and good practices in the inclusion of disability in HIV programming, and ways forwards and recommendations. (medicusmundi.ch)
  • HI was one of the first organisations to speak about the interrelation between HIV and disability in the context of developing countries, spearheading the Africa Campaign on Disability and HIV and AIDS. (medicusmundi.ch)
  • This issue presents a number of ideas from practitioners in the population and family life education field concerning suitable approaches for developing population education programs to make them respond positively to the needs of developing countries, particularly in Africa. (popline.org)
  • This comprehensive survey of the countries of East and South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand, along with 22 Pacific islands, fully revised to reflect current economic and political developments, is an essential resource for the Asia-Pacific region. (routledge.com)
  • The definitive one-volume guide to all sub-Saharan African countries, providing invaluable economic, political, statistical and directory data. (routledge.com)
  • The workshop brought together over 40 participants from ten countries and technical partner institutions involved in the implementation of the regional project "Partnership for Sustainable Rice Systems Development in Sub-Saharan Africa'' (GCP/RAF/489/VEN). (fao.org)
  • Through a series of maps and in depth case studies, the 20 authors of the atlas, representing different research institutions, think tanks and international organizations from and outside Africa, explore the complexity of the interrelated causes that drive people in Africa to leave their homes. (urbanafrica.net)
  • The Bolivian Amazon is home to many of South America's poorest and most food insecure people. (idrc.ca)
  • The atlas is the result of a partnership between the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), with technical support from the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn) in South Africa. (urbanafrica.net)
  • (Black sparrowhawks do not occur more than about 200-300 km north of Cape Town along the South African west coast, where there are almost no trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) eastern and southern parts of South Africa. (slideplayer.com)
  • In eastern and southern Africa, most yogurt production is carried out by industries using large-scale fermentation technologies to target urban consumers. (idrc.ca)
  • The hoatzin ( Opisthocomus hoazin ) inhabits wooded river edges in northern and eastern South America . (britannica.com)
  • Access to farm inputs is difficult for most small farmers across sub-Saharan Africa. (idrc.ca)
  • The cracids, with about 34 species, are restricted to tropical woodlands of Central and South America. (britannica.com)
  • and 3) 3 sets of recommendations in recent years that have a direct relevance to the development of population eudcation programs in sub-Saharan Africa. (popline.org)
  • During the dry season, when the harmattan (dust-laden wind) blows from the Sahara , average temperatures do not exceed 24 ° c (75 ° f). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accidentally released during a breeding experiment in Brazil in the 1950s, Africanized honeybees have steadily migrated northward across South and Central America and into the southern part of the United States. (pbs.org)
  • Read More titled World Water Day: Feeding millions from the ground up - the promise of groundwater-fed irrigation in Africa South of the Sahara. (ifpri.org)
  • South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC) is rapidly gaining ground as a powerful delivery mechanism in the development cooperation landscape. (fao.org)