Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.AfricaDesert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Cemeteries: Areas set apart as burial grounds.Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Myrtus: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.South CarolinaPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)South DakotaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.South AmericaTogo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acquired immunity and postnatal clinical protection in childhood cerebral malaria. (1/1101)

By analysing data on the age distribution of cerebral malaria among sites of different transmission intensities, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the epidemiological patterns seen is that (i) cerebral malaria is caused by a distinct set of Plasmodium falciparum antigenic types; (ii) these antigenic types or 'CM strains' are very common and induce strong strain-specific immunity; and (iii) the postnatal period of protection against cerebral malaria is much longer than the period of protection against other forms of severe disease. The alternative hypothesis that cerebral malaria may be caused by any 'strain' of P. falciparum is compatible with the data only if a single exposure is sufficient to protect against further episodes. This is not consistent with observations on the history of exposure of patients with cerebral malaria. Finally, it is clear that although the delayed peak in incidence of cerebral malaria (with age) can be generated by assuming that subsequent exposures carry a higher risk of disease, such an explanation is not compatible with the observation that severe disease rates are low among infants and young children in areas of high transmissibility.  (+info)

Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.(2/1101)

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Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (3/1101)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (4/1101)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans. (5/1101)

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

An approach to the problems of diagnosing and treating adult smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in high-HIV-prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa. (6/1101)

The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines.  (+info)

Rebound mortality and the cost-effectiveness of malaria control: potential impact of increased mortality in late childhood following the introduction of insecticide treated nets. (7/1101)

The efficacy and relative cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the control of malaria in children under 5 years of age have recently been demonstrated by several large-scale trials. However, it has been suggested that long-term use of ITNs in areas of high transmission could lead to mortality rebound in later childhood, which would reduce the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and at the extreme could lead to negative overall effects. A model is presented in which the cost and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per child aged 1-119 months were estimated for a sub-Saharan African population with and without an ITN intervention. The rebound rate, defined as the percentage increase in age-specific all-cause mortality and malaria specific-morbidity, was varied to estimate the threshold at which the intervention was no longer cost-effective. Rebound was considered over two possible age ranges: 5-9 years and 3-6 years. With mortality and morbidity reductions due to ITNs in children aged 1-59 months and rebound in the 5-9 years age class, one could be reasonably certain that the cost per DALY averted is below $150 up to a rebound rate of 39%. Up to an 84% rebound rate it is highly likely that the intervention will be DALY-averting, that is the DALYs averted by the intervetion outweigh DALYs incurred through rebound effects. These thresholds are sensitive to the age range over which reductions and rebound in morbidity and mortality occur. With reductions confined to children aged 1-35 months and rebound in the 3-6 years age class, the cost per DALY is highly likely to fall below $150 only up to a 2.5% rebound rate, and with a rate in excess of 11% one can no longer be reasonably certain that the intervention is DALY-averting. These rates apply to the whole population. If there is no rebound amongst children who did not comply with the intervention, the actual increases in morbidity and mortality required to reach these thresholds amongst compliers would be much higher. The age range over which rebound occurs is a critical determinant of the thresholds at which one can no longer be reasonably certain that ITNs remain cost-effective in the long term. Based on empirical estimates of age-specific malaria mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, it appears unlikely that this threshold rate would be reached if rebound occurs over the 5-9 years age range. By contrast, if rebound occurs over the ages of 3-6 years, the increase in mortality rates required to reach this threshold falls within the observed range of malaria-specific mortality rates for this age group. It is essential that long-term surveillance is included as part of ITN interventions, with particular attention to the age range over which rebound may occur.  (+info)

Assessing the use of nuclear medicine technology in sub-Saharan Africa: the essential equipment list. (8/1101)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the survey was to determine the core equipment required in a nuclear medicine department in public hospitals in Kenya and South Africa, and evaluate the capital investment requirements. METHODS: Physical site audits of equipment and direct interviews of medical and clinical engineering professionals were performed, as well as examination of tender and purchase documents, maintenance payment receipts, and other relevant documents. Originally, 10 public hospitals were selected: 6 referral and 4 teaching hospitals. The 6 referral hospitals were excluded from the survey due to lack of essential documents and records on equipment. The medical and technical staff from these hospitals were, however, interviewed on equipment usage and technical constraints. Data collection was done on-site and counter-checked against documents provided by the hospital administration. RESULTS: A list of essential equipment for a nuclear medicine department in sub-Saharan Africa was identified. Quotations for equipment were provided by all major equipment suppliers, local and international. CONCLUSION: A nuclear medicine department requires eight essential pieces of equipment to operate in sub-Saharan Africa. Two additional items are desirable but not essential.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Subnational estimation of modern contraceptive prevalence in five sub-Saharan African countries. T2 - A Bayesian hierarchical approach 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services. AU - Li, Qingfeng. AU - Louis, Thomas. AU - Liu, Li. AU - Wang, Chenguang. AU - Tsui, Amy Ong. PY - 2019/2/20. Y1 - 2019/2/20. N2 - Background: Global monitoring efforts have relied on national estimates of modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) for many low-income countries. However, most contraceptive delivery programs are implemented by health departments at lower administrative levels, reflecting a persisting gap between the availability of and need for subnational mCPR estimates. Methods: Using woman-level data from multiple semi-annual national survey rounds conducted between 2013 and 2016 in five sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda) by the Performance, Monitoring and Accountability 2020 project, we propose a Bayesian ...
Through extensive systematic searching focusing on sub-Saharan Africa and with no date restrictions, we found 42 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, including seven that examined children. The previous systematic reviews in global populations mentioned in the introduction (Brown and colleagues, 2009 [16]; and Powles and colleagues, 2013 [15]) examined papers published between 1988-2008 and 1980-2011, and identified five and 11 papers reporting sodium intakes in sub-Saharan African populations, respectively. Brown and colleagues [16] did not find any estimates for African children, while Powles and colleagues [15] did not include children in their systematic review.. We have found that sodium intake in many adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa is above the 2 g intake recommended as an upper limit by the WHO, and also above this limit in some populations of children. Indeed, there have been no estimates of sodium intake for adult populations that fell below this ...
We examine the impact of resource windfall on the standard of living both in the short-run and long-run, using a sample of 130 countries, 1963-2007. Then, we systematically investigate the effect of resource windfall on welfare in three different groups of countries: We find that in the short-run resource windfall is welfare enhancing in the whole sample, especially via increases in income and decreases in inequality. However, in SSA countries, the size of welfare improvement is small and it is smaller and almost zero after one year in fragile Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. In the whole sample, a resource windfall shock leads to significant welfare growth even in the long-run, but we couldnt find any significant long-run effect of resource windfall in SSA countries.
It is very difficult to obtain recent, reliable data form any Sub-Saharan country (except South Africa), which makes it hard to provide detailed information. Rolf Burckhardt from a personal experience states that there are definitely opportunities for animal feed production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, one has to be aware of the pitfalls.
CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), or stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), is the only known natural ligand for the HIV-1 coreceptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CXCL12 gene (SDF1-3A) has been associated with disease progression to AIDS in some studies, but not others. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene are generally rare and have not been implicated in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. This study analyzed the SDF1-3A SNP and performed mutation screening for polymorphic markers in the CXCR4 gene to determine the presence or absence of significant associations with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The study consisted of 257 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 113 HIV-1-seronegative controls representing a sub-Saharan African population belonging to the Xhosa ethnic group of South Africa. The SDF1-3A SNP was associated with an increased risk for HIV-1 infection (P = 0.0319) whereas no significant association was observed between the occurrence of the SDF1-3A SNP and
EDITORIALS. World TB Day 2010: Eradicating tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa needs effective and committed north-south partnerships The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 24 March of each year as World TB Day, to mark the anniversary of Robert Kochs discovery in 1882 of the cause of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regrettably, this is not a day for celebration. Instead, governments, policy makers, scientists and funders must reflect on the paradoxical fact that, although effective and cheap therapy has been available for over 60 years, TB kills nearly 1.8 million people every year, that is, 5 000 people every day! Together with HIV/AIDS and malaria, TB remains one of the most important causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. World TB Day provides an opportunity to reflect on the poor state of TB control globally, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries (SSA).1 The WHO, donor governments and other funding agencies have focused much of their ...
Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) code for basins in Sub-Saharan Africa using seven-year (July 2002�April 2009) 10-day GRACE data and multi-site river discharge data. The analysis was conducted in a multi-criteria framework. In spite of the uncertainty arising from the tradeoff in optimising model parameters with respect to two noncommensurable criteria defined for two fluxes, SWAT was found to perform well in simulating total water storage variability in most areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which have semi-arid and sub-humid climates, and that ...
Using a matched employer-employee data set of manufacturing plants in three sub-Saharan countries, I compare the marginal productivity of different categories of workers with the wages they earn. A methodological contribution is to estimate the firm level production function jointly with the individual level wage equation using a feasible GLS estimator. The additional information of individual workers leads to more precise estimates, especially of the wage premiums, and to a more accurate test. The results indicate that equality holds strongly for the most developed country in the sample (Zimbabwe), but not at all for the least developed country (Tanzania). Moreover, the breakdown in correct remuneration in the two least developed countries follows a distinct pattern. On the one hand, wage premiums exceed productivity premiums for general human capital characteristics (experience and schooling). On the other hand, salaries hardly increase for more firm-specific human capital characteristics ...
BOX 1 Six CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATED PRODUCTION In addition to appropriate irrigation technology, a number of conditions must be met for successful small-scale irrigated horticultural development to occur availability of suitable land, water, and labour resources and non irrigation inputs to production, access to markets, and capital resources (Norman, 1992, Alien and Perry, 1996) Availability of Land Resources A horticultural development programme is justified if it has strong potential for achieving increased production and incomes Land is one of the most important factors of production linked to this achievement It must exist in adequate quantities and with the appropriate physical properties for an expansion of irrigated horticultural production to occur Experience in several sub-Saharan countries confirms that land availability is not a constraint to increased irrigated production and that resulting increases in irrigated surface area is one of the main contributing ...
EDITORIALS. Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa - a potential time bomb The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 10 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) reported worldwide each year, and 1.7 million people die from the disease.1 The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains very high at over 300 new cases of TB per 100 000 population in 2007.2 The TB epidemic in SSA is fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and up to 70% of adults with TB are co-infected with HIV.2 There are few data on drug-resistant TB from SSA,3 probably owing to poor TB programme performance, inadequate laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing (DST), and poor surveillance, data collection and reporting procedures. The WHO estimated that 69 000 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2008 in Africa, which is most probably an underestimate.1. The global focus on TB control is on early diagnosis and treatment of people in the community in high TB- and TB/HIV-endemic countries. People concentrated ...
This week at CROI David Maman from Médecins sans Frontières presented a study that showed that breastfeeding mothers in sub-Saharan Africa are often
Sub-Saharan Africa does not yet have enough eye health workers to help the millions of people suffering from eye disease in this region. This article explains the challenges in sub-Saharan Africa and the efforts underway to train and empower more eye health workers.
Genetics evidence published in recent years suggests that certain strains of plague (Yersinia pestis) in sub-Saharan Africa may be centuries old. This raises questions whether there is correlation with the suspected depopulations in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the late medieval period. This symposium, for the first time ever, brings together historians, geneticists, archeologists, art historians, anthropologists, and linguists to examine these questions. ...
© Busby et al.Similarity between two individuals in the combination of genetic markers along their chromosomes indicates shared ancestry and can be used to identify historical connections between different population groups due to admixture. We use a genome-wide, haplotype-based, analysis to characterise the structure of genetic diversity and gene-flow in a collection of 48 sub-Saharan African groups. We show that coastal populations experienced an influx of Eurasian haplotypes over the last 7000 years, and that Eastern and Southern Niger-Congo speaking groups share ancestry with Central West Africans as a result of recent population expansions. In fact, most sub-Saharan populations share ancestry with groups from outside of their current geographic region as a result of gene-flow within the last 4000 years. Our in-depth analysis provides insight into haplotype sharing across different ethno-linguistic groups and the recent movement of alleles into new environments, both of which are relevant to
A U.N. study of neonatal mortality around the world found that Africa has the highest rate, at 28 deaths for every 1,000 live births. In a study pertaining to 14 sub-Saharan African countries, [Michigan State University medical geographer Sue] Grady and her student investigators found that neonatal mortality was significantly associated with, among other factors, home births, where babies are delivered without the supervision of a trained professional. … Grady said newborn deaths in East and West Africa could be dramatically reduced if babies were delivered in medical facilities with trained personnel standing by…" (Berman, 6/7).. ...
Doctors with africa CUAMM is an NGO working for the promotion and protection of health in Africa.The organization actively operates in 7 sub-Saharan African countries with long-term healthcare projects, within a framework of social inclusion.
In a simple and hard-hitting way, the film depicts how the staple food crop cassava is destroyed in Sub-Saharan African countries by viruses carried by whiteflies. It draws attention to the way the 1,100-strong CONNECTED Virus Network is bringing together world-class researchers from across the globe to address these issues.. Early in 2019 Eve Bannister and Charlotte May were successful in a process which saw students pitch to the CONNECTED Network to create a film which, with the co-operation of their tutors, would form a key component of their second year of studies.. Their brief was to create a 90-second outreach animation about plant diseases impact, primarily aimed at non-expert laypeople, and to draw attention to the importance of the CONNECTED Network in helping address these issues. It takes the example of the cassava crop to show the impact of two damaging diseases spread by insects.. CONNECTED Network Director, Prof. Gary Foster (University of Bristol) explains: "The film uses ...
<p>Childhood cancer diagnosis low in Africa, South Africa ponders air pollution tax, goats attack Malawi seed programmes, and more.</p>
mothers2mothers (m2m) is an Africa-based NGO that unlocks the potential of women to eliminate paediatric AIDS and create healthy families across ten sub-Saharan African countries. m2m trains, employs, and helps empower women living with HIV to work as community healthcare workers in understaffed health centres and underserved communities. Through a peer-to-peer approach, these Mentor Mothers deliver a range of health services, advice, and support to women and their families. Started in Cape Town, South Africa in 2001 with an initial focus on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, m2m has innovated and built on its strengths and now provides family-centred support for a range of related health and social issues spanning pregnancy, birth, childhood, and adolescence. It also partners with governments and other NGOs on the adoption of its programme to spread the Mentor Mother Model and its benefits. m2m has a track record of scaling its services and proven impact. To date, m2m has reached ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of motor, cognitive, language and social-emotional impairment related to HIV infection in children living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Literature searches using MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Additionally, the reference lists of previous reviews were checked to ensure that all eligible studies were identified. Cohens d, a measure of effect size, was computed to estimate the level of impairment. RESULTS: Six reports met the inclusion criteria. In infancy a consistent delay in motor development was observed with a median value of Cohens d = 0.97 at 18 months, indicating a severe degree of impairment. Mental development showed a moderate delay at 18 months, with a median value d = 0.67. Language delay did not appear until 24 months of age, d = 0.91. Less clear findings occurred in older subjects. CONCLUSION: Although HIV has been shown to affect all domains of child functioning, motor development is the most apparent in terms of severity, early onset, and persistence
People in Africas Sub-Sahara region, a relatively undeveloped area, are generally satisfied with their sex lives, with the most common rating -- reported by 18 percent of survey respondents -- being a perfect 10, according to Baylor University research to be presented Monday at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association.
Abstract: There exists a continuously growing health care gap between Africa and the rest of the world. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts
Three months ago sub-Saharan Africa confirmed its first COVID-19 case in Nigeria. Although infections have risen and continue to grow, early and swift action by
Research in some sub-Saharan African countries does not provide sustainable solutions to the vital problems of hunger and poverty, underdevelopment, disease, poor educati..
Hunger, disease and poverty continue to extract a painful toll throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Large percentages in the 10 African countries surveyed say there
You cannot eat a sweet with the wrapping," young men from South Africa told researchers as part of a recent World Bank study, explaining why they refuse to wear condoms despite a high and well-known risk of HIV. Men often dont see condoms as manly, and women feel unable to insist.. What does this mean? A 2011 Gallup poll of 19 sub-Saharan African countries, home to more than two-thirds of the worlds HIV-infected population, found most adults know how to prevent the spread of HIV. But while 72 percent agreed people should use latex condoms every time they have sex, only 40 percent said they ever had.. ...
According to a new study, adults with HIV in rural sub-Saharan Africa who receive antiretroviral drugs early in their infection may reap benefits.
未知 (‎2008)‎. HIV drives childrens pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86 (‎5)‎, 324 - 325. World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.08.010508 ...
Buy In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa by Institute of Medicine at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780309054300. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
... | Country profiles are practical business assessments of corruption in individual countries. Use the profiles to assess the levels of risk, relevant legislation and local information networks for doing business.
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Novartis announced today a new strategy to broaden patient reach and availability of its portfolio of medicines in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to the largest underserved patient population in the world.
Between now and 2100, three out of every four people added to world population will live in sub-Saharan Africa. Thats what the medium variant of
mothers2mothers (m2m) is an Africa-based NGO that unlocks the potential of women to eliminate paediatric AIDS and create healthy families across ten sub-Saharan African countries. m2m trains, employs, and helps empower women living with HIV to work as community healthcare workers in understaffed health centres and underserved communities. Through a peer-to-peer approach, these Mentor Mothers deliver a range of health services, advice, and support to women and their families.
From deadly droughts and destroyed crops to shrinking water sources, communities across sub-Saharan Africa are struggling to withstand the onslaught of global record-breaking temperatures.
Downloadable! Trade integration of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries agriculture is pointed out as a powerful driver of agricultural growth, especially if it increases processing of agricultural products. But there is no consensus on which negotiations for increased trade integration to put first. Static effects of regional and multilateral tariff reduction shocks are simulated with the Modeling International Relationships in Applied General Equilibrium computable general equilibrium model in order to compare them and test their coherence with the objective of enhanced value-added in agriculture. A new method is tested to treat existing data issues in the GTAP 7 database that usually lead to overestimations of gains from some trade integration.
Sub-Saharan Africans migrate to North Africa, Europe, North America, and beyond. The research offered here focuses generally on two aspects of sub-Saharan migration: the outcomes for these migrants and their children once they have settled in their countries of destination, the United States among them, and the roles that diasporas and development policies can play in the economic improvement of these African nations.
Every day, as many as 500 babies in sub-Saharan Africa are born with HIV. Standard practice in many of these countries is to give them treatment if they
While the world has focused on the traditional causes of premature death in Africa - communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, malnutrition,…
The papers in this volume address three important issues: the role ofexchange-rate policy in enhancing the competitiveness of African manufactured exports; the steps that can be taken to improve production efficiency; and the role of institutional and structural reforms in promoting competitiveness in manufacturing and in improving Africas attractiveness to foreign direct investment. An epilogue evaluates progress and developments since the conference that gave rise to this volume was held.
Doing business in sub-Sahara Africa can be full of disparate challenges, and anyone looking to identify a classic African consumer will struggle. Despite sharing a common border,...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Are we there yet? Spatio - temporal analysis of the effect of household/area level education inequality, income inequality, quality of education, poverty and gender gap in achieving millennium development goals in Sub-Sahara Africa? ...
People with disabilities must be at the heart of research into inclusion and accessibility, says Brazilian researcher Jessica Norberto Rocha.
When DSM Nutritional Products' existing blending facility threatened to reach its production capacity a few years ago a decision was made to invest in a new plant at their Isando head-office in Johannesburg. DSM transferred all of its premix production to this plant at the beginning of March 2009.
Protein AA are needed for the synthesis of hundreds of different tissues, regulatory, receptor, blood, protective and secretory proteins.
We work primarily through women and girls, to build the knowledge, skills and means to transform their health, laying foundations for generations to come and improving maternal health across sub-Saharan Africa.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has disbursed US$10 billion to 27 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to enable them to effectiv
The worlds first human test of a vaccine against the prevalent subtype of HIV in sub-Saharan African and Asia, where millions have the virus that cau
Variants in the DARC/ACKR1 gene associated with sub-Saharan African origins may explain why black women have worse breast cancer outcomes than white ...
South Africa. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015. "Diezani Alison-Madueke Maintained Rooms In Two New ... siteadmin (2017-02-27). "UK Government Okays Diezani's Trial For 'Money Laundering'". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved 2017-07-21. " ... says Sanusi made the allegations to retaliate after she didn't help him to get appointed as the president of the African ... York Luxury Hotels During UN Assembly". Sahara Reporters. 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015. " ...
"African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 7 June 2013. among the town's ... The African Heritage Research Library was established in 1988. "About Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun". Osun State ... that was capital of an ancient city-state of the same name in the Igbomina area of Yorubaland in south-western Nigeria. Ìlá ...
Europa Publications (2003). Africa South of the Sahara. Psychology Press. p. 966. ISBN 1857431839 Seychelles Trading Company, ...
2002). Africa South of the Sahara. Europa Publications. p. 985. ISBN 1-85743-131-6. "A View of Sudan from Africa: Monthly ... The closest Sudanese town south of the disputed area is Osief (Marsa Osief), located 26 kilometres (16 mi) south of latitude 22 ... Conversely, the area south of the line which had been administered by Egypt, Bir Tawil, is a terra nullius, claimed by neither ... While the whole area is north of the 22-degree line, a smaller area south of latitude 22°, referred to as Bir Tawil, joins the ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Botswana". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Botswana". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... Guide Mmegi The Monitor The Patriot on Sunday The Sunday Standard The Voice Media of Botswana List of radio stations in Africa ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Nigeria". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Nigeria: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... "Nigeria". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... Africa Media Review. 2 (3) - via Michigan State University Libraries, African e-Journals Project. " ...
Africa South of the Sahara. London: Europa Publications Ltd, 1991. p. 834 The Europa Year Book 1984: A World Survey. London: ... enterprise (a local trading company) by the South African concern South Atlantic Trade and Investment Company (SATIC). The ... The party supported closer links with South Africa. The founding of the party had been preceded by a controversy regarding the ... The founder of the party was G. A. D. 'Tony' Thornton, a businessman of dual South African and British nationality. Thornton ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Madagascar News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 2 July 2017 - via ... ISBN 978-0-8047-0279-9. "Madagascar: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... "Madagascar", Freedom of the Press, US: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Madagascar". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. ...
Africa South of the Sahara. 33. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-183-4. "President Rawlings inaugurates Takoradi Thermal Plant". ... "Ghana Receives First Nigeria Gas Via WAGP". African Business. Downstream Today. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2011-02-12. "TICO shares ...
North Africa Algeria • Egypt • Libya • Mauritania • Morocco • Sudan • South Sudan •Tunisia • Western Sahara Central Africa ... Southern Africa Botswana • Lesotho • Namibia • South Africa • Swaziland Dependencies Mayotte (France) • St. Helena (UK) • ... South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas Austin • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington (Olympia, Seattle) • West ... South Caucasus Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia, South Ossetia) • Armenia • Azerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh ...
"Uganda: News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved February 23, 2013. The Red Book 1922-23: ... "Uganda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... Media in Uganda List of radio stations in Africa Communications in Uganda "Uganda". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Rwanda". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 15 ... "Rwanda: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Media of Rwanda List of radio stations in Africa: Rwanda Telecommunications in Rwanda Rwanda daily News also was stated in 2017 ...
"Chad: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 236+ ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... 2015). "Chad: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Chad", Freedom of the ... See also: Radio in Chad (fr) and List of radio stations in Africa: Chad The government-operated Radiodiffusion Nationale ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Cape Verde". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. ... "Cape Verde: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 195. ISBN ... the African version of the Portuguese radio station RDP. Nationwide radio stations include RCV, RCV+, Radio Kriola, the ...
"Ethiopia: News". Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 February 2013. "About Us". Addis Ababa: Media & ... ISBN 978-0-7618-6002-0. "Ethiopia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Media in Ethiopia List of radio stations in Africa: Ethiopia Internet in Ethiopia Communications in Ethiopia Telecommunications ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Chad". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Chad: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 236+ ... "Chad", Freedom of the Press, USA: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Chad". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries ... African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ...
"Guinea-Bissau: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 545. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... See also: List of radio stations in Africa: Guinea-Bissau Radio Bafata Rádio Bombolom Rádio Jovem Radio Mavegro Radio Nacional ... 2015). "Guinea-Bissau: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Guinea-Bissau ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Liberia". Africa South of the Sahara. United States - via Stanford ... "Liberia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2003. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2003. p. ... "Liberia Newspapers and News on the Internet", Africa South of the Sahara, Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved 8 February ... New Democrat The New Republic Defunct newspapers and magazines include: Africa League African Nationalist Africa's Luminary ( ...
List of universities in Nigeria List of polytechnics in Nigeria "African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. ... Published in the 20th century S.B. Aje (1956). "Public Libraries in Western Nigeria: a General Survey". West African Library ... The impact of technology on Asian, African, and Middle Eastern library collections. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810854481. C.C. ... World Guide to Libraries (25th ed.), De Gruyter Saur, 2011, ISBN 9783110230710 Glenn L. Sitzman (1988), "Nigeria", African ...
"Angola: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory ... On December 16, 2015, a new private TV station, Palanca TV, began broadcasting from the South African satellite subscription TV ... 2015). "Angola: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Angola", Freedom of ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Burkina Faso". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via ... Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 128+. ISBN 1857431839. Toyin ... See also: List of radio stations in Africa: Burkina Faso Two radio stations, one in Ouagadougou and one in Bobo-Dioulasso, are ... 2015). "Burkina Faso: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Burkina Faso ...
link) (About Eldoret) Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Kenya". Africa South of the Sahara. ... "Kenya: News". Africa South of the Sahara. Stanford University. Retrieved 7 May 2013. James F. Scotton (1975). "Press in Kenya a ... "Kenya: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... African Print Cultures: Newspapers and Their Publics in the Twentieth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472- ...
Western Sahara. Most of the Sahara Desert is subtropical. Southern Africa: Most of South Africa including Cape Town, Durban, ... far south including Mostar [36] Mainland China: Most areas south of the Qin Mountains and the Huai River, but not including the ... Sochi and Tuapse on the coast of Krasnodar Krai South Korea: extreme south including Busan, Geoje, and Jeju Sri Lanka: Nuwara ... Australia: New South Wales (though not most of the Tablelands and Highland regions), Jervis Bay Territory, lower elevations of ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Sierra Leone". Africa South of the Sahara. US. Retrieved 8 June 2013 - via ... L. Proudfoot (1959). "Mosque-Building and Tribal Separatism in Freetown East". Africa: Journal of the International African ... LaRay Denzer (1987). "Women in Freetown Politics, 1914-61: A Preliminary Study". Africa: Journal of the International African ... 2005). "Freetown". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press ...
"Mozambique: News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 19 May 2013. "Mozambique: Media and ...
... the latter two often considered derogatory in the present day-are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south ... North/East Africa(2.8%): M1 2.8%. *Sub-Saharan Africa(4.9%): L 4.9% ... Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 (Western Sahara). *Saudi Arabia. *Somalia. *Sudan. *Syria ...
Dakhla, Morocco... I stalled for another week or so in Agadir, then, on an impulse, I got on a bus going south... WAY south... ... Road to the left: Africa in all its splendor. I was thinking of going to Dakhla and catching a ride from there, as I dont like ... The place was full of soldiers coming back from being stationed in the Moroccan Sahara. I wasnt too hungry--I was drawn ... Rode all night... South of Tan Tan the bus stopped at a bustling travel stop village where a long row of butchers and grillers ...
A definitive one-volume guide to all sub-Saharan African countries, providing invaluable economic and directory data. It ... Economic Trends in Africa South of the Sahara; Health and Medical Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa; State Failure in Africa; A ... A political map of contemporary Africa and a chronological list of the dates of independence of African countries. ... European Colonial Rule in Africa; Peace and Security Architecture and The Threat of Organized Crime to West Africa. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. ... Regional Committee for Africa, 8 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1958)‎ ... Regional Committee for Africa, 4 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1954)‎ ... World Health Organization; African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (‎African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, 2007)‎ ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. ... Regional Committee for Africa, 8 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1958)‎ ... Regional Committee for Africa, 4 (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa., 1954)‎ ...
The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South ... Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi ... Port Elizabeth, South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the ... The South African authorities stopped the shipment carrier on May 1, 2017 at the port of Port Elizabeth, in response to a ...
... credentials on Tuesday as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Sahrawi Republic to the Republic of South Africa ... South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al-Bashir Asgayar ... "We in South Africa will continue to be faithful to our allies who have remained with us in our struggle for the liberation and ... Pretoria, South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al- ...
The confidential document revealed that Jonathan called his South African counterpart, President Jacob Zuma of South Africa to ... were attributed to pressures on South African business interests in Nigeria. Mr. Louw is due for promotion to the South Africa ... Two South African Magistrates, Nonhle Jadezweni and PJ du Plessis, were contacted to issue the search warrant and warrant of ... Henry Okah Trial In South Africa Uncovers Role Of Jonathans Aides In Abuja Independence Day Bomb Saga An account of the role ...
Africa Yearbook Volume 14: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara 2017. Abbink, Jan African Studies Centre, Leiden ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8439-8148 ... Africa Yearbook, ISSN 1871-2525 ; 14 National Category Political Science Economics Other Social Sciences Identifiers. URN: urn: ... The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. University of Jos, Nigeria.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3352-6151 ...
Cara Delevingne on coming face-to-face with a lion in South Africa for her latest Tag Heuer campaign. 17 Nov 2018, 12:00pm ... Kate Bosworth on Sahara storms and magical Montana. 18 Nov 2018, 08:00am ... "If wed wanted to go to the Antarctic, theyd have made it happen," said William Kentridge, the South African artist, who ... "Africa is a continent of hugely expanding cities, the legacy of some terrible architecture, as well as unique and fascinating ...
The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than ... Secretary-General for Western Sahara Foreign relations of Western Sahara History of Western Sahara Politics of Western Sahara ... Kumalo South Africa 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1813. S/RES/1813(2008) ( ... Kumalo South Africa 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Document 619. S/2007/619 (2007) ...
Africa South of the Sahara 2020. 49th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2020. 28th Edition. Edited by Europa Publications ... This comprehensive survey of the countries of East and South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand, along with 22 Pacific ... Drawing on historical cases of the American South before and after the Civil War, Europe - especially Germany - between the ...
South Africa. Mandela Foundation to file urgent application against AfriForums Roets for displaying apartheid flag ... President Brahim Ghali of Western Sahara has called on the African Union to hold Morocco accountable for human rights ... Western Sahara celebrates 43 years of proclamation. 12 October 2018, 10:05 PM Thousands of Western Sahara refugees in Algerian ... Morocco king urges UN measures on Western Sahara. 25 February 2017, 9:28 PM Moroccos King Mohammed VI has called on the United ...
Results of search for su:{Africa South of the Sahara} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Structurally adjusted Africa : poverty, debt and basic needs / edited by David Simon ... [et al.]. by Simon, David ... Structural adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa / editors, Laetitia van Drunen and Fred van der Kraaij.. by Drunen, Laetitia van , ... Food supply situation and crop prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa. by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ...
Argentina, South America. armadillo, cavy, jaguarundi, puma,tinamou, tuco-tuco, etc.. Hot Desert. Sahara. North Africa. addax ... Desert Extremes: The biggest desert is northern Africas Sahara Desert; it covers roughly 3,500,000 square miles (9,065,000 ... A long-legged African wild cat.. Sheep. Sheep are mammals with thick, furry fur and hoofed feet.. Shrew. Shrews are tiny ... Gazelles live in herds in Africa.. Gecko. Geckos are the only lizards that make noise. Many geckos live in desert.. Gerbil. The ...
Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara. By on 6 November 2017 Migration, Rights to the ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara explores the complex rural migration patterns in ... Rural Africa in motion: Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara ... in South Africa.. "This atlas is an innovative contribution which will support the policy debate not only between governments ...
A massive plume of dust from the Sahara desert in northern Africa has been traversing the atmosphere, thousands of feet above ... Even all the way to South Africa. We even restarted our weekly radio Bible study on Sunday nights again, thanks to your ... A massive plume of dust from the Sahara desert in northern Africa has been traversing the atmosphere, thousands of feet above ... Massive Sahara Dust Plume Will Hit New Orleans Friday A massive plume of dust from the Sahara Desert is blowing across the ...
Air Sahara has filed a caveat in the Allahabad High Court regarding the Rs 2,300 crore buy-out deal with Jet Airways, sources ... South Africas ANC to force Jacob Zuma to quit as president: Media reports ... Air Sahara files caveat in Allahabad HC Air Sahara has filed a caveat in the Allahabad High Court regarding the Rs 2,300 crore ... More pain awaits Virat Kohlis Indian cricket team in South Africa, hints Mark ... ...
South Africa, Angola, Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Cape Verde. The significance of these countries and US policy in Africa? JEREMY ... His latest book is called The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel is called The Dying Sahara, will be ... His latest book is The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel, The Dying Sahara, will be released next year ... His latest book is The Dark Sahara: Americas War on Terror in Africa. Its sequel, The Dying Sahara, will be released next year ...
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The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region) Andrew Spielman ... "The Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara." The authors emphasize that morphologically similar populations may differ in ... Health on the Horn of Africa: A Study of the Major Diseases of Somalia Robert Briggs Watson ... What we now have is a monumental life's work that describes the Diptera west of the 100th meridian from Alaska south to ...
You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara Site. You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara site. ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara 대한민국 (South Korea) Suisse (Switzerland) Suomi (Finland) Sverige (Sweden) 台湾地区 (Taiwan) Türkiye ( ... Associations and societies in South Africa supported by Medtronic Africa. Medtronic Africa works closely with and supports the ... Medtronic Africa has been committed to supporting the healthcare needs of the public and private sector in South Africa and Sub ...
20:27] : Ramaphosa: South Africa calls for an end to the illegal occupation of Western Sahara. ... 20:27] - Ramaphosa: South Africa calls for an end to the illegal occupation of Western Sahara ... Ramaphosa: South Africa calls for an end to the illegal occupation of Western... ... El Polisario recibe a Ross para preparar la visita de Ban Ki-Moon al Sahara Occidental ONU ...
Lamolas decision: Is South Africa promoting the rule of law or pleasing the Greeks and Trojans at the same time? ... The trade has continued despite the commitment of the United Nations in 1991 to ensure for the people of Western Sahara a self- ... Western Sahara: Seizure of a cargo of phosphate rock destined for New Zealand. ... have long protested the illegal mining and export of high quality phosphate rock from an area of Western Sahara which has been ...
Sub-Sahara Africa HIV/AIDs by Reid Gruenes , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful ... Where is Sub-Saharan Africa The area south of the Sahara Desert ... Facts about HIV & AIDs in Sub Sahara Africa *88% of the worlds ... 71% of the deaths of the virus were from Sub-Sahara Africa. ... 25 Million people with HIV & AIDs live in Sub-Sahara Africa.. ... 69% of the people world wide live in Sub-Sahara Africa. * ... children with HIV & Aids live in Sub-sahara Africa.. * ...
Moroccan phosphate ship held in a South African port by a complaint from Western Sahara Polisario. A bulk vessel was detained ... South Africa, not allowed to continue on its journey to New Zealand. The liberation movement of Western Sahara, Frente ... A Moroccan phosphate ship has been held in a South African port by a complaint from Western Sahara Polisario movement that it ... www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/reuters/article-4470860/Morocco-phosphate-ship-held-South-Africa-port-Western-Sahara-claim.html. 3 ...
  • The South African authorities stopped the shipment carrier on May 1, 2017 at the port of Port Elizabeth, in response to a lawsuit filed by the Sahrawi Republic. (spsrasd.info)
  • Pretoria , South Africa, January 25, 2017 (SPS) - The new ambassador of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mr. Radhi al-Bashir Asgayar has presented his credentials on Tuesday as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Sahrawi Republic to the Republic of South Africa to His Excellency Mr. Jacob Zuma. (spsrasd.info)
  • The Ghanian-British architect had only just completed the National Museum of African American History and Culture on Washington's National Mall in 2016, when he received a knighthood in 2017, and popped up on Time magazine's most influential 100 the same year. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • After Morocco's official return to the African Union on January 31, 2017, King Mohammed VI began an African tour on February 1, 2017. (moroccoworldnews.com)
  • Bir Lehlu, Western Sahara (4 May 2017). (minesandcommunities.org)
  • The Regional Knowledge Exchange on the promotion of efficient rice farming practices and value chains in sub-Saharan Africa took place from 7 to 11 August 2017 in Elmina, Ghana. (fao.org)
  • Port Elizabeth , South Africa, February 23, 2018 (SPS) - The High Court of South Africa on Friday issued a final ruling on the shipment of phosphates held in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, that the shipment belongs to the Sahrawi Republic, confirming that Morocco had never any ownership over Sahrawi phosphate. (spsrasd.info)
  • London , July 28, 2018 (SPS) - The United Kingdom has reiterated its position of respecting the decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) regarding the EU-Morocco trade agreements, which excludes Western Sahara and its adjacent waters from the agreement. (spsrasd.info)
  • in the Vacations of Peace Program 2018, according to a press release from the Andalusian Federation of Associations in Charity with the Sahara (FANDAS). (spsrasd.info)
  • El-Aaiun (Occupied Territories), July 23, 2018 (SPS) - The Association for Resource Monitoring and the Protection of the Environment in Western Sahara (AMRPENWS) welcomed the decision of the US firm -Innophos Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: IPHS) to suspend its phosphate import operations from Western Sahara, dubbing it a new victory for the Sahrawi question. (spsrasd.info)
  • However, the possibility of VE-virus movement in or to Central America and México remains theoretical although knowledge available as of June 1969 is considered to be more compatible with either old endemic foci in western Panamá, Central America, and México or movement of virus within this territory, than with recent movement of virus from South to Central America. (ajtmh.org)
  • Accidentally released during a breeding experiment in Brazil in the 1950s, Africanized honeybees have steadily migrated northward across South and Central America and into the southern part of the United States. (pbs.org)
  • This assay allowed the discrimination of at least 13 Anopheles species within the subgenus Cellia from two continents (Africa and Asia), among which are five major malaria vectors. (ajtmh.org)
  • Evolution of malaria in Africa for the past 40 years: impacts of climatic and human factors. (ajtmh.org)
  • Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The deadliest strains of malaria are found in Africa, south of the Sahara. (wikihow.com)
  • The vast majority of cases in the United States are in travelers and immigrants returning from parts of the world where malaria transmission occurs, including sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Globally, the World Health Organization estimates that in 2019, 229 million clinical cases of malaria occurred, and 409,000 people died of malaria, most of them children in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Skirting South Africa's stiff immigration laws was difficult. (encyclopedia.com)
  • OECD's periodic review of South Africa's economy. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • South Africa's macroeconomic framework has served the economy well, but should be strengthened to make the economy more resilient to external shocks. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • I've mountain biked 800 kms across South Africa's Western Cape in the Cape Epic. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Adolescent HIV treatment in South Africa's national HIV programme: a retrospective cohort study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The initiative is about how you enhance Africa's budding innovation and startup ecosystem, and how you bring resources and tools and know-how to make sure that Africa organically can develop its own ecosystem on the ground. (arnnet.com.au)
  • Deny, deny, deny' is the same strategy the 73-year-old employed when he came under fire over the use of government money to upgrade his private home in the rural area of Nkandla - until he was forced to make a U-turn when the opposition took him to South Africa's highest court. (bbc.com)
  • Nor did the speaker, a senior member of the governing party, inspire confidence in South Africa's 22-year-old democracy when she threw out opposition leader Mmusi Maimane, as he challenged the president. (bbc.com)
  • MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara). (wikipedia.org)
  • MINURSO's mission was to monitor the cease-fire and to organize and conduct a referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, which would enable the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A provision decrying human rights abuses by Morocco in Western Sahara had the backing of 14 members of the Security Council, but was deleted due to French objections. (wikipedia.org)
  • President Brahim Ghali of Western Sahara has called on the African Union to hold Morocco accountable for human rights violations in the occupied territories in Western Sahara as well for the exploitation of its natural resources. (sabcnews.com)
  • Western Sahara: part of Morocco? (wikimedia.org)
  • The seizure of the cargo under court order comes after Saharawi authorities successfully concluded a case against the European Union for extending a free trade agreement with Morocco into Western Sahara. (minesandcommunities.org)
  • During the meeting with President Zuma, the new Saharawi ambassador recalled the historical relations that united the African liberation movements during the battle and the liberation struggle, in particular the outstanding relations between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Frente POLISARIO. (spsrasd.info)
  • The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than "welcomed" the report on the situation by the Secretary-General-"presumably because [it] dared to raise the issue of the human rights violations against the Saharawi people", and quoted the warning in the report about there being no mandate to address the issue of human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thousands of Western Sahara refugees in Algerian refugee camps have held colourful celebrations to mark the 43rd anniversary of the proclamation of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). (sabcnews.com)
  • Saharawi authorities initiated legal proceedings in South Africa when it became clear that the ship would call into Port Elizabeth to reprovision during a month-long journey. (minesandcommunities.org)
  • Saharawi authorities have attempted to engage the companies involved, and did so in New Zealand along with the government because of that country's historical support for self-determination in East Timor (Timor-Leste) and Western Sahara. (minesandcommunities.org)
  • The liberation movement of Western Sahara, Frente Polisario has managed to intercept and detain the shipment carrying 5,2 million USD worth of conflict minerals destined for the New Zealand agriculture industry. (minesandcommunities.org)
  • In South Africa, a history of apartheid policies, concentrated poverty, social deprivation, and other risk factors related to violence within particular areas have created conditions that exacerbate exclusion, inequality, and poverty, especially among youth. (idrc.ca)
  • The estimated pooled HIV prevalence ranged from 16% (95% CI 0.13-18) in Democratic Republic of Congo, 59% (95% CI 0.57-0.62) in South Africa and 71% (95% CI 0.65-0.76) in Malawi. (who.int)
  • The Clinton administration, they charge, seems content to let multinational drug companies set American trade policy -- which is threatening access to life-saving medicines, not only in South Africa, but also in Thailand, India and poor countries around the world. (sfgate.com)
  • Through its introduction of a national family planning program (the first in Africa) and by raising the legal age of marriage, Tunisia rapidly reduced its total fertility rate from about 7 children per woman in 1960 to 2 today. (cia.gov)
  • The region borders Senegal to the north, the Guinea-Bissau regions of Bafatá , Bissau and Biombo to the east, the Rio Geba /Guinea-Bissau region of Quinara to the south and the Guinea-Bissau region of Cacheu to the west. (wikipedia.org)
  • Situated on the west coast of Africa, Guinea-Bissau, formerly Portuguese Guinea , has a total area of 36,120 sq km (13,946 sq mi), about 10% of which is periodically submerged by tidal waters. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But the quest to flood Africa with cheap AIDS drugs has run headlong into conflict with American trade policy. (sfgate.com)
  • Meanwhile, the struggle to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS has benefited from a gradual rise in resources coincident with the effort of WHO, UNICEF, and other partners to place 3 million patients in sub-Saharan Africa into treatment programs by 2005. (cdc.gov)
  • Standard Bank Namibia handed over the soccer kits to the players of Black Africa and African Stars yesterday as a run up to the Standard Bank Super Cup soccer match that will be played this Friday at the Sam Nujoma Stadium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This text provides thorough coverage of the historical, cultural, economic, and political forces that continue to shape Africa, applying geographic context to relevant past and contemporary issues. (wiley.com)
  • Can you name the following geographic features of Africa? (sporcle.com)
  • The atlas is the result of a partnership between the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), with technical support from the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn) in South Africa. (urbanafrica.net)
  • This was intended to constitute a Sahrawi exercise of self-determination, and thus complete Western Sahara's still-unfinished process of decolonization (Western Sahara is the last major territory remaining on the UN's list of non-decolonized territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department of History at the University of South Carolina strives to achieve the highest standards of excellence in both conventional and applied history fields. (sc.edu)
  • Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part of Western Sahara (80% of the territory). (wikipedia.org)
  • Putting aside the legal, juridical and political aspects of the Western Sahara dossier, EU has to face the fact that a Moroccan-Algerian war will have catastrophic consequences on Europe. (moroccoworldnews.com)