A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The status of health in rural populations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Sexual activities of humans.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The status of health in urban populations.
Size and composition of the family.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa. (1/263)

The nucleotide sequences of the 3' end of the capsid-coding region were determined for 30 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East. These sequences were compared with the previously published sequences of 9 field virus isolates from the Middle East and 5 vaccine virus strains, 3 of which originated from the Middle East (O1/Turkey/Manisa/69, O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72 and O1/Israel/2/85) and 2 from Europe (O1/Lausanne/Switzerland/65 and O2/Brescia/Italy/47). Cluster analysis of these sequences using the unweighted pair group mean average (UPGMA) method showed: (i) that the FMD viruses isolated from North Africa and the Middle East were very different from the classical European vaccine strains; (ii) that all the viruses isolated during the 1989-92 North African epidemic formed a cluster differing by no more than 6% from each other; (iii) a virus isolated in Libya in 1988 was unrelated to the aforementioned epidemic; and (iv) viruses from a second, less extensive epidemic, occurring in 1994, fell into yet another cluster.  (+info)

Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population. (2/263)

The contribution of malaria to morbidity and mortality among people in Africa has been a subject of academic interest, political advocacy, and speculation. National statistics for much of sub-Saharan Africa have proved to be an unreliable source of disease-specific morbidity and mortality data. Credible estimates of disease-specific burdens are required for setting global and national priorities for health in order to rationalize the use of limited resources and lobby for financial support. We have taken an empirical approach to defining the limits of Plasmodium falciparum transmission across the continent and interpolated the distributions of projected populations in 1995. By combining a review of the literature on malaria in Africa and models of acquired functional immunity, we have estimated the age-structured rates of the fatal, morbid and disabling sequelae following exposure to malaria infection under different epidemiological conditions.  (+info)

Deaths within 90 days from starting renal replacement therapy in the ERA-EDTA Registry between 1990 and 1992. (3/263)

BACKGROUND: Patients who die within 90 days of commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) may be recorded by some centres and not others, and hence data on mortality and survival may not be comparable. However, it is essential to compare like with like when analysing differences between modalities, centres and registries. It was decided, therefore, to look at the incidence of deaths within 90 days in the ERA-EDTA Registry, and to try to define the characteristics of this group of patients. METHODS: Between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1992, 78 534 new patients started RRT in 28 countries affiliated to the ERA-EDTA Registry. Their mean age was 54 years and 31% were over 65 years old. Eighty-two per cent of the patients received haemodialysis (HD), 16% peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 2% had preemptive transplantation as first mode of treatment. RESULTS: From January 1990 to March 1993 the overall incidence of deaths was 19% and 4% of all patients died within 90 days from the start of RRT. Among those dying within 90 days 59% were over 65 years compared to 53% over 65 years in those dying beyond this time (P<0.0001). The modality of RRT did not influence the distribution of deaths before and after 90 days. Vascular causes and malignancy were more common in those dying after 90 days, while there were more cardiac and social causes among the early deaths. Mortality from social causes was twice as common in the elderly, who had a significantly higher chance of dying from social causes within 90 days compared to those aged under 65 years. The overall incidence of deaths within 90 days was 3.9% but there was a wide variation between countries, from 1.8% to 11.4%. Finally, patient survival at 2 years was markedly influenced in different age groups when deaths within 90 days were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of deaths within 90 days from the start of RRT was 3.9%, with a marked variation between countries ranging from 1.8% to 11.4%, which probably reflects mainly differences in reporting these deaths, although variable selection criteria for RRT may contribute. Deaths within 90 days were significantly more frequent in elderly patients with more early deaths resulting from cardiac and social causes, while vascular causes of death and malignancy were more common in those dying after 90 days. Patient survival analyses should take into account deaths within 90 days from the start of RRT, particularly when comparing results between modalities, countries and registries.  (+info)

Variation in short tandem repeats is deeply structured by genetic background on the human Y chromosome. (4/263)

Eleven biallelic polymorphisms and seven short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci mapping on the nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome have been typed in men from northwestern Africa. Analysis of the biallelic markers, which represent probable unique events in human evolution, allowed us to characterize the stable backgrounds or haplogroups of Y chromosomes that prevail in this geographic region. Variation in the more rapidly mutating genetic markers (STRs) has been used both to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for STR variability within these stable backgrounds and to explore whether STR differentiation among haplogroups still retains information about their phylogeny. When analysis of molecular variance was used to study the apportionment of STR variation among both genetic backgrounds (i.e., those defined by haplogroups) and population backgrounds, we found STR variability to be clearly structured by haplogroups. More than 80% of the genetic variance was found among haplogroups, whereas only 3.72% of the genetic variation could be attributed to differences among populations-that is, genetic variability appears to be much more structured by lineage than by population. This was confirmed when two population samples from the Iberian Peninsula were added to the analysis. The deep structure of the genetic variation in old genealogical units (haplogroups) challenges a population-based perspective in the comprehension of human genome diversity. A population may be better understood as an association of lineages from a deep and population-independent gene genealogy, rather than as a complete evolutionary unit.  (+info)

Mortality differentials among Israeli men. (5/263)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined differentials in mortality among adult Israeli men with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and several measures of social status. METHODS: Data were based on a linkage of records from a 20% sample of the 1983 census to records of deaths occurring before the end of 1992. The study population included 72,527 men, and the number of deaths was 17,378. RESULTS: Differentials is mortality by origin show that mortality was higher among individuals of North African origin than among those of Asian and European origin. After allowance for several socioeconomic indicators, the excess mortality among North African Jews was eliminated. Substantial and consistent differences in mortality were found according to education, occupation, income, possession of a car, housing, and household amenities. Differentials among the elderly were markedly narrower than those among men younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, these who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin.  (+info)

Frequent association between alteration of the rdxA gene and metronidazole resistance in French and North African isolates of Helicobacter pylori. (6/263)

Mutations in the rdxA gene have been associated with the acquisition of resistance to metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori. This gene encodes an NADPH nitroreductase whose expression is necessary for intracellular activation of the drug. We wished to examine whether mutations in rdxA were present in resistant H. pylori isolates infecting either French or North African patients. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the rdxA genes from seven French and six North African patients infected with paired resistant and sensitive strains. Genotyping by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the close genetic relatedness of the susceptible and resistant isolates from individual biopsies. Eight French and five North African individual resistant strains were also studied. For the French strains, an alteration in rdxA most probably implicated in resistance was found in 10 cases (seven frameshift mutations, two missense mutations, and one deletion of 211 bp). One to three putative missense mutations were identified in four cases, and a missense mutation possibly not implicated in resistance was discovered in the last case. For the North African strains, an alteration in rdxA was found in eight cases (three frameshift mutations, three missense mutations, one deletion of 6 bp, and one insertion of a variant of IS605). Two strains contained putative missense mutations, and no change was observed in rdxA of the last strain. Thus, inactivation of the rdxA gene is frequently, but not always, associated with resistance to metronidazole in French and North African clinical isolates of H. pylori. In addition, a variety of alterations of rdxA are associated with the resistant phenotype.  (+info)

The development of a continuous quality control programme for strict sperm morphology among sub-Saharan African laboratories. (7/263)

Inter-technician and between-laboratory differences, especially during the evaluation of sperm morphology, have been a major cause of concern. The study aimed to develop an intensive training programme with intervals of continuous quality control assessments for sperm morphology. Twenty andrology laboratories from sub-Saharan Africa were invited to participate in a World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction semenology workshop. Following intensive training in strict sperm morphololgy evaluation, a continuous quality control programme was introduced on a quarterly basis. At baseline, the mean (+/- SD) percentage difference reported between the participants and the reference laboratory reading was 33.50 +/- 11%. After training, the mean percentage difference had decreased to 14.32 +/- 5% at 3 months and to 5.00 +/- 5% at 6 months. Pairwise comparison of the differences at each evaluation time revealed the following: Baseline differences (pre-training) differed significantly from the differences at 3 months (P = 0.0002) as well as at 6 months after training (P = 0.007). The differences at 6 months did not differ significantly from those at 3 months (P = 0.27). Training of andrology technicians as well as continuous proficiency testing can be conducted on a national and international level with the support of a referring laboratory. Global quality control measurements in andrology laboratories should become mandatory, since these results indicate that continuous quality control for laboratory technicians can be highly successful.  (+info)

Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis. (8/263)

We have analysed a large set of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in several Arabic and Berber-speaking groups from north-west Africa (ie Moroccan Arabs, northern-central and southern Moroccan Berbers, Saharawis, and Mozabites). Two levels of analysis have been devised using two sets of 12STR loci, (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, THO1, TPOX, CSF1PO, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820) and 21 (the former set plus D9S926, D11S2010, D13S767, D14S306, D18S848, D2S1328, D4S243, F13A1, and FES/FPS). For each set, data for a number of external reference populations were gathered from the literature. Several methods of analysis based on genetic distances (neighbour-joining trees, principal coordinate analysis, boundary detection), as well as AMOVA, showed that genetic differentiation among NW African populations was very low and devoid of any spatial pattern. When the NW African populations were grouped according to cultural or linguistic differences, the partition was not associated with genetic differentiation. Thus, it is likely that Arabisation was mainly a cultural process. A clear genetic difference was found between NW African populations and Iberians, which underscores the Gilbraltar Straits as a strong barrier to genetic exchange; nonetheless, some degree of gene flow into Southern Iberia may have existed. NW Africans were genetically closer to Iberians and to other Europeans than to African Americans.  (+info)

But the lists existence is no secret anymore, nor is the ambition of many in the administration to see it greatly expanded, with designs on setting the goal of killing a number of Islamist militants across Northern Africa and then creating the US military and/or CIA infrastructure to start getting those killings done.. The man to get this escalation done is Mokhtar Belmokhtar, the Algerian militant behind last months hostage siege at a BP gas plant along the Libyan border. His addition would set a precedent that would mean a precipitous increase in US ambitions across northern Africa.. Belmokhtar is not believed to be on the list yet because theres simply no one to kill him. The CIAs drone campaign is restricted to Yemen and Pakistan, and the Pentagon isnt occupying Algeria.. This means getting him on the list, on the surface something most officials will feel is non-controversial, will mean putting something in Northern Africa to kill him. A drone base for the CIA is a possibility, and ...
Dust still lingered over northern Africa on February 24, 2006, a day after a massive dust storm swept over Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard the Aqua satellite captured this image on February 24.. In this image, a cloud of dust several hundred kilometers across extends from Libya and Egypt over the Mediterranean Sea. Faint tendrils of dust reach as far to the east as Israel. Although the dust hides many land features in northern Africa, the lush, green Nile Delta still stands out from its surroundings.. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. ...
City Navigator Middle East & Northern Africa NT 2015.20 Coverage may vary, the above is a previous release picture Provides more than 960,000 km (596,700 mi) of road coverage. Displays more than 1
In Northern Africa, UCSF researchers are involved with testing hepatitis C treatment. The Global Health Group (GHG) works on malaria elimination in Algeria. Steven Deeks international HIV trials network (INSIGHT) works collaboratively with researchers in Morocco.. ...
Looking for Sahara Desert? Find out information about Sahara Desert. worlds largest desert, c.3,500,000 sq mi , N Africa; the western part of a great arid zone that continues into SW Asia. Extending more than 3,000 mi , from... Explanation of Sahara Desert
With the fast pace of our everyday, we cant lose the patients story [asthma history] as a part of the care process. Asthma Insight recognizes the power of voice [data] in the care continuum and helps patients not only capture their story, but connect with everyone on their care team - parents, doctors, nurses, caretakers, and anyone they feel is important to their care journey. Asthma Insight empowers this connection between patients & care teams through information exchange. Identifying triggers is a very personal process [outside of allergy testing alone] and Asthma Insight acts as a personal repository for symptom tracking that will be important in augmenting care planning - while also maintaining connectivity and sharing information with vital care stakeholders. ...
The 374F mutation in the SLC45A2 gene encoding the membrane associated transporter protein (MATP) has been suggested to be associated with skin color in Caucasians. In this synthesis, we collected the distribution of the 374F allele in 2910 unrelated subjects from 28 European and 4 North African populations. The highest allele frequency was observed in Denmark (0.98) and the lowest frequencies were observed in Tunisia (0.61) and in Algerian Mozabites (0.40). A significant decreasing latitudinal cline in 374F allele frequencies was observed, ranging from the north of West Europe to North Africa (R² = 0.6781). Key words: Human skin pigmentation, SLC45A2 gene, 374F mutation, membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), population study, gradient of allele frequencies, West Europe and North Africa.
There is concern among many observers that U.S. efforts to help build Afghan governance, democracy, civil society, and rule of law will founder as the United States and its partners seek to wind down their involvement in Afghanistan by the end of 2014. Some argue that the informal power structure, which has always been at least as significant a factor in governance as the formal power structure, will sustain governance beyond 2014 if formal governing structures falter. Others say greater reliance on the informal power structure will invite even more corruption and arbitrary administration of justice than is the case now. Karzai has turned the informal power structure to his advantage by relying on the loyalty of several close, ethnic Pashtun allies, while both engaging and dividing the minority ethnic and political faction leaders that generally oppose him. However, several powerful non-Pashtun faction leaders oppose Karzais willingness to make concessions to insurgent leaders in search of a ...
The ten tribes of Israel, after they were left to follow the dictates of their own mind, and during the commotion and destructive warfare which ensued, to escape utter extermination, migrated, according to the usage of the times, in vast numbers into various countries, but principally into Northern Africa, as it then presented the safest and easiest route. Once settled, every commotion and intestine war had the most powerful effect of inducing these migratory bands to shift their abode still further, and so lose all connextion with the other branch of the tribe. As hundreds of years pass on, and generation after generation roll away, they lose a great many of their habits and customs, becoming more amalgamated with the population with which they associate. But when Mohammedanism overspread Northern Africa, destroying by fire and sword all those of another religion, the Israelitish descendants, or the inhabitants occupying the central portion of Africa, passed foward, seeking shelter to the south ...
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Cotton: Gossypium spp.( Magnoliophyta, Magnoliopsida, Malvales, Malvaceae). Origin: Arab merchants brought cotton cloth to Europe about 800 A.D.. Service: Provides us with thin material to make clothes. Largely self pollinated.. Sheep: Ovis aries (Chordata, Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Origin: the sheep is supposed to have been domesticated in the Neolithic period about 10,000 years ago in Asia.. Service: Provide merino wool for carpets in our house, lining in cars and for human clothing. Curdled milk is used to make organic paint.. Rye grass: Lolium perenne (Angiosperm, Poales, Poaceae). Origin: domesticated from Eurasia and northern Africa. Service: Provides food for cows and sheep.. White clover: Trifolium repens, (Angiosperm, Fabales, Fabaceae). Origin: domesticated from Eurasia and northern Africa. Service: fertilised the rye grass and fed the cow and sheep.. Honeybee: Apis mellifera, (Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae). Origin: Europe. Service: pollinates the clover. Nitrogen ...
British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia throughout Europe to the Canary Islands and Northern Africa, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Korea, Japan, Canada, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York and New England. Winters in Mexico, Gulf coast, Florida, Cuba, northern Africa and southern Asia ...
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This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species ...
Background Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs), we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula) and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈17% in Canary Islanders, whereas
Ancient Origins articles related to Trans-Saharan gold trade in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. (Page 1 of tag Trans-Saharan gold trade)
The androgen receptor (AR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for several cancers (breast, prostate, uterine endometrium, colon, and esophagus). Ethnicity is considered an associated risk factor for some of these cancers. Several case-control genetic studies have been focused in samples of the main ethnic groups, but little is known about the distribution of risk polymorphisms in current populations with accurate ethnic and/or geographic origins. The A allele of the G1733A polymorphism of the AR gene has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We provide data from this marker in 12 samples from 7 Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Italy (Sardinia), Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt. A sample from Ivory Coast has also been analyzed. The A allele distribution shows a frequency in the Ivory Coast population (65.17%) that contrasts with the low values found in Northern Mediterraneans (mean average value of 13.98%). North African populations present two-times higher ...
Are you heading to Morocco and planning to go overnight camping in the Sahara? Here is my Sahara Desert packing list to help you for your trip!
Every day, millions of microorganisms reach Spain from the Sahara Desert and the Sahel region -- by flying. Louis Pasteur demonstrated back in 1861 that germs can move through the air, but it was only recently discovered that bacteria, fungi and viruses can travel thousands of kilometers stuck onto dust particles. Satellite images show clouds that come close to the size of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Court of Justice of the European Union has just recognized that agricultural or fishery products invoiced in Western Sahara cannot be considered as Moroccan products, because Western Sahara is not part of Morocco.
Impossible as it might seem, there are many such groups, all of them tribal nomads on the fringes of the Sahara desert. Take the Beja, who live in the Sudan between the Nile and the Red Sea. As recently as 5,000 years ago, northern Africa had a much wetter climate. When the rains dried up, so did the land, leading to a spread of the desert into traditional nomadic pastoral lands. Agriculture became impossible in this desert setting. Only animals could eat the few plants that naturally grew and no other food sources were available (condition 3). Yet the Beja survive as long as their animals do. During the dry season that may last as long as nine months they live almost entirely on the milk of their camels and goats, up to 3 quarts per adult per day (condition 1). Milk processing and storage in forms that are low in lactose is impossible given the desert temperatures and the nomadic Beja lifestyle. All the milk must be drunk fresh (condition 2). As the Beja clearly satisfy all three conditions, ...
Aminatou Haidar, who is 42 and has two children, was detained at Laayoune airport, Western Sahara on 13 November when she returned from a month-long trip, to countries including the USA, where she accepted the 2009 Civil Courage Prize, which is awarded every year for steadfast resistance to evil at great personal risk. She was questioned about why she had given her home as Western Sahara rather than Moroccan Sahara on her landing card; she was also asked about her travel, as well as her political opinions and affiliations. Her Moroccan passport and identity card were then confiscated and she was detained in the airport overnight. She said that on 14 November officials offered to release her in return for a public acknowledgement of Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. She refused to do so, and a few hours later she was put on a flight to Lanzarote, in the Canary Islands.. Aminatou Haidar has been on hunger strike since 15 November in protest. According to her family, she has grown ...
Recent scientific literature has highlighted the relevance of population genetic studies both for disease association mapping in admixed populations and for understanding the history of human migrations. Deeper insight into the history of the Italian population is critical for understanding the peopling of Europe. Because of its crucial position at the centre of the Mediterranean basin, the Italian peninsula has experienced a complex history of colonization and migration whose genetic signatures are still present in contemporary Italians. In this study, we investigated genomic variation in the Italian population using 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of more than 300 unrelated Italian subjects with well-defined geographical origins. We combined several analytical approaches to interpret genome-wide data on 1272 individuals from European, Middle Eastern, and North African populations. We detected three major ancestral components contributing different proportions across the ...
Celiac disease (CD) is an intolerance to dietary proteins of wheat, barley, and rye. CD may have substantial morbidity, yet it is quite common with a prevalence of 1%-2% in Western populations. It is not clear why the CD phenotype is so prevalent despite its negative effects on human health, especially because appropriate treatment in the form of a gluten-free diet has only been available since the 1950s, when dietary gluten was discovered to be the triggering factor. The high prevalence of CD might suggest that genes underlying this disease may have been favored by the process of natural selection. We assessed signatures of selection for ten confirmed CD-associated loci in several genome-wide data sets, comprising 8154 controls from four European populations and 195 individuals from a North African population, by studying haplotype lengths via the integrated haplotype score (iHS) method. Consistent signs of positive selection for CD-associated derived alleles were observed in three loci: IL12A, ...
DAKAR, Senegal (AP) - More than 80 African migrants have been rescued after being found in a remote stretch of the Sahara Desert where hundreds of others have died along the perilous journey in recent years, the International Organization for Migration said Tuesday. The 41 females from Nigeria, including twin 4-year-old girls, and 42 males […]
Find great deals on Camel driver in the Sahara desert, near Douz, Kebili, Tunisia Photographic Print by Godong at AllPosters.com, with free shipping on orders $23+, free returns, and our low price guarantee.
Pre-Existing Slave Trade Trans-Saharan trade routes (Red Sea and East African) had been trading slaves for centuries throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa Mostly women: traded as concubines for harems; domestic servants Some men: soldiers, field workers (salt production and gold mines), caravan laborers Europeans tapped into existing routes and supplies of slaves. Used this to justify their own enslavement of Africans in New World Mid 1400s: Europeans begin to utilize slaves in Europe as household servants Other forms of servitude used by Europeans: Indentured servitude: Required to work for a master for
The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C3 vs. C4 vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C3 plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C3 vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (≈50-45 ka) and MIS 5 (≈120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross ...
In 1990, Africas forests covered almost 750,000 mn hectares, representing 23 per cent of total land area on the continent. Twenty years later, they covered less than 675,000 mn hectares. Yet, says State of the Worlds Forests 2011, a report of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there is good news: the loss of the continents forest cover is slowing. Between 1990 and 2000, the UN report notes, 40 mn hectares of forest were destroyed. During the last decade, that number went down to 34 mn hectares.. Two main reasons account for the reduction, the report explains. First are efforts by North African countries to preserve their forests. Net losses in this region dropped to 41,000 hectares per year, from a previously recorded 590,000 hectares per year. Recent efforts by Sudan to gather data about the state of its forest is the second reason. Figures for 2000-2010 proved significantly lower than earlier estimates for the preceding decade. Also, North African countries and Sudan lead the ...
מזרח‎ Mizraḥ, Hebrew for east. In the past the word Mizrahim, corresponding to the Arabic word Mashriqiyyun (Arabic مشريقيون or Easterners), referred to the natives of Iraq and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghribiyyun). In medieval and early modern times, the corresponding Hebrew word maarav was used for North Africa. In Talmudic and Geonic times, however, this word maarav referred to the land of Israel, as contrasted with Babylonia. For this reason, many object to the use of Mizrahi to include Moroccan and other North African Jews. The term Mizrahim or Edot Hamizraḥ, Oriental communities, grew in Israel under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of Jewish immigrants from Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, followers of Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Temani (Yemenite) rites. In modern Israeli usage, it refers to all Jews from Central and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority ...
The Sahara desert is one of the harshest, most inhospitable places on the planet, covering much of North Africa in some 3.6 million square miles of rock and windswept dunes. But it wasnt always so desolate and parched. Primitive rock paintings and fossils excavated from the region suggest that the Sahara was once a relatively verdant oasis, where human settlements and a diversity of plants and animals thrived. Now researchers at MIT have analyzed dust deposited off the coast of west Africa over the the last 240,000 years, and found that the Sahara, and North Africa in general, has swung between wet and dry climates every 20,000 years. They say that this climatic pendulum is mainly driven by changes to the Earths axis as the planet orbits the sun, which in turn affect the distribution of sunlight between seasons - every 20,000 years, the Earth swings from more sunlight in summer to less, and back again.. For North Africa, it is likely that, when the Earth is tilted to receive maximum summer ...
Animal herding, which has been a way of life in northeastern Africa for about 8,000 years, had spread to southern Africa by 2,000 years ago. Whether this pastoral lifestyle was brought south by immigrants or adopted by hunter-gatherers who were already living in the region has long been an open question. In an attempt to find an answer, a multinational team of scientists studied 41 genomes from people who lived in Africa between 4,000 and 300 years ago. The results revealed that pastoralists who migrated from northeastern Africa into eastern Africa around 5,000 years ago had ancient roots in southwestern Asia, northern Africa, or both. At first, they interbred with local foragers, but about 3,300 years ago, once the herding lifestyle had become established, this interbreeding ceased. According to lead researcher Mary Prendergast of Saint Louis University in Madrid, why pastoralists and foragers stopped interbreeding remains unknown. ...
Applying race to a people with ancient roots makes nearly no sense. This is not a social dilemma, it is a scientific and historical one. People identified as tribes, not in skin color. Race is a modern concept that was birthed for the mere purpose of division and an outlet for domination by instilling a sense of innate superiority. It has no place in categorizing indigenous peoples.. Those saying Black North African Imazighen dont exist are not saying dark-skinned North African Imazighen dont exist. The definition of Black being used is to mean Subsaharan descent. From here, it is easy to conclude that one who is native to Subsaharan Africa cannot also be native to the very Northern regions of North Africa. They were a nomadic people, but separate tribes nonetheless. Black North African Imazighen are referred to as Haratin, a people who were the product of enslavement. This mixed lineage is a result of interaction. There is a difference between being tan to the point of passing as a ...
Haplogroup E3b1-M78 is the second most prevailing one (23%) in the studied sample with E3b1-M78 chromosomes accounting for almost all E representatives (98%) except a single E3b2-M81 and two E3b3-M123 chromosomes (fig. 2). E3b1-M78 is the most common haplogroup E lineage in Europe (Cruciani et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004). The spatial pattern shown in figure 4(C) depicts a nonuniform E3b1 geographic distribution with a frequency peak centered in south Europe and SEE (13%-16% in southern Italians and 17%-27% in the Balkans). Declining frequencies are evident toward western (10% in northern and central Italians), central, and eastern Europe (from 4% to 10% in Polish, Russians, mainland Croatians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, Herzegovinians, and Bosnians). Noteworthy is a low E3b1 frequency (5%) in Turkey. Apart from its presence in Europe and the Middle East, E3b1 is also found in eastern and northern Africa. Cruciani et al. (2004) estimated that E3b-M78 might have originated in eastern Africa about ...
The Sorraia is a rare breed of horse indigenous to the portion of the Iberian peninsula, in the Sorraia River basin, in Portugal. The Sorraia is known for its primitive features, including a convex profile and dun coloring with primitive markings. Concerning its origins, a theory has been advanced by some authors that the Sorraia is a descendant of primitive horses belonging to the naturally occurring wild fauna of Southern Iberia. Studies are currently ongoing to discover the relationship between the Sorraia and various wild horse types, as well as its relationship with other breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa. Members of the breed are small, but hardy and well-adapted to harsh conditions. They were occasionally captured and used by native farmers for centuries, and a remnant population of these nearly extinct horses was discovered by a Portuguese zoologist in the early 20th century. Today, the Sorraia has become the focus of preservation efforts, with European scientists ...
Clara Sherwood is an alumna of the 2020 CLS Arabic virtual institute hosted by Arab American Lanugage Institute in Meknes, Morocco. Shes a junior at Washington & Jefferson College majoring in Spanish, international relations, and a thematic major titled Music & Conflict Resolution.. Getting to Know Clara. I grew up in a small town in Western Pennsylvania where I was an avid lacrosse player, life-long member of the swim team, and the vocalist for my high schools jazz band. When I had free time, I enjoyed sailing and learning languages (Spanish and Arabic). Learning languages has helped me to understand the complexities of international politics and different cultures and has helped shape me into a young scholar-activist.. Why Arabic?. I was drawn to learn Arabic because of my interest in the Middle East and Northern Africa, its relevance to American foreign policy, and because it is a beautiful language, both visually and orally. Additionally, I want to help solve refugee and immigration issues ...
The people of Africas vast savanna are united by their strong identity with the sprawling plains that surround them. Originally, these pastoral groups came to the savanna looking for food, scavenging after leftover game killed by large predators. Today, these original hunter-gatherers exist in the form of the Dorobo tribes of the eastern Serengeti, who survive by hunting small game and collecting honey and wild fruits and vegetables. Long ago, the Dorobo were joined by herdsmen and pastoralists from northern Africa. Among these, the Maasai have held the most tenaciously to their wanderlust. These tall, dark skinned herdsmen in striking red cloaks and beadwork have come to symbolize the face of Africas savanna people to the outside world. The Maasai share the plains with the Kikuyu, traditionally a nation of farmers, who now form the backbone of Kenyan society ...
HIV epidemics in people who inject drugs have been on the rise in recent years, including cases in Indiana, USA and Glasgow, UK, raising the question of which measures should be prioritised by authorities - particularly in regions with limited resources, such as the recently affected areas of the Middle East, northern Africa and southeastern Asia.. The research is published in the journal AIDS.. Lead author Tetyana Vasylyeva, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Zoology at Oxford University, said: The HIV epidemic among drug users in Russia and Ukraine following the collapse of the Soviet Union is the biggest of its kind ever recorded. From around only 50 cases per year by 1993, the epidemic grew to several thousand cases in 1994. By the end of the decade, over 1 million people were infected across the two countries - the majority of them drug users.. There was very little in the way of a preventive effort in this epidemic, which makes it a good model to study.. The researchers analysed ...
Colubrine snakes are distributed worldwide, with the highest diversity in North America, Asia, northern Africa, and the Middle East. There are relatively few species of colubrine snakes in Europe, South America, Australia, and southern Africa, and none in Madagascar, the Caribbean, or the Pacific Islands.[2][3][4]. Colubrine snakes are extremely morphologically and ecologically diverse. Many are terrestrial, and there are specialized fossorial (e.g. Tantilla) and arboreal (e.g. Oxybelis) groups, but no truly aquatic groups. Some of the most powerful constrictors (e.g. Pantherophis, Pituophis, Lampropeltis) are members of this group, as are a few snakes that have strong enough venom to kill humans (i.e. boomslangs [Dispholidus] and twigsnakes [Thelotornis]).[5][6]. Within Colubrinae, genera and species seem to make up five distinct radiations[7] that are to varying degrees broadly similar in terms of ecology and geographic distribution, although increased sampling is needed to determine whether ...
Genomic evidence for shared common ancestry of East African hunting-gathering populations and insights into local adaptation (Scheinfeldt, 2019) Abstract: Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa ∼300,000 years ago, but the demographic and adaptive histories of African populations are not well-characterized. Here, we have generated a genome-wide dataset from 840 Africans, residing in western, eastern, southern, and northern Africa, belonging to 50 ethnicities, and speaking languages
Sixth cholera pandemic Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal The sixth cholera pandemic was a major outbreak of cholera from the years 1899 to 1923. It killed more than 800,000 in India then erupted in the Middle East, northern Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe. The last outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York City. Vigilant health authorities isolated the infected on Swinburne Island. Eleven people died, including a health care worker at Swinburne Island. Wave nature Flu pandemics typically come in waves. The 1889-1890 and 1918-1919 flu pandemics each came in three or four waves of increasing lethality. But within a wave, mortality was greater at the beginning of the wave. Variable mortality Mortality varies widely in a pandemic. S. Army camps where reasonably reliable statistics were kept, case mortality often exceeded 5 percent, and in some circumstances exceeded 10 percent. 9 percent. In isolated human ...
Duration: 100 hours. The Need for Conservation is Not New. Conserving the natural resources of the planet earth has been desirable since ancient times. However, throughout history the basic principles of the use of natural resources have been ignored, sometimes with disastrous results. For example: major losses such as the silting of rivers and estuaries, and the flooding of lowlands, have been caused by the destruction of forests and grasslands protecting watersheds. This is apparent mostly in Northern China and in Asia near the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Large areas of Northern Africa and the Middle East have been rendered barren by many centuries of uncontrolled livestock grazing. Lands have been left barren by unwise cultivation and the excessive use of woody plants for fuel that have been cut down and not replanted.. In more recently developed areas of the world, similar damage to the environment has, or is occurring. This is sometimes due to the unwise introduction of species into new ...
Western Saharan nationalist and human rights advocate, is the most prominent figure in the ongoing nonviolent resistance movement in Western Sahara in support of human rights and in opposition to Moroccan occupation of the country. Widely known as the Sahrawi Gandhi, as of the early twenty-first century Haidar serves as president of the Collective of Sahrawi Human Rights Defenders (CODESA). Born in 1966, she currently lives in El Aaiún in occupied Western Sahara and received her baccalaureate degree in modern literature. She is divorced and the mother of two adult sons.. The kingdom of Morocco, which claims Western Sahara as an integral part of its territory, has occupied most of the former Spanish colony since 1975. The Polisario Front, the nationalist movement which had initially battled Spanish colonialist forces, waged a guerilla war against the Moroccan occupation until a cease-fire agreement in 1991 A series of United ... ...
The Summit provided the unique opportunity in bringing together the United Nations and the financial sector from the Middle East and Northern Africa, in order to discuss the positive contributions of the banking system to the international efforts to implement resolution 1540 (2004).. In addressing the Summit, Ms. Angela Kane, High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, conveyed a message from the UN Secretary-General to the Summits participants. The Secretary-General welcomed the Summits focus on weapons of mass destruction, one of the gravest security challenges facing the international community. He stressed that international cooperation in upholding the provisions of resolution 1540 is essential and that the United Nations was mobilizing all stakeholders to join efforts aimed at preventing WMD proliferation and terrorism and would continue to reach out to financial institutions and companies as indispensable partners.. The Summits session on resolution 1540 (2004) was convened by the ...
Read up on the dry body brushing ritual. EXFOLIATION: A process by which the top layer of dead skin cells is sloughed off the face or body whether by dry-brushing, scrubs, or other exfoliation techniques.. FANGO MUD: A high mineralized mud used in wraps, or facials to eliminate toxins and increase blood circulation.. FOUR-HANDED OR SYNCHRONIZED MASSAGE also known as BALINESE MASSAGE: A massage administered by two therapists working in synchronized movements along the body.. FIGIDARIUM: A cold bathing room where bathers plunge into a cold pool of water to refresh and close pores after visiting the warmer Caladerium. The term dates back to Ancient Rome.. HAMMAM: A traditional Turkish or Middle-Eastern communal bathing house with various rooms at different temperatures. Unless youre in Turkey, northern Africa or the Middle East, the term hammam is usually used to refer to ceramic-tiled steam rooms.. HERBAL WRAP: A treatment in which moisture, heat and herbal essences penetrate the skin while the ...
Cayetana Blanca is a grapevine variety widely distributed in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). In addition a wide list of synonyms and its presence in Northern Africa point to a long history of cultivation. In this work we aimed to identify its genetic relationships with other Iberian and Mediterranean cultivars using a panel of SNP markers. A total of 243 SNPs and four chloroplast microsatellite loci allowed for identifying synonyms, trios (parents and offspring) and duos (parent-offspring) relationships. A total of six trios including Cayetana Blanca as a parent were found and supported by very high LODs. Five of the trios have the variety Alfrocheiro Preto as the other parent and gave rise to cultivars used in Portugal: Cornifesto, Camarate, Mouratón, Malvasia Preta and Periquita. The Spanish cultivar Jaén Tinto is confirmed to be an offspring of Cayetana Blanca and Listán Prieto. Additionally, we detected synonyms and duos which in some cases were not anticipated beforehand. ...
Incidence of Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is very high in Southern China and Northern Africa (Qui et al 2011). We can map epidemiological data with GiS. We can convert tabular tendencies into trends and beautiful maps. It goes well with government as well, because GiS is good at following administrative boundaries. Accurate mapping with GiS would help in identifying priority areas in light of prevention and treatment.As we travel from Southern China to north, incidence of NPC decreases. We can direct rediotherapy and chemotherapy or both together for patients according to need. On the basis of MAP LEGENDS, new cancer center, or chemotherapy center or reditherapy centyers can be started. Yesterday , I was following Malaysian news, and 71 year old nasopharyngeal cancer patient was turned down by hospital authority. So sad to know that (Daily Express , Malaysia2013).. Qiu C, Yang N, Tian G, Liu H. Weight loss during radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective study from northern China. ...
To feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050, agricultural production will need to rise by almost 1.4% per year from the year 2000 baseline. This will require an enormous effort on the part of farmers, researchers, and agricultural extension workers. Given all the pressures involved in some regions in making the swift improvements needed in, for example, irrigation, transport infrastructure, and fertilizers, it is uncertain whether such output growth per unit of land can be achieved and sustained to 2050. Much of the land most suitable for food and feed crops is already in use or is not available because it is under legal protection, has carbon and biodiversity value (i.e., forests), or feeds most of the worlds 3.5 billion ruminant livestock. On a per capita basis, prime and good resources for agriculture are plentiful in only a few regions, mainly Australia, South America, North America, Eastern Europe, and Russia. There is little availability in northern Africa and Asia, ...
In the future, according to the report, we can expect that freshwater supplies will increase at high latitudes and in wet tropical areas. However freshwater supplies will become less available in areas where water is already in short supply. Areas that are affected by drought, such as southern and northern Africa, are expected to become more so. Flooding will likely become more common in areas that are already prone to flooding.. Within this century climate change and other global changes such as change in land use and pollution will collectively be too much for many ecosystems to handle and they will not be able to adapt. Twenty to thirty percent of plant and animal species will become extinct if global average temperatures increase 1.5 - 2.5°C, which is within the range estimated by computer models for 21st Century.. Coastal communities, especially in low-lying regions, will be increasingly vulnerable to flooding as sea level rises, especially where tropical storm events are common. Plus, the ...
We examine the relation between Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder upper tropospheric (UT) carbon monoxide (CO) to address when CO can be used as a proxy for aerosols. Ice cloud effective radii (re), also from Aqua MODIS, are also analyzed to investigate possible aerosol effects on ice clouds. Our analysis focuses on five regions where ice clouds are collocated with high UT CO loadings: South America (SAM), southern Africa (SAF), northern Africa (NAF), South Asia (SAS), and East Asia (EAS). We find three levels of AOT to CO sensitivity. High AOT sensitivity to CO is characterized by a rapid increase of AOT when CO increases. SAM in August-November and SAF in June- September fall into this category. Moderate AOT sensitivity to CO is characterized by moderate increase of AOT with CO. It includes SAF in October-May, NAF in January- March, SAS in all months, and EAS in August-September. The other months for each ...
"Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. ... Sub-Saharan Africans, mainly Catholics from former French colonies, have migrated to Morocco in recent years. Conversions of ... A popular Christian program by Brother Rachid has led many former Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East to convert to ... "Africa :: Morocco - The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 January 2019. "Arab Barometer V ...
"Most Bahá'í Countries". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved ...
The regional National Assembly of Northern Africa included Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spanish Sahara. In July ... eds.). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (Second ed.). Oxford African American Studies ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Morocco". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion Data ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The ...
ISBN 978-0-521-85649-2. "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion ... At Ridván 1956 three new Regional Spiritual Assemblies were established including North-West Africa which included Algeria. ... Hassall, Graham (1999). "Baha'i country notes: Africa". Asian/Pacific Collection. Asia Pacific Baháʼí Studies. Retrieved 2013- ...
"Most Baháʼí Countries". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved ... In 1969 the regional national assembly of North Africa was dissolved when Tunisia was placed under emergency rule. The National ... Anthony Asa Lee (2007). The Establishment of the Baha'i Faith in West Africa: The First Decade, 1952-1962. ProQuest. p. 116. ... The assembly was established covering about 600 Baháʼís and 38 local assemblies across northwestern Africa. The seat of the ...
Tancott, Glen (30 June 2014). "Northern corridor". Transport World Africa. Johannesburg. Archived from the original on 13 ... where the African Great Lakes region and East Africa converge. One of the smallest countries on the African mainland, its ... The country is member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, COMESA, OIF and the East African ... Lavelle, John (5 July 2008). "Resurrecting the East African Shilling". East African Business Week. Kampala. Archived from the ...
ISBN 978-0-679-01013-5. Asia & Africa Review. Independent Publishing Company. 1965. CultureGrams: Africa. Axiom Press. 2002. ... Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-7211-030-7. Fodor's; Staff, Fodor's Travel Publications, Inc (12 December 1983). India, Nepal ... Vaisakhi is a harvest festival for people of Northern India. Chander and Dogra (2003) state that in Punjab, Vaisakhi marks the ... The United Kingdom has a large Sikh community originating from the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Afghanistan. The ...
... he was named in Northern Cape's squad for the 2018 Africa T20 Cup. In September 2019, he was named as the captain of Northern ... "Northern Cape name squad for Provincial T20". Cricket South Africa. Retrieved 10 September 2019. "Division Two squads named for ... In April 2021, he was named in Northern Cape's squad, ahead of the 2021-22 cricket season in South Africa. "Aubrey Swanepoel". ... Aubrey Swanepoel (born 18 June 1989) is a South African first-class cricketer. He was included in the Griqualand West cricket ...
African Development Bank & OECD 2006, p. 439. Tancott, Glen (30 June 2014). "Northern corridor". Transport World Africa. ... "CMU Africa". Carnegie Mellon University Africa. Retrieved 21 May 2020. MINEDUC 2018, p. 112. Lemarchand & Tash 2015, p. 162. " ... "Orange African Nations Championship, Rwanda 2016: Venues". Confederation of African Football. Archived from the original on 24 ... ISBN 978-0-313-33177-0. African Development Bank; OECD (2006). African Economic Outlook (5th ed.). OECD Publishing. ISBN 978-92 ...
Honours in this group went to South Africa, who started off against Northern Ireland. The Northern Irish had reached 89/5 from ... South Africa Australia New Zealand Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Barbados Pakistan Antigua and Barbuda India Jamaica Kenya Northern ... "Northern Ireland Squad". Cricinfo. "South Africa Squad". Cricinfo. "Kenya Squad". Cricinfo. "New Zealand Squad". Cricinfo. " ... South Africa then bowled out Bangladesh for 79 and made 80/5 for a five-wicket victory. In South Africa's final match, Barbados ...
Africa: Algeria; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Côte d'Ivoire; Democratic Republic of the Congo; ... "Title 6: Crimes and Criminal Procedure Division 1: Crimes Against The Person". Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Law ... March 2012). "Prostitution in Africa: A sociological Study of Eritrea (North East Africa)" (PDF). Indian Streams Research ... Africa: Cape Verde; Guinea-Bissau Oceania: Australia (New South Wales); New Zealand; Niue; Pitcairn Islands; Tokelau Legend for ...
... he was named in Northern Cape's squad for the 2018 Africa T20 Cup. He was the leading wicket-taker for Northern Cape in the ... In April 2021, he was named in Northern Cape's squad, ahead of the 2021-22 cricket season in South Africa. "Kagiso Mohale". ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Northern Cape name squad for Provincial T20". Cricket South Africa. Retrieved 10 ... "Northern Cape Squad". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 12 September 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "CSA 3-Day Provincial ...
"Uganda: Northern Quagmire". Africa Confidential. 24. 2 November 1983. pp. 3-5. Oloya 2013, p. 40. CIA 2012, p. 1. CIA 2012, p. ... The blame for the massacres was placed on the people of northern Uganda for supporting the actions of the NRA, which increased ... The group moved its bases in southern Sudan to northern Uganda, where it attempted to rally the Karamojong people to its cause ... Africa Confidential 22. Miramoor Publications Limited. 1981. Avirgan, Tony; Honey, Martha (1983). War in Uganda: The Legacy of ...
In August 2014, he was named on a 37-man provisional DR Congo squad list for the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations qualification but ... Wilson, Scott (21 April 2021). "Britt Assombalonga and Ashley Fletcher have left Middlesbrough". The Northern Echo. Retrieved ... That December, Assombalonga rejected the chance to represent DR Congo at the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations in Gabon, stating that ... Gharbi, Sabri (19 August 2014). "CAN 2015 : nouvelle liste de présélectionnés pour la RD Congo" (in French). Star Africa. ...
Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. p. 271. ISBN 9789171064479. Singh, Vikram (1 ... Northern Book Centre. p. 81. ISBN 9788172112455. Fahlbusch, Erwin (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans ... The Byzantine Empire, stripped of Syria, Egypt, and North Africa, became a compact Orthodox Christian state, upholding its ... Stanton, Andrea L.; Ramsamy, Edward (5 January 2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia ...
... he was named in Northern Cape's squad for the 2018 Africa T20 Cup. He was the leading run-scorer for Northern Cape in the 2018- ... "Northern Cape name squad for Provincial T20". Cricket South Africa. Retrieved 10 September 2019. Farhaan Sayanvala at ... "Northern Cape Squad". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 12 September 2018. "CSA Provincial One-Day Challenge, 2018/19 - Northern Cape: ... Prior to his T20 debut he was named in South Africa's squad for the 2016 Under-19 Cricket World Cup. He made his List A debut ...
... and southern Africa. The white stork is a long-distance migrant, wintering in Africa from tropical Sub-Saharan Africa to as far ... Northern India. Part 3". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 20 (4): 954-80. Prater, Stanley Henry (1931). "The ... breeds from Europe to northwestern Africa and westernmost Asia and in southern Africa, and winters mainly in Africa south of ... BirdLife South Africa. pp. 82-3. ISBN 978-0-620-20729-4 - via South African Bird Atlas Project 2. Whitehead, Charles Hughes ...
"Potash in the Republic of Congo". Mining Review Africa. May 6, 2009. "MagIndustries raises $26M for Kouilou". Northern Miner. ... "Magnesium Alloy active in Republic of Congo". The Northern Miner. March 9, 1998. "TSX Venture Exchange Approve Name Change to ...
"Uganda: Northern Quagmire". Africa Confidential. 24. 2 November 1983. pp. 3-5. C.R., Jonathan (19 April 1979). "Tanzanians ... Cooper, Tom (2004). African MiGs : MiGs and Sukhois in Service in Sub Saharan Africa. Wien: SHI Publications. ISBN 978-3-200- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Africa: The President is helpless". Africa. 1979. p. 37. Legum 1980, p. B-438. Cooper ... According to the Africa Research Bulletin, there were rumours that as many as eight Tu-22s were sent to Uganda. According to ...
"Uganda: Northern Quagmire". Africa Confidential. 24. 2 November 1983. pp. 3-5. Rice 2009, p. 194. Africa Research Bulletin 1997 ... Africa Confidential reported that he was living in exile in southern Sudan around 1983. In contrast, an Ugandan soldier ... Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-357-7. Rice, Andrew (20 August 2003). "The General" (PDF). Institute of ... Africa Research Bulletin: Political, social, and cultural series. Basil Blackwell Limited. 1997. Avirgan, Tony; Honey, Martha ( ...
In September 2018, he was named in Northern Cape's squad for the 2018 Africa T20 Cup. He was the leading run-scorer in the 2018 ... In April 2021, he was named in KwaZulu-Natal's squad, ahead of the 2021-22 cricket season in South Africa. "Northern Cape Squad ... Knights and Northern Cape in South African domestic cricket, having made his debut for Boland in February 2012. ... In December 2020, Petersen was named in South Africa's Test squad for their series against Sri Lanka. However, he was later ...
Northern Kurils; 612; Koryakia; 428; Kuban; 502; Mediterranean Northwest Africa; 430; Northern Anatolia; 402; Northern British ... Northern Annam; 735; Northern Central Sumatra - Western Malaysia; 755; Northern Philippine Islands; 742; Northwestern Borneo; ... Horn of Africa; 570; Kalahari; 573; Karoo; 554; Karstveld Sink Holes; 520; Lake Chad; 552; Namib; 528; Northern Eastern Rift; ... Coastal East Africa; 551; Cuanza; 514; Eburneo; 583; Madagascar Eastern Lowlands; 533; Northern Gulf of Guinea Drainages - ...
Northern Lights, 1932. Watkins' Last Expedition, 1934. Lhasa: The Holy City, 1938. Helvellyn to Himalaya, 1940. Memoirs of a ... Lightest Africa, 1955. Japanese Invasion of Malaya Notes Freeman, C. (2006) The Tibetan Album: British Photography in Central ... South Africa (1956-61) and Warden of Wantage Hall at the University of Reading (1966-71). He was the subject of This Is Your ...
"Northern Cape name squad for Provincial T20". Cricket South Africa. Retrieved 10 September 2019. "South Africa name uncapped ... he was named in Northern Cape's squad for the 2018 Africa T20 Cup. In September 2019, he was named in Northern Cape's squad for ... In April 2021, he was named in KwaZulu-Natal's squad, ahead of the 2021-22 cricket season in South Africa. "Ottniel Baartman". ... Ottniel Baartman (born 18 March 1993) is a South African cricketer. He made his first-class debut for South Western Districts ...
Central African Republic. Central African Empire. Ubangi-Shari 546.342-546.345......Ethnography 546.348-546.3852.....History ... Northern Australia 392-398..............Northern Territory of Australia 400-430...............New Zealand 419-422.............. ... East Africa. British East Africa 433.2-433.29..............Uganda 433.242-433.245..........Ethnography 433.252-433.287 ... Central Sub-Saharan Africa 365-469....................Eastern Africa 365.5-365.78..............History 367-367.8 ...
The colours of the snakes' upper parts and sides differ from area to area within their range; those from northern Australia are ... South Africa: Government Printer. p. 47. australis. Turpin, Myfany (2013). "Semantic Extension in Kaytetye Flora and Fauna ... Northern Territory Government. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2019. Krefft, Gerard (1869). The Snakes of Australia: An ... The king brown snake (Pseudechis australis) is a species of highly venomous snake of the family Elapidae, native to northern, ...
Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing. Barkindo, Bawuro (1985). "The early states of the Central Sudan: Kanem, Borno and some of ... 1988). "The Chad region as a crossroads" (PDF). In Elfasi, M. (ed.). General History of Africa. vol. III. London: UNESCO. pp. ... The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. p. 81.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Dewière, Rémi (8 November ... Following his expulsion shortly thereafter, the state was absorbed by the new Northern Nigeria Protectorate, in the sphere of ...
South Africa; Colombo, Sri Lanka. Rekai received a number of awards in recognition of her achievements including: Prix Saint- ... Northern Ireland; Ljubljana, Slovenia; Kiev, Ukraine; Lanzhou,People's Republic of China; Sofia, Bulgaria; Tirana,Albania; ...
Africa) Tuber geophyte Disa esterhuyseniae (South Africa, WSW. Cape Prov.) Disa extinctoria (South Africa; Northern Prov., ... Africa) Disa minor (South Africa, SW. Cape Prov.) Disa montana (South Africa, E. Cape Prov.) Disa multifida (South Africa, SW. ... Africa) Disa stricta (S. Africa) Disa subtenuicornis (South Africa, Cape Prov.; Riversdale) Disa telipogonis (South Africa, SW ... Africa, Northern Prov.) Disa atricapilla (South Africa, SW. Cape Prov.) Disa atrorubens (South Africa, SW. Cape Prov.) Disa ...
"Northern Ireland". gc2018.com. Retrieved 5 January 2020. "Commonwealth Games: Stiff opening match for Northern Ireland girls". ... Source: The following is the South Africa roster in the netball tournament of the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The following is the ... "Participants: South Africa: Netball". 2018 Commonwealth Games. Retrieved 16 April 2018. "Participants: England: Netball". 2018 ... "Northern Ireland". International Netball Federation. Retrieved 6 January 2020. " ...
South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Find this book among members of the Northern Territory Libraries Network. Academic libraries. * Find this book on the ... Find this book on the University of South Africa catalogue. * Find this book on the University of the Witwatersrand Library ... Find this book in the GVK - Gemeinsamer Verbundkatalog, a joint effort of multiple states in northern and eastern Germany ...
There is ambitious breeding in many continents, including Africa (South Africa), North America, (Northern) Europe and Australia ...
Located within the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land metropolitan area, it lies on the northern side of the Galveston Bay ... Henrietta Bell Wells, first African-American woman to participate in debate team in Wiley College and to be a lawyer ... African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 14.42% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanics or ...
... s and workplace democracy in Africa (Routledge, 2016).. *Kjellberg, Anders. "The Decline in Swedish Union Density ... It was argued that without Asiatics to work in the tropical areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland, the area would have ... In the United States, the outsourcing of labour to Asia, Latin America, and Africa has been partially driven by increasing ... "Trade Unionism in Colonial Africa" Journal of Modern African Studies, 4 (1966), pp. 65-81 ...
In 1927, Arya Samaj was established in Singapore in a shophouse in Rowell Road.[1][2][3]. In 1942 till 1945, during the Second World War the activities of the Arya Samaj was interrupted by the Japanese occupation of Singapore.[2][3]. In 1963, the Arya Samaj movement's present building at Syed Alwi Road was opened by Mollamal Sachdev, whose family gave generously to the building fund.[2][3]. In 2014, on 1 and 2 November, Arya Samaj Singapore celebrated International Arya Conference (Hindi: अंतर्राष्ट्रीय आर्य महा सम्मलेन) to mark the 101 years of Arya Samaj movement.[4]. In 2015, inaugural International Yoga Day (Hindi: अंतर्राष्ट्रीय योग दिवस) was celebrated by the Arya Samaj.[5]. ...
The performance setlist included In Places on the Run, Johnny New Light, Love Parade, Life in a Northern Town, The Edge of ... and took some time off to travel to Asia and Africa. Shortly thereafter, he began to work with David Gilmour on lyrics for Pink ... "Life In A Northern Town" formed the basis of a dance remix by Dario G entitled "Sunchyme", released in 1997 to commercial ... Their first single, "Life in a Northern Town" was a worldwide success and sizeable hit in the U.S., charting at No. 7 on the ...
Africa. *Central. *European. *Indo-Pacific. *Northern. *Southern. *Space. *Cyber. *Special Operations. *Strategic ...
The Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and then disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish-Arabian region ... which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere.[6] ... Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was partly responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, and ... Approximately 100 species of apes lived during this time, ranging throughout Africa, Asia and Europe and varying widely in size ...
South African-born composer Malcolm Forsyth lived in Edmonton from 1968 until his death in 2011. Perhaps his best-known ... From 1952 to 1997 its home was the Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium, after which time it moved to the Winspear Centre, where ... composition is Atayoskewin from 1984, which depicts Alberta's northern landscape. Alberta has long had a vibrant jazz scene. ...
Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland. Norway. Norwegian. Poland. Polish. Portugal. Portuguese. Russia. Russian. Slovenia. ... Africa. Algeria. Algerian. Ghardaia. Ghana. Adamorobe. Nanabin. Kenya. Kenyan. Mali. Tebul. LaSiMa. Nigeria. Bura. Magannar ... Central African Republic, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar and Zimbabwe.. ≈ 500,000 in the USA ...
Valley Center is a census-designated place (CDP) in northern San Diego County, California. The population was 9,277 at the 2010 ... African American, 2.84% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 6.45% from other races, and 2.96% from two or ... African American, 188 (2.0%) Native American, 295 (3.2%) Asian, 16 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 584 (16.0%) from other races, and ...
... from Africa to the temperate northern hemisphere. Principally, natural farming minimises human labour and adopts, as closely as ...
... in Phnom Penh's northern suburbs.[29] This drop from an academic education to a vocational one likely came as a shock.[30] His ... an economic historian based at London's School of Oriental and African Studies. He met with Pol Pot, but was murdered shortly ... His residence was set up on the northern side of the Chinit river; entry was strictly controlled.[169] By the end of the year, ... being restricted to a few hundred miles along the northern border.[393] Pol Pot commented to his aides: "We are like a fish in ...
Northern Book Centre. p. 73. ISBN 9788172112561. .. *^ Meera Kosambi. Intersections: Socio-cultural Trends in Maharashtra. ... Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-85119-39-7. .. *. Borgström, Bengt-Erik (1980), The patron and the panca: village values and ... He also referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan (Country of Mughals) and called the region infiltrated by Muslim ... Lala Lajpat Rai belonged to the northern province of Punjab. He was influenced greatly by the Arya Samaj and was part of the ...
P. mauritanica - Malherbe, 1845: North Africa (Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia) (now considered a separate species, the ... The Eurasian magpie or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout the northern part of the Eurasian ... P. p. fennorum - Lönnberg, 1927: northern Scandinavia and northwest Russia. *P. p. pica - (Linnaeus, 1758): British Isles and ... P. p. camtschatica - Stejneger, 1884: northern Sea of Okhotsk, and Kamchatka Peninsula in Russian Far East ...
African Americans were his playmates, and his father enjoyed watching him jig dance with the black children.[10][11] ... For a very brief period in 1944, the Wills band included 23 members,[36] and around mid-year he toured Northern California and ... It's the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments. The rhythm's what's ... Wills not only learned traditional music from his family, he learned some Blues songs directly from African Americans in the ...
Michael McBride (Northern Ireland). *Oriol Mitjà (Andorra). *Zweli Mkhize (South Africa). *Doni Monardo (Indonesia) ...
syndicated) article from South Africa). -- tariqabjotu 03:26, 15 December 2006 (UTC) *SA is Anglophone and has close ties to ... say that bears have stopped hibernating in the mountains of northern Spain. This is based on an article in yesterday's El Pais ... And it happens all the damn time, whether here in the western world or in South Africa. This is common. There is absolutely no ... It may be common place for people to go around killing large numbers of people in South Africa but it most certainly isn't in ...
Dialectal divergences are observable between the northern and southern forms of Galician-Portuguese in 13th-century texts but ... African Portuguese; the Galician-Portuguese still spoken in Spanish Extremadura, Fala; and other dialects. ... Asturias and northern half of Portugal, which belonged to the mediaeval Kingdom of Galicia, itself comprising approximately the ... which covered the territories of modern-day Galicia and northern Portugal. In the 13th century it became a written and ...
Chatterji, SK (1921). "Bengali Phonetics". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 2: 1. doi:10.1017/ ... Similarly, Hajong is considered a separate language, although it shares similarities to Northern Bengali dialects.[50] ... Volume 18 of London Oriental and African Language Library. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027273138. ...
Africa: Gen Thomas D. Waldhauser, USMC. Central: GEN Joseph Votel, USA. European: GEN Curtis Scaparrotti, USA. Northern: Gen ...
China-Africa relations. *China-Caribbean relations. *China-European Union relations. *China-Pacific relations ...
Lokela had returned from a trip to Northern Zaire near the border of the Central African Republic, after visiting the Ebola ... In Africa, wild animals including fruit bats are hunted for food and are referred to as bushmeat.[78][79] In equatorial Africa ... 8.3 2013-2016 West Africa *8.3.1 2014 spread outside West Africa ... 2013-2016 West Africa. Main article: West African Ebola virus ... Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ...
From 21 April 1942, it served with 22nd Guards Brigade under command of 2nd South African Division in the Battle of Gazala.[54] ... Since 1961, it has been posted to Kuwait in 1961, Aden in 1964, a number of roulement tours to Northern Ireland (Operation ... role as part of 7th Parachute Regiment Royal Horse Artillery and has seen considerable active service particularly in Northern ...
Northern green frog · Northern leopard frog · Northern cricket frog · Northern red-legged frog · Ramsey Canyon leopard frog · ... Frogs in Africa. African clawed frog African dwarf frog African bullfrog Hildebrandtia ornatissima Hylarana parkeriana ... Northern Gray-cheeked Salamander · Northern Ravine Salamander · Northern Zigzag Salamander · Ocoee Salamander · Oklahoma ... Toads in Africa. Altiphrynoides malcolmi · Altiphrynoides osgoodi · Amietophrynus langanoensis · Amatola Toad · Cape Clawed ...
However, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa (particularly West and Central Africa), the Caribbean and ... October is the hottest month no matter whether is it in the southern or northern hemisphere. This is because October is the ... Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation also occur in Africa though it generally differs from ... The monsoon climates of Africa, and the Americas for that matter, are typically located along tradewind coasts. ...
"Invasive Alien Bird Species Pose A Threat, Kruger National Park, Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd - South Africa Safari Travel ... northern shovelers, northern pintails, cinnamon teal, common goldeneyes, and other mallards.[88] These eggs are generally ... 1977). Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa, the Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 1: Ostrich ... Guthrie, Russell Dale (2001). People and Wildlife in Northern North America: Essays in Honor of R. Dale Guthrie. Archaeopress. ...
Descended from Homo Sapiens, the anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens emerged in eastern Africa c. 200,000 BP, left Africa ... The northern seas were frozen. During the late Upper Paleolithic (Latest Pleistocene) c. 18,000 BP, the Beringia land bridge ... Clark, JD, Variability in primary and secondary technologies of the Later Acheulian in Africa in Milliken, S and Cook, J (eds ... In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also ...
African-American churches attacked. *List of lynching victims in the United States ... Northern Student Movement. *National Council of Negro Women. *National Urban League. *Operation Breadbasket ...
The black wildebeest was first discovered in the northern part of South Africa in the 1800s.[6] ... "African Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved 17 January 2014.. *^ "Circulation Coins: Five Rand (R5)". South African Mint Company. ... Over the years, the South African authorities have issued stamps displaying the animal and the South African Mint has struck a ... The black wildebeest is native to southern Africa. Its historical range included South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho, but in ...
Winter weather descended on Northern Africa on January 26 and 27, 2005, leaving parts of Algeria and Morroco white with snow. ... In this image, the snow extends from the Mediterranean Coast in the north to the northern reaches of the Sahara Desert in the ...
Operations on the Northern front, East Africa, 1940 in the Second World War, were conducted by the British in Sudan and the ... ISBN 978-0-19-280670-3. Del Boca, Angelo (1986). Italiani in Africa Orientale: La caduta dellImpero [Italians in East Africa: ... On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI Italian ... part of Africa Settentrionale Italiana (ASI) and those in the AOI a menace to the British and French colonies in East Africa. ...
A dust storm several hundred kilometers across struck northern Africa on February 23, 2006. The storm carried Saharan dust ... dust storms now blow from Africa into Israel throughout the year, rather than just in the spring and summer, and climate change ...
But what do agricultural subsidies in Canada, Japan, the US or the European Union (EU) have to do with Africa? Everything. ... From Africa Recovery, Vol.16 #2-3 (September 2002), page 29One of the many economic differences between developed and ... About Africa Renewal. The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major ... It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community ...
Explore Northern Madagascar holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. , Its as if Madagascar had conspired to ... Northern Madagascar. 1. Diego Suarez. With its wide streets, old colonial-era buildings, and buzzy atmosphere, Diego is an ... appealing base from which to explore Madagascars northern region. While the city has a slow-moving pace (nearly everything ...
The Northern Rhodesian African Mineworkers Union (A.M.U.) was a trade union in Northern Rhodesia which represented black ... In 1947 and 1948 unions were formed at all four major copper mines in Northern Rhodesia, and these merged to form the African ... The AMU was active at the same time as the Northern Rhodesian African National Congress was agitating politically for improved ... In 1945 the new British Labour government decided to encourage the establishment of African trade unions in the British African ...
Explore Northern Nile Valley holidays and discover the best time and places to visit. , If youâ re in a hurry to reach the ... Northern Nile Valley. 1. Beni Hasan. The necropolis of Beni Hasan occupies a range of east-bank limestone cliffs some 20km ...
African youth to African leaders: "You must do more to end conflicts in Africa". GAMBELLA, Ethiopia/DAKAR, Senegal/NAIROBI, ... Middle East and Northern Africa. Gazas children deserve much better. AMMAN, 4 May 2018 - "Over the past five weeks, five ... UNICEF Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa, Sigrid Kaag on the situation in northern Yemen. Statement - 8 ... Statement by Sigrid Kaag, UNICEF Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa about the escalation in Northern Yemen ...
Western Africa (northern section): Non-Portraits. Challenge #55 in the around the world in 80 ways series. Hosted by ... As we move (roughly) south thru Africa, the last weeks and this weeks challenge will cover the following LONG list of ...
Northern Trust private equity funds operational infrastructure supports buy-out, mezzanine, life science, secondaries, ... Ireland and latterly Africa, with responsibility for offering Northern Trusts services to pension fund, insurance, sovereign ... Douglas joined Northern Trust in 2008 and has over 19 years of business development experience, the last seven of which have ... Prior to joining Northern Trust, Douglas worked in the IT industry for 12 years, specialising in business development for Morse ...
Home , Fatburger Continues Expanding Throughout Northern Africa. Fatburger Continues Expanding Throughout Northern Africa. [1] ... www.qsrmagazine.com/news/fatburger-continues-expanding-throughout-northern-africa&text=Check%20out%20Fatburger%20Continues% ... www.qsrmagazine.com/news/fatburger-continues-expanding-throughout-northern-africa&mini=true&title=Fatburger%20Continues% ... www.qsrmagazine.com/news/fatburger-continues-expanding-throughout-northern-africa ...
Northern Cape Game Reserves. Information, photographs, location maps and detailed descriptions about all of the national parks ... Northern Cape Nature & Game Reserves. Although the Northern Cape is the most arid of all the South African provinces, it is ... Northern Cape Game Lodges. South Africa boasts a huge collection of wildlife regions, encompassing every possible landscape ... One of the highlights of the Northern Cape is Africas first formal trans-border conservation area, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier ...
However freshwater species in northern Africa also face some of the highest levels of threat in continental Africa, with 28% of ... Extinction of freshwater species in Northern Africa: a double loss. Mon, 10 Sep 2012 ... Freshwater ecosystems in northern Africa, like others throughout the world, support species that are of direct socio-economic ... The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with ...
Features political administration in northern Africa, and notes about political changes in the Middle East, including the ... The 1954 Northern Africa map features:. • Inset maps of the eastern Mediterranean, Nile Delta and Suez Canal, and the Great ... This map features political administration in northern Africa, as well as notes about changes in the middle east including the ... This map features political administration in northern Africa, as well as notes about changes in the middle east including the ...
Kimberley Northern Cape 8301 South Africa. Premium Paper (PTY) LTD is a global exporter of branded A4 copy paper products for ...
Find accommodation in the Northern Cape South Africa in hotels, guest houses, b&bs, game lodges, national parks, self-catering ... South Africa Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape ... This 4-star and AA superior rated guest house and wellness spa near Upington and Keimoes in the Northern Cape, offers you ... Northern Cape and an apartment on the beach front at Dias Beach. ...
2019 by Routledge Routledge is proud to be re-issuing this landmark series in association with the International African Ins ... East Central Africa, North-Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Central Africa, Western Africa, and Central Africa Belgian ... Peoples of the Middle Niger Region Northern Nigeria Western Africa Part XV By Harold Gunn. , F. P. Conant. ... Peoples of the Middle Niger Region Northern Nigeria: Western Africa Part XV. ISBN , Quantity: ...
From our offices in Canada, London and New York, our regular on-the-ground presence in Latin America and West Africa and our ... Northern Shield Resources Inc. is a Canadian-based company known for generating high-quality Ni-Cu-PGE exploration targets and ... Opening Remarks , Anthony Vaccaro, Group Publisher, The Northern Miner Group. 10:45am. Investor Presentation , Star Diamond ... At The Northern Miners Canadian Mining Symposium, held at Canada House in London, U.K., Iamgold (TSX: IMG; NYSE: IAG) ...
Africa Deserts Maghrib Northern: 20 assigned downloads, like Bunch of grass grows in the sand wind draws round pattern Erg ... Similar tags: acacus • adventure • africa • atmospheric • countryside • desert • dunes • eco-tourismus • fessan • libya • ... libyan • maghreb • maghrib • maroc • northern • poenix • sahara • tourismus Top tags: sound effects • games shop • service ...
Any grantmaker who funds in Africa will tell you that approving grants for organizations and communities on the other side of ... Funder Salon: Effective Grantmaking in Africa. November 10, 2014 - 2:00pm to 4:00pm ... 2020 Northern California Grantmakers. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy & Terms of Use. ... 10 Akili Dada Executive Director Purity Kagwiria will join NCG members for an intimate salon on effective grantmaking in Africa ...
The Kolomela mine is located 22km from Postmasburg in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. The mine produces direct ... Postmasburg, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Ownership. Kumba Iron Ore (76.3%), and Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) ... The Kolomela mine is located 22km from Postmasburg in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. The mine produces direct ... The Kolomela mine is located 22km from Postmasburg in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. The mine produces direct ...
Through our Intelligent Indexing process Northern Trust aims to replicate the risk and return characteristics of a benchmark ... Northern Trust Asset Management is composed of Northern Trust Investments, Inc., Northern Trust Global Investments Limited, ... and personnel of The Northern Trust Company of Hong Kong Limited and The Northern Trust Company. This material is directed to ... Find out how Northern Trusts Intelligent Indexing process and nearly 50 years experience in index management can help you ...
Obamas Kill List Comes to Northern Africa. Officials Are Keen to Expand List to Algeria and Beyond Jason Ditz Posted on ... His addition would set a precedent that would mean a precipitous increase in US ambitions across northern Africa. ... across Northern Africa and then creating the US military and/or CIA infrastructure to start getting those killings done. ... will mean putting something in Northern Africa to kill him. A drone base for the CIA is a possibility, and would need to ...
Placed between Algeria and Lybia, it is the most northern country of Africa. The plains from the West coasts, very fertile and ... Sudan is the biggest country of Africa and it is divided into three natural areas: the deserts of Lybia, Sahara and Nubia in ...
Western African Aquatic Mammals. Memorandum of Understanding concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of ...
The chapter details the ways in which Northern Irelands political elites learnt from South Africas negotiations, and argues ... It squarely rejects the claim of Irish republican militants that their position is analogous to that of South Africas African ... Compares Northern Irelands peace process with the transition to democracy in South Africa. ... Northern Ireland and South Africa: Hope and History at a Crossroads. Chapter:. (p.276) 12 Northern Ireland and South Africa ...
South Africa : Zn-Cu VMS (massive sulphide) deposit. Exploited from 1972 to 1994. Located 60km south of Prieska. ... Prieska Copper Mine (Copperton deposit), Copperton, Pixley ka Seme District, Northern Cape, South Africai. Regional Level Types ... Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 137 pp; ... Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 137 pp; ...
The Destabilization of African Agriculture: USAID Brings Deadly GMO Seeds To Northern Nigeria ... www.globalresearch.ca/the-destabilization-of-african-agriculture-usaid-brings-deadly-gmo-seeds-to-northern-nigeria/5552350 ... Nigerians should be very careful with what is being proposed by USAID to Northern governors because USAID is illegally ...
Given that GWD has been confirmed in its immediate northern neighbouring province of Cunene in Angola, it is important to do a ... Strengthening surveillance for Guinea worm disease in Northern Namibia... Strengthening surveillance for Guinea worm disease in ... WHO, with support from its Regional Office for Africa, trained 17 Ministry of Health field epidemiologists and other partners ... Strengthening surveillance for Guinea worm disease in Northern Namibia 28 février 2019. ...
Northern Powerhouse Missions presents Northern Powerhouse trade mission to Africa Health - Tuesday, 29 May 2018 , Thursday, 31 ... There are several ways in which a northern businesses can participate in Africa Health:. 1. Exhibit at Africa Health. ... Northern Powerhouse trade mission to Africa Health at Johannesburg Gallagher Convention Centre Midrand, Johannesburg, GP, South ... Join the Department for International Trade (DIT) for this Northern Powerhouse Trade Mission to Africa Health. Taking place in ...
  • Therefore, other things being equal, cotton producers in East and West Africa and other developing areas should not expect the world price of cotton to go up anytime soon. (un.org)
  • de Haas' 2007 International Migration Institute study "The myth of invasion: Irregular migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union" (PDF format) is well worth study. (blogspot.com)
  • The importance of immigration from sub-Saharan West Africa to North Africa, particularly but not only Saharan areas, is something de Haas brings out nicely. (blogspot.com)
  • The vast majority of European settlers arrived after the 1885 Berlin West Africa Conference and the resulting "scramble for Africa," during which European leaders carved out spheres of influence. (britannica.com)
  • While responding to severe drought this year in the Sahel region of Africa, WFP bought and transported food from the West Africa region in order to get aid to the hungry as fast as possible. (wfp.org)
  • The genotypes include the Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa I and II, and Angola. (worldatlas.com)
  • According to some research, these genotypes may have been carried from West Africa. (worldatlas.com)
  • This study proposes a diverse set of contributions to the debate on conflict and instability in West Africa. (oecd.org)
  • The argument holds that the congruence of these insecurities and the current violent crises present an unprecedented risk of destabilisation for West Africa and the international community. (oecd.org)
  • Three types of violent land confl icts are identifi ed and analysed for West Africa: agro-pastoral confl icts, inter-communal agrarian struggles, and forest frontier confl icts. (oecd.org)
  • Climate change does not appear to be a possible driver of confl ict, and in West Africa few violent confl icts are linked to expropriation and enclosure. (oecd.org)
  • West Africa is a "zone of instability" in particular because of long-running tension between sedentary farmers and nomadic communities. (oecd.org)
  • Though no group has claimed responsibility, some in the media are saying that the attacks was the work of the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA), a Boko Haram faction with links to the Islamic State. (cfr.org)
  • In West Africa and the Sahel , as a result of chronic poverty, high population growth, limited investments in agriculture and lack of access to basic services, rural communities are extremely vulnerable to recurrent shocks. (fao.org)
  • FAO's Regional Resilience, Emergency and Rehabilitation Office for West Africa/Sahel (REOWA) is based in Dakar since 2006, aiming at liaising and coordinating with resilience and humanitarian partners at regional level. (fao.org)
  • For instance, the development of the Cadre Harmonisé , supported by FAO, enables the seasonal analysis and identification of populations facing food insecurity and malnutrition in 17 countries of the Sahel and West Africa. (fao.org)
  • Launched in 2016, the Platform for the analysis and measurement of resilience of populations in the Sahel and West Africa (PTMR-SAO) also represents a unique opportunity to better guide investments to strengthen populations' resilience and to assess the impact of implemented policies. (fao.org)
  • Each of the 50 volumes will be available to buy individually, and these are organized into regional sub-groups: East Central Africa, North-Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Central Africa, Western Africa, and Central Africa Belgian Congo. (routledge.com)
  • Central Africa is the major investment destination of the three regions, with mining projects valued over $11 billion. (sbwire.com)
  • Central Africa is expected to be a significant producer of gold in the near future. (sbwire.com)
  • In Central Africa, the mining sectors of Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon are dealt with in detail. (sbwire.com)
  • More detail is given in the regional history articles North Africa , Central Africa , Southern Africa , Western Africa , and Eastern Africa . (britannica.com)
  • Operations on the Northern front, East Africa, 1940 in the Second World War, were conducted by the British in Sudan and the Armed Forces Command of Italian East Africa (Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana) in Eritrea and Ethiopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 June 1940, Amedeo, Duke of Aosta the Viceroy and Governor-General of the Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI, Italian East Africa), commander in chief of the Armed Forces Command of the Royal Italian Army (regio Esercito) and General of the Air Force (Generale d'Armata Aerea), had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops (including naval and air force personnel) and by 1 August, mobilisation had increased the number to 371,053 troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • General Archibald Wavell, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of Middle East Command, had about 86,000 troops at his disposal for Libya, Iraq, Syria, Iran and East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • British policy was to ensure the safety of shipping in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and operations in East Africa were given second priority after Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 May 1936, the Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, proclaimed Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI Italian East Africa), formed from the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, which had been occupied after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-1936). (wikipedia.org)
  • On 10 June, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France, which made Egypt vulnerable to the forces in Italian Libya (Libia Italiana, part of Africa Settentrionale Italiana (ASI) and those in the AOI a menace to the British and French colonies in East Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italian belligerence led to the closure of the Mediterranean to Allied merchant ships and endangered British supply routes along the coast of East Africa, the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea and the Suez Canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, the Central African region accounted for 43% of the global industrial diamond production, North Africa accounted for 21% of the global phosphate rock production, and East Africa produced more than 5% of global copper output. (sbwire.com)
  • Skin colour shows a clinal variation from a light or tan colour in the northern fringe of the continent, which has a Mediterranean climate , to very dark skin in certain Sudanic regions in western and East Africa, where radiation from the Sun has been most intense. (britannica.com)
  • It not only provides the headwaters of the White Nile but is also central to the development and regional integration of the East Africa Community. (eldis.org)
  • This concept note explores initiatives aiming at supporting pastoral civil society in East Africa. (eldis.org)
  • In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. (cgiar.org)
  • Taking place in Johannesburg, the exhibition provides the perfect platform for UK companies to promote their products to over 11,000 delegates from across Sub-Saharan Africa. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Blue Crane Lodge is a serine bed and Breakfast located in the northern Suburbs of Johannesburg. (intlistings.com)
  • Johannesburg: South African Institute for Medical Research, 1998. (scielo.org.za)
  • Johannesburg: National Cancer Registry of South Africa, National Health Laboratory Service, 2004. (scielo.org.za)
  • After a promising start, the goals dried up for the first Egyptian to play for a South African club and recently he could not even make the 18-man matchday squads of the Johannesburg club. (france24.com)
  • The 26-year-old joined the Johannesburg club from record eight-time African title-holders Al Ahly last year, having played for the Cairo outfit against Wits in the CAF Champions League. (france24.com)
  • The aim and objective of the study was to determine the spectrum of pediatric otologic emergencies in northern Nigeria. (ajol.info)
  • Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. (ajol.info)
  • The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. (ajol.info)
  • Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. (ajol.info)
  • Gunmen have raided a village in northern Nigeria and killed at least 48 people in a revenge attack targeting a local vigilante group. (voanews.com)
  • KADUNA, NIGERIA - In a village in northern Nigeria, teen wives gather on mats spread out in the dirt just outside the chief imam's home. (voanews.com)
  • Nigeria has the largest number of child brides in Africa, according to the U.N. Children's Fund. (voanews.com)
  • The federal 2003 Child Rights Act mandates that both parties be at least 18 to marry, but it's left for states to ratify the act and most of the states in northern Nigeria have not. (voanews.com)
  • It has been argued extensively by scholars that Sharia law in northern Nigeria discriminates against Muslim Women. (ssrn.com)
  • It explores the position of Islam and the voices of women in the dynamics of gender discrimination in northern Nigeria. (ssrn.com)
  • Whereas the majority of Africa's peoples are indigenous, European colonial settlers constitute the largest majority of new peoples, with substantial numbers in Kenya , South Africa , Zimbabwe , Zambia , Namibia , and Mozambique . (britannica.com)
  • A tweet from migration researcher Heaven Crawley pointed me to Hein de Haas , a research based at Oxford whose expertise in migration in northern Africa makes him a perfect go-to person for insight on migration as it affects Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • His blog post "The real refugee crisis: African migrants trapped in Libya " . (blogspot.com)
  • The large majority of migrants fleeing the violence in Libya are returning to Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey, the Philippines, China, Bangladesh and various European and African countries. (blogspot.com)
  • Hundreds of thousands, perhaps over a million, mainly African migrants remain trapped in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • Although there is still a lack of verifiable information, an increasing number of reports suggest that African migrants inside Libya have fallen victim to violence, robbery, imprisonment and, allegedly, murder. (blogspot.com)
  • First of all, sub-Saharan Africans are among the poorest migrants in Libya. (blogspot.com)
  • Alarmed by an increasing sense of insecurity, a growing number of Egyptians in northern Sinai are stockpiling and arming themselves with heavy weapons coming in from Libya. (npr.org)
  • But what ultimately may prove more problematic for Egyptian authorities is the growing number of northern Sinai residents who are arming themselves with heavy weapons coming in from Libya. (npr.org)
  • Situated in the heart of the malaria-free Northern Cape Province, Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is the ultimate safari experience. (sa-venues.com)
  • The Kolomela mine is located 22km from Postmasburg in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. (mining-technology.com)
  • The ore bodies delineate the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in the Northern Cape province. (mining-technology.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, and to identify patients with histological and demographic features suggestive of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). (scielo.org.za)
  • The RNR is situated approximately 60 km west of Kimberley in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • An outbreak of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been reported in the Northern Cape Province in the Springbok area after movement of pigs from the Kimberley area. (sanews.gov.za)
  • With around 80 per cent of the population of the Eastern African region dependent on agriculture which is at risk from climate change impacts, particularly increasing water scarcity and more variable rainfall and seasonal patterns, countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia face a pressing need to implement climate adaptation measures. (eldis.org)
  • Egypt striker Amr Gamal has quit reigning South African champions Wits after failing to make an impact, lessening his chances of featuring at the 2018 World Cup in Russia. (france24.com)
  • South Africa s northernmost province, Limpopo, borders onto Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Botswana, making it the ideal entrance to Africa. (sa-venues.com)
  • Given that GWD has been confirmed in its immediate northern neighbouring province of Cunene in Angola, it is important to do a thorough case search along the Angolan border to determine whether GWD exists in Northern Namibia, as part of efforts to strengthen GWD surveillance. (who.int)
  • METHODS: Tsetse abundance data were obtained from a pre-intervention survey conducted in northern Uganda in 2010. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These models can now be used to assist in the design, implementation and monitoring of tsetse control operations in northern Uganda and further can be used as a framework by which to undertake similar studies in other areas where Glossina fuscipes fuscipes spreads Gambian sleeping sickness. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the socio-economic impact of ASF outbreaks at household level in northern Uganda. (cgiar.org)
  • WHO, with support from its Regional Office for Africa, trained 17 Ministry of Health field epidemiologists and other partners to conduct active case search in Omusati and Ohangwena Regions along the Angolan border from 25 February to 8 March 2019. (who.int)
  • Richard Vigne, CEO of Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, admits that there's not a huge amount of hope of saving the northern white rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) from extinction. (scientificamerican.com)
  • On August 22, 2019, a team of veterinarians successfully harvested eggs from the two females who live in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya - a procedure that has never been attempted in northern white rhinos before. (africanconservation.org)
  • It was the partnership between Dvůr Králové Zoo, Ol Pejeta Conservancy and KWS that led to the translocation of Najin, Fatu and two male northern white rhinos from the Czech Republic to Kenya in December 2009, when it was hoped that breeding would be stimulated by the rhinos being closer to their natural environment. (africanconservation.org)
  • Droughts have killed many of the animals in northern parts of Kenya. (iwpr.net)
  • School girls from Northern Kenya participate in a 250 kilometre trek to lobby the government to reconsider the dam project. (iwpr.net)
  • Sylvia Wairimu Maina (from Kenya) talks about her doctoral research on the nutritional benefits of the African cabbage. (un.org)
  • As a province of South Africa, the Western Cape draws millions of visitors each year to a seemingly small area if compared with other provinces in South. (sa-venues.com)
  • Countries Scope: The mining sectors of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia are covered for North Africa. (sbwire.com)
  • Join us for the biggest African event in North America - The Canada-Africa Chamber of Business 19th Annual African Mining Breakfast and MineAfrica's 16th Annual Investing in African Mining Seminar with Premier Sponsor SGS during PDAC in Toronto. (northernminer.com)
  • Traces of African swine fever virus have been found in meat products seized at Northern Ireland ports of entry. (wn.com)
  • HANOI (Reuters) - Vietnam said on Tuesday it has had initial success in creating a vaccine to fight African swine fever, which has infected farms throughout the Southeast Asian country and prompted the culling of around 10% of its pig herd. (wn.com)
  • Health The rapid spread of African Swine Fever (ASF) across East and Southeast Asia is threatening the food security and livelihoods of millions of households in the region which rely on pig farming, The UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, on Tuesday. (wn.com)
  • PHNOM PENH, July 11 (Xinhua) -- Cambodia has culled 798 pigs so far in order to contain the highly contagious African swine fever that has broken out in four provinces since early April, officials said on Thursday. (wn.com)
  • Bulgaria has stepped up measures to prevent the spread of deadly African swine fever and protect the country's 600-million levs ($344 million) pig-breeding industry, the agriculture minister said on Wednesday. (wn.com)
  • HO CHI MINH CITY, July 7 (Xinhua) -- African swine fever (ASF) has hit Vietnam's southern Tay Ninh province, Vietnam News Agency reported on Sunday. (wn.com)
  • The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) on Thursday confirmed the outbreak of African Swine Fever in the Northern Cape. (sanews.gov.za)
  • African swine fever is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs. (sanews.gov.za)
  • Humans are not susceptible to the African Swine Fever virus. (sanews.gov.za)
  • African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. (cgiar.org)
  • Historical accounts are helpful in unpacking the genesis of collaborative research between Northerners and Southerners - particularly those coming from the African continent. (springer.com)
  • the perfect portrayal of the magic that is the African continent. (sa-venues.com)
  • The majority (over 90%) of the yellow fever infections occur in the African continent with large numbers of deaths and infections recorded in several African countries. (worldatlas.com)
  • To limit the exposure to the South American genotypes, South Africa requires those traveling from the continent to be vaccinated ten days before the travel date. (worldatlas.com)
  • Winter weather descended on Northern Africa on January 26 and 27, 2005, leaving parts of Algeria and Morroco white with snow. (nasa.gov)
  • On 1 June 1940, as the commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East African Armed Forces Command) and Generale d'Armata Aerea (General of the Air Force), Aosta had about 290,476 local and metropolitan troops (including naval and air force personnel) in the AOI. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1940 following a successful strike by European mine employees, violent clashes occurred in which 17 African miners were killed and 69 injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • This preliminary study, conducted between June and October 2009, represents the first comprehensive survey of the dugong population and its habitat in northern Madagascar. (cms.int)
  • Population census data for the Northern Cape were obtained from Statistics South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • The annual incidence of CRC in the Northern Cape was 3.7/100 000 population (3.5/100 000 for men and 3.9/100 000 for women). (scielo.org.za)
  • Mid-year Population Estimates, South Africa: 2007. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today. (un.org)
  • By 1954 in excess of 75% of African miners were members of the AMU, giving them a strong bargaining position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hier kann man auch wunderbar Sterndeutung betreiben, denn über der Stadt Sutherland erstreckt sich ein wolkenloser, umweltverschmutzungsfreier Himmel und das South African Astronomical Observatory. (flysaa.com)
  • This is excellent stargazing territory too, with the town of Sutherland boasting cloudless, pollution-free skies and the South African Astronomical Observatory. (flysaa.com)
  • Don't be misled by the name - the Northern Cape is a huge province that spans down into the south, as well as right into the centre of the country. (flysaa.com)
  • The paper gives an overview of the socio-economic profile of access to resources and social behaviour of rural households of the Northern Province of South Africa. (umn.edu)
  • Research was conducted in northern Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa. (wits.ac.za)
  • The Northern Miner presents the top-10 Canada-headquartered mining companies by market capitalization, as of July 2019. (northernminer.com)
  • With its wide streets, old colonial-era buildings, and buzzy atmosphere, Diego is an appealing base from which to explore Madagascar's northern region. (lonelyplanet.com)
  • Over a quarter of the freshwater plant species native to northern Africa are used directly by people in the region, and more than 20% of these utilised species are threatened with regional extinction. (iucn.org)
  • There is a preferential rate offered to all UK exhibitors and visitors from the Northern Powerhouse region. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Please note, companies must be from the Northern Powerhouse region and may be eligible to apply for a travel grant with their regional DIT office. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • The North African region is driven by the substantial reserves of phosphate primarily located in Morocco, which produced around 28 million metric tons (MMt) of phosphate rock in 2011. (sbwire.com)
  • If it's pure, natural beauty and wildlife you're after, prepare to be captivated by the extraordinary wealth of both, found throughout the magnificent Northern Cape region. (thompsonsafrica.com)
  • Being an old nature reserve, it should also serve as a long-term reference area for wider reconnaissance surveys in the Northern Cape region. (scielo.org.za)
  • Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared as early as 200,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa. (britannica.com)
  • The morning kicks off with a keynote breakfast address by Mark Bristow, CEO, Randgold Resources, followed by MineAfrica's seminar with concurrent presentations in four seminar rooms covering project updates by public and private mining companies, country overviews by African mining ministers and presentations on current trends in African mining by expert advisors. (northernminer.com)
  • Today, a partnership may refer to a small-scale community-based intervention in a sub-Saharan African country as much as to a transnational structure administering research projects between Northern and African universities. (springer.com)
  • Several countries, such as South Africa, require travelers to be vaccinated before they can be allowed into the country. (worldatlas.com)
  • However, to enhance safety and precaution, it is advisable for anyone traveling to South Africa to be vaccinated irrespective of the country they are coming from. (worldatlas.com)
  • This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species and the threats to those species in Northern Africa. (iucn.org)
  • However freshwater species in northern Africa also face some of the highest levels of threat in continental Africa, with 28% of all fishes, molluscs, crabs, dragonflies and damselflies, and aquatic plants threatened with extinction. (iucn.org)
  • The high socio-economic value of freshwater species is clearly demonstrated: 46% of fish and 27% of plants utilised in northern Africa provide direct socio-economic benefits. (iucn.org)
  • The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with information on these freshwater species' socio-economic value, and to evaluate levels of dependence on wetland services. (iucn.org)
  • This assessment is the first overview of the conservation status of 877 northern African freshwater species belonging to five taxonomic groups fish, molluscs, dragonflies and damselflies, freshwater crabs and aquatic plants in accordance with the IUCN regional Red List guidelines. (iucn.org)
  • Metals and Minerals Scope: The report covers trends in the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions' metals and minerals production with a primary focus on coal, copper, diamonds, gold, manganese and phosphate. (sbwire.com)
  • And so, now we come to plan B. In the next few days a male southern white rhino will be brought over from nearby Lewa Wildlife Conservancy and introduced to the two northern white females, Najin and Fatu. (scientificamerican.com)
  • With neither Najin and Fatu, the two northern white rhino females, able to carry a pregnancy, the future of the northern white rhino now rests solely on pioneering artificial reproduction techniques. (africanconservation.org)
  • The highly contagious disease, which is incurable in pigs but harmless to humans, has spread rapidly across the northern part of the European Union member. (wn.com)
  • Africa is now widely recognized as the birthplace of the Hominidae , the taxonomic family to which modern humans belong. (britannica.com)
  • Somewhat later those early humans spread into northern Africa and the Middle East and, ultimately, to the rest of the world. (britannica.com)
  • He manages sales teams in Stockholm, Amsterdam, London, Dublin, Luxembourg, Channel Islands and the Middle East, responsible for offering the breath of Northern Trust's asset servicing and capital markets solutions to both asset owner and asset manager communities. (northerntrust.com)
  • This map features political administration in northern Africa, as well as notes about changes in the middle east including the partitioning of Palestine. (maps.com)
  • Transitions to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa. (uni-mannheim.de)
  • Education and labor market entry in Middle East and Northern African countries: Chances and constraints in times of increasing uncertainty. (uni-mannheim.de)
  • Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. (hindawi.com)
  • Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Only on the northern and western edges of the area, under influence from Igala and Benin, are hereditary rulers found. (britannica.com)
  • With expenditure on healthcare set to double over the next 10 years and a chronic shortage of local manufacture, the opportunities offered by markets across Sub-Saharan Africa are currently vast for UK companies. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • For the purpose of this article, we focus our analysis on sub-Saharan African countries. (springer.com)
  • The earliest artistic castings from sub-Saharan Africa, these pieces consist of ritual vessels and other ceremonial objects with intricate surface decoration, often small animals and insects represented in the round. (britannica.com)
  • John Campbell and Michelle Gavin track political and security developments across sub-Saharan Africa. (cfr.org)
  • A dust storm several hundred kilometers across struck northern Africa on February 23, 2006. (nasa.gov)
  • Among the oldest sculptures of tropical Africa are several hundred ancestor figures, called ekpu , of the Ibibio coastal trade centre of Oron , some of which are thought to date from the late 18th century. (britannica.com)
  • With 1,870 acres of lemons throughout South Africa, prochem export group is one of the largest lemon producers in North South Africa. (tradeboss.com)
  • We are the producers collectors and distributers by order of central and South African wooden products and curious solid wood wooden blocks curved pictures and furnitures and many more. (tradeboss.com)
  • South Africa boasts a huge collection of wildlife regions, encompassing every possible landscape from deserts to forests, mountains to coast, teeming with wildlife species. (sa-venues.com)
  • South Africa boasts a multitude of nature reserves and game reserves, and these are home to an extraordinary array of bird species. (sa-venues.com)
  • Freshwater ecosystems in northern Africa, like others throughout the world, support species that are of direct socio-economic importance to local communities, providing products such as food, construction and craft material, and medicines. (iucn.org)
  • Baobabs are an iconic, very long-lived, African savanna tree species known throughout their range as a source of food, fibre and medicine, yet global demand for its fruit derivatives (both seed oil and fruit pulp) have raised concerns about sustainability. (wits.ac.za)
  • S S outh African grasslands have 30 species per square kilometre, greater than the biodiversity of rainforests. (southafrica.net)
  • Some of the planet's most exciting wildlife species can be found here, so it is not surprising that South Africa is home to a collection of the most abundant and diverse game reserves on earth. (sa-venues.com)
  • This 4-star and AA superior rated guest house and wellness spa near Upington and Keimoes in the Northern Cape, offers you luxurious and peaceful Upington accommodation in a tranquil setting on Kanoneiland, the island of slow living, 25 km from Upington. (places.co.za)
  • Welcome to the Belurana Collection where we can accommodate you in one of our 3 luxurious establishments including two Guest Houses located in the heart of the Green Kalahari, Upington, Northern Cape and an apartment on the beach front at Dias Beach. (places.co.za)
  • The Northern Cape Arabian Championship will be taking place at the Upington Agricultural Expo from the 28th to the 30th of April. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • In South Africa, travelers from the yellow fever belt are required to be vaccinated ten days before their travel as the vaccine can only be effective 10 days after it has been administered into the body. (worldatlas.com)
  • In 1947 and 1948 unions were formed at all four major copper mines in Northern Rhodesia, and these merged to form the African Mineworkers' Union in 1949, receiving recognition from the mining companies in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1950s the major mining companies, with the support of the Colonial Office, began attempting to replace the skilled European mineworkers with African workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to the expectations of the Northern Rhodesian Government and mining companies, the AMU sought increases in wages for all mineworkers, rather than focussing solely on further breaking down the colour bar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength and militancy of the AMU led the government and mining companies to support the establishment of a rival union for skilled African workers in 1953, the Mines African Staff Association (MASA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The report analyzes the mining industry of the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions with select countries in focus. (sbwire.com)
  • The competitive landscape covers the top players in the mining industry in the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions, with the major active and planned projects. (sbwire.com)
  • The morning features 24 presenters and a senior-level audience of 350 participants - all with an interest in mining in Africa. (northernminer.com)
  • MineAfrica also has six booths at the PDAC Trade Show, which we sublease to African governments, mining companies and service providers in a mini-pavilion concept. (northernminer.com)
  • Click on the game reserve, national park or nature reserve you wish to visit on the Northern Cape map or select from the full list below, to view additional information about the reserves and for listings of all lodges listed in the relevant area. (sa-venues.com)
  • All you need is an experienced tracker, which most lodges provide, to take you out and show you the best-kept secrets of the South African wilderness. (southafrica.net)
  • The other possible scenario involved introducing the northern whites to the closely related southern white rhino subspecies ( C. s. simum ) and possibly getting hybrid calves-not an ideal development, obviously, but enough to preserve some of the northern white's genetics into another generation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The eggs will now be artificially inseminated with frozen sperm from a northern white rhino bull, and in the near future the embryo will be transferred to a southern white rhino surrogate mother. (africanconservation.org)
  • The successful harvesting of their eggs means that scientists are one step closer to being able to save the northern white rhino from complete extinction. (africanconservation.org)
  • Northern white rhino keeper, James Mwenda, checks on Najin, one of the last two northern white rhino on the planet. (africanconservation.org)
  • dust storms now blow from Africa into Israel throughout the year, rather than just in the spring and summer, and climate change and desertification could exacerbate such storms in the coming decades. (nasa.gov)
  • About ten months ago a report came out claiming to link recent upsurges in African civil war to changes in climate change, and predicting that there would be 50% more conflict in the coming decades. (treehugger.com)
  • Douglas joined Northern Trust in 2008 and has over 19 years of business development experience, the last seven of which have been spent in the banking and asset servicing industry. (northerntrust.com)
  • Servicing predominantly business travellers our facilities consist of 11 en suite double rooms and 1 self catering 2 bedroom flat. (intlistings.com)
  • In fact, its unique climate and topography mean that it is home to an entirely unique collection of fauna and flora, and that the game reserves and parks that are found here are excellent for authentic African safaris with a twist. (sa-venues.com)
  • We conducted raptor surveys in all major habitats of northern Cameroon between December 2005 and December 2010. (africanbirdclub.org)
  • Of these, six had not been documented in northern Cameroon prior to our survey. (africanbirdclub.org)
  • Although the Northern Cape is the most arid of all the South African provinces, it is still abundant in life. (sa-venues.com)
  • In recent years, growing insecurity due to terrorist threats has worsened the Sahel's chronic hardship, especially in the Lake Chad Basin and in northern Mali. (fao.org)
  • The likelihood of seagrass presence was determined on a broad scale for the whole of northern Madagascar and will be used to prioritize areas for finer scale mapping. (cms.int)
  • The Central, North and East African regions produce copper, diamonds and phosphate on a large scale. (sbwire.com)
  • This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. (usda.gov)
  • The East African region's development is focused on the coal, gold, iron ore and uranium sectors. (sbwire.com)
  • Therefore, agricultural policies in developed countries should be of great interest to Africa and the rest of the world. (un.org)
  • Agricultural subsidies in developed countries reduce world prices, and thus the incomes of African farmers. (un.org)
  • African countries must remember that higher world prices of agricultural products would encourage their own farmers to produce more, with the potential for their countries to become exporters of food. (un.org)
  • Visitors from all around the world descend on South Africa to take advantage of the stunning climate, accommodation, game reserves, natural attractions, and, of course, the huge variety of wildlife. (sa-venues.com)
  • Nearby, Augrabies Falls is the sixth largest waterfall in the world, yet the Northern Cape sun can be so relentless and rain so scarce that sometimes there's barely a trickle of water. (flysaa.com)
  • On the one hand Ol Pejeta is saddened that we are now down to the last two northern white rhinos on the planet, a testament to the profligate way the human race continues to interact with the natural world around us. (africanconservation.org)
  • The concerted efforts to save the last northern white rhinos should guide the resolutions the world makes at the ongoing CITES meeting in Geneva. (africanconservation.org)
  • Our goal is to provide top quality products and custom services to our clients, We have grown from a South African company to a global player in the world o. (tradeboss.com)
  • Dec. 9 - Condolence books, flowers and speeches around the world mark latest outpouring of support for late South African leader Nelson Mandela. (reuters.com)
  • South Africa, who suffered a shock 34-32 loss to Japan in their first match of this World Cup , recalled JP Pietersen after the wing missed the 64-0 rout of the United States with a knee injury. (france24.com)