All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.
Areas set apart as burial grounds.
Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or concept, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It is a state located in the Southeastern region of the United States.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
##### I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Dakota" is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States and it is not a medical term or concept. It does not have a medical definition in a singular sentence or otherwise.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The status of health in rural populations.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Sexual activities of humans.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Acquired immunity and postnatal clinical protection in childhood cerebral malaria. (1/1101)

By analysing data on the age distribution of cerebral malaria among sites of different transmission intensities, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the epidemiological patterns seen is that (i) cerebral malaria is caused by a distinct set of Plasmodium falciparum antigenic types; (ii) these antigenic types or 'CM strains' are very common and induce strong strain-specific immunity; and (iii) the postnatal period of protection against cerebral malaria is much longer than the period of protection against other forms of severe disease. The alternative hypothesis that cerebral malaria may be caused by any 'strain' of P. falciparum is compatible with the data only if a single exposure is sufficient to protect against further episodes. This is not consistent with observations on the history of exposure of patients with cerebral malaria. Finally, it is clear that although the delayed peak in incidence of cerebral malaria (with age) can be generated by assuming that subsequent exposures carry a higher risk of disease, such an explanation is not compatible with the observation that severe disease rates are low among infants and young children in areas of high transmissibility.  (+info)

Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.(2/1101)

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Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation. (3/1101)

Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths. Perceived efficacy and situational variables influencing male compliance in, say, condom use, form part of the wider study that addresses men. Thus preventive reproductive health initiatives and information should move from the female alone to both sexes. Women need men as partners in reproductive health who understand the risks they might be exposed to and strategies for their prevention.  (+info)

Complications of unsafe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. (4/1101)

The Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat undertook a study in 1994 to document the magnitude of abortion complications in Commonwealth member countries. The results of the literature review component of that study, and research gaps identified as a result of the review, are presented in this article. The literature review findings indicate a significant public health problem in the region, as measured by a high proportion of incomplete abortion patients among all hospital gynaecology admissions. The most common complications of unsafe abortion seen at health facilities were haemorrhage and sepsis. Studies on the use of manual vacuum aspiration for treating abortion complications found shorter lengths of hospital stay (and thus, lower resource costs) and a reduced need for a repeat evacuation. Very few articles focused exclusively on the cost of treating abortion complications, but authors agreed that it consumes a disproportionate amount of hospital resources. Studies on the role of men in supporting a woman's decision to abort or use contraception were similarly lacking. Articles on contraceptive behaviour and abortion reported that almost all patients suffering from abortion complications had not used an effective, or any, method of contraception prior to becoming pregnant, especially among the adolescent population; studies on post-abortion contraception are virtually nonexistent. Almost all articles on the legal aspect of abortion recommended law reform to reflect a public health, rather than a criminal, orientation. Research needs that were identified include: community-based epidemiological studies; operations research on decentralization of post-abortion care and integration of treatment with post-abortion family planning services; studies on system-wide resource use for treatment of incomplete abortion; qualitative research on the role of males in the decision to terminate pregnancy and use contraception; clinical studies on pain control medications and procedures; and case studies on the provision of safe abortion services where legally allowed.  (+info)

Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans. (5/1101)

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

An approach to the problems of diagnosing and treating adult smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in high-HIV-prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa. (6/1101)

The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines.  (+info)

Rebound mortality and the cost-effectiveness of malaria control: potential impact of increased mortality in late childhood following the introduction of insecticide treated nets. (7/1101)

The efficacy and relative cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the control of malaria in children under 5 years of age have recently been demonstrated by several large-scale trials. However, it has been suggested that long-term use of ITNs in areas of high transmission could lead to mortality rebound in later childhood, which would reduce the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and at the extreme could lead to negative overall effects. A model is presented in which the cost and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per child aged 1-119 months were estimated for a sub-Saharan African population with and without an ITN intervention. The rebound rate, defined as the percentage increase in age-specific all-cause mortality and malaria specific-morbidity, was varied to estimate the threshold at which the intervention was no longer cost-effective. Rebound was considered over two possible age ranges: 5-9 years and 3-6 years. With mortality and morbidity reductions due to ITNs in children aged 1-59 months and rebound in the 5-9 years age class, one could be reasonably certain that the cost per DALY averted is below $150 up to a rebound rate of 39%. Up to an 84% rebound rate it is highly likely that the intervention will be DALY-averting, that is the DALYs averted by the intervetion outweigh DALYs incurred through rebound effects. These thresholds are sensitive to the age range over which reductions and rebound in morbidity and mortality occur. With reductions confined to children aged 1-35 months and rebound in the 3-6 years age class, the cost per DALY is highly likely to fall below $150 only up to a 2.5% rebound rate, and with a rate in excess of 11% one can no longer be reasonably certain that the intervention is DALY-averting. These rates apply to the whole population. If there is no rebound amongst children who did not comply with the intervention, the actual increases in morbidity and mortality required to reach these thresholds amongst compliers would be much higher. The age range over which rebound occurs is a critical determinant of the thresholds at which one can no longer be reasonably certain that ITNs remain cost-effective in the long term. Based on empirical estimates of age-specific malaria mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, it appears unlikely that this threshold rate would be reached if rebound occurs over the 5-9 years age range. By contrast, if rebound occurs over the ages of 3-6 years, the increase in mortality rates required to reach this threshold falls within the observed range of malaria-specific mortality rates for this age group. It is essential that long-term surveillance is included as part of ITN interventions, with particular attention to the age range over which rebound may occur.  (+info)

Assessing the use of nuclear medicine technology in sub-Saharan Africa: the essential equipment list. (8/1101)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the survey was to determine the core equipment required in a nuclear medicine department in public hospitals in Kenya and South Africa, and evaluate the capital investment requirements. METHODS: Physical site audits of equipment and direct interviews of medical and clinical engineering professionals were performed, as well as examination of tender and purchase documents, maintenance payment receipts, and other relevant documents. Originally, 10 public hospitals were selected: 6 referral and 4 teaching hospitals. The 6 referral hospitals were excluded from the survey due to lack of essential documents and records on equipment. The medical and technical staff from these hospitals were, however, interviewed on equipment usage and technical constraints. Data collection was done on-site and counter-checked against documents provided by the hospital administration. RESULTS: A list of essential equipment for a nuclear medicine department in sub-Saharan Africa was identified. Quotations for equipment were provided by all major equipment suppliers, local and international. CONCLUSION: A nuclear medicine department requires eight essential pieces of equipment to operate in sub-Saharan Africa. Two additional items are desirable but not essential.  (+info)

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

Northern Africa is a geographical region that broadly consists of the countries of the African Transverse, which are Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, and Western Sahara. Sometimes, it may also include Sudan, South Sudan, and Mauritania. This region is characterized by its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains, as well as its unique cultural and historical heritage. Northern Africa has a diverse climate, with a hot, dry desert climate in the interior and a milder, wetter climate along the coasts. The major languages spoken in this region include Arabic, Berber, and French.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

A desert climate, also known as a hot desert climate or a BWh climate in the Köppen climate classification system, is characterized by extremely low rainfall, typically less than 10 inches (250 mm) per year. This type of climate is found in the world's desert areas, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Mojave Desert in North America, and the Simpson Desert in Australia.

In a desert climate, temperatures can vary greatly between day and night, as well as between summer and winter. During the day, temperatures can reach extremely high levels, often above 100°F (38°C), while at night, they can drop significantly, sometimes below freezing in the winter months.

Desert climates are caused by a combination of factors, including geographical location, topography, and large-scale weather patterns. They typically occur in regions that are located far from sources of moisture, such as bodies of water, and are situated in the interior of continents or on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Living things in desert climates have adapted to the harsh conditions through various means, such as storing water, reducing evaporation, and limiting activity during the hottest parts of the day. Despite the challenging conditions, deserts support a diverse array of plant and animal life that has evolved to thrive in this unique environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mauritania" is not a medical term. It's actually the name of a country located in Northwest Africa, known officially as the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

A cemetery is a place that is designated for the burial or other forms of final disposition of deceased individuals. It can contain various features such as grave sites, mausoleums, columbariums, and natural burial grounds. Cemeteries serve as a final resting place for the departed and can also provide a space for mourning and remembrance for the living. They are typically owned and maintained by government entities, religious organizations, or private companies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Funeral Rites" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Funeral rites generally refer to the customs, practices, and rituals associated with paying respects to the dead and disposing of their remains in a culturally or religiously significant manner. These practices can vary widely between different cultures, societies, and religious groups. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I apologize, but "Chad" is not a medical term or condition. It is a given name and also a slang term that has been used in popular culture to refer to an attractive man or a stereotypical fraternity member in some English-speaking countries. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

Central Africa is a geographical region that broadly includes the countries that lie near the equator and are found in the interior of the African continent. The United Nations defines Central Africa as consisting of the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe.

The region is characterized by diverse cultures, languages, and landscapes, ranging from dense rainforests to vast savannas. Central Africa is home to many important rivers, including the Congo River, which is the second longest river in Africa and the deepest river in the world. The region also contains numerous national parks and wildlife reserves that protect a diverse array of plant and animal species, including several endangered species such as mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, and forest elephants.

Central Africa faces many challenges, including political instability, poverty, and environmental degradation. The region has been plagued by conflicts and civil wars, which have resulted in significant loss of life, displacement of people, and destruction of infrastructure. Climate change and deforestation are also major concerns, as they threaten the region's biodiversity and contribute to global warming.

In terms of healthcare, Central Africa faces many challenges, including a high burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola. Access to healthcare is limited in many areas, particularly in rural communities, and there is a shortage of healthcare workers and medical facilities. In addition, the region has been affected by conflicts and humanitarian crises, which have further strained healthcare systems and made it difficult to provide adequate care to those in need.

I believe there might be some confusion in your question. Algeria is a country located in North Africa, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you had intended to ask about a different term, please provide clarification, and I would be happy to help you with that.

"Western Africa" is a geographical region that consists of several countries located in the western part of the African continent. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

The region is characterized by a diverse range of cultures, languages, and ethnic groups, as well as a variety of landscapes, including coastal areas, savannas, and deserts. Western Africa has a rich history, with many ancient kingdoms and empires having existed in the region, such as the Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, and Songhai Empire.

In medical contexts, "Western Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or characteristics of various health conditions or diseases that are prevalent in this geographical region. For example, certain infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, and Ebola virus disease are more common in Western Africa than in other parts of the world. Therefore, medical researchers and practitioners may use the term "Western Africa" to refer to the specific health challenges and needs of the populations living in this region.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

"Southern Africa" is a geographical region that includes several countries located in the southernmost part of the African continent. The specific countries that are included in this region can vary depending on the source, but it generally consists of Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In medical terms, "Southern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this specific region. For example, a study might examine the burden of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, which has been disproportionately affected by this epidemic compared to other parts of the world. Similarly, researchers might investigate the prevalence of malaria or tuberculosis in Southern Africa, as these diseases are also significant public health challenges in this region.

It's worth noting that while "Southern Africa" is a useful geographical and medical designation, it does not encompass all of the countries on the African continent, and there can be significant variation in disease patterns and health outcomes within this region as well.

"Eastern Africa" is a geographical term used to describe the eastern portion of the African continent. The United Nations defines Eastern Africa as consisting of the following countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In a medical context, "Eastern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this region. However, it is important to note that there can be significant variation in health outcomes and healthcare systems within Eastern Africa due to factors such as socioeconomic status, infrastructure, and cultural practices. Therefore, any medical definition of "Eastern Africa" should be used with caution and may require further qualification or specification depending on the context.

Burial is the act or process of placing a deceased person or animal, usually in a specially dug hole called a grave, into the ground. The body may be placed in a casket, coffin, or shroud before burial. Burial is a common funeral practice in many cultures and religions, and it is often seen as a way to respect and honor the dead. In some cases, burial may also serve as a means of preventing the spread of disease. The location of the burial can vary widely, from a designated cemetery or graveyard to a private plot of land or even a body of water.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Radar" is not a medical term. Radar is an acronym that stands for Radio Detection and Ranging, which is a technology used in detecting the range, angle, or velocity of objects using radio waves. It is commonly used in various fields such as aviation, navigation, meteorology, and defense. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

"Myrtus" is a botanical name that refers to a genus of evergreen shrubs and trees in the family Myrtaceae. The most common species is Myrtus communis, also known as the common myrtle or European myrtle. It is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes.

In a medical context, "Myrtus" may be mentioned in relation to herbal remedies or phytotherapy, where extracts from the leaves, flowers, or fruits of the plant are used. Some studies suggest that Myrtus communis may have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective therapeutic dosages.

It's important to note that while some natural substances can be beneficial for health, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Animal migration is a seasonal movement of animals from one place to another, typically over long distances, to find food, reproduce, or escape harsh conditions. This phenomenon is observed in various species, including birds, mammals, fish, and insects. The routes and destinations of these migrations are often genetically programmed and can be quite complex. Animal migration has important ecological consequences and is influenced by factors such as climate change, habitat loss, and human activities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rain" is not a medical term. In general, rain refers to water droplets that fall from the sky as part of the Earth's weather cycle. These drops form when moisture in the air condenses and cools, creating clouds which eventually become heavy enough to release the collected water.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a metalloid that is light-colored, hard, and highly resistant to corrosion. In its crystalline form, boron is nearly as hard as diamond.

In medicine, boron compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a type of radiation therapy that involves the use of boron-containing compounds to selectively deliver radiation to cancer cells.

Boron is also an essential micronutrient for plants and some animals, including humans. However, excessive exposure to boron can be toxic to humans and other organisms. Therefore, it is important to maintain appropriate levels of boron in the body and environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Paleontology is not a medical field, but rather it is a branch of earth sciences and biology that deals with the study of prehistoric life forms through the examination of plant and animal fossils, including those of extinct organisms. It involves various disciplines such as stratigraphy, geochronology, and systematics to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

However, I understand that you are looking for information related to a non-medical topic, so here is some additional context:

Paleontology can be divided into several subdisciplines, including vertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals with backbones), invertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals without backbones), paleobotany (the study of fossil plants), micropaleontology (the study of microscopic fossils), and taphonomy (the study of the processes that occur after an organism's death, leading to its preservation as a fossil).

Paleontologists use various techniques to study fossils, including comparative anatomy, histology (the study of tissue structure), and geochemistry. They also rely on other scientific fields such as genetics, physics, and chemistry to help them interpret the data they collect from fossils.

Through their research, paleontologists can learn about the morphology, behavior, ecology, and evolutionary relationships of extinct organisms, providing valuable insights into the history of life on Earth.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It's actually the name of a region, specifically the Australian state of South Australia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help with those!

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New South Wales" is not a medical term. It's actually the name of the largest state in Australia, known for its diverse landscapes and wildlife. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hordeum" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for barley in botany. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Dakota" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being one of the 50 states in the United States of America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Southeast Asia is a geographical region that consists of the countries that are located at the southeastern part of the Asian continent. The definition of which countries comprise Southeast Asia may vary, but it generally includes the following 11 countries:

* Brunei
* Cambodia
* East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* Indonesia
* Laos
* Malaysia
* Myanmar (Burma)
* Philippines
* Singapore
* Thailand
* Vietnam

Southeast Asia is known for its rich cultural diversity, with influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The region is also home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including rainforests, coral reefs, and mountain ranges. In recent years, Southeast Asia has experienced significant economic growth and development, but the region still faces challenges related to poverty, political instability, and environmental degradation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

"Western Asia" is a geographical region that is defined by the United Nations as one of the five sub-regions within the larger continent of Asia. It is also known as "Southwestern Asia" or the "Middle East." The UN definition includes the following countries:

* Armenia
* Azerbaijan
* Bahrain
* Cyprus
* Georgia
* Iraq
* Israel
* Jordan
* Kuwait
* Lebanon
* Oman
* State of Palestine
* Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
* Syria
* Turkey
* United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
* Islamic Republic of Iran (but sometimes considered part of Central Asia)

It is important to note that there are different definitions and interpretations of what constitutes "Western Asia" or the "Middle East," and some sources may include or exclude certain countries. Additionally, it's worth noting that cultural, historical, and political factors also play a role in defining this region, and the boundaries between Western Asia and other regions such as Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa can be fluid and contested.

African traditional medicine (ATM) refers to the practices and beliefs regarding both physical and spiritual health and well-being that are indigenous to Africa. It includes various forms of healing, such as herbalism, spiritualism, and ancestral veneration, which may be practiced by traditional healers, including herbalists, diviners, and traditional birth attendants. These practices are often closely intertwined with the cultural, religious, and social beliefs of the community. It's important to note that the specific practices and beliefs can vary widely among different African cultures and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guinea" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term referring to a region on the west coast of Africa, as well as the country of Equatorial Guinea and its neighboring countries. Additionally, "Guinea" can also refer to a unit of currency in Liberia.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Phylogeography is not a medical term, but rather a subfield of biogeography and phylogenetics that investigates the spatial distribution of genealogical lineages and the historical processes that have shaped them. It uses genetic data to infer the geographic origins, dispersal routes, and demographic history of organisms, including pathogens and vectors that can affect human health.

In medical and public health contexts, phylogeography is often used to study the spread of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, or tuberculosis, by analyzing the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of pathogen isolates. This information can help researchers understand how diseases emerge, evolve, and move across populations and landscapes, which can inform disease surveillance, control, and prevention strategies.

I'm not aware of any medical condition or term that is specifically associated with or referred to as "Cameroon." Cameroon is a country located in Central Africa, known for its rich biodiversity and cultural diversity. If you have more context about why you are looking for a medical definition of "Cameroon," I may be able to provide a more helpful response.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ghana" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Ghana. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those!

Anti-retroviral agents are a class of drugs used to treat and prevent infections caused by retroviruses, most commonly the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These medications work by interfering with the replication process of the retrovirus, thereby preventing it from infecting and destroying immune cells.

There are several different classes of anti-retroviral agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) - These drugs block the action of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to convert its RNA into DNA.
2. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) - These drugs bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme and alter its shape, preventing it from functioning properly.
3. Protease inhibitors (PIs) - These drugs block the action of the protease enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to assemble new viral particles.
4. Integrase inhibitors (INIs) - These drugs block the action of the integrase enzyme, which is necessary for the retrovirus to integrate its DNA into the host cell's genome.
5. Fusion inhibitors - These drugs prevent the retrovirus from entering host cells by blocking the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.
6. Entry inhibitors - These drugs prevent the retrovirus from attaching to and entering host cells.

Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) typically involves a combination of at least three different anti-retroviral agents from two or more classes, in order to effectively suppress viral replication and prevent drug resistance. Regular monitoring of viral load and CD4+ T cell counts is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of ART and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment regimen.

Anti-HIV agents are a class of medications specifically designed to treat HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. These drugs work by interfering with various stages of the HIV replication cycle, preventing the virus from infecting and killing CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for maintaining a healthy immune system.

There are several classes of anti-HIV agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs): These drugs act as faulty building blocks that the virus incorporates into its genetic material, causing the replication process to halt. Examples include zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir.
2. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs): These medications bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, altering its shape and preventing it from functioning properly. Examples include efavirenz, nevirapine, and rilpivirine.
3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs): These drugs target the protease enzyme, which is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins into functional components. By inhibiting this enzyme, PIs prevent the formation of mature, infectious virus particles. Examples include atazanavir, darunavir, and lopinavir.
4. Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs): These medications block the integrase enzyme, which is responsible for inserting the viral genetic material into the host cell's DNA. By inhibiting this step, INSTIs prevent the virus from establishing a permanent infection within the host cell. Examples include raltegravir, dolutegravir, and bictegravir.
5. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors: These drugs target different steps of the viral entry process, preventing HIV from infecting CD4+ T cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (T-20), maraviroc, and ibalizumab.
6. Post-Attachment Inhibitors: This class of medications prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell's receptors, thereby inhibiting infection. Currently, there is only one approved post-attachment inhibitor, fostemsavir.

Combination therapy using multiple classes of antiretroviral drugs has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication and improve clinical outcomes in people living with HIV. Regular adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is crucial for maintaining an undetectable viral load and reducing the risk of transmission.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I believe you are asking for a description or explanation of the indigenous peoples of South America, rather than a "medical definition." A medical definition would typically apply to a condition or disease. Here is some information about the indigenous peoples of South America:

The indigenous peoples of South America are the original inhabitants of the continent and its islands, who lived there before the European colonization. They include a wide variety of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures, with distinct histories and traditions. Many indigenous communities in South America have faced significant challenges, including displacement from their lands, marginalization, and discrimination.

According to estimates by the United Nations, there are approximately 45 million indigenous people in Latin America, of which about 30 million live in South America. They represent around 7% of the total population of South America. Indigenous peoples in South America can be found in all countries, with the largest populations in Bolivia (62%), Guatemala (41%), and Peru (25%).

Indigenous peoples in South America have a rich cultural heritage, including unique languages, arts, and spiritual practices. Many of these cultures are under threat due to globalization, urbanization, and the loss of traditional lands and resources. In recent years, there has been increased recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in international law, including the right to self-determination, cultural heritage, and free, prior, and informed consent for projects that affect their territories. However, significant challenges remain, and many indigenous communities continue to face violence, discrimination, and poverty.

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Benin." Benin is a country located in West Africa, and its name is used in medical literature to describe conditions or issues related to that country, such as diseases prevalent there. However, without additional context, it's difficult to provide a specific medical definition for 'Benin.'

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Middle East" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region that includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, and others. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Republic of Korea" is a geopolitical term referring to a country located in East Asia, also known as South Korea. It does not have a specific medical definition. The term refers to the political, social, and cultural aspects of the country, rather than medical conditions or health-related concepts. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Burkina Faso" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in West Africa. The name "Burkina Faso" translates to "Land of Incorruptible People" in Mossi and Dioula, two languages spoken in the region. The country was known as Upper Volta when it gained independence from France in 1960. It was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, who aimed to promote a sense of national identity and unity among the diverse population.

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country with a population of around 21 million people (as of 2021). It shares borders with six countries: Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest. The capital city is Ouagadougou.

The primary languages spoken in Burkina Faso are French (the official language), Mooré, Dioula, Fula, and Gourmanchéma. The country has a diverse cultural heritage with numerous ethnic groups, including the Mossi, Fulani, Bobo, Gurunsi, Senufo, and Lobi.

Burkina Faso faces various challenges, such as poverty, food insecurity, limited access to education, and health issues like malaria, HIV/AIDS, and neglected tropical diseases. The country also struggles with political instability and security threats from extremist groups operating in the Sahel region.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mozambique" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Africa, known officially as the Republic of Mozambique. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zimbabwe" is not a medical term. It's a country located in the southern part of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Antimalarials are a class of drugs that are used for the prevention, treatment, and elimination of malaria. They work by targeting the malaria parasite at various stages of its life cycle, particularly the erythrocytic stage when it infects red blood cells. Some commonly prescribed antimalarials include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin-based combinations. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other antimalarial agents to increase their efficacy and prevent the development of drug resistance. Antimalarials are also being investigated for their potential use in treating other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malawi" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southeastern Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

An epidemic is the rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. It is typically used to describe situations where the occurrence of a disease is significantly higher than what is normally expected in a certain area or community. Epidemics can be caused by various factors, including pathogens, environmental changes, and human behavior. They can have serious consequences for public health, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. To control an epidemic, public health officials often implement measures such as vaccination, quarantine, and education campaigns to prevent further spread of the disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

Malaria, Falciparum is defined as a severe and often fatal form of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. This type of malaria is characterized by high fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and vomiting. If left untreated, it can cause severe anemia, kidney failure, seizures, coma, and even death. It is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zambia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Zambia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mali" is not a medical term or condition in English. Mali is the name of a country located in West Africa, and its capital city is Bamako. If you have any questions about Mali or anything else, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gambia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, officially known as the Republic of The Gambia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

A CD4 lymphocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the number of CD4 T-cells (also known as CD4+ T-cells or helper T-cells) in a sample of blood. CD4 cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune response, particularly in fighting off infections caused by viruses and other pathogens.

CD4 cells express a protein on their surface called the CD4 receptor, which is used by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect and destroy these cells. As a result, people with HIV infection or AIDS often have low CD4 lymphocyte counts, which can make them more susceptible to opportunistic infections and other complications.

A normal CD4 lymphocyte count ranges from 500 to 1,200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (cells/mm3) in healthy adults. A lower than normal CD4 count is often used as a marker for the progression of HIV infection and the development of AIDS. CD4 counts are typically monitored over time to assess the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to guide clinical decision-making regarding the need for additional interventions, such as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Human migration" is not a medical term per se, but rather a sociological or anthropological concept that refers to the large-scale movement of human populations from one area to another.

That being said, human migration can certainly have significant impacts on health and healthcare systems, both for the migrating populations themselves and for the communities they move into. For example, migrants may face language barriers, discrimination, or other challenges that affect their access to care, while also potentially bringing new diseases or health risks into a community.

In summary, while "human migration" is not a medical definition in and of itself, it is an important concept to consider in the context of public health and healthcare delivery.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Togo" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country in West Africa, known officially as the Togolese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please don't hesitate to ask!

'Anopheles' is a genus of mosquitoes that are known for their role in transmitting malaria parasites to humans. These mosquitoes have a distinctive resting posture, with their abdomens raised and heads down, and they typically feed on human hosts at night. Only female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, as they require blood meals to lay eggs.

There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide, but only about 30-40 of these are considered significant vectors of human malaria. The distribution and behavior of these mosquitoes can vary widely depending on the specific species and geographic location.

Preventing and controlling the spread of malaria involves a variety of strategies, including the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial drugs, and vaccines. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of malaria have made significant progress in recent decades, but the disease remains a major global health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gabon" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Africa, known officially as the Gabonese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active (HAART) is a medical treatment regimen used to manage HIV infection. It involves the combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs from at least two different classes, aiming to maximally suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance. The goal of HAART is to reduce the amount of HIV in the body to undetectable levels, preserve immune function, and improve quality of life for people living with HIV. Commonly used antiretroviral classes include nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), and fusion inhibitors.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

'Mosquito Control' is not a medical term per se, but it is a public health concept that refers to the systematic reduction or elimination of mosquito populations through various methods to prevent or minimize the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. This multidisciplinary field involves entomologists, ecologists, engineers, and public health professionals working together to manage mosquito habitats, apply insecticides, and educate communities about personal protection measures. By controlling mosquito populations, we can significantly reduce the risk of contracting vector-borne illnesses such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Male circumcision is a surgical procedure to remove the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the head (glans) of the penis. In some cultures and religions, male circumcision is performed as a religious rite or cultural tradition. In other cases, it may be recommended for medical reasons, such as to treat phimosis (a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the glans) or to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections and other conditions. The procedure is typically performed on infants or young boys, but it can also be done on older males.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Botswana" is the name of a country located in Southern Africa, and it's not a medical term or concept. Botswana is known for its wildlife and nature, with places like the Chobe National Park and the Okavango Delta attracting tourists from around the world. The country has a population of approximately 2.3 million people and is a member of organizations such as the United Nations and the African Union.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Niger" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, officially known as the Republic of Niger. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more details and I would be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than ... Politics of Western Sahara, Political organizations based in Western Sahara, Referendums in Africa, History of Western Sahara, ... Kumalo South Africa 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1813. S/RES/1813(2008) ( ... Kumalo South Africa 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Document 619. S/2007/619 (2007) ...
The league was sponsored by South African, Sahara Computers, African Cricket Association and others. Northern Nomads won the ... The Sahara Elite League (also known as Zonal League) was a four team cricket competition created by Cricket Kenya featuring a ... http://www.cricketeurope4.net/DATABASE/ARTICLES2/articles/000027/002735.shtml, Sahara Elite League starts this weekend http:// ...
"South African Politician, Malema, Attacks Jonathan, Says President "Irresponsible" Over Silence on Baga". Sahara Reporters. ... of the left-wing Economic Freedom Fighters party in South Africa and former head of the Youth League of the ruling African ... Arson in Africa, Improvised explosive device bombings in Nigeria, January 2015 crimes in Africa). ... suggesting it was indicative of an ingrained bias towards African affairs. Others condemned the degree to which the government ...
"Suspect Names IPOB Spokesman, Emma Powerful, Others As Sponsors Of Terror In South-East Nigeria". Sahara Reporters. 29 December ... "Release of Leader Re-Awakens Calls for Biafran Secession in Nigeria". This Is Africa. 2017-06-23. Retrieved 2019-05-13. Onyeji ... extrajudicial killings in the South-Eastern, South-Central and parts of North-Central regions of the country. The organization ... "Israel casts a shadow on Biafran leader Nnamdi Kanu sighting". Africa Times. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2019-05-13. Paul, John (2021 ...
"South African institutions top THE Africa rankings pilot". Times Higher Education World University Rankings. 9 July 2015. " ... "Jonathan's Handpicked Candidate Seriake Dickson Declared Winner Of Bayelsa Gubernatorial Poll". Sahara Reporters. " ... 2014 Pan-African Leaders Award, African Students Union Parliament, ASUP, Sept 2014 Award of Honour, 3rd Registry Day ... Under his leadership, the University of Port Harcourt was ranked 6th in Africa and 1st in Nigeria in Research Influence by ...
South Africa. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Ndigbo, Ogbuefi (18 January 2012). "Diezani Allison ... "Diezani Alison-Madueke Maintained Rooms In Two New York Luxury Hotels During UN Assembly". Sahara Reporters. 28 September 2012 ... "FORMER MINISTER DIEZIANI ALISON-MADUEKE IS ILL AS PICTURE REVEALS". Ben Television , Sky 458 , Breaking - Nigeria, Africa and ... Corrupt Oil Trader Turns On Colleagues in Massive Africa Bribe Case, September 14, 2021, Bloomberg News Armendariz, Agustin (6 ...
"South Africa's ruthlessly efficient fight against coronavirus". BBC News. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Sahara Flow". nataal.com. ... He is the son of South African photographer and activist Gisèle Wulfsohn. Turpin grew up in Johannesburg, South Africa where he ... Monaheng, Ts'eliso (24 October 2014). "South African Hip Hop Series: Video Profile On Rapper Sam Turpin". Africa Is a Country. ... The project garnered Turpin a brand showcase of selected artists as well as fashion-oriented placements in the South African ...
"Buhari Meets With Chinese President Xi Jinping in South Africa". Sahara Reporters. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original ... Africa portal China portal Taiwan portal Africa-China economic relations Forum on China-Africa Cooperation African Chinese ... The southern fork extends along the east coast of Africa, which in Phase 2 will reach South Africa. Additional landfalls are in ... "How influential are Chinese media in Africa? An audience analysis in Kenya and South Africa." International Journal of ...
Sunday Times South Africa. Retrieved 2018-08-04. "The Top 6 Bestselling OkadaBooks Authors For The Year 2016. #4 Is Quite ... "Kiru Taye : A Romance And Exotic Writer Speaks". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved 2018-08-02. annetijie (February 27, 2015). " ... "Africa: The Limits of Imagining Pleasure - Writing the History of African Sex". This is Africa. June 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018-08 ... her books were the subject of an exploratory discussion on the genesis and acceptance of pleasurable sex among Africans, and ...
"South Africa notes situation in Western Sahara on the mandate of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western ... Journal of African Law. Journal of African Law. School of Oriental and African studies. (JSTOR). 26 (2): 152-162. doi:10.1017/ ... "African Parliament Speaker calls for self-determination in Western Sahara". SPS. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 8 ... A number of other key states of the AU, including South Africa, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya and Ghana also support the referendum ...
You can see American black bears, Bengal tigers, African lions and baboons while riding on the tour bus. Sahara Twist. South ... African Safari is a wild safari-themed area, featuring many animal-interactive attractions, as well as many other rides. This ... The top attraction is probably Sahara Twist, an Intamin Twist-and-Turn coaster. The coaster's layout plunges the riders down ... an Intamin twist-and-turn coaster dubbed Sahara Twist, as well as a Vekoma Roller Skater (335m) in the Wild West section of the ...
"South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2012 ... South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-02). "Moroccan objections taint Asian-Africa meeting". South African ... South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-01). "Asia-Afro partnership meeting kicked off today". South African ... Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2012-03-23. "Welcome to the Embassy of the Republic of South Africa in Algiers". SA Embassy ...
One of the alleged mercenaries speaking from a hospital in North Africa stated that around 19 South Africans had been ... ISBN 978-1-135-07667-2. "Polisario front refutes claims of involvement in Libya reported by Moroccan news agency". Sahara Press ... In October 2011 it was reported that the South African government was investigating the possibility that Gaddafi hired South ... South-South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development: Views from the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East ...
"South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 9 September 2006. ... "South Africa recognises the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier ... Africa Analysis Ltd. 1997. p. 109. Retrieved 7 August 2011. The Polisario Front of Western Sahara suffered another diplomatic ... "South Sudan does not recognize Western Sahara independent state: FM". Sudan Tribune. 30 September 2018. Archived from the ...
United States Diplomatic Mission to South Africa (13 July 2010). "Interview of President Obama by South African Broadcasting ... "President of Republic consoles his Ugandan counterpart on victims of Kampala bomb attacks". Sahara Press Service. 14 July 2010 ... "sweep them out of Africa." Supranational bodies Malawi/African Union - President of Malawi and Chairman of the African Union ... An explosion went off directly in front of a large screen that was showing the telecast from South Africa, killing 49 people. ...
"Zuma condemns Kenya mall attack". South African Broadcasting Corporation. 22 September 2013. Archived from the original on 27 ... "President of Republic condoles Kenyan counterpart following mall attack". Sahara Press Service. 22 September 2013. Archived ... The African Union's Chairperson of the African Union Commission Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma condemned the attacks and reiterated ... Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete and South African President Jacob Zuma also expressed condolences and reiterated support for ...
General "South Africa-Algeria-Western Sahara relations" (PDF). Embassy of the Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2012-12-13. ... the South African government declared that South Africa's recognition was not an end in itself but a means to an end: South ... A Sahrawi embassy was opened in Pretoria, and the South-African embassy in Algiers was accredited to the SADR. South Africa ... Ambassador Mohammed Beissat became the first SADR Ambassador to South Africa. In the same year, the South African Ambassador to ...
Africa (Sub-Sahara). Vol. 3. NewsBank. 1990. p. 166. Daily Report, Near East & South Asia: Index. Vol. 4/2. Newsbank. 1992. p. ... when South West Africa became independent of South Africa. List of diplomatic missions in Namibia List of diplomatic missions ... "In Namibia, South African Is Center of Attention". The New York Times. 23 March 1990. Namibia - Economy Archived 9 June 2011 at ... The South West Africa/Namibia dispute by John Dugard Ethiopia, Namibia sign air transport agreement Archived 19 January 2012 at ...
Pretoria, South Africa: Human Rights Centre of the University of Pretoria. 20 December 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original ... "President of Republic appoints President and members of the Constitutional Council". Sahara Press Service. 11 August 2023. ...
"South Africa calls for the immediate cessation of violence, restraint, and peace between Israel and Palestine". South African ... Sahara Press Service. October 10, 2023. Archived from the original on October 14, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023. Evoking the ... South Africa affirmed its support of a two-state solution. South Sudan: President Salva Kiir Mayardit wrote to Israeli Prime ... South Africa: The Foreign Ministry issued a statement calling for de-escalation and blaming the conflagration on "the continued ...
"Toward the identification of a phytocannabinoid-like compound in the flowers of a South African medicinal plant (Leonotis ... "Sahara: Gambia Opens Consulate in Dakhla, Dealing another Hard Blow to Polisario". Sahara News. 7 January 2020. "Sahara: Guinea ... Like most areas in Western Sahara, Dakhla and vicinity areas are very poor in vegetation and are mostly covered by the Sahara ... The Spanish interest in the desert coast of Western Africa's Sahara arose as the result of fishing carried out from the nearby ...
"Is The Niger Delta Region The 'Epicentre Of Electoral Fraud' In Nigeria?-AFRICA CHECK - Sahara Reporters". 17 July 2014. " ... South East: Consisting of Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo States. South South (also known as Niger Delta region) ... South West: Consisting of Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo States. Federal Republic of, Nigeria (2010). Nigeria at 50: A ... "2015: Nigerian presidential election and the North-South political divide". Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved ...
eds.). Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2010. Koninklijke Brill. pp. 483+. ISBN 978-90-04- ... "Mozambique". Africa South of the Sahara. US: Stanford University. Retrieved 19 May 2013. Söderbaum 2001. "O Instituto Camões- ... South African History Online. Retrieved 19 May 2013. "The State of African Cities 2010: Governance, Inequalities and Urban Land ... 1916), Africa Pilot: South and East Coasts, Govt. Print. Off., OCLC 20138064 Arquivo Histórico de Moçambique. "Sobre nos" (in ...
"African Libraries and Archives". Africa South of the Sahara. USA: Stanford University. Retrieved 7 June 2013. "Nigeria Police ... The African Heritage Research Library was established in 1988. The ancient town also has a Police Mobile Training School The ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Cape Verde". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. ... "Cape Verde: Directory". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 195. ISBN ... Annotated directory (Mass media in Cape Verde, Mass media by country, Mass media in Africa by country). ... the African version of the Portuguese radio station RDP. The media is operated by the Capeverdean News Agency (secondarily as ...
Europa Publications (2003). Africa South of the Sahara. Psychology Press. p. 966. ISBN 1857431839 Seychelles Trading Company, ... Government-owned companies of Africa, Companies established in 1985, 1985 establishments in Seychelles, Marketing boards, All ...
"Angola: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2004. p. ... Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford University. Annotated directory (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, CS1 maint: ... On December 16, 2015, a new private TV station, Palanca TV, began broadcasting from the South African satellite subscription TV ... 2015). "Angola: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Angola", Freedom of ...
African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Congo-Brazzaville". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Republic of the Congo: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa ... Africa portal Republic of the Congo portal Cinema of the Republic of the Congo [fr] "Republic of the Congo: Media and ... Annotated directory (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Mass media in the Republic of the Congo, Mass media in Africa by country ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "News (by country): Botswana". Africa South of the Sahara. USA - via Stanford ... "Botswana". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. ... Voice Botswana Youth Magazine The Midweek Sun Weekend Post The Daily News Media of Botswana List of radio stations in Africa ...
Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Madagascar News". Africa South of the Sahara. USA. Retrieved 2 July 2017 - via ... ISBN 978-0-8047-0279-9. "Madagascar: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2004. Regional Surveys of the World. ... Virtual Libraries: African Studies. New York, USA: Columbia University Libraries. (Accuracy disputes from May 2022, CS1 French- ... "Madagascar", Freedom of the Press, US: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 "Madagascar". Electronic Newspapers of Africa. ...
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Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition. ------. eBook. In Stock. Sign In Sign In ... This eBook introduces readers to the geography of Africa south of the Sahara, covering the culture region as a whole rather ... Like other titles in the 10-volume Modern World Cultures set, Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition explores the ... South Asia, Second Edition. ------. eBook. In Stock. Sign In Sign In Southeast Asia, Second Edition. ------. eBook. In Stock. ...
President Buhari emphasised on people-to-people relations between South Africa and Nigeria. ... Buhari Receives South African President, Delegates In Abuja For Trade Talks Amid Omicron COVID-19 Variant ... At the opening of the 10th Session of Nigeria-South Africa Bi-National Commission (BNC) held in his office, President Buhari ... Buhari further said Nigeria was committed to improving a "special relationship with South Africa, which would translate into ...
This paper describes the status of financial systems for a number of African countries south of the Sahara, identifying various ... Inequality in South Africa: An Overview * A case for water and sanitation in South Africas post-lockdown economic recovery ... This paper describes the status of financial systems for a number of African countries south of the Sahara, identifying various ... Financial Intermediation and Access to Finance in African Countries South of the Sahara ...
Home,Uncategorised,Western Sahara: South African Delegation Arrives in Saharawi Refugee Camps for Fisahara 2014 ... Western Sahara: South African Delegation Arrives in Saharawi Refugee Camps for Fisahara 2014. ... Western Sahara: South African Delegation Arrives in Saharawi Refugee Camps for Fisahara 2014. ... The delegation is composed of an advisor to the South African Minister of Culture, Ambassador in Algiers Mr. Joseph Kotane, ...
The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than ... Politics of Western Sahara, Political organizations based in Western Sahara, Referendums in Africa, History of Western Sahara, ... Kumalo South Africa 31 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1813. S/RES/1813(2008) ( ... Kumalo South Africa 30 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02. United Nations Security Council Document 619. S/2007/619 (2007) ...
What are taxis called in South Africa?. South Africa. Over 60% of South African commuters use shared minibus taxis (16 seater ... How long does a fast mail take in South Africa?. Fastmail is a letter service in South Africa with a one-day delivery standard ... How do taxi drivers get paid in South Africa?. The average salary for a taxi driver is R 8 677 per month in South Africa. ... How many South Africans use taxis everyday?. In normal circumstances, the South African minibus taxi industry undertakes some ...
Atlas: Rural Africa in Motion. Dynamics and Drivers of Migration South of the Sahara Sub-Saharan Africa has a long history of ... sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, China, Europe and Central Asia, and the Near East and North Africa from 2015 to 2017 ... Is Crop Diversification a Panacea for Climate Resilience in Africa? Welfare Implications for Heterogeneous Households. FAO ...
The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations ... the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast ... Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, ... in the Sahara regions of south Algeria, Mali, and Mauritania, also south Morocco and West Sahara. The highest quantity evident ...
Africa and South Sudan 52. Relaunching Negotiations over Western Sahara Author: International Crisis Group Publication Date: 10 ... Africa and Sahara 71. Oil or Nothing: Dealing with South Sudans Bleeding Finances Author: International Crisis Group ... Africa and South Sudan 72. Overkill: Reforming the Legal Basis for the U.S. War on Terror Author: International Crisis Group ... Africa and Mali 63. Vietnam Tacks Between Cooperation and Struggle in the South China Sea Author: International Crisis Group ...
Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Food Security Portal Africa South of the Sahara: English Subportal LAfrique au Sud du Sahara: Portail Français ... Implications of El Niño 2023/24 for Africa South of the Sahara ... Africas Food Systems on Cusp of Transformation: 2023 ATOR ... Policy-Led Agricultural Transformation: The Past, Present and Future of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development ...
... subnational dependency ratio and high resolution gridded age/sex group datasets were produced for 87 countries in Africa and ... South AfricaSouth Sudan • Sudan • Swaziland • Togo • Tunisia • Uganda • Tanzania • Western Sahara • Zambia • Zimbabwe • ... In areas such as the sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, age dependency ratios remain relatively high, and only in some cases ... Madhavan, S., Schatz, E. & Clark, B. Effect of HIV/AIDS-related mortality on household dependency ratios in rural South Africa ...
South Africa. Eritrea. Western Sahara. Mayotte. Oman. Congo. Sudan. Tanzania. Reunion. Equatorial Guinea. Mauritius. Namibia. ... South Korea. South Asia: Bhutan. India. Sri Lanka. Maldives. Bangladesh. Pakistan. Europe, Middle East, and Africa: Middle East ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Nauru. Pitcairn. Tokelau. New Caledonia. Papua New Guinea. Tonga. Solomon Islands ... Central African Republic. Niger. Gambia. Somalia. Rwanda. Sierra Leone. Central Eastern Europe: Slovakia. Macedonia. Slovenia. ...
South Africa FM Naledi Pandor received in Washington by Antony Blinken 08:23 ... Algeria, Morocco spar over Western Sahara at UN September 26, 2023. 20:03 ... Morocco and trio Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda will host upcoming Africa Cup of Nations 3 hours ago ... Morocco and trio Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda will host upcoming Africa Cup of Nations ...
Woven through are interviews with artists of African heritage who talk about what these foods mean to them. In addition to ... showcases African cuisines through 80 recipes from Gabon, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Congo, and Ethiopia. ... Saka Saka: South of the Sahara - Adventures in African Cooking by Anto Cocagne , African Cookbook. No reviews ... Woven through are interviews with artists of African heritage who talk about what these foods mean to them. In addition to ...
Henry Kissingers Western Sahara * Aubrey Bloomfield Morocco is one of the United States oldest allies, so when it occupied ... and South Africa at large) are highly mediated by race and class, social realities still deeply interwoven in South African ... Henry Kissingers South Africa * Gerald Horne In the 1970s, Kissinger believed that the liberation of southern Africa from ... First, the article begins with a depiction of Africa as monolithic and homophobic-only to then present South Africa as the ...
South Africa S.Africa: Ramaphosa vows unapologetic support to Western Sahara 18/10/2022 ... Western Sahara: Polisario Front leader vows attacks on Morocco will continue 17/10/2021 ... Algeria, Morocco spar over Western Sahara at UN "Mr. Chairman, it is no secret that Algeria has supported and will continue to ... Celebration in Laayoune after US adopts map of Morocco that includes Western Sahara 13/12/2020 ...
South Africa - Computer Misuse Act, Proposed. In 1997 a Commission was started to investigate computer-related crime in South ... Africa (SA). The Commission released a very exciting proposal, called Discussion Paper 99, which if adopted will change the way ...
The Sahara desert is the largest desert of our planet with a surface of 8 millions of kmq. ... Sahara Desert and others photos of Sahara Desert on Globopix - Here: ... Africa. *Asia. *Centre-South America. *Europe. *North America. *Oceania. * Currency exchanger * Distance calculator ... The Sahara desert is the largest desert of our planet with a surface of 8 millions of kmq. An extensive area of the Sahara ...
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... the Western Sahara remains Africas last colony. While a UN-brokered ceasefire put an end to armed hostilities in... ... Forty years after its people were promised freedom by departing Spanish rulers, the Western Sahara remains Africas last colony ... Roadmap to Apartheid , From South Africa to Israel (2012) 95 min. Before You Have Sex, Watch This 4 min ...
In South Africa and Sub-Sahara Africa, ICT, financial services and FinTech companies, especially, needed top quality IT talent ... In South Africa and Sub-Sahara Africa, ICT, financial services and FinTech companies, especially, needed top quality IT talent ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara Africa: IT Talent Recruitment Logs in to Meet Rising Demand. ... Apply now for the IT jobs we are currently recruiting for in South Africa and Sub Sahara Africa. ...
You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara Site. You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara site. ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara 대한민국 (South Korea) Suisse (Switzerland) Suomi (Finland) Sverige (Sweden) 台灣地區 (Taiwan) ประเทศไทย ( ... Africa Česká republika (Czech Republic) Chile 中国 (China) Colombia Costa Rica Србија (Serbia) Danmark (Denmark) Deutschland ( ...
You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara Site. You Are Leaving the Medtronic South Africa and Sub-Sahara site. ... South Africa and Sub-Sahara 대한민국 (South Korea) Suisse (Switzerland) Suomi (Finland) Sverige (Sweden) 台灣地區 (Taiwan) ประเทศไทย ( ... Africa Česká republika (Czech Republic) Chile 中国 (China) Colombia Costa Rica Србија (Serbia) Danmark (Denmark) Deutschland ( ...
Prince sounds alarm on Moroccan reform, Business day, South Africa, 10.07.01. ,, ... The mobile monarch, Ignace Dalle, The Mail&Guardian, South Africa, 10.07.01. ... "all Africans would be able to enjoy freedom". (SPS). The summit reaffirmed the support of Africa to the cause of the Saharawi ... Western Sahara under Polisario Control: Summary Report of Field Mission to the Sahrawi Refugee Camps (near Tindouf, Algeria), ...
Mr Jose Nascimento, for Friends of Western Sahara, South Africa. Ms Inmaculada González-Carbajal García, for Fundación El ... Ms NG Maluleke, for Waele, South Africa. Mr Theo Fink, for Waiwhetu Lower Hutt Peace Group, New Zealand. Mr John Hilary, for ... Mr Bahia MH Awah, for EIC Poemario Sahara Libre, Western Sahara. Mr Monzer El-Sabini, for Emmaus Björkå, Sweden. Ms Julia Finér ... Mr Erik Hagen, for Western Sahara Resource Watch, Belgium. Ms Né Eme, for A Voz do Sahara, Portugal. Ms Mercedes Garayalde ...
New South Wales - North * New South Wales - Outback * New South Wales - South ... Sand Dunes, Sahara Desert, Algeria, North Africa. Keywords. ripple ripples shadow shadows dune dunes deserts deserted desolate ...
Results of search for su:{Africa South of the Sahara.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Structurally adjusted Africa : poverty, debt and basic needs / edited by David Simon ... [et al.] by Simon, David. ... Structural adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa / editors, Laetitia van Drunen and Fred van der Kraaij. by Drunen, Laetitia van , ... Family planning programs in Sub-Saharan Africa : case studies from Ghana, Rwanda, and the Sudan / Regina McNamara...[et al.] by ...
Much of Sub-Sahara Africa too.. Just more European Countrys involved.. Sub-Sahara Africa :). Do you mean Sudan, South Sudan, ... Much of Sub-Sahara Africa too.. Just more European Countrys involved.. Sub-Sahara Africa :). Do you mean Sudan, South Sudan, ... The Country of South Africa is an anomaly. Yes it is a European Boarder. But, with ALL its problems. May possibly be successful ... Should have been basically West, Central, and Southern Africa.. East African Countrys Changing of Boarders, are the normal ...
Africa South of the Sahara 2010. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 38-43.. by: Birikorang, E.. ... The African Union Peace and Security Architecture: Building a Viable Continental Conflict Prevention and Peacekeeping System. ...
  • MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara). (wikipedia.org)
  • MINURSO's mission was to monitor the cease-fire and to organize and conduct a referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, which would enable the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was intended to constitute a Sahrawi exercise of self-determination, and thus complete Western Sahara's still-unfinished process of decolonization (Western Sahara is the last major territory remaining on the UN's list of non-decolonized territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part of Western Sahara (80% of the territory). (wikipedia.org)
  • A provision decrying human rights abuses by Morocco in Western Sahara had the backing of 14 members of the Security Council, but was deleted due to French objections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty years after its people were promised freedom by departing Spanish rulers, the Western Sahara remains Africa's last colony. (filmsforaction.org)
  • The summit reaffirmed the support of Africa to the cause of the Saharawi people and reiterated the validity of the UN peace plan for Western Sahara as well as the necessity of holding a referendum of self-determination of the Saharawi people. (arso.org)
  • Even with unequal strength, we will continue our struggle with the help of all those who are convinced of the justice of the Saharawi cause", concluded one of the founders of the Observatory for the referendum in Western Sahara founded in 1998 in the French National Assembly. (arso.org)
  • Photo: Saharawis have been protesting against the oil industry in Western Sahara for months on end. (wsrw.org)
  • We, the undersigned organizations, urge the UN Security Council to immediately condemn Morocco's current oil development program in Western Sahara, and to call on Morocco to follow through on its commitment under the 1988 settlement plan to allow the organization of a referendum in Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • A UN Legal Opinion of January 2002, delivered at the request of the Security Council, concluded that oil exploration or exploitation in the Non-Self Governing Territory of Western Sahara is in violation of international law if not in accordance with the wishes and the interests of the people of the territory. (wsrw.org)
  • The US oil firm Kosmos Energy Ltd in collaboration with Scottish firm Cairn Energy Plc has finished the first ever test-well drilling in the territorial waters of Western Sahara in February this year. (wsrw.org)
  • All involved companies have teamed up with the Moroccan government's state owned oil company ONHYM outside of Morocco's internationally recognized borders - in Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • No government in the world recognizes Morocco's self-proclaimed sovereignty over Western Sahara, and the International Court of Justice has stated that Morocco's claims to the territory are unfounded. (wsrw.org)
  • The oil companies' activities in Western Sahara through a deal with the Moroccan government will give Morocco even less incentive to engage in peace talks and fulfill its duties under international law. (wsrw.org)
  • Neither Morocco, nor the oil companies involved in the exploration work in Western Sahara, have the right to override the Saharawi people's right to self-determination. (wsrw.org)
  • In 2010, the Dutch company Fugro promised to never again undertake operations in occupied Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • WSRW asks UN Member States to raise the rights of the people of Western Sahara, for whom Spain continues to bear responsibility. (wsrw.org)
  • A Japanese-Canadian vessel that transported conflict phosphate from occupied Western Sahara was yesterday received by a floating protest in New Zealand. (wsrw.org)
  • For the second time in less than two months' time, the very same oil tanker has made the direct voyage from occupied Western Sahara to the port of Rotterdam. (wsrw.org)
  • The bay of Mogán at Gran Canary Island will next week be covered in conflict sand from occupied Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • Ravensdown is "risking potentially disruptive direct action by refusing to allow port workers to register their protest at the importing of Blood Phosphate from the Western Sahara", says the New Zealand Rail and Maritime Transport Union. (wsrw.org)
  • The former Legal Counsel to the UN Security Counsel, Mr. Hans Corell, comments on the EU's fisheries activities in Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • Turkey has become the leading importer of fishmeal from occupied Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • The UK company GeoEx is now trying to sell the seismic data it collected of the seafloor of occupied Western Sahara. (wsrw.org)
  • Fish oil from occupied Western Sahara imported into the Netherlands? (wsrw.org)
  • WSRW has reason to assume that a shipment of fish oil from occupied Western Sahara was discharged this afternoon in the Netherlands. (wsrw.org)
  • Lonely Planet's South Africa, Lesotho & Eswatini is your passport to the most up-to-date advice on what to see and skip, and what hidden discoveries await you. (lonelyplanet.com)
  • The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question. (hindawi.com)
  • The Security Situation in West Africa. (kaiptc.org)
  • ECOWAS, West Africa and the Responsibility to Protect. (kaiptc.org)
  • South Sudan is making major strides in peace consolidation and strengthening social cohesion since the signing of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) on 12 September 2018 in Addis Ababa. (ciaonet.org)
  • Conversely, most agree that continuing political violence undermines any effort to build strong democratic institutions in Libya or South Sudan. (ciaonet.org)
  • I just got started writing my article on Juba, capital city of South Sudan. (wizzley.com)
  • To my chagrin, South Sudan is not listed on the country list. (wizzley.com)
  • South Sudan has been an independent country since July 2011 and I cannot list it as Sudan as that would be an insult to the brave people of South Sudan. (wizzley.com)
  • Can you please add South Sudan to the list? (wizzley.com)
  • South Sudan [your title]. (wizzley.com)
  • As malaria of central Sudan characterized by highly committee and the ethics committee transmission in Africa is characterized seasonal malaria transmission. (who.int)
  • It occurs in India, Africa (particularly the Sudan and Kenya), Central Asia, the area around the Mediterranean, South and Central America, and rarely China. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Central and upper South America. (angelfire.com)
  • The dust can travel around the globe to parts of Europe, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness, is a vector-borne disease that affects millions of people in Africa, the Middle East, and South and Central America. (medscape.com)
  • Advances in prevention and treatment have decreased the prevalence of this disease in localized areas of Africa and Latin America. (medscape.com)
  • The River Blindness Elimination Program, created by The Carter Center, works in Latin America and Africa to eliminate river blindness. (medscape.com)
  • Although Angola, Botswana, Gabon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa are the focus countries of this survey, many of the scenarios presented in this paper are applicable to other African countries south of the Sahara. (tips.org.za)
  • Most cases are found in Africa, south of the Sahara, in a wide zone that lies along the fifteenth parallel from Senegal to Ethiopia. (medscape.com)
  • After over two hours of debate on the admission of Morocco to the African Union, the Council of Ministers decided that its membership should be made with respect for current procedures, by lodging an application to that effect. (arso.org)
  • The main objective of this study was to quantify the impacts of climate change on hydropower resources in East Africa thereby providing a basis for integrating the impact of Climate Change in hydropower development in the region. (eldis.org)
  • It not only provides the headwaters of the White Nile but is also central to the development and regional integration of the East Africa Community. (eldis.org)
  • Bronze, Silver and Gold winners will be announced for the Middle East & Africa region, then all regional Gold winners will automatically progress to compete with each other for the Global Grands Prix, announced during Cannes Lions week. (warc.com)
  • Patient interviews were con- ine-pyrimethamine (SP)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum ducted or medical charts were reviewed for potential risk malaria were identified in tourists visiting East Africa in the factors for infection and drug resistance by using a standard- late 1970s and early 1980s, which suggests that travelers may ized data extraction form. (cdc.gov)
  • An extensive area of the Sahara desert is in Algeria. (globopix.net)
  • The Council of Ministers rejected a proposal from Algeria, asking that future Africa-Europe summits should become meetings of the OAU and Europe. (arso.org)
  • South Africa's landscapes are made up of valleys, mountains, forests, deserts, coastlines, and grassy savannahs that are breath-taking in their picturesque scale. (flairng.com)
  • South Africa generates two-thirds of Africa's electricity. (flairng.com)
  • Cape Town, South Africa's second-largest city, ranks among the most beautiful in the world. (flairng.com)
  • South Africa's Garden Route spans several hundred kilometers and is one of the country's biggest tourism attractions. (wizzley.com)
  • Discussion Document 14 South Africa's cities face multiple, overlap. (econrsa.org)
  • Indigenous Conflict Resolution in Africa: The Case of Ghana and Botswana. (kaiptc.org)
  • President Buhari emphasised on people-to-people relations between South Africa and Nigeria. (saharareporters.com)
  • At the opening of the 10th Session of Nigeria-South Africa Bi-National Commission (BNC) held in his office, President Buhari emphasised on people-to-people relations between South Africa and Nigeria. (saharareporters.com)
  • Buhari further said Nigeria was committed to improving a "special relationship'' with South Africa, which would translate into gains for the continent, particularly in education, science, trade and investment, tourism and security. (saharareporters.com)
  • Buhari further told ministers and government delegates of both countries that the strong bond of brotherhood between Nigeria and South Africa would be of great benefit to Africa as a catalyst for economic, technological, social and cultural development and as a force for peace and security on the continent. (saharareporters.com)
  • Similarly, our two countries have established high-level official communication channels for diplomatic consultations, trade and investment, and will, shortly, inaugurate the Nigeria - South Africa Youth Dialogue. (saharareporters.com)
  • Junior, a 23 year old gay-identified immigrant from the Democratic Republic of the Congo living Cape Town, offers a different take on the perceived freedoms of the 'new' South Africa. (africasacountry.com)
  • According to him, this will evolve a bond that will be of benefit to both countries and the entire African continent, a statement from Femi Adesina, the presidential media aide noted. (saharareporters.com)
  • South Africa, the southernmost country on the African continent, renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity, all of which have made the country a favoured destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid (Afrikaans: "apartness," or racial separation) in 1994. (flairng.com)
  • First, the article begins with a depiction of Africa as monolithic and homophobic-only to then present South Africa as the great hope for gays and lesbians in the homogeneously -rendered continent. (africasacountry.com)
  • Taken as a large bloc, yes, there is certainly a troubling history of institutional homophobia throughout much of the continent, but to posit that Africa (as a magical unit) is the singularly worst place to be gay is dangerously totalizing. (africasacountry.com)
  • Finally, the opening statement situates Africa as uniquely homophobic and particularly awful-thereby falling neatly into contemporary Western discourse on the continent. (africasacountry.com)
  • Frederick Chiluba, President of Zambia and new President taking office of the OAU, declared in his opening speech : "For nearly four decades, since 1963, the African continent has been liberated, with the exception of SADR. (arso.org)
  • The OAU reaffirmed once again that SADR is in the OAU completely legally, which does not close the door to any other state of the continent wishing to join the African Union, on condition that this is done within the rules currently in force. (arso.org)
  • The Sahara desert is the largest desert of our planet with a surface of 8 millions of kmq. (globopix.net)
  • Saharan dust is a type of particulate matter (PM) that originates in the Sahara Desert in Northern Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Saharan dust comes from the Sahara Desert in Northern Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • The most deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lived in most of Africa south of Sahara and Egypt. (angelfire.com)
  • The African Union Peace and Security Architecture: Building a Viable Continental Conflict Prevention and Peacekeeping System. (kaiptc.org)
  • This eBook introduces readers to the geography of Africa south of the Sahara, covering the culture region as a whole rather than individual countries. (infobasepublishing.com)
  • This paper describes the status of financial systems for a number of African countries south of the Sahara, identifying various problems that hinder access to finance, especially for the poor, and subsequently those issues that deter economic performance and development. (tips.org.za)
  • Section two discusses the nature of financial intermediation in Sub-Saharan countries, while section three presents the financial intermediation challenges that these and other African countries face, in both macro and micro terms. (tips.org.za)
  • One of the top countries to visit in Africa, South Africa is full of adventure, history, wildlife and great food. (flairng.com)
  • In the framework of the WorldPop Project, through the assembly of over 100 million records across 6,389 subnational administrative units, subnational dependency ratio and high resolution gridded age/sex group datasets were produced for 87 countries in Africa and Asia. (nature.com)
  • The BBC article continues by quoting International Lesbian and Gay Tourism Association (ILGTA) spokesman Eugene Brockman as saying, "We are also attracting gays from all over Africa itself and for those forced to stay in the closet in their home countries, South Africa is liberating. (africasacountry.com)
  • In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). (nih.gov)
  • Using a two-step system generalized method of moment (GMM) technique and a panel data for 43 sub-Sahara African countries from 1998 to 2012, this article examines the drivers of energy intensity. (econrsa.org)
  • the program successfully eliminated onchocerciasis as a public health problem in 10 of the 11 African countries involved. (medscape.com)
  • The article itself went on to report at length from gay South African hoteliers and organizers, many of whom lavished praise on the progressivism enshrined in the country's constitution, and the comparative sense of freedom that South Africa in general (and Cape Town in particular) provided for LGBT-identified people. (africasacountry.com)
  • East African Country's Changing of Boarders, are the normal changes, over the Millennium's, due to Wars and Conquests. (berkeley.edu)
  • Dry deposition from Sahara sources regions of western Africa containing compounds such as sulphate, nitrate, or radioactive substances has been studied worldwide over the last 30 years, and there remains a discrepancy between both measurement results and model predictions. (hindawi.com)
  • Get to the heart of South Africa, Lesotho & Eswatini and begin your journey now! (lonelyplanet.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Africa South of the Sahara. (who.int)
  • Why do tourists love South Africa? (flairng.com)
  • Is South Africa safe for white tourists? (flairng.com)
  • With 3.5 million tourists visiting the country each year, South Africa is widely considered one of the easiest and "safest" third-world destinations to get to and explore. (flairng.com)
  • Adventure, food and wildlife like no other await you in the varied landscapes of South Africa. (flairng.com)
  • Which African country has most Chinese? (flairng.com)
  • Why is South Africa the best country to tour? (flairng.com)
  • The problem is that, despite Brockman (and the BBC)'s assertions of a 'liberating South Africa,' such opportunities are certainly not equally available to men and women within the country. (africasacountry.com)
  • The ambassador of Mauritania in Spain indicated that his country was in favour of peace in the Sahara and of a solution which the two parties would accept within the framework of UN decisions. (arso.org)
  • The Country of South Africa is an anomaly. (berkeley.edu)
  • It will promote African publishing by encouraging writers to publish in their country or regional journals. (who.int)
  • The representative of South Africa commented on this again, and regretted the fact that the resolution "considered" rather than "welcomed" the report on the situation by the Secretary-General-"presumably because [it] dared to raise the issue of the human rights violations against the Saharawi people", and quoted the warning in the report about there being no mandate to address the issue of human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • What attracts South African people? (flairng.com)
  • Schistosomiasis affects around 260 million people worldwide with more than 90% of cases living in Africa. (who.int)
  • Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. (hindawi.com)
  • The representative of South Africa took exception to the way that one proposal was held more worthy than the other as well as the lack of participation outside the Group of Friends in the drafting of the resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the organizers, the South African freedom fighters, Andrew Mlangeni, will take part in a roundtable with others include the Saharawi human rights defender, Mohammed Daddach. (igd.org.za)
  • But, once you arrive, it tends to be very affordable, due to the weakness of the South African Rand. (flairng.com)
  • The Organization (WHO) recommen- prevention measures especially in pe- results were examined with respect to dations [9], susceptibility tests were riurban ecosystems in the main cities potential pressure of insecticide usage conducted on F1 generations of larvae of Africa [1]. (who.int)