AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa.(1/125)

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Unprecedented degree of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M genetic diversity in the Democratic Republic of Congo suggests that the HIV-1 pandemic originated in Central Africa. (2/125)

The purpose of this study was to document the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; formerly Zaire). A total of 247 HIV-1-positive samples, collected during an epidemiologic survey conducted in 1997 in three regions (Kinshasa [the capital], Bwamanda [in the north], and Mbuyi-Maya [in the south]), were genetically characterized in the env V3-V5 region. All known subtypes were found to cocirculate, and for 6% of the samples the subtype could not be identified. Subtype A is predominant, with prevalences decreasing from north to south (69% in the north, 53% in the capital city, and 46% in the south). Subtype C, D, G, and H prevalences range from 7 to 9%, whereas subtype F, J, K, and CRF01-AE strains represent 2 to 4% of the samples; only one subtype B strain was identified. The highest prevalence (25%) of subtype C was in the south, and CRF01-AE was seen mainly in the north. The high intersubtype variability among the V3-V5 sequences is the most probable reason for the low (45%) efficiency of subtype A-specific PCR and HMA (heteroduplex mobility assay). Eighteen (29%) of 62 samples had discordant subtype designations between env and gag. Sequence analysis of the entire envelope from 13 samples confirmed the high degree of diversity and complexity of HIV-1 strains in the DRC; 9 had a complex recombinant structure in gp160, involving fragments of known and unknown subtypes. Interestingly, the unknown fragments from the different strains did not cluster together. Overall, the high number of HIV-1 subtypes cocirculating, the high intrasubtype diversity, and the high numbers of possible recombinant viruses as well as different unclassified strains are all in agreement with an old and mature epidemic in the DRC, suggesting that this region is the epicenter of HIV-1 group M.  (+info)

Short-course eflornithine in Gambian trypanosomiasis: a multicentre randomized controlled trial. (3/125)

OBJECTIVE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether 7 days of intravenous eflornithine (100 mg/kg every 6 h) was as effective as the standard 14-day regimen in the treatment of late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. METHODS: A total of 321 patients (274 new cases, 47 relapsing cases) were randomized at four participating centres in Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda to one of these treatment regimens and followed up for 2 years. RESULTS: Six patients died during treatment, one of whom was on the 7-day regimen, whereas the other five had been on the 14-day regimen (P = 0.2). The response to eflornithine differed markedly between Uganda and other countries. Among new cases in Uganda, the 2-year probability of cure was 73% on the 14-day course compared with 62% on the 7-day regimen (hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure, 7-day versus 14-day regimen: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.7, 3.1, P = 0.3). Among new cases in Cote d'Ivoire, Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined, the 2-year probability of cure was 97% on the 14-day course compared with 86.5% on the 7-day regimen (HR for treatment failure, 7-day vs 14-day: 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 31.0, P = 0.003). Among relapsing cases in all four countries, the 2-year probability of cure was 94% with 7 days and 100% with 14 days of treatment. Factors associated with a higher risk of treatment failure were: a positive lymph node aspirate (HR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-9.4), a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count > or = 100/mm3 (HR 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-10.9), being treated in Uganda (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-5.9), and CSF trypanosomes (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-4.1). Being stuporous on admission was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (HR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-1.4) as was increasing age (HR 0.977; 95% CI: 0.95-1.0, for each additional year of age). DISCUSSION: The 7-day course of eflornithine is an effective treatment of relapsing cases of Gambian trypanosomiasis. For new cases, a 7-day course is inferior to the standard 14-day regimen and cannot be recommended.  (+info)

Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. (4/125)

The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent - inter alia - to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski's oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests.  (+info)

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--West and Central Africa, 1999-2000. (5/125)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by 2000. Reported polio cases have decreased on all continents. In 2000, poliovirus was isolated from 24 countries, 13 in the African Region of WHO (AFR). This report summarizes the routine polio vaccination coverage, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) during 1999 and 2000, and the synchronization of national immunization days (NIDs) against polio during 2000 and early 2001 in 16 countries in west and central Africa.  (+info)

Modeling and reinforcement to combat HIV: the MARCH approach to behavior change. (6/125)

Theory and research suggest that behavioral interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS may be most effective when they are personalized and affectively compelling, when they provide models of desired behaviors, and when they are linked to social and cultural narratives. Effective strategies must also take into account the opportunities and obstacles present in the local environment. The Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV (MARCH) projects combine key aspects of individual behavior change with efforts to change social norms. There are 2 main components to the program: entertainment as a vehicle for education (longrunning serialized dramas on radio or television portray role models evolving toward the adoption of positive behaviors) and interpersonal reinforcement at the community level (support from friends, family members, and others can help people initiate behavior changes; support through changes in social norms is necessary for behavioral effects to be sustained over time). Both media and interpersonal intervention activities should be linked to existing resources in the community and, wherever possible, provide increased access to preventive services, supplies, and other supporting elements.  (+info)

Infertility in central Africa. (7/125)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of primary and secondary infertility in the four Central African countries of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic and Gabon. METHODS: Primary infertility was approximated by the percentage of women childless after at least 5 years of marriage. The percentage with no birth at least 5 years subsequent to a previous birth was considered to have secondary infertility. Logistic regression and discrete logistic regression models were estimated to determine the risk factors of primary and secondary infertility, respectively. The relatively few women who were defined as infertile and reported using a traditional or modern method of contraception at survey date were considered fertile to reduce bias from falsely classifying effective contraceptive users as infertile. RESULTS: The prevalence of infertility was highest in Central African Republic and lowest in Chad: primary infertility ranged from 6.9% to 3.1% and secondary infertility for women aged 20-44 years ranged from 26.5% to 18.9%. Women married more than once vs. only once and formerly married women vs. women living with their husbands had higher odds of primary and secondary infertility. Also, younger cohorts had relatively higher risks of primary (born after 1970) and secondary infertility (born after 1960) compared with women born before 1960. In contrast, place of residence, religion, education of wife or husband and socio-economic status were generally not associated with primary or secondary infertility. CONCLUSIONS: Infertility is still prevalent in Central Africa and new interventions aimed at reducing the incidence and social implications of pathologic infertility are needed.  (+info)

RESPONSE OF VOLTA CHILDREN TO LIVE ATTENUATED MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE. (8/125)

Experience so far with the Enders B-level Edmonston strain of live attenuated measles vaccine has been principally with children in the USA in whom natural measles carries a low mortality. Measles is associated with an appreciably higher mortality rate in developing countries; in Upper Volta, climate, nutritional status, degree of parasitic infestation and concurrent infections may contribute to this. The present report summarizes a pilot study in Ouagadougou, Upper Volta, designed to obtain information on the response of Volta children to Enders vaccine and to determine the feasibility of using this vaccine on a large scale.The observations indicate that Volta children, despite the hazards of natural measles, respond in essentially the same manner to live vaccine given alone or with gamma-globulin as do children in other areas. The febrile reactions which characterize infection with the attenuated measles virus were of insufficient importance to warrant the concurrent use of gamma-globulin in a forthcoming mass measles vaccination campaign in Upper Volta.  (+info)

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Antioch: Antioch, ancient city in Phrygia, near the Pisidian border, close to modern Yalvaç, in west-central Turkey. Founded by Seleucus I Nicator (c. 358-281 bc), it was made a free
The UN Childrens Fund, UNICEF, has said that no fewer than 270,000 estimated children aged 0 to 14 years were living with HIV in Nigeria in 2016. The figure represented the lion share of half of the 540,000 total infected children in West and Central Africa over the same year. Nigeria also recorded 37,000 new HIV infections among children out of the total of 60,000 new infections in West and Central Africa over the same period, representing 62 per cent of the new infections.. The UN childrens agency warned that the West and Central Africa were lagging too far behind the rest of the world in access to HIV treatment and care. Marie-Pierre Poirier, UNICEF Director, West and Central Africa, in a report released on Tuesday, called for improvement of early diagnosis and access to HIV treatment and care for children. The report said four in five children living with HIV in West and Central Africa were still not receiving life-saving antiretroviral therapy. It warned that AIDS-related deaths among ...
Images of nature landscapes, vegetation, plants and animals of Central Africa (Kenya and Tanzania, Masai Mara National Park, Kilimanjaro mountain, Manyara lake, Ngorongoro caldera, Tarangire National Park, Eastern Africa animals, Zanzibar island)
For the intrepid traveler, West and Central Africa presents exciting new places to explore. Check out a plethora of festivals and colorful celebrations or hire an eco-guide to see a menagerie of wildlife throughout this rich region.
An anthropobiological study in Basse Kotto (Central Africa). I. Erythrocyte and sero-genetic markers: an analysis of the genetic differentiation.: Phenotype and
Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) is an initiative endorsed by the Steering Committee of the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) to support eastern and central African countries in development and application of bioscience research and expertise to produce technologies that help poor farmers secure their assets, improve their productivity and income, and increase their market opportunities.
In Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic, Quammen investigates a handful of zoonoses and how they spilled over, traveling all over the world and going into the field to speak to doctors, scientists, and survivors. He joins a biologist in Gabon who is conducting a biological survey of Central African forests, visits the "wet markets" of Guangdong, China, and helps trap monkeys and bats in Bangladesh. Along the way, he talks to men who were in the village of Mayibout 2 when Ebola struck in 1996, the doctors in Singapore who treated patients suffering from what was later identified as SARS but at first seemed merely a severe case of pneumonia, scientists who identified previously unknown diseases and tracked them to their original hosts, and many others ...
Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) is an initiative endorsed by the Steering Committee of the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) to support eastern and central African countries in development and application of bioscience research and expertise to produce technologies that help poor farmers secure their assets, improve their productivity and income, and increase their market opportunities.
At the opening lecture at 5pm tonite Dr Beatrice Hahn talked about her reseaerch in Africa and how her research leads her to think that HIV was passed to humans from monkeys in West Central Africa. Her research leads her to believe that HIV was passed from other primates to monkeys thousands of years ago. And she believes that perhaps HIV was passed to humans through the business of hunting and selling bushmeat in Central Africa by humans. The humans were exposed to the blood of primates through catching, killing, and cutting up the animals. She and her team looked at 788 primates/monkeys and 16 species in Central Africa. 13 primate species had HIV-1/HIV-2; 20% of the animals had HIV (range 5-20% among the various species). 90% of the sexually active adults had HIV. She believes HIV was spread from one animal to another by the fighting of animals amongst themselves. Hahn developed a non-invasive way to check urine & fecal samples from the monkeys to test them for HIV. Hahn said that by ...
Rajkot: City, west-central Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies near the centre of the Kathiawar Peninsula, about 45 miles (72 km) southeast of Jamnagar. The city was the capital...
Standley, CJ, Mugisha, L, Verweij, JJ, Adriko, M, Arinaitwe, M, Rowell, C, Atuhaire, A, Betson, M, Hobbs, E, van Tulleken, CR, Kane, RA, van Lieshout, L, Ajarova, L, Kabatereine, NB and Stothard, JR (2011) Confirmed infection with intestinal schistosomiasis in semi-captive wild-born chimpanzees on Ngamba Island, Uganda. ...
opinion In South Africa today, nearly 4 million people are on antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the largest HIV patient cohort in the world. At the same time…
The School of medicine was established in 2004 as a Centre of excellence in health research, capacity building and product development. It has rapidly developed over time and now has eleven departments that are fully established offering various degrees and diplomas.
Case Study - Learn more about how MEGA helped CFH streamline banking operations, deliver training to all the groups employees, and help implement e-payment solutions for customers.
The HIV-1 is classified into three groups. The "major" group that is M, the group M again has subtypes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K, the "outlier" group O and the third is the "new" group N. It has been found out that more than 90% of the people with HIV-1 infection belong to the group M. Group N is extremely rare and group O is restricted to west-central Africa ...
We begin this review of the Suns influence on European temperatures with the study of Holzhauser et al. (2005)[1], who presented high-resolution records of variations in glacier size in the Swiss Alps together with lake-level fluctuations in the Jura mountains, the northern French Pre-Alps, and the Swiss Plateau in developing a 3,500-year climate history of west-central Europe, starting… Read More ». ...
A suite of analyses was performed on sediments accumulated during the last 10 700 years in Lake Spaime, a small, hydrologically open water body in the modem alpine tundra zone of the Scandes Mountains, west-central Sweden ...
As one of west-central Floridas oldest towns formed by white settlers, Brooksville has a large concentration of structures from the 1870s and 1880s. A must see town if you are passionate about historic towns.
OLIVEIRA, EMILIANO C., ROSSETTI, DILCE F. and UTIDA, GISELLE Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil. An. Acad. Bras. Ci nc., May 2017, vol.89, no.1, p.407-429. ISSN 0001- ...
The more art you see, the better your eye gets and the surer you become about what you like and why. There are lots of excellent opportunities in galleries throughout the west-central Florida region
Lana Peters, Stalins daughter, died last week of colon cancer in a small town in west-central Wisconsin. She chose to live in Wisconsin at least partly because she had met her husband at Frank Lloyd Wrights architectural headquarters, which is located in the state. Wes Peters was an architect who worked with Wright. She says she hated her father because he destroyed her life twice: by refusing to allow her to marry a filmmaker in Russia and then preventing her from studying art and film.
International demand for commodity crops like cocoa is putting increasing pressure on tropical forests in sub-Saharan Africa, according to new research.
The Kingdom of Luba, located in central Africa, thrived from the 15th to 19th century CE and was the first such state in the Congo basin. Skills in ironworking...
The strain of Ebola that has circulated in West Africa for the last year takes longer to kill macaques than the virus that caused an outbreak in Central Africa in 1976.. 0 Comments. ...
Access to antiretroviral treatment is worryingly low in West and Central Africa, with little priority given to HIV in the region, according to a report from Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). Currently, just 24% of people have access to treatment in the region.. ...
Handdruk. From the collection: Vlisco, a Dutch manufacturer of printed fabrics for West and Central Africa. Date of creation: onbekend
Sarong. From the collection: Vlisco, a Dutch manufacturer of printed fabrics for West and Central Africa. Date of creation: 28-10-1927
Children, Vulnerability, and Social Vaccines: HIV/AIDS and Schooling in Southern and Central Africa: http://videos.med.wisc.edu/videos/111. ...
Four species of the genus Amphibiophilus Skrjabin, 1916 from pyxycephalid frogs in southern and central Africa are currently recognised as valid. Several specimens of Amphibiophilus were found in mate
Southern Rhodesia, Central Africa: March, 1914. A trooper of police, sent to contain a lawless settlement near Bulawayo, the countrys largest city, told on his arrival there that all the violence was caused by government restrictions (not true) took them at their word and made a single, simple
Office Details: ,GenuineResults,,MachineData,,UGUID,{E915C33F-DB52-4AF3-9FAE-BF497B73D0FE},/UGUID,,Version,1.9.0027.0,/Version,,OS,6.0.6002.2.00010300.2.0.003,/OS,,Architecture,x32,/Architecture,,PKey,*****-*****-*****-*****-WQD8Q,/PKey,,PID,89578-OEM-7332157-00061,/PID,,PIDType,2,/PIDType,,SID,S-1-5-21-384035841-3036777285-122321975,/SID,,SYSTEM,,Manufacturer,Hewlett-Packard,/Manufacturer,,Model,30BB____,/Model,,/SYSTEM,,BIOS,,Manufacturer,Hewlett-Packard,/Manufacturer,,Version,F.04 ,/Version,,SMBIOSVersion major=2 minor=4/,,Date,20060918000000.000000+000,/Date,,/BIOS,,HWID,F0303507018400FE,/HWID,,UserLCID,0409,/UserLCID,,SystemLCID,0409,/SystemLCID,,TimeZone,W. Central Africa Standard Time(GMT+01:00),/TimeZone,,iJoin,0,/iJoin,,SBID,,stat,3,/stat,,msppid,,/msppid,,name,,/name,,model,,/model,,/SBID,,OEM/,,GANotification/,,/MachineData,,Software,,Office,,Result,114,/Result,,Products,,Product GUID={90110409-6000-11D3-8CFE-0150048383C9},,LegitResult,114,/LegitResult,,Name,Microsoft Office ...
Im aware of two versions: Version 1: (as used in Malawi, central Africa) Use a tall glass, half to 3/4 filled wich ice Add half a glass of lemonade.
The Portuguese Dairy & Soy Food sector accounted for 2.5% volume share of the Western European market in 2016. It is led by the Cheese market, which accounted for the largest share in value terms, whereas Milk market led the sector in volume terms in 2016.
On May 12, 2014, by Executive Order 13667, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in and in relation to the Central African Republic, which has been marked by a breakdown of law and order, intersectarian tension, widespread violence and atrocities, and the pervasive, often forced recruitment and use of child soldiers, threatens the peace, security, or stability of the Central African Republic and neighboring states. The situation in and in relation to the Central African Republic continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared on May 12, 2014, to deal with that threat must continue in effect beyond May 12, 2020. Therefore, in accordance with ...
Candidates Faustin Touadera and Anicet Dologuele received enough voter support to advance to a second round of the Central African Republics presidential race, results released 01 January 2015 showed. The counting of ballots was continuing in Bangui, the capital, but with roughly two-thirds of them tallied, Touadera, a former prime minister in the government of ousted president Francois Bozize, led with 31,000 votes. Dologuele, also a former prime minister, had garnered 28,000 votes.. Former prime minister Faustin Archange Touadera was in the lead to become the Central African Republic s next president, initial election results showed. A quarter of the votes in the Central African Republic s elections had been counted as of 04 January 2016, with Faustin Archange Touadera, who served as prime minister under long-running President Francois Bozize, the current favorite of thirty candidates. The top two presidential hopefuls went head to head in a run-off election on 14 February 2016. Former Prime ...
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This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Central African Republic, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. There are more than 80 ethnic groups in the Central African Republic (CAR), each with its own language. About 50% are Baya-Mandjia, 40% Banda (largely located in the northern and central parts of the country), and 7% are MBaka (southwestern corner of the CAR). Sangho, the language of a small group along the Oubangui River, is the national language spoken by the majority of Central Africans. Only a small part of the population has more than an elemental knowledge of French, the official language. More than 55% of the population of the CAR lives in rural areas. The chief agricultural areas are around the Bossangoa and Bambari. Bangui, Berberati, Bangassou, and Bossangoa are the most densely populated urban centers. According to the 2017 ...
Nearly 1 million people have been displaced by ongoing violence in Central African Republic. Amidst growing chaos, WFP is on the ground delivering life-saving food assistance in communities such as Bossangoa, where 586 metric tons of food were recently distributed to nearly 40,000 people. To scale up its emergency response in the Central African Republic, WFP has appealed to the international community for an additional $107 million in aid.. ...
The president of Central African Republic on Thursday urgently called on France and other foreign powers to help his government fend off rebels who are quickly seizing territory and approaching this capital city, but French officials declined to offer any military assistance. About 200 French soldiers are already in the country, providing technical support and helping to train the local army, according to the French defense ministry. Central African Republic, a landlocked nation of 4.4 million people, has suffered decades of army revolts, coups and rebellions since gaining independence in 1960 and remains one of the poorest countries in the world.
Physical map of Central African Republic showing major cities, terrain, national parks, rivers, and surrounding countries with international borders and outline maps. Key facts about Central African Republic.
Central African Republic: Expansion of 2G/3G Coverage, Rising Mobile Data Adoption and Improvement in Broadband Connectivity to Fuel Telecom Growth is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This report provides an executive-level overview of the telecommunications market in Central African Republic today, with detailed forecasts of key indicators up to 2021. Published annually, the report provides detailed analysis of the near-term opportunities, competitive dynamics and evolution of demand by service type and technology/platform across the fixed telephony, broadband and mobile sectors, as well as a review of key regulatory trends. ...
|strong|BANGUI, Central African Republic/DAKAR/GENEVA/NEW YORK, 5 May 2017 - |/strong|Without increased support, the lives and futures of more than 1 million children in the Central African Republic are under threat, UNICEF said today.
BANGUI, Central African Republic, 24 December 2013 - Officials in UNICEF Bangui today expressed extreme concern that recent waves of violence in the Central African Republic will cause a sharp increase in children suffering severe malnutrition, putting their lives and future health at risk.
Nicole Sabiko, a young mom of 23 with four children, stepped into the new year the same way as she began the year before, and the one before that. Being displaced. Together with her children, she has been finding refuge at one of the many displaced peoples camps in Bangui, the capital of conflict-ravaged Central African Republic. How is she surviving?
Urban population in Central African Republic was reported at 1982064 in 2019, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Central African Republic - Urban population - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on October of 2020.
Bangui, Central African Republic, June 25, 2007 - The insecurity that prevails in northwestern Central African Republic (CAR) is severely impacting civilian populations and the humanitarian workers assisting them, Doctors Without Borders/ Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) said today.
Sub-region an epicentre of recurrent outbreaks and high burden of infectious diseases Libreville, 02 August 2017- Central African countries meeting last week on Thursday and Friday operationalised the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Preventions (Africa CDC) Regional Collaborating Centre (RCC). The centre will coordinate the efforts of Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sao Tomé and Principe and Chad to jointly strengthen surveillance, emergency response and prevention of infectious and non-communicable diseases. The Central Africa sub-region has witnessed several disease outbreaks including Ebola, Cholera and Hepatitis in addition to a high burden of malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, vaccine-preventable diseases and neglected tropical diseases.. "The recent African Heads of State and Government Declaration, committing to accelerate the implementation of International Health Regulations, demonstrate the resolve of African ...
Objective: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of behavioral symptoms and associated factors in the elderly in the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo. Methods: An analysis of baseline data was performed from the EPIDEMCA (Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa) multicenter population-based study carried out in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between 2011 and 2012 in elderly aged 65 and over. Cognitive disorders were assessed in two phases. The first phase was cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview in Dementia. Following cognitive screening, in the second phase, participants suspected of dementia underwent clinical assessment based on the abridged version of the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) which assesses 12 behavioral disorders in the elderly over the previous 30 days. Results: NPI data were available for 532 out of participants examined in the second phase of EPIDEMCA. Among the 532
Immunisations programmes in Africa are at risk thanks to the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new analysis by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Measles outbreaks are currently ongoing in several countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic. The DRC outbreak is currently the worlds largest, affecting over 300,000…. ...
Simba, Malik (1997). "Central Africa". The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery: A-K ; Vol. II, L-Z. ABC-CLIO. p. 138. ISBN ... Swann, Alfred J.; Bennett, Norman (2012). Fighting the Slave Hunters in Central Africa: A Record of Twenty-Six Years of Travel ... Sources Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1898). The Congo State: Or, the Growth of Civilisation in Central Africa. Cambridge ... The International African Association offered their support if Tippu Tip would help them achieve control of the territories in ...
". "Africa". Sniper Central. ".303 British". 303british.com. David Cushman. "Headstamps of various .303 ammunition producers". ... In South Africa .303 British Lee-Enfield rifles captured by the Boers during the Boer War were adapted for sporting purposes ... The high-velocity 7×57mm had a flatter trajectory and longer range that excelled on the open country of the South African ... in the United States and South Africa. In Canada, it was found to be adequate for any game except the great bears. In Australia ...
In 2010, Ahmed served as the vice-president of the Comoros chapter of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and was appointed ... "Chiefs of State& Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments - A Directory" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 November ... Africa Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 9 November 2017. "Comoros: Detained Politician Goes On Hunger Strike". AllAfrica ... First women lawyers around the world "COMOROS ISLANDS : Couple takes its distance from Sambi". Africa Intelligence. Retrieved 8 ...
"Africa: Algeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 7 ... During the 7th century, Muslims reached North Africa, and by the beginning of the 8th century the Berbers had been for the most ... One of the dominant characteristics of Islam in North Africa was the cult of holy men, or maraboutism. Marabouts were believed ... The brotherhoods were prevalent in the rural and mountainous areas of Algeria and other parts of North Africa. Their leaders ...
ISBN 0-571-20197-0. "Central Africa, explored". Unimaps.com. 2005. Retrieved 2011-08-26. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The ... African-American inventor (d. 1910) April 24 - Philippe Pétain, French soldier, statesman (d. 1951) April 26 - Sir Joseph Ward ... Central American politician July 14 - Edward Vernon Utterson, English lawyer, literary antiquary, collector and editor (b. 1775 ... having completed a 2-year transcontinental journey across Africa from Luanda. May 21 - Sacking of Lawrence: Lawrence, Kansas is ...
A Tuareg rebellion in early 2012 that forced the armed forces of Mali, a West African country with significant holdings in the ... North Korea threatened to take military action if South Korea continued to drop leaflets fomenting revolt, Korean Central News ... "Sub-Saharan Africa censors Mideast". The Committee to Protect Journalists. 18 February 2011. "Ethiopia: Eskinder Nega is nazret ... Many Zimbwabwean migrants to South Africa, who number in the hundreds of thousands, are free to talk of the events. However, ...
"Africa: Malawi". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 March 2017. Igunza, Emmanuel (20 February 2015 ...
"Central Africa Republic". U. S. Department of State. Retrieved 2011-05-30. "Wilton Wendell Blancke". U. S. Department of State ... Central African RepublicConsulate: Recognized: 1960 Relations established: 1960 Legation/embassy established: 1961 First ... Ambassador Blancke was commissioned to the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon, while resident ... Ambassador Blancke was commissioned to the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon, while resident ...
United Peoples' Democratic Party For Justice and Development Wadani "ALN Member Parties". Africa Liberal Network. Retrieved 26 ... Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2014-01-19. Kulmiye Party Of Somaliland. ...
Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2007-09-18. Ham, Anthony; Bainbridge, James (2010-07-30). Lonely Planet ... Africa. Lonely Planet. pp. 653-. ISBN 9781741049886. Retrieved 3 November 2012. ... The Tadjourah Region (Arabic: إقليم تاجورة‎, Somali: Gobolka Tajuura, Afar: Tagórri Rakaakay) is a region in north-central ...
According to the WHO:"The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are: Niger, 75%; Chad and Central African ... "Another president's son caught with his hand in the cookie jar? - ISS Africa". ISS Africa. Retrieved 2017-02-19. Stevenson, ... African Development Bank, Economic Community of West African States, World Bank, Islamic Development Bank, IMF, and the United ... Part of West African cuisine, the foods of Guinea include jollof rice, maafe, and tapalapa bread. In rural areas, food is eaten ...
Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-07-17. Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-08-29. "Côte d'Ivoire". OT ... BBC Monitoring Africa. 2007-04-07. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help). ... Africa Line. Retrieved 2007-08-29. "Biographie du Ministre" (in French). Ministère de l'Education Nationale. 2004. Archived ...
To Emergent Africa'. Central Episode. Etudes. Variations In C Minor Adagio. Tribute To Bach Triple Fugue Over Ground Bass: ... Chris Walton, "Composer in Interview: Ronald Stevenson - a Scot in 'emergent Africa'" Ronald Stevenson, A musical Biography by ... a section entitled To Emergent Africa involving percussive effects directly on the piano strings, a section resonating to ...
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2014-01-19. "Faisal Ali Warabe". Africa Confidential. Retrieved 2 July 2013. General " ... "Faisal Ali Warabe". Africa Confidential. Retrieved 2 July 2013. "CURRICULUM VITAE Eng. FAISAL ALI FARAH". Farshaxan. Retrieved ...
The Nordic Africa Institute. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-07-03. Retrieved 2011-09-20. The Franco-Ethiopian railway ... Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. Map #803395. bing Maps (Map). Microsoft. 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-05. Lindahl, Bernhard (2005 ... Nordic Africa Institute. 2008. p. 28. Retrieved 2010-11-11. "Nazareth Selected as Oromiya's Capital". Walta Information Center ... 1 Archived 2011-11-13 at the Wayback Machine., Tables 2.1, 2.5, 3.4 (accessed 13 January 2012) Central Statistical Agency. 2010 ...
Asia (central); Caucasus Mountains; Azerbaijan; Afghanistan; Iran; Kashmir; Iraq; Africa (northeastern Africa); Egypt; ... The species is found in central Asia, the Caucasus Mountains, northeastern Africa, and its distribution includes the following ... is a primarily outdoor-dwelling cockroach native to an area from northern Africa to Central Asia. Adults measure around 3 cm ( ... Researchers believe the species arrived on military equipment returning from central Asia, perhaps Afghanistan. Since then the ...
Central Intelligence Agency". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 20 September 2017. "Nigerian Gross Domestic Product Report ... "A closer look at Nigeria's GDP rebasing". cnbc Africa. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. "GDP - COMPOSITION BY SECTOR ... Central Intelligence Agency. Missing or empty ,url= (help); ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Nigerian Gross Domestic ...
"Africa:: Guinea". Central Intelligence Agency. Guinea: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, p. 79 "(CLSG) - Cote D'Ivoire, Liberia ... International Monetary Fund, African Dept. 3 July 2013. pp. 27-28. ISBN 9781484318812. "Electricité de Guinée (EDG)". ECOWAS ... and West African Power Pool. The country has no known reserves. It imported an estimated 9,089 bbl/day in 2012. The estimated ... Sierra Leone & Guinea Interconnection project". West African Power Pool. ...
East Central Africa. XI. Retrieved 3 April 2013. Gray, Catherine T. (1993). "The Ugandan Lyre endongo and Its Music". British ... It is a member of a family of lyres which can be found, with variations, in many areas throughout East Africa. The endongo is ... Songs with endongo bowl lyre and a humorous song with drums from the Ganda of Buganda district (Central Province), Uganda By ... Wachsmann, K.P. (1971). "Musical instruments in Kiganda historical tradition and their place in the East African scene". Essays ...
"The World Fact Book". Africa:: Malawi. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-10-17. "Malawi". The World Factbook. CIA. ... Mitchell, Claudia (2004). "The Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Education Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Synthesis of ... Goodman, C.A.; P.G. Coleman; A.J. Mills (1999). "Cost-effectiveness of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa". Lancet. 354: 378 ... the Findings and Recommendations of Three Country Studies (review)". Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa. ...
"Africa: Ghana". The CIA World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 Apr 2016. Campion, P. (2004). "Gender and ... Female genital mutilation is not as prevalent in Ghana as it is in other countries in West Africa; 3.8% of women aged 15-49 ... An example of this is, president's wives in Africa are required to be present at official functions, yet preferably sons. Along ... There are social standards that women in Africa have to follow, depending on their culture and religion. There are other ...
"Central Africa: Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola - Ecoregions - WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 11 August 2017 ... "Western Africa: Stretching form Nigeria to Senegal - Ecoregions - WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 11 August 2017. "Central ... The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic lies between the Congolian forests of Central Africa and the East Sudanian savanna ... Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and southwestern Sudan. The Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic ...
Africa; Asia, Latin America, Caribbean; Europe, Mediterranean, Central Asia; International Services; Human Resources). GIZ ...
Central Africa Basenji 1. Spain Podenco Canario Podenco Ibicenco 2. Italy Cirneco dell'Etna 3. Portugal Podengo Português 4. ...
Watching Wildlife: Southern Africa. Melbourne: Lonely Planet, 2002. Hunter, Luke, and David Andrew. Watching Wildlife: Central ... Cats of Africa: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Hunter, Luke, Susan ... Hunter has worked on the ecology and conservation of carnivores in Africa since 1992. His doctorate and post-doctoral research ... developing a conservation strategy for lions across their African range, and the first intensive study of Persian leopards, ...
3.2 Africa *3.2.1 South Africa. *3.2.2 Zimbabwe. *3.3 Central America and the Caribbean *3.3.1 Barbados ... South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Find this book in the South Central Library System catalog (south central Wisconsin) ... Central America and the Caribbean. Barbados. * Find this book in the University of the West Indies (Cave Hill campus) Library ...
A quarter of the votes in the Central African Republic s elections had been counted as of 04 January 2016, with Faustin ... Former prime minister Faustin Archange Touadera was in the lead to become the Central African Republic s next president, ... France will stop military operations in the Central African Republic later in 2016 after Frances defense minister said March ... France on 31 October 2016 formally ended a peacekeeping mission in Central African Republic, hailing it a success despite ...
... particularly between Seleka factions in the central regions and between rebels and anti-balaka militias in the northwest. ... Violence has increased throughout the Central African Republic, ... The UN Shouldnt Fail the Central African Republic. Lewis Mudge ... Explore Africa. Central African Republic. Violence has increased throughout the Central African Republic, particularly between ... THE UNRAVELLING: The Central African Republic Crisis. The Unravelling: Journey Through The Central African Republic Crisis ...
Security Council voted Friday to slightly ease the arms embargo against the Central African Republic, with Russia and China ... because we want to see peace and security in the Central African Republic and elevate the interests of the Central African ... UNITED NATIONS (AP) - The U.N. Security Council voted Friday to slightly ease the arms embargo against the Central African ... Central African Republic has faced deadly interreligious and intercommunal fighting since 2013, when predominantly Muslim ...
18 - Violence broke out during a demonstration in Central African Republic Sunday as protestors rallied against the killing of ... Demonstration turns violent in Central African Republic. Posted Nov. 18 - Violence broke out during a demonstration in Central ... African Republic Sunday as protestors rallied against the killing of a former government official. Deborah Lutterbeck reports. ...
... the upcoming trial of two militia leaders is a significant step for justice for grave crimes committed in the Central African ... There are currently 684,000 displaced people inside the Central Africa Republic and 617,000 Central African refugees in the ... He says he had made an effort to achieve peace in the Central African Republic:. [T]he job I do is with the aim of bringing ... The Central African Republic has established a Special Criminal Court in the capital, Bangui, to try serious international ...
Armed men in the capital of the Central African Republic kidnapped a female staff member with the UN peacekeeping mission ... Armed men in the capital of the Central African Republic kidnapped a female staff member with the UN peacekeeping mission ...
Physical map of Central African Republic showing major cities, terrain, national parks, rivers, and surrounding countries with ... Where is Central African Republic?. Print Map The Central African Republic or CAR is located in Central Africa in the Northern ... Physical Map of Central African Republic. Print Map The Central African Republic is located in the heart of Africa where it ... Regional Maps: Map of Africa Outline Map of Central African Republic. This outline map shows the entire country of the Central ...
Witnesses say heavy gunfire has erupted in the capital of Central African Republic. The violent clashes come after several days ... Read more on: un , central african republic , central africa Join the conversation!. 24.com encourages commentary submitted via ... Central African Republic erupted into sectarian violence in late 2013. The fighting in recent days is the worst the country has ... Central African Republic capital rocked by overnight clashes. 2015-09-28 16:56 ...
... the Central African Republic has struggled under repeated political crisis which have resulted in conflict and instability. ... UNFPA Central African Republic. One of the worlds poorest countries, the Central African Republic has struggled under repeated ... Key results of Central African Republic in 2018. Youth participation in humanitarian response. During a humanitarian crisis, ... Central African Republic 2018 Programme Activities data Integrated sexual and reproductive health services ...
Catholic leaders in the Central African Republic spoke of a humanitarian crisis and criticized attempts to fuel interreligious ... Catholics make up around a third of the 4.4 million inhabitants of the Central African Republic, one of the worlds poorest ... "We condemn every attempt at political recovery which aims at antagonizing Central Africans and setting them against each other ... Catholic leaders in the Central African Republic spoke of a humanitarian crisis and criticized attempts to fuel interreligious ...
The Ugandan army Wednesday has announced the end of pursuit operations in the Central African Republic (CAR) for the (...) ... envoyer Uganda ends anti-LRA military operation in Central African Republic par courriel ...
Central African Republic - 2006 - Introduction Geography Population Government Economy Communications Transportation Military ... Central African Republic - 2006 https://theodora.com/wfbcurrent/central_african_republic/index.html SOURCE: 2006 CIA WORLD ... https://theodora.com/wfbcurrent/central_african_republic/index.html Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis (All Rights Reserved). ...
... or stability of the Central African Republic and neighboring states. The situation in and in relation to the Central African ... Donald J. Trump, Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Central African Republic Online by Gerhard ... Notice-Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Central African Republic. ... security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in and in relation to the Central African ...
You dont have to venture far to see the misery caused by the latest crisis in the Central African Republic. On the edge of the ... U.N. Ambassador Laments Misery In Central African Republic By Michele Kelemen • Dec 20, 2013 ... MICHELE KELEMEN, BYLINE: You dont have to venture very far to see the misery caused by the latest crisis in Central African ... Her trip has focused on Central African Republic - a country that has descended into sectarian violence since a coup in March. ...
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Central African Republic - Urban population - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the , ... Urban population in Central African Republic was reported at 1982064 in 2019, according to the World Bank collection of ... Urban population in Central African Republic was reported at 1982064 in 2019, according to the World Bank collection of ... Central African Republic - Urban population - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the ...
... book cheap flights to Central African Republic at Travelstart: ✓ Lowest fares online ✓ Easy online booking - Book today! ... About Central African Republic Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. With a population of more ... Best time to visit Central African Republic Central African Republics tropical climate affords the country two seasons: a ... Why visit Central African Republic Butterflies Home to nearly 600 species of butterflies, these majestic and bold coloured ...
Central African Republic Government Budget at 1.00 percent of GDP. Central African Republic GDP Annual Growth Rate at 4.30 ... Central African Republic Unemployment Rate at 6.50 percent. Central African Republic Current Account at -14.90 CFA Franc ... Central African Republic - Access to improved sanitation facilities, rural (% of rural population): Q1 (lowest) Access to ... Central African Republic Government Debt to GDP at 48.50 percent. ...
Central African Republic: Expansion of 2G/3G Coverage, Rising Mobile Data Adoption and Improvement in Broadband Connectivity to ... The telecom services revenue in Central African Republic is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 10.3% during 2016-2021, driven ... The overall telecom service revenue in Central African Republic is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 10.3% during 2016-2021. ... Economic, demographic and political context in Central African Republic.. - The regulatory environment and trends: a review of ...
... are also found in Central Africa, such as the Gbaya, Banda and Zande, in northern Central Africa. Notable Central African supra ... Play media Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, ... Some major ethnic groups in Central Africa are as follows: Geography portal Africa portal British Central Africa Protectorate ( ... Central Africa also includes many Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo Ubangian communities: in north western Central Africa the Nilo- ...
"Central Africa Party Splits in Three Factions", Africa Report, Volumes 5-7, 1960 "Liberal Party for Northern Rhodesia" The ... The Central Africa Party was a multi-racial political party in Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland and Southern Rhodesia. The CAP was ... In Southern Rhodesia it continued under the Central Africa Party name. It put forward 14 candidates for the December 1962 ... Africa Report, Volumes 5-7 1960, African-American Institute, plxx The Last Great Fight The Spectator, 21 May 1959 Bizeck Jube ...
... instrument captured a look at huge numbers of fires burning and the resulting smoke in central Africa on June 27, 2017. ...
British Central Africa. Br Med J 1908; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2471.1143 (Published 09 May 1908) Cite this as: Br ...
Central African Republic. The Central African Empire (French: Empire centrafricain) was a short-lived and self-proclaimed last ... Bokassas full title was "Emperor of Central Africa by the Will of the Central African People, United within the National ... This operations success effectively ended the Central African Empire and reintroduced the Central African Republic. ... Making sense of the Central African Republic. ISBN 978-1-78360-381-7. . OCLC 1004968881.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
African protected areas are the principal safeguard for Africas rich biodiversity.. Key African protected area issues include: ... There are a number of protected area projects managed by regional and country offices in West & Central Africa and there is a ... However, this is not the case in West and Central Africa and protected area strategies based around Tourism are less likely to ... There are increasing efforts in Western and Central Africa to link the WCPA network with the activities of the IUCN regional ...
  • In February 2016 armed Fulani (Peulh) herders, at times supported by ex-Seleka and anti-Balaka fighters, attacked civilians along a corridor used for the seasonal movement of livestock in the central regions, leading to temporary mass displacement of populations in the towns of Kouango, Kaga Bandoro, and Batangafo. (globalsecurity.org)
  • While he does not contest that he was a leader of the anti-balaka, he also says that the group should not be exclusively targeted for its abuses and that "it is the Central African population that rose up. (hrw.org)
  • France's Deputy Ambassador Anne Gueguen told the council after the vote that "against a security backdrop which is still unstable" it's important that the council assist Central African authorities toward meeting the benchmarks, which is "a key element for enduring peace and security" in the country. (yahoo.com)
  • Niger's U.N. Ambassador Abdou Abarry, speaking on behalf of the three African council members including South Africa and Tunisia, said the resolution "will pave the way for armed forces to reequip themselves so they can regain control over the entire country and push back the armed groups that continue to threaten peace and security. (yahoo.com)
  • Father Jose Maria Saba, treasurer of the Salesian province of Equatorial Tropical Africa, wrote confreres in the United States and expressed concern that there was no one to protect the people at the two centers. (americamagazine.org)
  • We condemn every attempt at political recovery which aims at antagonizing Central Africans and setting them against each other under the pretext of religious affiliations," the archbishop said in the message, co-signed by Bishop Nestor Nongo Aziagbia of Bossangoa, the conference's vice president. (americamagazine.org)
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