AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (1/2725)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(2/2725)

 (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (3/2725)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (4/2725)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults. (5/2725)

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories. (6/2725)

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (7/2725)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis. (8/2725)

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)

*Betty Oyella Bigombe

Later, she was appointed a Distinguished African Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, also in ... McLaughlin, Abraham (13 September 2005). "Africa's Peace Seekers: Betty Bigombe". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2 March ...

*Ancestral reconstruction

Further, their results support the hypothesis of long-standing presence of African rabies in West Africa. Inferring historical ... and for 101 rabies virus sequences sampled across twelve African countries. Treating locations as discrete states (countries, ...

*Central Region, Uganda

It is coterminous with the Kingdom of Buganda, one of the ancient African monarchies that are constitutionally recognised in ...

*List of law firms in Uganda

All are described as in general practice firms, as there is not substantial specialization in Uganda (while in South Africa it ... The deal is the first greenfield power financing in Uganda and is east Africa's largest private sector investment. The project ... Uganda "is easier", as exemplified by South AFrican firm ENSafrica (ENS) launching an office in Kampala, separately from its ... Advocates, ABM ENSafrica-Uganda, 2013-established, in Kampala, a part of ENSafrica, the largest law firm in Africa Frederick ...

*Cofimvaba

... is a town in Chris Hani District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Village 79 km east of ... "Dictionary of Southern African Place Names (Public Domain)". Human Science Research Council. p. 120. ...

*Mutukula, Uganda

Mutukula is a town in the Central Region of Uganda, the third-largest economy in the East African Community. It sits adjacent ... Matsiko, Philomena (27 February 2016). "TradeMark East Africa hands over $15m Mutukula border post". Daily Monitor. Kampala. ... The EastAfrican Quoting Business Daily Africa. Nairobi. Retrieved 8 November 2017. Sabiiti, Moses (9 November 2017). "Home News ...

*Benon Biraaro

He then served as the chief of the Strategic Planning and Management Unit of the Peace and Security Council at the African ... USA Africa Strategic Studies Course at Nasser Military Academy, Cairo, Egypt Masters in Global Security Studies at Cranfield ...

*South African National Blood Service

The South African National Blood Service, (SANBS), is a non-profit organisation that provides human blood for transfusion that ... "South Africa lifts ban on gay men donating blood". Retrieved 2015-04-17. SANBS home page. ... The blood is then processed into components at seven processing locations throughout South Africa. During 2008, SANBS collected ... operates in South Africa, with the exception of the Western Cape. The head office is in Weltevredenpark, Gauteng, near ...

*Automotive industry in Kenya

"Ventures Africa - Toyota Launches $4.9m Assembly Plant In Kenya". ventures-africa.com. "TVS Makes A Foray Into Kenya - ... There are a number of motor vehicle dealers operating in the country, with the most established being: Toyota East Africa/ ... East Africa)/ Toyota Kenya Ltd (TKL) TVS Motors Kenya DT Dobie for Volkswagen Tata Motors Kenya is currently attempting to ... Toyota Kenya Cooper Motor Corporation, General Motors East Africa (GMEA) Simba Colt DT Dobie. RMA Motors (Kenya) Limited Beiben ...

*South African Students Congress

The South African Students Congress (SASCO) is a South African student organisation which was founded in September 1991 at ... In September of 1991 SANSCO and NUSAS decided to merge to form the South African Student Congress (SASCO) at Rhodes University ... www.sasco.org "The Azanian Students Organisation (AZASO) / South African National Students Congress (SANSCO)". Retrieved 17 ... was initially formed in 1979 as a continuation of the South African Students Organisation (SASO) when the latter was banned by ...

*Salt industry in Ghana

The Journal of African Ornithology, however, has conducted comparative studies into two saline coastal wetlands that have been ... The salt can also be used to make chemical products which historically western Africa has not been capable of making. In 2002, ... Pambros Salt Production Limited, the largest salt producer in western Africa (producing 350,000 tonnes of salt in Ghana and ... of the salt industry in Ghana will be important to the economy and the overall economic development of western Africa in supply ...

*Bank of Uganda

Martin Luther Oketch (20 July 2016). "East African central banks to rebuild forex reserves". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved ...

*Sorraia

Genetic evidence has not supported an hypothesis that the Sorraia is related to the Barb horse, an African breed introduced to ... as well as its relationship with other breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa. Members of the breed are small, ...

*africa

"Africa Gets Its Own Web Address with Launch of .africa". BBC. 10 March 2017. Writer, Staff. ".africa gTLD now open to general ... Africa is the officially designated top-level domain (TLD) for the African and Pan African communities and users wherever they ... Africa domains are intended to showcase their brand and commitment to the African continent, establishing a home for Africa- ... Africa Union. "Request for Proposals by the African Union Commission for the Operation of Dot Africa". Internet Report. ...

*Africa

... portal Geography portal African Union Afro-Eurasia Index of Africa-related articles List of African millionaires List of ... from and about Africa Africa Interactive Map from the United States Army Africa History African Kingdoms The Story of Africa ... the African Union's Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human ... Fifty-four African countries have football (soccer) teams in the Confederation of African Football. Egypt has won the African ...

*Africa (journal)

Africa remains the top anthropology/ethnography journal in Area Studies and the 3rd African studies journal in the same ... In his inaugural editorial in Africa in 1928.... "Africa Journal". IAI. April 26, 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013. "Web of Science ... and environmental studiess in Africa. Every year there is a special issue treating a specific theme. Africa is currently edited ... Africa is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the International ...

*Africa Spectrum

... focuses on social science dealing with Africa and is dedicated to promote a deeper understanding of African ... Africa Spectrum is published three times a year by the GIGA Institute of African Affairs. The journal is part of the GIGA ... Africa Spectrum GIGA Journal Family GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies GIGA Institute of African Affairs. ... Africa Spectrum is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed academic journal concentrating on the analysis of current issues of ...

*Africa, Indiana

Africa is an unincorporated community in Ohio Township, Spencer County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. It is located south of ... Africa is located at 37°50′25″N 87°04′22″W / 37.84028°N 87.07278°W / 37.84028; -87.07278. "US Board on Geographic Names". ... "Africa, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2016-07-09. ...

*Aero Africa

... on CH-Aviation.ch "Aero Africa Fleet Details and History". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved 2017-09-03. ... Aero Africa was a charter airline based in Swaziland. The airline was on the List of air carriers banned in the European Union ... The Aero Africa fleet consisted of the following aircraft (as of 28 January 2012[update]): 1 Boeing 727-100 1 Boeing 737-200 ( ... "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Operator index > Swaziland > Aero Africa". aviation-safety.net. ...

*Africa Re

African Reinsurance Corporation, generally known as Africa Re, is a reinsurance company based in Lagos, Nigeria. Africa Re was ... As of 31 December 2015[update], the shares of the stock of Africa Re were held by: Note: 1 - The non-African investors are ... "Commercial Risk Africa" (PDF) (June 2016 ed.). CRA Reinsurance Africa's Future. Retrieved 2017-01-04. Karekezi, Corneille. " ... Swiss Re Kenya Re African Development Bank "African Reinsurance Corporation 2015 Annual Report". Swiss Re. Retrieved 4 January ...

*Africa Cup

The Africa Cup is an annual rugby union tournament involving African nations, organised by Rugby Africa. The tournament was ... The overall record of the teams are as follows: Africa portal Rugby Africa Sevens African Development Trophy Victoria Cup "SA ... Due to its too high level, South Africa is the best African nation. It did compete five times and won the competition three ... In 2006, the Africa Cup was coupled with the Rugby World Cup qualification, the winner qualified to the Rugby World Cup. In ...

*Africa Tsoai

... is a South African actor most famous for acting as John Maputla the husband of Meikie Maputla (Harriet Manamela) ...

*Africa Today

... has been on the forefront of African Studies research for more than 45 years. The editors accept submissions based ... Africa Today is an academic journal that publishes peer-reviewed, scholarly articles and book reviews in a broad range of ... According to Project Muse, it "is one of the leading journals for the study of Africa and is in the forefront of publishing ... "Africa Today". Project Muse. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 30 November 2014. ...

*Airtel Africa

Through its subsidiaries, Airtel Africa provides telecommunication services in 15 African countries. Nigeria is Airtel's most ... a South Africa-based telecommunications company with operations in 21 countries in Africa and the Middle East. The Financial ... The newly acquired Africa division contributed $911 million to the total. However, net profits dropped by 41% from $470 million ... "African operators". AMETW.com. [dead link] "Airtel Ghana". nca.org.gh. 2014-01-14. Retrieved 2014-01-14. "Airtel Kenya grows ...

*Africa's Out!

... is a campaign started by artist Wangechi Mutu in support of the struggles of gay African youth. http://www. ... essence.com/2015/06/05/artist-wangechi-mutu-africa-out-campaign-solange Official website. ...
The MIM Secretariat is the coordinating arm of the MIM, initially based in London at the Wellcome Trust (1997-1999) then at Fogarty International Center at NIH, US (1999-2001) and subsequently at the Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm Sweden (2003-2005) and at African Malaria Network Trust(AMANET) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania(2006- 2010). From October 15, 2010, the Biotechnology Centre of the University of Yaounde I/Armsterdam Medical Centre officially became the new host of the MIM secretariatand. ...
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease causing fever, chills and flu-like illness that can be fatal. Despite an increased focus on malaria, it still claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year, most of them children in Africa. Poor quality antimalarial drugs, which lead to drug resistance and inadequate treatment, are also a growing concern, posing an urgent threat to vulnerable populations.. Fogarty has supported a wide range of efforts to combat malaria, including the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, an international effort to identify and address malaria research priorities. Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, a joint NIH - National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative, funds malaria-related projects in Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Belize and more. Through the Global Infectious Disease program, Fogarty has supported research training efforts that advance scientific discoveries, while developing local malaria research capacity in places where its needed most.. Fogartys epidemiology ...
The location of early malaria expertise had a big impact on what was studied, says Priebe. And a growing realisation that the Western focus of research had occurred at the expense of finding ways of preventing malaria in endemic areas resulted, in the late 1990s, in the creation of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM).…
Africa United - Official Site.Accept Cookies? Yes Wait Leave Learn More (external site) ... Accept Cookies? Yes Leave Learn More (external site)--Africa United - Home , Facebook.Africa United. 36 likes. ÁFRICA UNITED es espacio dedicado a dar la oportunidad de jugar al fútbol.--Africa United.Africa United en 7:27 No hay comentarios: viernes, 6 de marzo de 2009. Llego con la temporada. Ya es oficial y no hay vuelta atrás acá les presentamos el escudo ...--Green Africa United Front , Facebook.Green Africa United Front. 7 Me gusta. Producto/servicio--Africa United gratis online - vepelis.com.Ver Africa United (2010) Online, Pelicula Africa United (2010) Online Latino Castellano Subtitulado, Africa United (2010) en vk, Descargar Africa United (2010) DVDRIP ...--In the Name of Love: Artists United for Africa , Facebook.In the Name of Love: Artists United for Africa. Álbum--United Maasai Women Kenya Africa - About , Facebook.See contact information and details about United Maasai Women Kenya ...
(Arthur) Bryce Courtenay: (Arthur) Bryce Courtenay, South African-born Australian author (born Aug. 14, 1933, South Africa-died Nov. 22, 2012, Canberra, Australia), achieved astonishing success with
Dear Africa Can readers, weve heard from many of you since our former Africa Chief Economist Shanta Devarajan left the region for a new Bank position that you want Africa Can to continue highlighting the economic challenges and amazing successes that face the continent. We agree. Today, we are re-launching Africa Can as a forum for discussing ideas about economic policy reform in Africa as a useful, if not essential, tool in the quest to end poverty in the region. Youll continue to hear from many of the same bloggers who youve followed over the past five years, and youll hear from many new voices - economists working in African countries and abroad engaging in the evidence-based debate that will help shape reform. On occasion, youll hear from me, the new Deputy Chief Economist for the World Bank in Africa. We invite you to continue to share your ideas and challenge ours in pursuit of development that really works to improve the lives of all people throughout Africa. Here is my first post. I look
BriefCanadeans, Flavored Milk Market in African continent to 2020: Market Guide offers a snapshot of Flavored Milk consumption in African continent. The quantitative ...
la cultura africana (it); Kulture de Afrika (nov); Aafrika kultuur (et); Cultura dÁfrica (ast); Cultura dÀfrica (ca); Àṣà ilẹ̀ Áfríkà (yo); Afrikanische Kultur (de); Cultura da África (pt); فرهنگ آفریقا (fa); 非洲文化 (zh); Naakáí łizhiní (nv); Kultura ng Aprika (tl); Tamaduni ya Kiafrika (sw); Cultura de África (es); अफ़्रीका की संस्कृति (hi); アフリカの文化 (ja); Afrigʻiylar madaniyati (uz); culture of Africa (en); ثقافة أفريقيا (ar); Культура Африки (ru); Категорија:Култура Африке (sr) culture of Africa (af); Sammelbegriff für die Kulturen Schwarzafrikas (de) Cultura de Africa (es); Culture of Africa (yo); Cultura africana (pt); African culture (en); فرهنگ افریقا (fa); Kalinangan ng Aprika, Kulturang Aprikano, Aprikanong kultura, Kalinangang Aprikano, Kultura sa Aprika, Culture from Africa, Aprikanong kalinangan, Culture in Africa, Culture of Africa, ...
South Africa is a country of diverse culture and origin with an important role in the history and development of the African continent. History of South Africa First of all, the first humans could have lived in South Africa: archeological finds have suggested...
Regional initiatives on collective bargaining and organizing strategy is a platform sharing initiated by Asia Monitor Resource Centre (AMRC) for groups in Asia to exchange experiences and skills in organizing and designing the strategy of collective bargaining. Brief summary of this sharing will be regularly updated here :Google Map on Collective Bargaining in Asia
The Open Government Partnership (OGP) is a multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete Commitments from governments that promote transparency - the implementation of these Commitments is then monitored by an independent review mechanism. South Africa has been a founding member of the OGP since 2011, having submitted three National Action Plans (NAPs). But change will only happen through a mechanism such as this if its implementation is effective. What can be done to get government departments coordinating on the OGP to make its projects a reality?. After a several months of extensive research ODAC believes that one of the answers lies in driving departments to work together on both the OGP more broadly, but also in relation to specific commitments. Inter-departmental coordination has never been an easy ambition - but ODAC have posited some simple strategies, within the OGP process, that will help in moving open government ambition to open government reality.. You can download the full ...
South Africa: South Africa, the southernmost country on the African continent, renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity.
This report presents an overview of funding by foundations based in the United States for health-related activities in Africa for the three-year report from 2000 through 2002. It describes funding to countries and regions in Africa, and it examines the amount of funding and the number of grants for seven general health categories and eight general funding areas. It is especially useful for funders already supporting health in Africa, funders interested in becoming involved in supporting health and health-related activities in Africa, and other stakeholders. An qappendix of regular funders in health matters is included.
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Find info concerning The University of Wisconsin Platteville Afro-American studies. Completion of a college degree program can qualify you to enter the workforce immediately. To get started, browse degree programs and certificate courses online.
Find information about Hesston College Afro-American studies. You can start working in a high-paying field with just an associates or a bachelors degree. To begin, browse accredited college degree programs and certificate courses online.
Sub-Saharan Africa faces a disproportionate burden of ill health as it pertains to women and children. Conversely the sub-continent also provides opportunities for strong engagement given the strong regional commitment and the existence of regional political platforms. PMNCH has been involved in a number initiatives focusing on improving womens and childrens health in Africa. It supported efforts around the African Union Summit of Heads of States and Government on MNCH, providing content support, conducting targeted advocacy and fuelling media campaigns. The Partnership has also sought to integrate regional priorities from the continent in the various global initiatives around MNCH and has contributed to the development of an Investment Case for Health in Africa which has sparked discussions on the need for improved health spending among Ministers of Finance on the continent. The Partnership has also worked with the Africa Health Parliamentary Network and UNFPA in prioritizing MNCH at the Pan ...
Africa is a very diverse continent, with each country, or even each part of a country having its own unique culture. While it is common for people in the West to refer to Africa as if it was a single country, one should remember the sheer size of the continent, and that Africa is not one country but 54 different countries, meaning that it is impossible to make generalisations of Africa as a whole.
Africa is a very diverse continent, with each country, or even each part of a country having its own unique culture. While it is common for people in the West to refer to Africa as if it was a single country, one should remember the sheer size of the continent, and that Africa is not one country but 54 different countries, meaning that it is impossible to make generalisations of Africa as a whole.
Three INDEPTH Board members paid a visit to the INDEPTH Resource and Training Centre to look a the status of the projects and other activities ...
... (AHIT) is primarily focused to the needs of health practitioners and other stakeholders in Africa. The content of Africa Health IT News is partly to showcase the positive trends in Africa healthcare which would not be mentioned or highlighted in most media ...
... (AHIT) is primarily focused to the needs of health practitioners and other stakeholders in Africa. The content of Africa Health IT News is partly to showcase the positive trends in Africa healthcare which would not be mentioned or highlighted in most media ...
UFO sightings occur all over the world and it includes Africa. But they are less largely known in than for example UFO events in the US because the general flow of information tend to go more into Africa than out of Africa. This page includes an overview and summary of UFO sightings in Africa.
The article aims to serve as a travelers health guide to the African continent. Emphasis is on diseases prevalent in the continent, available vaccines and immunization requirements.
Fossils unearthed from the Çorakyerler fossil bed in the Central Anatolian province of Çankırı have revealed that the region was very similar to the African continent some 8 million years ago
The African continent has one of the fastest growing populations in the world, as well as one of its most dynamic expanding economies. With a vibrant…
Streaming services in Africa have been held back by the triple whammy of high data prices, unreliable connections and slow speeds. A new World Broadband Speed League provide new data to fuel the debate about which countries in Africa have the speed to make streaming services a reality. Russell Southwood picks over the data to get some answers.
The fifth U.S. Africa Business Summit, sponsored by the Washington, DC-based Corporate Council on Africa from June 21-24 in Baltimore, drew more than 1,000 businessegovernment participants from the U.S. and Africa.
Förderung durch BMBF: 2016 bis 2021 The African continent today is emblematic of tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency with little known about the long-term sequelae. There is cumulative evidence for prolonged pulmonary morbidity and loss of longevity in former TB patients. It is likely that TB patients from resource-constrained settings, who usually present with more extensive disease, are left with substantial and chronic lung impairment. This project aims: ...
Learn more about Cancer InDepth: Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer at West Hills Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Reducing...
Learn more about Cancer InDepth: Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer at West Hills Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Reducing...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Infertility in Men at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Hypertension at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Type 1 Diabetes at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Obesity at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Cancer InDepth: Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer at Good Samaritan Hospital Main Page Risk Factors Reducing...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Heart Attack at St. Davids HealthCare Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Cancer InDepth: Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer at Largo Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Reducing...
Learn more about Cancer InDepth: Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer at Largo Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Reducing...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Infection in Pregnancy at Redmond Regional Medical Center Main Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Dambisa Moyo book Dead Aid is gaining influence among African leaders (I wanted to point to President Kagames thoughtful commentary in the FT). I would like to add the following comments. Volumes of aid to Africa per se are not the issue; instead the issue is the quality of political leadership and the effectiveness with which aid is put to in Africa to support the continents development. &nb
An analysis of four African Bushmen and the archbishop found 1.3 million novel DNA variants, an important step in expanding the study of genetic diversity.
Africa has long been targeted by foreign-based corporations or governments for its resources. In recent times a large number of the land deals and concessions that have been awarded to developers in Central and West Africa can be viewed as part of a global land grab.
Chinese media has a growing presence in Africa, offering positive reporting on the continent. But is that good or bad for Africa?
Best Africa B&Bs on TripAdvisor: Find traveller reviews, candid photos, and prices for 968 bed and breakfasts in Africa, World.
How was Africa? I hear this question from friends and family on a regular basis. Theres nothing really shocking about this question because I do travel to Africa all the time. But imagine for a secon...
positively AFRICA builds partnerships to enable those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa to live with hope and dignity.
ADP Africa is a dynamic Client-driven Company providing specialist procurement, logistical, technical and support services in Africa and the rest of the world.. ...
Manufacturer of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper, Suppliers of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper, Dealers of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper in Africa
If you want to know whats trending in news, health, sports and lifestyle, then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from VOAs English to Africa service.
If you want know whats trending in news, health, sports and lifestyle, then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from VOAs English to Africa service.
enhance constructive, democratic and transparent governance for sustainable development in Africa, questions as to why Africa still remains with a poor
Plan Africa is a new entity established to represent the dire need for sustainable design and livelihoods for Africa. Our long term goal is food security
Maps influence the way we understand the world. The most common map projection is a relic from the Euro-centric colonial days - and as a result Africa appears smaller than it actually is. Africa Check explains.
A warm welcome to this edition of the Greenpeace Africa Member Newsletter after an eventful year for the global organisation and for the Greenpeace Africa office. We extend a particularly warm welcome to our new members, those of you who have... ...
Olakira Camp, Asilia Africa: Best place I have ever stayed - See 346 traveler reviews, 294 candid photos, and great deals for Olakira Camp, Asilia Africa at TripAdvisor.
Digitize Africa is using Eventbrite to organize upcoming events. Check out Digitize Africas events, learn more, or contact this organizer.
UNDPs Regional Bureau for Africa today launched an initiative to support African countries to prevent and respond to the growth of violent extremism through a development lens.
An analysis of the predictions and assumptions about the former epicenter of the AIDS epidemic, and implications for other African countries ...
French Africa policy in its former colonies, the control over African currencies and Central Banks, and the usurpation of UMEOA states is damaging both Afr
Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km? (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earths total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area.[2] With a
Africa is much bigger than you think. Traditional maps have downplayed the size of the continent in comparison to other parts of the world for hundreds of years.
By Bob Geldof, Special to CNN Editors note: Bob Geldof is a member of the Africa Progress Panel, chaired by Kofi Annan, and a musician, businessman and campaigner against poverty. The views expressed are his own. With the U.K. becoming the first G-8 country to spend 0.
Africa has suffered more from the scourge of Aids than anywhere else on earth since the first case of HIV was diagnosed three decades ago.
Africa Wildlife Culture. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions. ID #1030823.
HEAL Africa is a Christian organization whose perspective, practices, and personnel are shaped and guided by its vision, motivation, mission, and values. The word
Ver Ilustración de stock de Map Of Africa In Broad Lines With Green Gradient. Encuentra fotos de alta resolución y gran calidad en Getty Images.
President Obama came to office promising to build on his predecessors efforts and take U.S.-Africa relations to the next level.
Simiri local information and maps. Simiri is a populated place in Tillabéri, Niger, Africa. Simiri is also known as Simeri, Siméri.
On xxhour May 23rd, 2019 SpaceX successfully launched the 1st 60 satellites of the planned 12,000 low orbit satellite constellation as the start of El..
This is wild Africa! Stories are always told and retold down the years. Why, you may ask? Surely once a story is told, it neednt be repeated over again…
Aurum Africa GmbH is exhibiting the product Big Five Facecreme at BIOFACH 2018 in Nuremberg Germany. Search for further products and novelties.
Read the latest Central stories, Rebecca Adlington arrives in Africa on ITV News, videos, stories and all the latest Central news
My sister is 5 y/o. She has long fine 2B-3B hair. My mom has been using Dudley (afro-american) line of products and almost every product contains
This is where the tales of the prides across africa are told. Though not all are about the land of pride rock. Come tell your tales ...
In todays world human race is up against many great challenges and threats. On one front its facing the challenges of evolution and survival, and on the other
Why are data scientists in such high demand? Learn who they are, what they do and how theyve become such a hot commodity in the tech world.
Leading digital money transfer service WorldRemit (www.WorldRemit.com) has raised $40m to drive its next phase of global growth, aiming to serve 10 million
AGCO, Your Agriculture Company (NYSE:AGCO) (www.AGCOcorp.com), a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of agricultural equipment and solutions, has announced a
Becoming a registered nurse is difficult but this is just the first step of the struggle that is going to come. Although there is a clear demand for RNs, according to the American Association Of Colleges Of Nursing, this does not mean that the demand is present everywhere. Getting the very first job is difficult. This is why the following tips will be really helpful.. By Boris Dzhingarov, Issued by Monetary Library 15 Nov 2017 ...
LG How-to & Tips: Was a dishwashing liquid used?. Learn about product installation, maintenance, and troubleshooting using our search options.
AP examines micro-insurance in Africa The development is examined by The Associated Press of micro-insurance in Africa, 'a product accessible to those
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/opinions/rabbi-eli-teitelbaums-final-projects/2008/04/02/. Scan this QR code to visit this page online ...
Printed from: http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/opinions/al-qaeda-quickly-constructing-main-mideast-base-in-syria/2013/10/01/. Scan this QR code to visit this page online ...
Presentation made at the Second Conference of the IAALD Africa Chapter on the theme Towards Opening Access to Information & Knowledge in the Agricultural Scie…
Giant rats are one of the unfriendly animals to humans most especially in Africa, rats and human dont have strings attached to each other...
Each territory in Africa is assigned to a specific Alere Business Manager who will have the responsibility to support you for all the essential commercial activities
Arent they beautiful... What a blessing for you to have been able to go to Africa with your girls and touch lives with these little ones for a moment. I think Id want to go back too. ...
Posted 09 October 2015. DNA from 4,500-year-old Ethiopian skull reveals a huge migratory wave of West Eurasians into the Horn of Africa around 3,000 years ago had a genetic impact on modern populations right across the African continent.. The first ancient human genome from Africa to be sequenced has revealed that a wave of migration back into Africa from Western Eurasia around 3,000 years ago was up to twice as significant as previously thought, and affected the genetic make-up of populations across the entire African continent.. The genome was taken from the skull of a man buried face-down 4,500 years ago in a cave called Mota in the highlands of Ethiopia - a cave cool and dry enough to preserve his DNA for thousands of years. Previously, ancient genome analysis has been limited to samples from northern and arctic regions. The latest study is the first time an ancient human genome has been recovered and sequenced from Africa, the source of all human genetic diversity. The findings are ...
The impact African nations will have on the world stage will determine the rate of development the continent will grow at. Africa must strengthen relationships amongst its own countries and the world at large to have meaningful influence going forward. This article looks at the influence some African countries have in the world.. 1. South Africa. South Africa is the only African country that is a member of the G20 and BRICS (the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa grouping), and the only African country of the EUs 10 global strategic partners. This is mainly because South Africa is the EUs largest trading partner in Africa but it certainly gives the country a global clout that Nigeria currently lacks. Nelson Mandelas profile and the international activism of his successor, Thabo Mbeki, saw the former apartheid pariah state significantly increase its leverage in Africa and globally after 1994, and it simultaneously benefited from several years of healthy economic growth.. ...
CEOAFRICA is the first business social media network designed to identifying and celebrating African leadership and entrepreneurship, thus creating a medium for positive change in African economy. CEO AFRICA is an electronic, online and TV News platform for Captains of Industries, Chief Executives of Corporate organisations, Executive Directors, Chairmen of conglomerate, Managing Directors, Heads of Governments, legislative and judiciary arms of government, to form a common business frontier that will position African Continent as the world leading economy. CEO AFRICA is borne out of the passion to see Africa emerge the world economic power come 2060. Africa is endowed with human, capital and mineral resources, and if well harnessed will situate Africa as the hope of the rest of the world.
CEOAFRICA is the first business social media network designed to identifying and celebrating African leadership and entrepreneurship, thus creating a medium for positive change in African economy. CEO AFRICA is an electronic, online and TV News platform for Captains of Industries, Chief Executives of Corporate organisations, Executive Directors, Chairmen of conglomerate, Managing Directors, Heads of Governments, legislative and judiciary arms of government, to form a common business frontier that will position African Continent as the world leading economy. CEO AFRICA is borne out of the passion to see Africa emerge the world economic power come 2060. Africa is endowed with human, capital and mineral resources, and if well harnessed will situate Africa as the hope of the rest of the world.
Dear friends and colleagues,. It is truly my honour to welcome you all to the 2nd Biennial Pan African Thoracic Society Congress in our beautiful city of Durban, South Africa. The theme for our congress is "Siza iAfrika iphefumule: Help Africa Breathe" . This is reflected in our focus on the Triple threat of disease which includes: communicable diseases, non-communicable disease and globalization and their impact on lung health on the African continent.. After our first very successful congress in Nairobi, Kenya under the leadership of Professor Joseph Alouch, we hope to expand our reach and grow our society during this congress. The Pan African Thoracic Society seeks to be the premier society that brings together all Thoracic Societies in Africa under one umbrella, to improve our advocacy role and share locally relevant research and best practices across the African continent. To this aim we have an exciting program which has pre-congress skills building workshops on exciting topics which ...
http://www.pambazuka.org/images/en/357/46990diagr.jpgAfrica is certainly important trade partner for China, the volume increasing from $11 billion in 2000 to some $40 billion in 2005. China has a growing trade surplus with Africa. According to UNDP (2007), China has become the third largest trading partner of Africa, following the United States and France. China has focused primarily on the import of a limited number of products - oil and hard commodities for a few selected African countries . Chinas trade with Africa represents only a small proportion of Africas trade with the rest of the world, and is comparable to Indias trade with Africa, although both have been growing rapidly. China imports from Africa five main commodities - oil, iron ore, cotton, diamonds and logs. The export of these commodities, and in particular oil, has grown significantly in the last ten years. A few African countries (Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda and Kenya) source a significant share of ...
The prevalence of diabetes is drastically increasing in every part of the African continent where repeated surveys have been conducted. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of affected people in Africa will double within 20 years, from 12 million in 2010 to 24 million in 2030. Similarly, an increase is being observed in African diasporas of Western countries. In addition, there are some clinical presentations of diabetes that are predominantly observed in populations of African descent and that are difficult to classify. The most characteristic is ketosis-prone atypical diabetes, previously identified under idiopathic type 1 diabetes, which may represent up to 15% of all newly diagnosed diabetes in African-origin populations. This chapter, therefore, focuses on epidemiological specificities of diabetes in Africa, on the clinical specificities, and on atypical clinical presentations.
In February 2009, upon being elected chairman of the 53-nation African Union in Ethiopia, Gaddafi told the assembled African leaders: "I shall continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to achieve the United States of Africa."[6] The BBC reported that Gaddafi had proposed "a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent". Other African leaders stated they would study the proposals implications, and re-discuss it in May 2009.[7]. The focus for developing the United States of Africa so far has been on building subdivisions of Africa - the proposed East African Federation can be seen as an example of this. Former President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, had indicated that the United States of Africa could exist from as early as 2017.[8] The African Union, by contrast, has set itself the task of building a "united and integrated" Africa by 2025.[9] Gaddafi had also indicated that the proposed federation may extend as ...
Looking for East African Community Customs Union? Find out information about East African Community Customs Union. organization of E African nations established to promote regional economic and political cooperation. Its headquarters are in Arusha, Tanzania. Explanation of East African Community Customs Union
Illuminati Rich in South Africa in South Africa Illuminati Richest in South Africa Illuminati Sex in South Africa in South Africa Illuminati Secrets Exposed in South Africa Illuminati Secrets Society in South Africa Masonic Sex Perverts in South Africa Illuminati Sex Magic in South Africa White Magic Sex in South Africa White Magicians in South Africa Who are the Illuminati in South Africa Freemasonry in South Africa Illuminati Movie Documentary in South Africa Life is magic in South Africa Words are magic in South Africa We are ruled by magic in South Africa The Illuminati Hand in South Africa Truth Seeker in South Africa Code of the Illuminati in South Africa Freemasons in South Africa Meaning of Freemason in South Africa Symbols of sacred Geometry in South Africa The third eye in South Africa Darkness and Light are both the one nature in South Africa Lucifer Illuminati in South Africa Illuminati Lucifer in South Africa Lucifer Seeker in South Africa Illuminati symbolism fifa world cup 2010 ...
Heres the back story. As some of you may, or may not know, sirenians are closely related to elephants, and more distantly to other African mammals, such as rock hyraxes and aardvarks, among others (Asher et al., 2003); altogether these organisms are classified as Afrotherians (= African beasts). As the name implies, these organisms are either endemic of the African continent, or evolved there originally. The earliest proboscidean (elephants and their kin) appeared in what is now Morocco in the middle Paleocene (~60 million years ago) (Gheerbrant, 2009). This implies that the split between sirenians and proboscideans occurred in the early Paleocene (65.5-61.7 mya) somewhere in the northern half of the African continent. However, as we know, the fossil record is far from perfect, and for many years, that of sirenian implied that they originated outside of the African continent. The oldest-most-primitive sirenians, Prorastomus sirenoides Owen, 1855, and Pezosiren portelli Domning, 2001, ...
ACT AET AGT ART AST Africa/Abidjan Africa/Accra Africa/Addis_Ababa Africa/Algiers Africa/Asmara Africa/Asmera Africa/Bamako Africa/Bangui Africa/Banjul Africa/Bissau Africa/Blantyre Africa/Brazzaville Africa/Bujumbura Africa/Cairo Africa/Casablanca Africa/Ceuta Africa/Conakry Africa/Dakar Africa/Dar_es_Salaam Africa/Djibouti Africa/Douala Africa/El_Aaiun Africa/Freetown Africa/Gaborone Africa/Harare Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Kampala Africa/Khartoum Africa/Kigali Africa/Kinshasa Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville Africa/Lome Africa/Luanda Africa/Lubumbashi Africa/Lusaka Africa/Malabo Africa/Maputo Africa/Maseru Africa/Mbabane Africa/Mogadishu Africa/Monrovia Africa/Nairobi Africa/Ndjamena Africa/Niamey Africa/Nouakchott Africa/Ouagadougou Africa/Porto-Novo Africa/Sao_Tome Africa/Timbuktu Africa/Tripoli Africa/Tunis Africa/Windhoek America/Adak America/Anchorage America/Anguilla America/Antigua America/Araguaina America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires America/Argentina/Catamarca ...
The deadly Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa also took its toll socially on one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, African immigrants.. Image of Guy-Lucien Whembolua, a University of Cincinnati assistant professor of Africana studies. Guy-Lucien Whembolua. Guy-Lucien Whembolua, a University of Cincinnati assistant professor of Africana studies, leads an analysis of national news coverage of the Ebola scare in a poster presentation on Nov. 2, at the 143rd American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Expo, in Chicago.. The examination reviewed reports in mainstream U.S. media related to African immigrants and the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). The search turned up 21 news articles that matched the criteria for the study - articles focusing on African immigrants in the U.S. and the Ebola virus.. The researchers found that these African immigrants experienced stigma similar to communities stigmatized by the AIDS epidemic in the 80s. "There was strong ...
Speakers. Dr. M. Archary University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Prof. K. Ard Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.. Prof. Linda G. Bekker University of Cape Town, South Africa Dr. Francesca Conradie WHRI, South Africa. Prof. Tulio de Oliveira SATuRN & Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, UKZN, Durban, South Africa. Prof. Raj Gandhi Mass General Hospital (MGH), Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.. Prof. R. Goldstein Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.. Dr. Richard Lessells London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, U.K.. Prof. V.C. Marconi Emory University, U.S.A. Prof. I. Master Department of Health and King George V Hospital, South Africa. Prof. S. Mukerji Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.. Dr. Z. Mthembu DREAMS program and MatCH, South Africa. Prof. R. Murphy University of California Los Angeles, U.S.A.. Dr. Kogie Naidoo CAPRISA, South Africa. Prof. Catherine Orrell University of Cape Town, South Africa. Dr. Nesri Padayatchi CAPRISA, South Africa. Prof. M. Siedner Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.. Prof. ...
Irish Aid is the Governments overseas assistance programme. It is managed by the Development Cooperation Division of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.. Irish Aid Polio funding has comprised:. €17 million to the World Health Organization Global Polio Eradication Initiative since 2006;. Of this, €12 million was provided during the period 2006-08. A further €5 Million has been provided in support of the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-18). The current €400,000 tranche is the latest release under the 2013-18 commitment.. The WHO announced on 25 September 2015 that polio is no longer endemic in Nigeria, leaving only two countries in the world where polio remains: Afghanistan and Pakistan. For the first time in history, the entire African continent has marked one year without reporting a single child paralyzed by the wild poliovirus.. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a public-private partnership led by national governments and spearheaded by the ...
This thesis aims to examine a multi-organizational initiative to eliminate polio worldwide, called the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), through the lens of the strategic planning model. An overview of the global fight against polio and an analysis of current communication endeavors on the part of the GPEIs backers, misperceptions about polio vaccinations among target audiences, and overall shortcomings are included. Issues facing the initiative in both the developing world with regard to populations targeted for vaccination as well as those in the developed world targeted for support and financial contributions are presented. These examinations inform a final set of recommendations for improving the communication efforts of the GPEI ...

WHO | Regional Office for AfricaWHO | Regional Office for Africa

Regional Director for Africa. Message of Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa, on World TB Day 2018 ... WHO supports 16 African countries to protect against Listeriosis. 20 March 2018 , Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo - The ... Yellow fever is a viral disease, found in tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. The "yellow" in the name refers to the ... Sickle cell disease (SCD), or sickle cell anaemia, is a major genetic disease that affects most countries in the African Region ...
more infohttp://www.afro.who.int

Dassie | SANBIDassie | SANBI

South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39,2:192-201. ... In South Africa, dassies occur from Cape Town to the northern-most borders of the country in areas where there are suitable ... Dassies are eaten by people in much of Africa but this is not well documented. Hyraceum is the fossilised urine and faeces of ... The dassie is considered to be the closest living relative of the largest land mammal, the African elephant, and also of the ...
more infohttps://www.sanbi.org/creature/dassie

Columbia University Announces Creation of African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department - Higher EducationColumbia University Announces Creation of African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department - Higher Education

1, Columbia Universitys Board of Trustees announced it will develop a new Department of African-American and African Diaspora ... Columbia Senate Approves African-American and African Diaspora Studies Department The University Senate at Columbia University ... The new department will also establish a Ph.D. program in the field of African-American and African Diaspora Studies to produce ... Semantic Tags: African American Studies • African diaspora studies • Columbia University • Dr. Farah Jasmine Griffin. ...
more infohttps://diverseeducation.com/article/133471/

The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed | An Online Reference Guide to African American History by Professor Quintard Taylor,...The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed | An Online Reference Guide to African American History by Professor Quintard Taylor,...

The first shipload of enslaved Africans directly from Africa arrives in the West Indies. Prior to this time, Africans were ... The first Africans arrive in Hispaniola with Christopher Columbus. They are free persons.. 01-01. *Africans in the New World ... They bring along enslaved Africans, considered to be the first in the present-day United States. These Africans flee the colony ... African slaves stage a rebellion in Hispaniola. This is the first slave uprising in the New World.. 01-01. *Anti-Slavery ...
more infohttp://www.blackpast.org/timelines/african-american-history-timeline-1600

Rapid genetic evolution linked to lighter skin pigmentation in a southern African populationRapid genetic evolution linked to lighter skin pigmentation in a southern African population

Populations of indigenous people in southern Africa carry a gene that causes lighter skin, and scientists have now identified ... The gene that causes lighter skin pigmentation, SLC24A5, was introduced from eastern African to southern African populations ... More information: Meng Lin el al., "Rapid evolution of a skin-lightening allele in southern African KhoeSan," PNAS (2018). www. ... The gene, which is also present in people from the Near East and eastern Africa, was probably initially brought into the region ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2018-12-rapid-genetic-evolution-linked-lighter.html

South African Medical Research CouncilSouth African Medical Research Council

Genetic risk score for adult body mass index associations with childhood and adolescent weight gain in an African population ... Copyright © 2018 South African Medical Research Council. Webmaster Last Updated: 2018-12-14 12:11 ... 38th Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in Southern Africa, 12-15 March 2019, Western Cape ... research-for-our-people/metacarpal-indices-and-their-association-fracture-south-african-children-and ...
more infohttp://www.mrc.ac.za

Charles H. Wright Museum of African American HistoryCharles H. Wright Museum of African American History

Wright Museum of African American History opens minds and changes lives through the exploration and celebration of African ... Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History. 315 East Warren Avenue • Detroit, MI 48201 • The Wright Museum® • ...
more infohttp://thewright.org

africa - Wikipediaafrica - Wikipedia

"Africa Gets Its Own Web Address with Launch of .africa". BBC. 10 March 2017. Writer, Staff. ".africa gTLD now open to general ... Africa is the officially designated top-level domain (TLD) for the African and Pan African communities and users wherever they ... Africa domains are intended to showcase their brand and commitment to the African continent, establishing a home for Africa- ... Africa Union. "Request for Proposals by the African Union Commission for the Operation of Dot Africa". Internet Report. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.africa

Africa - WikipediaAfrica - Wikipedia

Africa portal Geography portal African Union Afro-Eurasia Index of Africa-related articles List of African millionaires List of ... from and about Africa Africa Interactive Map from the United States Army Africa History African Kingdoms The Story of Africa ... the African Unions Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human ... Fifty-four African countries have football (soccer) teams in the Confederation of African Football. Egypt has won the African ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa

West AfricaWest Africa

Frances Macron Says Wont Tell Africans What to Do. The French president was previously criticized for suggesting Africas ... ISIS Target Africa in New Issue of Recruitment Magazine. The terror group write about Boko Haram, Libya and Tunisia in the new ... Why Senegal is a Good Partner in West Africa. The U.S. has signed a new defense cooperation agreement with Senegal. ... Defying Military Efforts, Boko Haram is Expanding in West Africa: U.N. Official. U.N. coordinator in Cameroon warns that Boko ...
more infohttps://www.newsweek.com/topic/west-africa

Africa | HostedAfrica | Hosted

Top Africa News. Southern Africas deadly drought leaving millions hungry. Nov. 21, 2019 8:54 AM EST ... Latest Africa News. Rights group: Islamist leaders daughter tortured in prison. Nov. 21, 2019 12:26 PM EST ... Old Mutual South Africa replied to the incident with a statement on social media earlier this week saying that... ... Old Mutual South Africa replied to the incident with a statement on social media earlier this week saying that... ...
more infohttps://hosted.ap.org/nevadaappeal/tags/africa

Measles in AfricaMeasles in Africa

In conclusion, measles is getting better in Africa! This is because some African countries are near 100% vaccination rates, up ... Sixty percent of the 777,000 measles deaths worldwide occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two thousand an estimated 600 African ... The number of people in Africa that have measles is very high, mostly being children. ... Africas success is reducing child mortality rates even in the poorest communities. ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/a/bluedemons.org/measles-in-africa/

Africas poaching problemAfrica's poaching problem

Africas poaching problem. An endangered east African black rhinoceros and her young one walk in Tanzanias Serengeti park, May ... Seven of the remaining rhinos were relocated to South Africa in an effort to protect them and bring the rhino sub-species back ... An explosion in poaching in the 1960 and 70s saw the population of east African black rhinos in Tanzania plummet from over ... Recent and archive images relating to the poaching of animals in Africa.. Zimbabwean ivory poachers have killed more than 80 ...
more infohttps://www.yahoo.com/news/photos/africa-s-poaching-problem-slideshow/africa-s-poaching-problem-photo-1336262194.html?selected_tab=9&mod_id=latest-news-galleries&ref=gs

Africa 54Africa 54

... then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from VOAs English to Africa service. ... If you want know whats trending in news, health, sports and lifestyle, then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from ...
more infohttps://www.voanews.com/a/1669207.html

Nightline AfricaNightline Africa

Join our host and correspondents from Washington and across Africa as they bring you in-depth interviews, news reports, ... Join our host and correspondents from Washington and across Africa as they bring you in-depth interviews, news reports, ...
more infohttps://www.voanews.com/a/3278065.html

Africa Rising | WIREDAfrica Rising | WIRED

Everything you know about Africa is wrong. About a decade ago, I migrated directly from a frontier Wyoming cattle ranch to the ... Somewhere in Africa, I got more of Africa in me than I had bargained for. Back home for a two-week pit stop after Tombouctou, I ... Africa Rising. Everything you know about Africa is wrong.. About a decade ago, I migrated directly from a frontier Wyoming ... I returned from Africa believing that Africans have more to teach us than we have to teach them - about connection, about ...
more infohttps://www.wired.com/1998/01/barlow-2/

Africa HomeAfrica Home

Access Africas economy facts, statistics, project information, development research from experts and latest news. ... Latest news and information from the World Bank and its development work in Africa. ... Africas Pulse, No. 16, October 2017 Africa needs to improve the quality of its education and teach basic skills to adults, too ... Africa At-A-Glance Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa slowed markedly in 2016 to 1.5%, and is projected to recover moderately in 2017 ...
more infohttp://www.worldbank.org/en/region/afr.print

Oceanic Africa indexOceanic Africa index

How far are they African, as opposed to Indian ocean territories? The independent islands are members of the African Union. ... Its animals represent the descendants of those that lived in Africa before the split. Thus it has no modern monkeys but many ... It is a broken off piece of Gondwanaland, the former continent that split into Africa, South America, India, Australia and ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/mac/egmatthews/worldinfo/africa/oceanic.html

Articles (Africa) 

			Articles (Africa)

Curating a vision with young African entrepreneurs 12 December 2018 How can young people be involved in creating a future of ... Now, as part of the search for more solutions to Africas youth employment challenge, the global initiative on Decent Jobs for ... Digital tools: An opportunity for Africas informal sector 30 August 2018 Digital technologies are not just for developed ... They can also be useful in the informal economy, especially in Africa. ...
more infohttps://www.ilo.org/addisababa/media-centre/articles/lang--en/index.htm

africa - Scientific...'africa' - Scientific...

Africa Is Way Bigger Than You Think. Africa is bigger than China, India, the contiguous U.S. and most of Europe-combined! ... In Africa, Climate Change Wages War on Bodies, not Just Lands. While the African Union concentrates on strategies to mitigate ... Adults of the west African Baka people and east African Efé and Sua peoples average less than five feet tall. But while the Efé ... A Superplume Is the Reason Africa Is Splitting Apart. Primordial gases confirm the cause of the East African Rift ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/tag/africa/

Africa | Democracy Now!Africa | Democracy Now!

"Completely Racist": Edwidge Danticat on Trumps "Shithole Countries" Remark Targeting Africa, Haiti. ...
more infohttps://www.democracynow.org/topics/africa/1

Africa | Democracy Now!Africa | Democracy Now!

CA: African Trade Summit Held Without Any African Attendees, After Visas Were Denied. ... African Union Slams Trump Muslim Ban, Invoking Legacy of Transatlantic Slave Trade. ... Newly Discovered 1964 MLK Speech on Civil Rights, Segregation & Apartheid South Africa ... "Completely Racist": Edwidge Danticat on Trumps "Shithole Countries" Remark Targeting Africa, Haiti ...
more infohttps://www.democracynow.org/topics/africa/5

Design Africa | EcouterreDesign Africa | Ecouterre

Is the African-Inspired Fashion Trend a Form of Cultural Imperialism?. *by Jasmin Malik Chua ...
more infohttps://inhabitat.com/ecouterre/tag/design-africa/

Africa Articles | Telegraph TravelAfrica Articles | Telegraph Travel

South African reserve reintroduces lions for first time in 180 years - now is the time to go ... The tale of Sun City, a slice of Vegas forged in the fires of apartheid South Africa ... Why the rainy season can be the best time for an African safari ... The best African wildlife holidays for 2019 - whatever your ... How a township tour can uncover the beating heart of South Africa ...
more infohttps://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/africa/articles/

Horn of Africa - WikipediaHorn of Africa - Wikipedia

Lewis, I.M. (1955). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. International African Institute. p. 140.. ... The Horn of Africa is sometimes shortened to HOA.[12] The Horn of Africa is quite commonly designated simply the "Horn", while ... The Horn of Africa holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa, with over 285 species total and about 90 ... Raph Uwechue, Africa year book and whos who, (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p.209. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horn_of_Africa
  • Economic growth for Sub-Saharan Africa looks set to pick up to a modest 2.4% for 2017, just slightly lower than the forecast of 2.6% earlier this year, but a big improvement on 1.3% in 2016. (worldbank.org)
  • most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Africans stayed out of the loop of the 20th century and were not homogenized into the generica that is now much of the Northern Hemisphere, or what they call the North. (wired.com)
  • Of course, like many who had never been to Africa before, I carried with me incredibly stereotypical notions about the bone-in-the-nose primitivism of the continent's infrastructure, which in my case translated into - among other things - 15 pounds of solar paneling, because I was certain I wouldn't find much electricity. (wired.com)
  • Rapid evolution of a skin-lightening allele in southern African KhoeSan," PNAS (2018). (phys.org)
  • JOHANNESBURG (AP) - Some South Africans have been shocked by a viral video that appeared to show family members carrying a body bag out of an insurance company office while pursuing a claim. (ap.org)
  • Because of their early dating and unique physical characteristics idaltu and kibish represent the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans as suggested by the Out-of-Africa theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the endangered primates forage and frolic in a war-plagued corner of eastern Africa, a few humans are allowed to tag along. (latimes.com)
  • While light skin is often associated with European ancestry, even in South Africa, the present-day Khoekhoe and San did not experience enough recent migration to account for the frequency of the gene. (phys.org)
  • There is currently only one species of Procavia recognised, but two other hyrax species, the yellow-spotted hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei (Gray, 1868) and the southern tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827) also occur in South Africa. (sanbi.org)
  • There is only one other species of Hyracoidea, the western tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis (Fraser, 1853), which occurs in Western and Central Africa. (sanbi.org)
  • Seven of the remaining rhinos were relocated to South Africa in an effort to protect them and bring the rhino sub-species back from the brink of extinction. (yahoo.com)
  • According to linguists, the Horn of Africa is the original homeland of the proto-Afroasiatic language as it is considered the region the Afroasiatic language family displays the greatest diversity, a sign often viewed to represent a geographic origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this time, Africans were brought first to Europe. (blackpast.org)
  • An Irish company, called Rathbawn Computers Limited led by Edward Sweeny applied for .Africa and 19 other strings a comment brought up nearly 10 years later by the African DNS community at the UNECA, a Pan-African policy body that also endorsed in 2008 the .africa initiative of DotConnectAfrica Trust (DCA), which evidenced that UNECA is a place where such forums used to take place instead of the AUC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, a comment was brought up nearly 10 years later by the African DNS community at the UNECA, a Pan-African policy body that also endorsed the DCA Trust's .africa in 2008, discussing that UNECA is the ideal place where such forums used to take place instead of the AUC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene that causes lighter skin pigmentation, SLC24A5, was introduced from eastern African to southern African populations just 2,000 years ago. (phys.org)
  • At this point, telephone services were operated by the South African Post Office . (wikipedia.org)
  • Telkom is no longer the single operator in South Africa, and faces competition from the second Fixed Network Operator Licensee, Neotel , as well as the three mobile operators, Vodacom, MTN and Cell-C. However, it still receives criticisms (see later) from smaller operators and the Competition Commission for setting South African broadband pricing in its favour. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the creation of Dorob National Park in December 2010, the coastline from the Kunene River on the Angolan border to the Orange River on the South African border was an almost solid barrier of parks. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • South Africa: Triumph and tragedy of a South African Communist: (v.d. (libcom.org)
  • If you want know what's trending in news, health, sports and lifestyle, then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from VOA's English to Africa service. (voanews.com)
  • Join our host and correspondents from Washington and across Africa as they bring you in-depth interviews, news reports, analysis and features on this 60-minute news magazine show. (voanews.com)
  • In the 1960s, South Africa was connected to 72 nations and total outgoing annual international calls numbered over 28,800. (wikipedia.org)
  • An endangered east African black rhinoceros and her young one walk in Tanzania's Serengeti park, May 21, 2010, during the start of an initiative that will see 32 huge beasts flown to Tanzania from South Africa. (yahoo.com)
  • Namibia seemed a rare, almost impossibly hopeful story of a young African democracy determined to be a leading example of land stewardship. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • They bring along enslaved Africans, considered to be the first in the present-day United States. (blackpast.org)
  • The dassie is considered to be the closest living relative of the largest land mammal, the African elephant, and also of the manatee and dugong. (sanbi.org)
  • In previous work , the researchers looked at pigmentation variation in two KhoeSan populations from South Africa by performing a genome-wide association analysis in about 450 individuals. (phys.org)
  • Do you work for Innovation: Africa? (idealist.org)
  • Dassies have a wide distribution range in Africa and the Middle East, but they are restricted to areas where there is suitable habitat and so their distribution is patchy. (sanbi.org)
  • The first shipload of enslaved Africans directly from Africa arrives in the West Indies. (blackpast.org)
  • As my own general theory about the information economy developed over the years, I proposed that a good reality check for my ideas would be for Africa to surprise everyone by suddenly doing as I had: skipping industrialism entirely and leaping directly into the information era. (wired.com)
  • Before I left, I believed Africans could proceed directly from the agricultural epoch into an information economy without having to submit to the dreary indignities and social pathologies of industrialization. (wired.com)
  • The West African country has two official languages, but far more French-speakers than English. (newsweek.com)
  • President Yahya Jammeh wants to distance the West African country from its "colonial legacy. (newsweek.com)
  • In other languages that are local or adjacent to the Horn of Africa, it is known as የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd in Amharic, القرن الأفريقي‎ al-qarn al-'afrīqī in Arabic, Gaaffaa Afriikaa in Oromo and ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ in Tigrinya. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Horn of Africa is also the place where the haplogroup E1b1b originated from, Christopher Ehret and Shomarka Keita have suggested that the geography of the E1b1b lineage coincides with the distribution of the Afroasiatic languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telkom acquired Business Connexion in September 2015 for approximately ZAR 2.7 billion with the strategic intent of obtaining a significant presence in the Information Technology (IT) market in South Africa. (wikipedia.org)