AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa. (1/263)

The nucleotide sequences of the 3' end of the capsid-coding region were determined for 30 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East. These sequences were compared with the previously published sequences of 9 field virus isolates from the Middle East and 5 vaccine virus strains, 3 of which originated from the Middle East (O1/Turkey/Manisa/69, O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72 and O1/Israel/2/85) and 2 from Europe (O1/Lausanne/Switzerland/65 and O2/Brescia/Italy/47). Cluster analysis of these sequences using the unweighted pair group mean average (UPGMA) method showed: (i) that the FMD viruses isolated from North Africa and the Middle East were very different from the classical European vaccine strains; (ii) that all the viruses isolated during the 1989-92 North African epidemic formed a cluster differing by no more than 6% from each other; (iii) a virus isolated in Libya in 1988 was unrelated to the aforementioned epidemic; and (iv) viruses from a second, less extensive epidemic, occurring in 1994, fell into yet another cluster.  (+info)

Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population. (2/263)

The contribution of malaria to morbidity and mortality among people in Africa has been a subject of academic interest, political advocacy, and speculation. National statistics for much of sub-Saharan Africa have proved to be an unreliable source of disease-specific morbidity and mortality data. Credible estimates of disease-specific burdens are required for setting global and national priorities for health in order to rationalize the use of limited resources and lobby for financial support. We have taken an empirical approach to defining the limits of Plasmodium falciparum transmission across the continent and interpolated the distributions of projected populations in 1995. By combining a review of the literature on malaria in Africa and models of acquired functional immunity, we have estimated the age-structured rates of the fatal, morbid and disabling sequelae following exposure to malaria infection under different epidemiological conditions.  (+info)

Deaths within 90 days from starting renal replacement therapy in the ERA-EDTA Registry between 1990 and 1992. (3/263)

BACKGROUND: Patients who die within 90 days of commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) may be recorded by some centres and not others, and hence data on mortality and survival may not be comparable. However, it is essential to compare like with like when analysing differences between modalities, centres and registries. It was decided, therefore, to look at the incidence of deaths within 90 days in the ERA-EDTA Registry, and to try to define the characteristics of this group of patients. METHODS: Between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1992, 78 534 new patients started RRT in 28 countries affiliated to the ERA-EDTA Registry. Their mean age was 54 years and 31% were over 65 years old. Eighty-two per cent of the patients received haemodialysis (HD), 16% peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 2% had preemptive transplantation as first mode of treatment. RESULTS: From January 1990 to March 1993 the overall incidence of deaths was 19% and 4% of all patients died within 90 days from the start of RRT. Among those dying within 90 days 59% were over 65 years compared to 53% over 65 years in those dying beyond this time (P<0.0001). The modality of RRT did not influence the distribution of deaths before and after 90 days. Vascular causes and malignancy were more common in those dying after 90 days, while there were more cardiac and social causes among the early deaths. Mortality from social causes was twice as common in the elderly, who had a significantly higher chance of dying from social causes within 90 days compared to those aged under 65 years. The overall incidence of deaths within 90 days was 3.9% but there was a wide variation between countries, from 1.8% to 11.4%. Finally, patient survival at 2 years was markedly influenced in different age groups when deaths within 90 days were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of deaths within 90 days from the start of RRT was 3.9%, with a marked variation between countries ranging from 1.8% to 11.4%, which probably reflects mainly differences in reporting these deaths, although variable selection criteria for RRT may contribute. Deaths within 90 days were significantly more frequent in elderly patients with more early deaths resulting from cardiac and social causes, while vascular causes of death and malignancy were more common in those dying after 90 days. Patient survival analyses should take into account deaths within 90 days from the start of RRT, particularly when comparing results between modalities, countries and registries.  (+info)

Variation in short tandem repeats is deeply structured by genetic background on the human Y chromosome. (4/263)

Eleven biallelic polymorphisms and seven short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci mapping on the nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome have been typed in men from northwestern Africa. Analysis of the biallelic markers, which represent probable unique events in human evolution, allowed us to characterize the stable backgrounds or haplogroups of Y chromosomes that prevail in this geographic region. Variation in the more rapidly mutating genetic markers (STRs) has been used both to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for STR variability within these stable backgrounds and to explore whether STR differentiation among haplogroups still retains information about their phylogeny. When analysis of molecular variance was used to study the apportionment of STR variation among both genetic backgrounds (i.e., those defined by haplogroups) and population backgrounds, we found STR variability to be clearly structured by haplogroups. More than 80% of the genetic variance was found among haplogroups, whereas only 3.72% of the genetic variation could be attributed to differences among populations-that is, genetic variability appears to be much more structured by lineage than by population. This was confirmed when two population samples from the Iberian Peninsula were added to the analysis. The deep structure of the genetic variation in old genealogical units (haplogroups) challenges a population-based perspective in the comprehension of human genome diversity. A population may be better understood as an association of lineages from a deep and population-independent gene genealogy, rather than as a complete evolutionary unit.  (+info)

Mortality differentials among Israeli men. (5/263)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined differentials in mortality among adult Israeli men with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and several measures of social status. METHODS: Data were based on a linkage of records from a 20% sample of the 1983 census to records of deaths occurring before the end of 1992. The study population included 72,527 men, and the number of deaths was 17,378. RESULTS: Differentials is mortality by origin show that mortality was higher among individuals of North African origin than among those of Asian and European origin. After allowance for several socioeconomic indicators, the excess mortality among North African Jews was eliminated. Substantial and consistent differences in mortality were found according to education, occupation, income, possession of a car, housing, and household amenities. Differentials among the elderly were markedly narrower than those among men younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, these who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin.  (+info)

Frequent association between alteration of the rdxA gene and metronidazole resistance in French and North African isolates of Helicobacter pylori. (6/263)

Mutations in the rdxA gene have been associated with the acquisition of resistance to metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori. This gene encodes an NADPH nitroreductase whose expression is necessary for intracellular activation of the drug. We wished to examine whether mutations in rdxA were present in resistant H. pylori isolates infecting either French or North African patients. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the rdxA genes from seven French and six North African patients infected with paired resistant and sensitive strains. Genotyping by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the close genetic relatedness of the susceptible and resistant isolates from individual biopsies. Eight French and five North African individual resistant strains were also studied. For the French strains, an alteration in rdxA most probably implicated in resistance was found in 10 cases (seven frameshift mutations, two missense mutations, and one deletion of 211 bp). One to three putative missense mutations were identified in four cases, and a missense mutation possibly not implicated in resistance was discovered in the last case. For the North African strains, an alteration in rdxA was found in eight cases (three frameshift mutations, three missense mutations, one deletion of 6 bp, and one insertion of a variant of IS605). Two strains contained putative missense mutations, and no change was observed in rdxA of the last strain. Thus, inactivation of the rdxA gene is frequently, but not always, associated with resistance to metronidazole in French and North African clinical isolates of H. pylori. In addition, a variety of alterations of rdxA are associated with the resistant phenotype.  (+info)

The development of a continuous quality control programme for strict sperm morphology among sub-Saharan African laboratories. (7/263)

Inter-technician and between-laboratory differences, especially during the evaluation of sperm morphology, have been a major cause of concern. The study aimed to develop an intensive training programme with intervals of continuous quality control assessments for sperm morphology. Twenty andrology laboratories from sub-Saharan Africa were invited to participate in a World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction semenology workshop. Following intensive training in strict sperm morphololgy evaluation, a continuous quality control programme was introduced on a quarterly basis. At baseline, the mean (+/- SD) percentage difference reported between the participants and the reference laboratory reading was 33.50 +/- 11%. After training, the mean percentage difference had decreased to 14.32 +/- 5% at 3 months and to 5.00 +/- 5% at 6 months. Pairwise comparison of the differences at each evaluation time revealed the following: Baseline differences (pre-training) differed significantly from the differences at 3 months (P = 0.0002) as well as at 6 months after training (P = 0.007). The differences at 6 months did not differ significantly from those at 3 months (P = 0.27). Training of andrology technicians as well as continuous proficiency testing can be conducted on a national and international level with the support of a referring laboratory. Global quality control measurements in andrology laboratories should become mandatory, since these results indicate that continuous quality control for laboratory technicians can be highly successful.  (+info)

Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis. (8/263)

We have analysed a large set of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in several Arabic and Berber-speaking groups from north-west Africa (ie Moroccan Arabs, northern-central and southern Moroccan Berbers, Saharawis, and Mozabites). Two levels of analysis have been devised using two sets of 12STR loci, (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, THO1, TPOX, CSF1PO, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317 and D7S820) and 21 (the former set plus D9S926, D11S2010, D13S767, D14S306, D18S848, D2S1328, D4S243, F13A1, and FES/FPS). For each set, data for a number of external reference populations were gathered from the literature. Several methods of analysis based on genetic distances (neighbour-joining trees, principal coordinate analysis, boundary detection), as well as AMOVA, showed that genetic differentiation among NW African populations was very low and devoid of any spatial pattern. When the NW African populations were grouped according to cultural or linguistic differences, the partition was not associated with genetic differentiation. Thus, it is likely that Arabisation was mainly a cultural process. A clear genetic difference was found between NW African populations and Iberians, which underscores the Gilbraltar Straits as a strong barrier to genetic exchange; nonetheless, some degree of gene flow into Southern Iberia may have existed. NW Africans were genetically closer to Iberians and to other Europeans than to African Americans.  (+info)

  • Over a quarter of the freshwater plant species native to northern Africa are used directly by people in the region, and more than 20% of these utilised species are threatened with regional extinction. (iucn.org)
  • In an attempt to find an answer, a multinational team of scientists studied 41 genomes from people who lived in Africa between 4,000 and 300 years ago. (archaeology.org)
  • ROME, Feb. 13 - The avian flu virus, flying west along the migratory routes of wild birds, has penetrated western Europe and northern Africa, health officials here confirmed over the weekend. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species and the threats to those species in Northern Africa. (iucn.org)
  • Freshwater ecosystems in northern Africa, like others throughout the world, support species that are of direct socio-economic importance to local communities, providing products such as food, construction and craft material, and medicines. (iucn.org)
  • However freshwater species in northern Africa also face some of the highest levels of threat in continental Africa, with 28% of all fishes, molluscs, crabs, dragonflies and damselflies, and aquatic plants threatened with extinction. (iucn.org)
  • The high socio-economic value of freshwater species is clearly demonstrated: 46% of fish and 27% of plants utilised in northern Africa provide direct socio-economic benefits. (iucn.org)
  • The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with information on these freshwater species' socio-economic value, and to evaluate levels of dependence on wetland services. (iucn.org)
  • There is no evidence that the virus has mutated into a form that can be more easily transmitted between humans, but the spread of the deadly strain to Africa is worrisome, health authorities said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The confirmation of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry in Africa is a cause for great concern and demands immediate action," said Lee Jong-wook, M.D., M.P.H., director-general of the World Health Organization. (medpagetoday.com)
  • While responding to severe drought this year in the Sahel region of Africa, WFP bought and transported food from the West Africa region in order to get aid to the hungry as fast as possible. (wfp.org)
  • FAO's Regional Resilience, Emergency and Rehabilitation Office for West Africa/Sahel (REOWA) is based in Dakar since 2006, aiming at liaising and coordinating with resilience and humanitarian partners at regional level. (fao.org)
  • For instance, the development of the Cadre Harmonisé , supported by FAO, enables the seasonal analysis and identification of populations facing food insecurity and malnutrition in 17 countries of the Sahel and West Africa. (fao.org)
  • Launched in 2016, the Platform for the analysis and measurement of resilience of populations in the Sahel and West Africa (PTMR-SAO) also represents a unique opportunity to better guide investments to strengthen populations' resilience and to assess the impact of implemented policies. (fao.org)
  • Though no group has claimed responsibility, some in the media are saying that the attacks was the work of the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA), a Boko Haram faction with links to the Islamic State. (cfr.org)
  • U.N. coordinator in Cameroon warns that Boko Haram could migrate eastwards towards the Central African Republic. (newsweek.com)
  • The Northern Miner presents the top-10 Canada-headquartered mining companies by market capitalization, as of July 2019. (northernminer.com)
  • WHO, with support from its Regional Office for Africa, trained 17 Ministry of Health field epidemiologists and other partners to conduct active case search in Omusati and Ohangwena Regions along the Angolan border from 25 February to 8 March 2019. (who.int)
  • On August 22, 2019, a team of veterinarians successfully harvested eggs from the two females who live in Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya - a procedure that has never been attempted in northern white rhinos before. (africanconservation.org)
  • Given that GWD has been confirmed in its immediate northern neighbouring province of Cunene in Angola, it is important to do a thorough case search along the Angolan border to determine whether GWD exists in Northern Namibia, as part of efforts to strengthen GWD surveillance. (who.int)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Africa, Northern. (who.int)
  • Gauteng Site about amazing finds that have led leading palaeo-anthropologists and archaeologists to suggest that humankind first appeared in this corner of Africa and from there spread out to populate the world. (nationsonline.org)
  • Egypt striker Amr Gamal has quit reigning South African champions Wits after failing to make an impact, lessening his chances of featuring at the 2018 World Cup in Russia. (france24.com)
  • An Amnesty International spokeswoman has condemned plans by the Sierra Leone government to grant a South Africa-style blanket amnesty for human rights violations committed during the years of bloody civil strife. (ipsnews.net)
  • Traces of African swine fever virus have been found in meat products seized at Northern Ireland ports of entry. (wn.com)
  • HANOI (Reuters) - Vietnam said on Tuesday it has had initial success in creating a vaccine to fight African swine fever, which has infected farms throughout the Southeast Asian country and prompted the culling of around 10% of its pig herd. (wn.com)
  • Health The rapid spread of African Swine Fever (ASF) across East and Southeast Asia is threatening the food security and livelihoods of millions of households in the region which rely on pig farming, The UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, on Tuesday. (wn.com)
  • PHNOM PENH, July 11 (Xinhua) -- Cambodia has culled 798 pigs so far in order to contain the highly contagious African swine fever that has broken out in four provinces since early April, officials said on Thursday. (wn.com)
  • Bulgaria has stepped up measures to prevent the spread of deadly African swine fever and protect the country's 600-million levs ($344 million) pig-breeding industry, the agriculture minister said on Wednesday. (wn.com)
  • HO CHI MINH CITY, July 7 (Xinhua) -- African swine fever (ASF) has hit Vietnam's southern Tay Ninh province, Vietnam News Agency reported on Sunday. (wn.com)
  • The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) on Thursday confirmed the outbreak of African Swine Fever in the Northern Cape. (sanews.gov.za)
  • African swine fever is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs. (sanews.gov.za)
  • Humans are not susceptible to the African Swine Fever virus. (sanews.gov.za)
  • African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. (cgiar.org)
  • The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today. (un.org)
  • In recent years, growing insecurity due to terrorist threats has worsened the Sahel's chronic hardship, especially in the Lake Chad Basin and in northern Mali. (fao.org)
  • An unidentified hominin, possibly Australopithecus afarensis or Kenyanthropus platyops , created stone tools dating to 3.3 million years ago at Lomekwi in the Turkana Basin , eastern Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • dust storms now blow from Africa into Israel throughout the year, rather than just in the spring and summer, and climate change and desertification could exacerbate such storms in the coming decades. (nasa.gov)
  • Climate change does not appear to be a possible driver of confl ict, and in West Africa few violent confl icts are linked to expropriation and enclosure. (oecd.org)
  • About ten months ago a report came out claiming to link recent upsurges in African civil war to changes in climate change, and predicting that there would be 50% more conflict in the coming decades. (treehugger.com)
  • The morning kicks off with a keynote breakfast address by Mark Bristow, CEO, Randgold Resources, followed by MineAfrica's seminar with concurrent presentations in four seminar rooms covering project updates by public and private mining companies, country overviews by African mining ministers and presentations on current trends in African mining by expert advisors. (northernminer.com)
  • Today, a partnership may refer to a small-scale community-based intervention in a sub-Saharan African country as much as to a transnational structure administering research projects between Northern and African universities. (springer.com)
  • Several countries, such as South Africa, require travelers to be vaccinated before they can be allowed into the country. (worldatlas.com)
  • However, to enhance safety and precaution, it is advisable for anyone traveling to South Africa to be vaccinated irrespective of the country they are coming from. (worldatlas.com)
  • The United Nations is looking to the West African nation of Mali as the next test case for its Right to Protect doctrine, as it calls for international intervention and plots an invasion of the country. (thenewamerican.com)
  • This time Northern Mali is in the UN's crosshairs after the country was taken over by Islamists and nomadic rebels amid a military coup d'état that ousted the government in the South. (thenewamerican.com)
  • The West African country has two official languages, but far more French-speakers than English. (newsweek.com)
  • President Yahya Jammeh wants to distance the West African country from its "colonial legacy. (newsweek.com)
  • de Haas' 2007 International Migration Institute study "The myth of invasion: Irregular migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union" (PDF format) is well worth study. (blogspot.com)
  • Haratin women, a community of recent Sub-Saharan African origin residing in the Maghreb . (wikipedia.org)
  • BEIJING-China's vice commerce minister pushed back against Western criticism of China's activities in Africa, describing Chinese investment as 'more market-driven' and defending Beijing's stance on recent flare-ups. (wsj.com)
  • That has provided lucrative opportunities for Chinese businesses, while African nations are often happy to accept China's offers that come without demands for safeguards against corruption, waste and environmental damage. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • D uring a speech at the summit South African President Cyril Ramaphosa on Monday delivered a stinging rebuttal to criticism of China's development aid in Africa. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • China's latest pledge comes on top of a 2015 promise to provide African countries with $60 billion in funding that Mr Xi said had either been delivered or arranged. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • China's investment in Africa comes with no political strings attached,' Mr Xi said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This is the first time that a study conducted at the species level collates and integrates information on the socio-economic value of freshwater species and the threats to those species in Northern Africa. (iucn.org)
  • However freshwater species in northern Africa also face some of the highest levels of threat in continental Africa, with 28% of all fishes, molluscs, crabs, dragonflies and damselflies, and aquatic plants threatened with extinction. (iucn.org)
  • The high socio-economic value of freshwater species is clearly demonstrated: 46% of fish and 27% of plants utilised in northern Africa provide direct socio-economic benefits. (iucn.org)
  • The aim of this study is to link IUCN Red List data on the extinction risk for 877 species across northern Africa with information on these freshwater species' socio-economic value, and to evaluate levels of dependence on wetland services. (iucn.org)
  • This assessment is the first overview of the conservation status of 877 northern African freshwater species belonging to five taxonomic groups fish, molluscs, dragonflies and damselflies, freshwater crabs and aquatic plants in accordance with the IUCN regional Red List guidelines. (iucn.org)
  • Metals and Minerals Scope: The report covers trends in the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions' metals and minerals production with a primary focus on coal, copper, diamonds, gold, manganese and phosphate. (sbwire.com)
  • The highly contagious disease, which is incurable in pigs but harmless to humans, has spread rapidly across the northern part of the European Union member. (wn.com)
  • Africa is now widely recognized as the birthplace of the Hominidae , the taxonomic family to which modern humans belong. (britannica.com)
  • Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared as early as 200,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa. (britannica.com)
  • Homo sapiens , or modern humans, created bone tools and backed blades around 90,000 to 60,000 years ago, in southern and eastern Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are evidences that stone age humans around 100,000 years ago had an elementary knowledge of chemistry in Southern Africa, and that they used a specific recipe to create a liquefied ochre-rich mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over a quarter of the freshwater plant species native to northern Africa are used directly by people in the region, and more than 20% of these utilised species are threatened with regional extinction. (iucn.org)
  • There is a preferential rate offered to all UK exhibitors and visitors from the Northern Powerhouse region. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • Please note, companies must be from the Northern Powerhouse region and may be eligible to apply for a travel grant with their regional DIT office. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • The North African region is driven by the substantial reserves of phosphate primarily located in Morocco, which produced around 28 million metric tons (MMt) of phosphate rock in 2011. (sbwire.com)
  • Being an old nature reserve, it should also serve as a long-term reference area for wider reconnaissance surveys in the Northern Cape region. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Obama administration has thrown its support behind an upcoming United Nations-orchestrated invasion of northern Mali, with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton traveling the region prodding assorted African regimes into supporting and supplying troops for the controversial scheme. (thenewamerican.com)
  • South Africa is regarded as a water scarce region, and as the water crisis intensifies, it is imperative to pursue generation options which do not require the large amounts of water that coal-fired power stations do. (dailymaverick.co.za)
  • Foreign direct investment in Africa could be considerably boosted if the World Bank affiliate responsible for political risk insurance in developing countries increased its portfolio involvement in the region, investors and analysts say. (ipsnews.net)
  • With expenditure on healthcare set to double over the next 10 years and a chronic shortage of local manufacture, the opportunities offered by markets across Sub-Saharan Africa are currently vast for UK companies. (eventbrite.co.uk)
  • For the purpose of this article, we focus our analysis on sub-Saharan African countries. (springer.com)
  • The importance of immigration from sub-Saharan West Africa to North Africa, particularly but not only Saharan areas, is something de Haas brings out nicely. (blogspot.com)
  • John Campbell and Michelle Gavin track political and security developments across sub-Saharan Africa. (cfr.org)
  • It is mostly used for people of Sub-Saharan African descent and the indigenous peoples of Oceania . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the reasoning for the "Black" label is due to the person's primary ancestry being seen as sub-Saharan African, a part of the world where there are, in fact, people with black skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others descend from immigrants via the historical trans-Saharan trade or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, from slaves from the Arab slave trade in North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox is widespread in many European countries, and Portuguese expeditions to African west coast and new trade routes with eastern parts of Africa introduce the disease into West Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • In South Africa, travelers from the yellow fever belt are required to be vaccinated ten days before their travel as the vaccine can only be effective 10 days after it has been administered into the body. (worldatlas.com)
  • In 1947 and 1948 unions were formed at all four major copper mines in Northern Rhodesia, and these merged to form the African Mineworkers' Union in 1949, receiving recognition from the mining companies in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1950s the major mining companies, with the support of the Colonial Office, began attempting to replace the skilled European mineworkers with African workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to the expectations of the Northern Rhodesian Government and mining companies, the AMU sought increases in wages for all mineworkers, rather than focussing solely on further breaking down the colour bar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength and militancy of the AMU led the government and mining companies to support the establishment of a rival union for skilled African workers in 1953, the Mines African Staff Association (MASA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The report analyzes the mining industry of the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions with select countries in focus. (sbwire.com)
  • The competitive landscape covers the top players in the mining industry in the Central, Northern and Eastern African regions, with the major active and planned projects. (sbwire.com)
  • The morning features 24 presenters and a senior-level audience of 350 participants - all with an interest in mining in Africa. (northernminer.com)
  • MineAfrica also has six booths at the PDAC Trade Show, which we sublease to African governments, mining companies and service providers in a mini-pavilion concept. (northernminer.com)
  • Douglas joined Northern Trust in 2008 and has over 19 years of business development experience, the last seven of which have been spent in the banking and asset servicing industry. (northerntrust.com)
  • Servicing predominantly business travellers our facilities consist of 11 en suite double rooms and 1 self catering 2 bedroom flat. (intlistings.com)
  • Active in Democratic politics, he ran for Sacramento County supervisor in District 2 in the mid-1960s on a platform of fair housing education and economic development in the African American community. (sacbee.com)
  • Economic activity in Africa has surged in recent years, with Beijing becoming an important investor, creditor and donor for many African nations. (wsj.com)
  • C hinese President Xi Jinping on Monday pledged $60 billion in financing for projects in Africa in the form of assistance, investment and loans, as China furthers efforts to link the continent's economic prospects to its own. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • But what do agricultural subsidies in Canada, Japan, the US or the European Union (EU) have to do with Africa? (un.org)
  • It is possible that the damage caused by agricultural subsidies in the US to African countries exceeds even the benefits that might come from the African Growth and Opportunity Act that gives African products preferential access to the US market. (un.org)
  • African countries must continue to challenge the US and other developed countries to reduce agricultural subsidies. (un.org)
  • The Northern Cape Arabian Championship will be taking place at the Upington Agricultural Expo from the 28th to the 30th of April. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • No details were given on specific projects, although Mr Xi said China was planning initiatives in eight areas, including providing $147 million in emergency food aid, sending 500 agricultural experts to Africa, and providing scholarships, vocational training and trade promotion opportunities. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The series, published between 1950 and 1977, brings together a wealth of previously un-co-ordinated material on the ethnic groupings and social conditions of African peoples. (routledge.com)
  • Throughout human history there have been movements of peoples ( see human migration ) within, into, and out of Africa along its northern coasts, across the Sinai Peninsula , along the Red Sea , and especially in the Horn of Africa and coastal areas as far south as Southern Africa. (britannica.com)
  • North Africa from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Nile River delta has been the site of conquests and movements of peoples for thousands of years. (britannica.com)
  • Most Africans speak more than one language, and frequent migrations and interactions, including intermarriage, with other peoples have often blurred ethnic distinctions. (britannica.com)
  • Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa , some dating from prehistoric communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • China-Africa cooperation under the BRI is a way to common prosperity that brings benefits to both our peoples. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In February, De Beers announced it was consolidating its assets in South Africa and Canada into one entity called De Beers Group Managed Operations. (northernminer.com)
  • The Kolomela Mine is situated near Postmasburg Town in the Northern Cape Territory in South Africa. (mining-technology.com)
  • 2. Sitas F, Madhoo J, Wessie J. National Cancer Registry of South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Incidence of Histologically Diagnosed Cancer in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3. Mqoqi N, Kellett P, Sitas F, Jula M. Incidence of Histologically Diagnosed Cancer in South Africa, 1998-1999. (scielo.org.za)
  • Colorectal cancer in South Africa: A heritable cause suspected in many young black patients. (scielo.org.za)
  • South African National Burden of Disease Study 2000: Estimates of Provincial Mortality. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council, 2004. (scielo.org.za)
  • 13. Statistics South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Pretoria: Statistics South Africa, 2007. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Rooipoort Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and as such deserves to be conserved and protected. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Rooipoort Nature Reserve (RNR) is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and has a very interesting utilisation history. (scielo.org.za)
  • In 1985 it was also declared as the fourth South African Natural Heritage Site. (scielo.org.za)
  • Thus pig keepers throughout South Africa are advised to be extremely careful as to where they buy pigs and what they feed pigs as this disease can be devastating to their herd. (sanews.gov.za)
  • Police Minister Bheki Cele on Tuesday said the list of hotspots was compiled based on nine key variables, including the number of cases reported to the South African Police Se. (sanews.gov.za)
  • W W hat better way to experience the ultimate in safari experiences - picture walking through the untouched wild of South Africa, to your left a 1000-year-old Baobab tree, to your right a herd of giraffes getting ready for the day ahead. (southafrica.net)
  • All you need is an experienced tracker, which most lodges provide, to take you out and show you the best-kept secrets of the South African wilderness. (southafrica.net)
  • Simply put, a walking safari is the ideal way to really experience the South African bush. (southafrica.net)
  • In the South African wilderness, you begin your journey into the soul of Africa. (southafrica.net)
  • The beauty of South Africa is breathed through the smiles of friendly faces, the mosaic of cultures and cuisines, and the complex history that has shaped it. (sa-venues.com)
  • South Africa's climatic conditions generally range from Mediterranean in the southwestern corner of South Africa to temperate in the interior plateau, and subtropical in the northeast. (sa-venues.com)
  • We hope you enjoy your stay in South Africa! (sa-venues.com)
  • It is one of the richest rainfall areas in South Africa. (sa-venues.com)
  • Du Preez's score gave South Africa a four-point lead and that meant Wales, with goal-kicking fly-half Dan Biggar off the field for a head injury assessment, needed a try to regain the lead in a brutal and see-saw contest. (france24.com)
  • Wales had won just two of their previous 30 Tests against South Africa, a run including 16 straight defeats. (france24.com)
  • Instead, South Africa took the lead through Pollard's eighth-minute penalty as English referee Wayne Barnes penalised Wales for not rolling away at the breakdown. (france24.com)
  • Biggar regathered his own high kick, beating South Africa full-back Willie le Roux to the ball, and then released Davies for a try which Biggar converted to make it 10-9 to Wales. (france24.com)
  • South Africa won another penalty heading into the final quarter and Pollard from out wide on the left, nudged the Springboks into an 18-16 lead. (france24.com)
  • From the re-start, however, South Africa were off their feet at a ruck and Biggar edged Wales ahead at 19-18 until Du Preez struck. (france24.com)
  • Where Is The Yellow Fever Belt Of Africa And South America? (worldatlas.com)
  • Yellow fever is more pronounced in the tropic and subtropic countries of South America and Africa. (worldatlas.com)
  • Yellow fever belt" is a name given to groups of countries within the tropics and subtropics, especially in Africa and South America where the realistic chances of contracting yellow fever tend to be quite high. (worldatlas.com)
  • If one does not obey the 10-day rule they can be denied entry into South Africa by the immigration officers. (worldatlas.com)
  • All the countries in Africa are part of the yellow fever belt except the North and South African countries. (worldatlas.com)
  • The Northern Cape Arabian Horse Club hereby invite you to attend one of the most affordable and hospitable shows South Africa has to offer. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • We have the privilege and honour to host for the first time judging in South Africa, Dr Trevor Miller , all the way from the United States. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • The ANC-Communist Party regime came to power in South Africa with Western aid, despite the regime's atrocious history. (thenewamerican.com)
  • With acquiescence and even aid from the West, South Africa is in a death spiral, as its elected communist leaders incite genocide and uprisings to bring about total control. (thenewamerican.com)
  • On Tuesday, October 2, 2012, the Fox Valley Conservative Forum, which meets regularly for a luncheon on Tuesdays in Appleton, Wisconsin, hosted a talk by South African Sonia Hruska, who now lives in the United States. (thenewamerican.com)
  • European colonization and the African slave trade import smallpox into the Caribbean and Central and South America. (cdc.gov)
  • According to a representative from the company, the project supplies clean electricity to 95,000 South African households. (dailymaverick.co.za)
  • Concurrent with the country's energy crisis, which was caused by the government's failure to build additional generating plant early enough to meet growing demand and Eskom's late completion of the Medupi and Kusile power projects, South Africa is experiencing the worst drought on record since 1933. (dailymaverick.co.za)
  • You will have access to newspapers from South African provinces and you will find travel and tourism information. (nationsonline.org)
  • Tourism South Africa, official site of the South Africa Tourism Board. (nationsonline.org)
  • Detailed Map of South Africa. (nationsonline.org)
  • The only South African university situated in a nature reserve, founded 1964. (nationsonline.org)
  • South Africa is expected to have a maize surplus this season after a deficit last year when 7.5 million tonnes of maize was produced against national demand of 10.5 million tonnes. (yahoo.com)
  • And the South African Broadcasting Corporation has indicated that it is considering recouping advertising revenue from him pending a probe into the number of times he has mentioned the energy drink on-air. (news24.com)
  • American Mission Committee at Natal 1851 "Plan for Ef fecting a Uniform Orthography of the South- African Dialects", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2: 330-334. (peterlang.com)
  • Fossil dinoflagellate cysts are for the first time described from South Africa and occur in sediments of Campanian, Maastrichtian and possibly Danian age. (wits.ac.za)
  • C hina has denied engaging in 'debt trap' diplomacy, and Mr Xi's offer of more money comes after a pledge of another $60 billion at the previous summit in South Africa three years ago. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Variolation (cutaneous technique) is a widespread method for preventing smallpox in the Ottoman Empire (former Asia Minor, present-day Turkey) and North Africa. (cdc.gov)