AfricaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.South AmericaAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Central African Republic: A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeCD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Lost to Follow-Up: Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laboratory Personnel: Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (1/2725)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(2/2725)

 (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (3/2725)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (4/2725)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults. (5/2725)

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories. (6/2725)

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (7/2725)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis. (8/2725)

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)

The MIM Secretariat is the coordinating arm of the MIM, initially based in London at the Wellcome Trust (1997-1999) then at Fogarty International Center at NIH, US (1999-2001) and subsequently at the Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm Sweden (2003-2005) and at African Malaria Network Trust(AMANET) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania(2006- 2010). From October 15, 2010, the Biotechnology Centre of the University of Yaounde I/Armsterdam Medical Centre officially became the new host of the MIM secretariatand. ...
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease causing fever, chills and flu-like illness that can be fatal. Despite an increased focus on malaria, it still claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year, most of them children in Africa. Poor quality antimalarial drugs, which lead to drug resistance and inadequate treatment, are also a growing concern, posing an urgent threat to vulnerable populations.. Fogarty has supported a wide range of efforts to combat malaria, including the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, an international effort to identify and address malaria research priorities. Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, a joint NIH - National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative, funds malaria-related projects in Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Belize and more. Through the Global Infectious Disease program, Fogarty has supported research training efforts that advance scientific discoveries, while developing local malaria research capacity in places where its needed most.. Fogartys epidemiology ...
The location of early malaria expertise had a big impact on what was studied, says Priebe. And a growing realisation that the Western focus of research had occurred at the expense of finding ways of preventing malaria in endemic areas resulted, in the late 1990s, in the creation of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM).…
By Ify Aniebo Last week, I attended the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria conference in Dakar, Senegal, where researchers from across the Afric...
Africa United - Official Site.Accept Cookies? Yes Wait Leave Learn More (external site) ... Accept Cookies? Yes Leave Learn More (external site)--Africa United - Home , Facebook.Africa United. 36 likes. ÁFRICA UNITED es espacio dedicado a dar la oportunidad de jugar al fútbol.--Africa United.Africa United en 7:27 No hay comentarios: viernes, 6 de marzo de 2009. Llego con la temporada. Ya es oficial y no hay vuelta atrás acá les presentamos el escudo ...--Green Africa United Front , Facebook.Green Africa United Front. 7 Me gusta. Producto/servicio--Africa United gratis online - vepelis.com.Ver Africa United (2010) Online, Pelicula Africa United (2010) Online Latino Castellano Subtitulado, Africa United (2010) en vk, Descargar Africa United (2010) DVDRIP ...--In the Name of Love: Artists United for Africa , Facebook.In the Name of Love: Artists United for Africa. Álbum--United Maasai Women Kenya Africa - About , Facebook.See contact information and details about United Maasai Women Kenya ...
(Arthur) Bryce Courtenay: (Arthur) Bryce Courtenay, South African-born Australian author (born Aug. 14, 1933, South Africa-died Nov. 22, 2012, Canberra, Australia), achieved astonishing success with
Dear Africa Can readers, weve heard from many of you since our former Africa Chief Economist Shanta Devarajan left the region for a new Bank position that you want Africa Can to continue highlighting the economic challenges and amazing successes that face the continent. We agree. Today, we are re-launching Africa Can as a forum for discussing ideas about economic policy reform in Africa as a useful, if not essential, tool in the quest to end poverty in the region. Youll continue to hear from many of the same bloggers who youve followed over the past five years, and youll hear from many new voices - economists working in African countries and abroad engaging in the evidence-based debate that will help shape reform. On occasion, youll hear from me, the new Deputy Chief Economist for the World Bank in Africa. We invite you to continue to share your ideas and challenge ours in pursuit of development that really works to improve the lives of all people throughout Africa. Here is my first post. I look
BriefCanadeans, Flavored Milk Market in African continent to 2020: Market Guide offers a snapshot of Flavored Milk consumption in African continent. The quantitative ...
la cultura africana (it); Kulture de Afrika (nov); Aafrika kultuur (et); Cultura dÁfrica (ast); Cultura dÀfrica (ca); Àṣà ilẹ̀ Áfríkà (yo); Afrikanische Kultur (de); Cultura da África (pt); فرهنگ آفریقا (fa); 非洲文化 (zh); Naakáí łizhiní (nv); Kultura ng Aprika (tl); Tamaduni ya Kiafrika (sw); Cultura de África (es); अफ़्रीका की संस्कृति (hi); アフリカの文化 (ja); Afrigʻiylar madaniyati (uz); culture of Africa (en); ثقافة أفريقيا (ar); Культура Африки (ru); Категорија:Култура Африке (sr) culture of Africa (af); Sammelbegriff für die Kulturen Schwarzafrikas (de) Cultura de Africa (es); Culture of Africa (yo); Cultura africana (pt); African culture (en); فرهنگ افریقا (fa); Kalinangan ng Aprika, Kulturang Aprikano, Aprikanong kultura, Kalinangang Aprikano, Kultura sa Aprika, Culture from Africa, Aprikanong kalinangan, Culture in Africa, Culture of Africa, ...
South Africa is a country of diverse culture and origin with an important role in the history and development of the African continent. History of South Africa First of all, the first humans could have lived in South Africa: archeological finds have suggested...
South Africa, the southernmost country on the African continent, renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity, all of which have made the country a favored destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid (Afrikaans: apartness, or racial segregation) in 1994.
In early April, the African region had less than 6,700 confirmed cases of COVID-19, a significantly lower count than the more than 112,000 cases reported in the western pacific and the more than 655,000 cases reported in Europe at that time. A study published in The Lancet in late February notes that the African continent “has remained relatively unaffected” by COVID-19 while
1. Introduction to the 2002-2004 research The preparatory activities for the World Summit on Information Society (2003-2005) together with other multilateral initiatives in the ICT field initiated (e.g. UN ICT Task Force, Dot Force, Global Knowledge Partnership) initiated a process of development of a specialised language of ICT diplomacy.
This report presents an overview of funding by foundations based in the United States for health-related activities in Africa for the three-year report from 2000 through 2002. It describes funding to countries and regions in Africa, and it examines the amount of funding and the number of grants for seven general health categories and eight general funding areas. It is especially useful for funders already supporting health in Africa, funders interested in becoming involved in supporting health and health-related activities in Africa, and other stakeholders. An qappendix of regular funders in health matters is included.
Get Horn of Africa essential facts. View Videos or join the Horn of Africa discussion. Add Horn of Africa to your Like2do.com topic list or share. Horn of Africa at like2do.com
Find info concerning The University of Wisconsin Platteville Afro-American studies. Completion of a college degree program can qualify you to enter the workforce immediately. To get started, browse degree programs and certificate courses online.
Find information about Hesston College Afro-American studies. You can start working in a high-paying field with just an associates or a bachelors degree. To begin, browse accredited college degree programs and certificate courses online.
Africa is a very diverse continent, with each country, or even each part of a country having its own unique culture. While it is common for people in the West to refer to Africa as if it was a single country, one should remember the sheer size of the continent, and that Africa is not one country but 54 different countries, meaning that it is impossible to make generalisations of Africa as a whole.
Africa is a very diverse continent, with each country, or even each part of a country having its own unique culture. While it is common for people in the West to refer to Africa as if it was a single country, one should remember the sheer size of the continent, and that Africa is not one country but 54 different countries, meaning that it is impossible to make generalisations of Africa as a whole.
Three INDEPTH Board members paid a visit to the INDEPTH Resource and Training Centre to look a the status of the projects and other activities ...
... (AHIT) is primarily focused to the needs of health practitioners and other stakeholders in Africa. The content of Africa Health IT News is partly to showcase the positive trends in Africa healthcare which would not be mentioned or highlighted in most media ...
... (AHIT) is primarily focused to the needs of health practitioners and other stakeholders in Africa. The content of Africa Health IT News is partly to showcase the positive trends in Africa healthcare which would not be mentioned or highlighted in most media ...
The Podcaster is published six times per year - we look forward to receiving news and contributions - particularly from partners. Please send in contributions well in time. Contact address for this newsletter is: [email protected] Please feel free to forward this email to colleagues you believe would be interested. This email has been sent to you by N2Africa, funded by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.. When you change your e-mail address and want to keep receiving the Podcaster, please send your new address to [email protected] If friends/colleagues like to receive future Podcasters let [email protected] know as well.. ...
UFO sightings occur all over the world and it includes Africa. But they are less largely known in than for example UFO events in the US because the general flow of information tend to go more into Africa than out of Africa. This page includes an overview and summary of UFO sightings in Africa.
The article aims to serve as a travelers health guide to the African continent. Emphasis is on diseases prevalent in the continent, available vaccines and immunization requirements.
Fossils unearthed from the Çorakyerler fossil bed in the Central Anatolian province of Çankırı have revealed that the region was very similar to the African continent some 8 million years ago
The African continent has one of the fastest growing populations in the world, as well as one of its most dynamic expanding economies. With a vibrant…
The entire African continent is dotted with gold reserves, internationally seen as a safe investment, with production ranging from artisanal set-ups to industrial-scale operations.
Streaming services in Africa have been held back by the triple whammy of high data prices, unreliable connections and slow speeds. A new World Broadband Speed League provide new data to fuel the debate about which countries in Africa have the speed to make streaming services a reality. Russell Southwood picks over the data to get some answers.
AP: Zimbabwe copes with diarrhea outbreak which has killed 9 (Mutsaka, 6/26). Borgen Magazine: Poor Sanitation in Kenya Leads to Water-Borne Diseases (Shusterman, 6/24). Devex: What data tells us about the state of human rights (Cornish, 6/25). Devex: Q&A: New CARE secretary-general on women and local leadership (Root, 6/25). The…. ...
Although the immense Sahara serves as a natural barrier within the African continent, evidence has shown a considerable dissemination of
By Philip Otieno. According to NASA Earth Observatory, at least 70 percent of the earths surface is covered by water; 97 percent of water is made up by seas and oceans. Africa has a combined coastline of 38 countries covering some 17,000 square kilometres. Its continental shelf is well endowed with aquatic life, natural resources oil and gas, which render seas as one of the biggest unexploited industries in Africa. Seas do not have fences or Donald Trumps much talked about wall with Mexico, and aquatic animals and minerals know no territorial borders; it is up to us to devise ways of tapping into this vast resource to harness its boundless potential.. A rudimentary definition of sea blindness would mean ignorance of seas and oceans worth, or lack of insight into the strategic importance of large water masses. Africa has suffered from this alarming sightlessness for decades but, in the 21st Century, it is not just blindness; it is unforgivable ignorance. A lot of items we use in day-to-day ...
The fifth U.S. Africa Business Summit, sponsored by the Washington, DC-based Corporate Council on Africa from June 21-24 in Baltimore, drew more than 1,000 businessegovernment participants from the U.S. and Africa.
Förderung durch BMBF: 2016 bis 2021 The African continent today is emblematic of tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency with little known about the long-term sequelae. There is cumulative evidence for prolonged pulmonary morbidity and loss of longevity in former TB patients. It is likely that TB patients from resource-constrained settings, who usually present with more extensive disease, are left with substantial and chronic lung impairment. This project aims: ...
Radii Energy is a pipeline engineering servicing company in Nigeria that provides quality program and project management, engineering and procurement services to the oil and gas industry within the African continent.. ...
UFUDU provides pre-fabricated solutions to the medical, mining, construction, industrial, education and logistics sectors, ensuring that UFUDUs quality and industry-leading space management solutions are positively impacting important economic and social sectors throughout the African continent.
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Infertility in Men at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Hypertension at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Type 1 Diabetes at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Obesity at Grand Strand Medical Center Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Learn more about Conditions InDepth: Heart Attack at St. Davids HealthCare Main Page Risk Factors Symptoms ...
Dambisa Moyo book Dead Aid is gaining influence among African leaders (I wanted to point to President Kagames thoughtful commentary in the FT). I would like to add the following comments. Volumes of aid to Africa per se are not the issue; instead the issue is the quality of political leadership and the effectiveness with which aid is put to in Africa to support the continents development. &nb
An analysis of four African Bushmen and the archbishop found 1.3 million novel DNA variants, an important step in expanding the study of genetic diversity.
Chinese media has a growing presence in Africa, offering positive reporting on the continent. But is that good or bad for Africa?
The Office of the Special Adviser on Africa, established in May 2003, facilitates the coordination of international support for Africas development and security.
Best Africa B&Bs on TripAdvisor: Find traveller reviews, candid photos, and prices for 968 bed and breakfasts in Africa, World.
How was Africa? I hear this question from friends and family on a regular basis. Theres nothing really shocking about this question because I do travel to Africa all the time. But imagine for a secon...
positively AFRICA builds partnerships to enable those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa to live with hope and dignity.
Manufacturer of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper, Suppliers of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper, Dealers of Non Tearable Synthetic Paper in Africa
If you want to know whats trending in news, health, sports and lifestyle, then tune in to Africa 54, the newest TV offering from VOAs English to Africa service.
"Africa , Sprinter Bolt adopts a cheetah". BBC News. 2009-11-02. Retrieved 2016-12-17. Ruiz, Cristina (13 June 2013). "Venice ... Since 2008 it has committed to becoming one of the most representative collections of contemporary art from the African ... Harris, Gareth (20 November 2013). "Former Puma chairman behind contemporary African art museum in Cape Town". The Art ... a series of photographs by Zanele Muholi from the South Africa pavilion, and three large sculptures by Michele Mathison in the ...
McEvoy, Frederick (1997). "Understanding Ethnic Realities among the Grebo and Kru People of West Africa". Africa. 47 (1): 62. ... a once staple African seaborne trade". The Kru languages are known for some of the most complex tone systems in Africa, rivaled ... Westerman, Diedrich Hermann (1952) Languages of West Africa (Part II). London/New York/Toronto: Oxford University Press. ... Breitbonde, L. B. (1991). "City, Countryside, and Kru Ethnicity". Africa. 61 (2): 186-201. doi:10.2307/1160614. JSTOR 1160614. ...
". "Independent Online Edition > Africa". London. 2004-02-15. Retrieved 2015-06-27. https://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/26/ ...
Chief Jerome Udoji - from Ozubulu, a social reformer was the first African to be made a 'D.O' (District Officer) by the ... Professor Chinua Achebe - a native of Ogidi and best known for the classic, Things Fall Apart was the first African writer ... 1], All Africa, 2006 vanguardngr.com, Nigeria (March 24, 2012). "Excitement as Orient Petroleum strikes oil in Anambra". ... "Reuters.com , Africa". Reuters. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2013-08-25. [2] Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. " ...
"Strike Thokoane elected new Azapo leader". African Times Online News Website South , West , East , North , Africa. 2017-05-07. ... During 1987, AZAPO was banned by the South African government and forced underground and into exile. It would be unbanned in ... South Africa portal Politics portal Azanian People's Organisation official site Flag of AZAPO. ... The Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) is a South African political party. The organisation's two student wings are the ...
This is one of four confirmed impact sites in South Africa and six within the Southern African region "Kalkkop". Earth Impact ... "Africa". Earth Impact Database. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved 2017-05-04. Coordinates: 32°42′29″S 24°25′56″E /  ... in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The name is derived from two Afrikaans words, namely "kalk" meaning limestone and ...
Catholic Culture : News Features Archived December 18, 2010, at WebCite BBC NEWS , Africa , Kenyan Catholic rebel priest weds ...
42s". Africa. 27 (3): 292-293. doi:10.2307/1156640. Retrieved 22 October 2017 - via Cambridge Core. Mair, L. P. (1 April 1957 ... "Chisungu". African Affairs. 56 (223): 166-167. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a094477. Retrieved 22 October 2017. " ...
Africa , Nigeria moves to tighten gay laws. BBC News (2007-02-14). Retrieved on 2011-04-30. AFRICA , Sharia compromise for ... "PDP State Governors". Africa , Nigeria party picks its candidate. BBC News (2006-12-17). Retrieved on 2011-04-30. "INEC 2015 ...
Although not long by African standards its catchment has high rainfall and it becomes very wide. Over its last 80 kilometres ( ... Reclus, Élisée (1892). Africa. 3 (reprint ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 341. ISBN 1-4400-9130-7. L. Zapfack; J. S. O. Ayeni; S. ... Maritime Organisation of West and Central Africa, Nigeria Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cross River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 ...
"Africa". Uboat.net. Retrieved 19 November 2012. Swedish Board of Trade: "Svenska handelsflottans krigsförluster 1914-1920" ( ...
"IRIN Africa , Horn of Africa , Somalia , SOMALIA: Child deaths linked to acute water shortage in Galgadud , Children Food ... "IRIN Africa , Horn of Africa , Somalia , SOMALIA: Hundreds flee inter-clan clashes in Somaliland , Governance Conflict , News ... The African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM), guarding the palace, became involved in the fighting and was unable to take ... "News - Africa: Twelve killed in Mogadishu fighting". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 2010-03-15. "At Least 12 Killed in Somalia Fighting ...
French in Africa. Carol Sanders (ed.) French Today: Language in Its Social Context. pp 215-238. Cambridge University Press ( ... Most of the languages of Mali are among the Mande languages, which is generally accepted as a branch of Niger-Congo, Africa's ... "Africa :: MALI". CIA The World Factbook. Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Mali," Laval University, ... Fulfulde, spoken throughout West Africa, is a member of the Senegambian branch. Other language families include Afro-Asiatic, ...
"Late Triassic; Africa; Province de Marrakech, Morocco; Argana Formation." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 528. "Bajo Barreal ...
The 8 companies of 1 Central African Rifles became 1 Battalion King's African Rifles. The 6 companies of 2 Central African ... The 7 companies and one camel company of East African Rifles became 3 Battalion King's African Rifles. The 9 companies of the ... In 1901 the British government decided to organize all the existing troops in Central Africa, East Africa, Uganda and British ... Bruce Baker, Escape from Domination in Africa: Political Disengagement & Its Consequences, (Africa World Press: 2003), p.83 ...
"Ghana: Polygamy Creating Problem In Northern Region". African Spotlight. Retrieved 24 September 2015. "BBC NEWS - Africa - ... Polygamy in Africa was viewed as a way a family could build an empire. The extent of spousal communication about contraception ... Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region in the world where polygamy remains widespread. Estimates of the prevalence of polygamy ... Therefore, one of the reasons polygamy is popular is because African societies see children as a form of wealth and this way a ...
Fofana, Lansana (2005-09-16). "Africa , S Leone's war amputees 'ignored'". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-10-02. http://www. ...
These are South Africa, Pakistan, Namibia, Cameroon and Mozambique. Those who come to the UK under this scheme may claim state ... "East African Asians Versus The United Kingdom: The Inside Story" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2010. "UK , UK 'did not want ... Lord Lester of Herne Hill, QC, has written a detailed paper, "East African Asians versus The United Kingdom: The Inside Story ... These were mainly in Asia and Africa. British Overseas Citizens, by contrast, are those who have such a relationship with ...
Malaba, M.Z. (1999). "David Norman Beach, 1943-1999". Africa. Edinburgh University Press. 69 (3): 448-449. JSTOR 1161217. Beach ...
... has even found a home outside of the African continent; the most popular artists in the genre have recently begun ... Africa. 75 (4): 488-509. doi:10.3366/afr.2005.75.4.488. (in Italian) Article on Bongo Flava Archived April 9, 2011, at the ... B and hip hop coming from America but from the beginning these styles have been pulled apart and put back together with African ...
J.E.Wright (1984) Junghuhnia conchiformis X.L.Zeng & Ryvarden (1992) Junghuhnia crustacea (Jungh.) Ryvarden (1972) - Africa ... Africa; Europe Junghuhnia polycystidifera (Rick) Rajchenb. (1987) Junghuhnia pseudominuta H.S.Yuan & Y.C.Dai (2008) Junghuhnia ...
IISD website Azimuth Project IISD Profile University of Pennsylvania - African Studies Center: IISD Special Report Earth ... Africa; and Asia-Pacific. Summaries of recent posts to each of these knowledgebases are distributed through related electronic ...
"Africa , Zambian death sentences slammed". BBC News. 2003-12-19. Retrieved 2015-06-19. "AFRICA , Nine more charged with treason ...
Scott Bobb (2009-08-20). "South Africa Sends Search, Rescue Teams to Haiti , Africa , English". .voanews.com. Retrieved 2010-01 ... Rescue South Africa sent 40 medical professionals Miracle Life Family Church, Lusaka, raised ZMK20 million (US$4,400) for the ... "South Africa support Haiti - News - Jacaranda 94.2". Jacarandafm.com. 2009-12-10. Retrieved 2010-01-15. "SA gives aid after ...
For earlier currencies used in Tanzania, see East African florin, East African rupee, East African shilling, Zanzibari rupee, ... It is subdivided into 100 senti (cents in English). The Tanzanian shilling replaced the East African shilling on 14 June 1966 ... "Tanzania new note family confirmed , Africa , Banknote News". banknotenews.com. Retrieved 2015-09-03. Sources Krause, Chester L ... Zanzibari ryal and German East African rupie. The shilingi (Swahili; English: shilling; sign: TSh; code: TZS) is the currency ...
A quarter of the votes in the Central African Republic s elections had been counted as of 04 January 2016, with Faustin ... Former prime minister Faustin Archange Touadera was in the lead to become the Central African Republic s next president, ... France will stop military operations in the Central African Republic later in 2016 after Frances defense minister said March ... France on 31 October 2016 formally ended a peacekeeping mission in Central African Republic, hailing it a success despite ...
The identification of these early cases marked the beginning of the West Africa Ebola epidemic, the largest in history. ... Seven other people were cared for in the United States after they were exposed to the virus and became ill while in West Africa ... The impact this epidemic had on the world, and particularly West Africa, is significant. A total of 28,616 cases of EVD and ... While the spread of EVD in West Africa has been controlled, additional cases may continue to occur from time to time. However, ...
The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for those aged 65 years and older. ... African Americans are living longer. The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for ... For example, African American adults are more likely to report they cannot see a doctor because of cost. All Americans should ... African Americans ages 35-64 years are 50% more likely to have high blood pressure than whites. ...
South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39,2:192-201. ... In South Africa, dassies occur from Cape Town to the northern-most borders of the country in areas where there are suitable ... Dassies are eaten by people in much of Africa but this is not well documented. Hyraceum is the fossilised urine and faeces of ... The dassie is considered to be the closest living relative of the largest land mammal, the African elephant, and also of the ...
The first shipload of enslaved Africans directly from Africa arrives in the West Indies. Prior to this time, Africans were ... The first Africans arrive in Hispaniola with Christopher Columbus. They are free persons.. 01-01. *Africans in the New World ... They bring along enslaved Africans, considered to be the first in the present-day United States. These Africans flee the colony ... African slaves stage a rebellion in Hispaniola. This is the first slave uprising in the New World.. 01-01. *Anti-Slavery ...
"Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. . ... It occurs in 19 countries across the African continent, namely Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, ... Within West Africa, shea butter from the Mossi Plateau region of Burkina Faso has a higher average stearic acid content, and so ... Throughout Africa it is used extensively for food, is a major source of dietary fat, and for medicinal purposes. In Ghana and ...
Four key action points were highlighted to advance our understanding of the epidemiology of dengue in Africa. First, dengue ... Second, representative data need to be collected across Africa to uncover the true burden of dengue. Third, established ... in February 2013 to consider key questions regarding the possible expansion of dengue in Africa. ... diagnostic tools must be made more widely available in the healthcare setting in Africa. ...
She has published widely in: South African journals such as English in Africa, the English Academy Review and the South African ... She is also co-founder and co-director of "Contemporary Africans Mentoring", a not for profit programme for young African Women ... The "Science Village Hubs" is composed of individual from different African Countries, namely South Africa, Ghana, Sudan, ... South Africa. Prof Moyo sits on the Editorial Boards of a number of journals some of which are the Review of African Political ...
About Africa Renewal. The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major ... Africas economy grows, but many stomachs are empty Africa Human Development Report stirs debate on food security ... It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community ... Central African Republic: UN agency delivers food aid to thousands displaced by recent violence in capital ...
About Africa Renewal. The Africa Renewal information programme provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major ... It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community ... It examines the many issues confronting the people of Africa, its leaders and its international partners: economic reform, debt ... What the World Summit means for Africa Commitments on aid, debt relief and MDGs are reaffirmed ...
"Africa Gets Its Own Web Address with Launch of .africa". BBC. 10 March 2017. Writer, Staff. ".africa gTLD now open to general ... Africa is the officially designated top-level domain (TLD) for the African and Pan African communities and users wherever they ... Africa domains are intended to showcase their brand and commitment to the African continent, establishing a home for Africa- ... Africa Union. "Request for Proposals by the African Union Commission for the Operation of Dot Africa". Internet Report. ...
Africa portal Geography portal African Union Afro-Eurasia Index of Africa-related articles List of African millionaires List of ... from and about Africa Africa Interactive Map from the United States Army Africa History African Kingdoms The Story of Africa ... the African Unions Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human ... Fifty-four African countries have football (soccer) teams in the Confederation of African Football. Egypt has won the African ...
Everything you know about Africa is wrong. About a decade ago, I migrated directly from a frontier Wyoming cattle ranch to the ... Somewhere in Africa, I got more of Africa in me than I had bargained for. Back home for a two-week pit stop after Tombouctou, I ... Africa Rising. Everything you know about Africa is wrong.. About a decade ago, I migrated directly from a frontier Wyoming ... I returned from Africa believing that Africans have more to teach us than we have to teach them - about connection, about ...
... looks at the latest developments on the continent, starting with headline news and providing in-depth ... Each morning, Daybreak Africa looks at the latest developments on the continent, starting with headline news and providing in- ...
Curating a vision with young African entrepreneurs 12 December 2018 How can young people be involved in creating a future of ... Now, as part of the search for more solutions to Africas youth employment challenge, the global initiative on Decent Jobs for ... Digital tools: An opportunity for Africas informal sector 30 August 2018 Digital technologies are not just for developed ... They can also be useful in the informal economy, especially in Africa. ...
Access Africas economy facts, statistics, project information, development research from experts and latest news. ... Latest news and information from the World Bank and its development work in Africa. ... Africas Pulse, No. 16, October 2017 Africa needs to improve the quality of its education and teach basic skills to adults, too ... Africa At-A-Glance Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa slowed markedly in 2016 to 1.5%, and is projected to recover moderately in 2017 ...
Accelerating action for the elimination of child labour in supply chains in Africa (ACCEL AFRICA) ...
Top Africa News. Nigerian forces killed 12 peaceful protesters, Amnesty says Oct. 21, 2020 5:56 PM EDT ... Latest Africa News. Nigerian forces killed 12 peaceful protesters, Amnesty says Oct. 21, 2020 5:56 PM EDT ... MASPALOMAS, Spain (AP) - Rescues at sea and arrivals of flimsy boats from Africa on Spains Canary Islands, where local ... MASPALOMAS, Spain (AP) - Rescues at sea and arrivals of flimsy boats from Africa on Spains Canary Islands, where local ...
Top Africa News. Southern Africas deadly drought leaving millions hungry. Nov. 21, 2019 8:54 AM EST ... Latest Africa News. Rights group: Islamist leaders daughter tortured in prison. Nov. 21, 2019 12:26 PM EST ... Old Mutual South Africa replied to the incident with a statement on social media earlier this week saying that... ... Old Mutual South Africa replied to the incident with a statement on social media earlier this week saying that... ...
South African reserve reintroduces lions for first time in 180 years - now is the time to go ... The tale of Sun City, a slice of Vegas forged in the fires of apartheid South Africa ... Why the rainy season can be the best time for an African safari ... The best African wildlife holidays for 2019 - whatever your ... How a township tour can uncover the beating heart of South Africa ...
Aid to Africa has been a big topic with the recent G-8 summit. Funding development programs in Africa is high on the task list ... And weve seen the damage that misinformation (including the South African health ministers opinion that the African potato is ... Ilene Wong, a physician at Stanford University Hospital, has done AIDS work in Africa. She was online Friday, July 15, at 1 p.m ... Is this a widespread belief in Africa? Ilene Wong: This HAS been a common myth (only one of many) that some have held... but ...
Afri Africa Report African countries African Studies Afrique agricultural Air Afrique Algeria American Angola apartheid Arab ... published recent regime regional relations Rhodesia role rural Senegal Sierra Leone social society South Africa southern Africa ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Africa_Report.html?id=ks4sAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAfrica Report ... Botswana Brazzaville British Cameroun cent cities civil colonial Congo cooperation coun coup culture dance East Africa economic ...
Sino-African Trade. Eighty-five percent of Africas exports to China come from five oil-rich countries (Angola, Equatorial ... Assessing the Benefits of Sino-African Ties. Africa registered 5.8 percent economic growth in 2007, its highest level ever, in ... Many Africans are concerned over how China operates in Africa, accusing Chinese companies of underbidding local firms and not ... The same cant be said of Africas policy toward China. In fact, experts say that the African Unions lack of a coherent, ...
Lewis, I.M. (1955). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. International African Institute. p. 140.. ... The Horn of Africa is sometimes shortened to HOA.[12] The Horn of Africa is quite commonly designated simply the "Horn", while ... The Horn of Africa holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa, with over 285 species total and about 90 ... Raph Uwechue, Africa year book and whos who, (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p.209. ...
Accra Affairs Afri Africa Report African agreement Airlines airport Airways Algeria Angola announced April Arab Armies of ... Africa Report a nonpartisan journal of African 10 The Army in Politics ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Africa_Report.html?id=yi3jAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAfrica Report ... Sudan Tanganyika territory tion trade Transkei troops Tshombe Tunisia Uganda Union United Nations University vote West Africa ...
  • A quarter of the votes in the Central African Republic s elections had been counted as of 04 January 2016, with Faustin Archange Touadera, who served as prime minister under long-running President Francois Bozize, the current favorite of thirty candidates. (globalsecurity.org)
  • France will stop military operations in the Central African Republic later in 2016 after France's defense minister said March 30, 2016 its objectives had been achieved. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Adequate contingency planning is needed to avert a possible disaster in eastern Africa should the main rains currently in progress turn out to be insufficient for normal food production. (fao.org)
  • The African National Congress has dominated since the end of apartheid. (reason.com)
  • She talked to me about how she was able to experience the culture and meet Desmond Tutu who won the Nobel Peace Prize for his fight against apartheid in South Africa. (courant.com)
  • Athol Fugard 's powerful agit-prop drama, about the philosophical and generational divide between an idealistic teacher and his politicized students, had the shock of immediacy in 1989, when South Africa was still under the yoke of apartheid. (variety.com)
  • Apartheid-racial separation-dominated domestic politics as the Nationalists gained power and imposed greater restrictions on Bantus (black Africans), Asians, and Coloreds (in South Africa the term meant any nonwhite person). (infoplease.com)
  • Eastman Kodak has decided to terminate all operations in South Africa on the ground that there no longer are reasonable hopes for an end to apartheid in the foreseeable future. (latimes.com)
  • With Africa been home to the world's second largest rainforest, the need to protect it remains more urgent than ever. (greenpeace.org)
  • One bodily function may soon bring a windfall for residents of Durban, South Africa as their city council mulls over a plan to encourage waterless waste management -- by paying folks for their pee. (treehugger.com)
  • President Trump's promotion of a white-nationalist conspiracy theory involving South Africa prompted fierce backlash there Thursday and fresh criticism in the United States that he is compromising American foreign policy to stoke his far-right political base. (courant.com)
  • The Africa Carbon Forum is held under the Nairobi Framework, an initiative launched to help developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, to increase their participation in the CDM. (worldbank.org)
  • The death rate for African Americans has declined about 25% over 17 years, primarily for those aged 65 years and older. (cdc.gov)
  • African Americans ages 35-64 years are 50% more likely to have high blood pressure than whites. (cdc.gov)
  • An Irish company, called Rathbawn Computers Limited led by Edward Sweeny applied for .Africa and 19 other strings a comment brought up nearly 10 years later by the African DNS community at the UNECA, a Pan-African policy body that also endorsed in 2008 the .africa initiative of DotConnectAfrica Trust (DCA), which evidenced that UNECA is a place where such forums used to take place instead of the AUC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, a comment was brought up nearly 10 years later by the African DNS community at the UNECA, a Pan-African policy body that also endorsed the DCA Trust's .africa in 2008, discussing that UNECA is the ideal place where such forums used to take place instead of the AUC. (wikipedia.org)
  • As my own general theory about the information economy developed over the years, I proposed that a good reality check for my ideas would be for Africa to surprise everyone by suddenly doing as I had: skipping industrialism entirely and leaping directly into the information era. (wired.com)
  • While China is often characterized as a monolithic actor in Africa, experts say Chinese trade with Africa has diversified beyond state-directed enterprises in recent years. (washingtonpost.com)
  • It may have hidden in the ocean for millions of years, but life today poses numerous challenges for the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae), the "living fossil" fish that was famously rediscovered off the coast of South Africa in 1938. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fifteen years ago about 140,000 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) roamed the plains and forests of Africa. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Anatomically modern humans are believed to have appeared as early as 200,000 years ago in the eastern region of sub-Saharan Africa. (britannica.com)
  • By Kobey Wesley Smith Bloomfield, Connecticut CREC Metropolitan Learning Center for Global and International Studies Two years ago, my history teacher was talking to me about the life-changing experience that she was able to have while chaperoning a school trip to South Africa. (courant.com)
  • Africa Today has been on the forefront of African Studies research for more than 50 years. (jhu.edu)
  • Internal cable cites report that farm murders in South Africa are at their lowest level in 19 years. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • IBM scientists in South Africa are joining NASA, the SETI Institute and Swinburne University to develop an Apache Spark application to analyze the 168 million radio events detected over the past 10 years by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). (ibm.com)
  • Africa has witnessed improved growth in recent years - averaging 5.5 per cent per annum. (unido.org)
  • Perhaps its most important finding is that, after years of evangelization almost nine out of 10 Africans are either Christian or Muslim. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • But principles, not details, are at stake, and the silence of GM on those principles, after its years of leadership on racial equality in South Africa, is cause for concern. (latimes.com)
  • This is nothing new , we've known that Africa is splitting apart for decades - and the rifting has been going on for millions of years. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas, located in the Western Cape Province about 100 mi (161 km) southeast of the Cape of Good Hope. (infoplease.com)
  • The NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative supports members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to identify and implement concrete reforms to strengthen their investment climate . (oecd.org)
  • This project is conducted within the institutional framework of the NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative , under the oversight of the NEPAD Steering Committee and the OECD Investment Committee. (oecd.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is a deeply pious region where a majority is conservative in its own beliefs yet tolerant of others', favors religious law yet is also content with democracy, and worries about religious violence and extremism but is more concerned with the lack of jobs. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • The IFES Africa Division Internship is available to currently-enrolled undergraduate and graduate students majoring in fields related to African studies. (fastweb.com)
  • The Africa Studies Volunteer Internship is available to undergraduate or graduate student (Master's preferred) with an educational concentration in Africa, anthropology, conflict resolution, development, political science or a related field. (fastweb.com)
  • most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Africans stayed out of the loop of the 20th century and were not homogenized into the generica that is now much of the Northern Hemisphere, or what they call the North. (wired.com)
  • Innovation: Africa is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization that brings Israeli innovation to African villages. (idealist.org)
  • Do you work for Innovation: Africa? (idealist.org)
  • IEEE, through its Board of Directors-endorsed IEEE in Africa Strategy, recognizes the opportunity to assist in cultivating greater engineering capacity to advance technology and innovation. (ieee.org)
  • The study aims to establish the role of identity as a barrier in academia, and to determine strategies to promote inclusivity in academia within the South African context. (sayas.org.za)
  • Transformation within South African universities is hampered by more than just historical practices, but by many factors currently at play, either hindering or helping individuals' progress on the academic career path. (sayas.org.za)
  • The Pandemic and the South African Public Service: An opportunity to eat or to feed? (sayas.org.za)
  • And we've seen the damage that misinformation (including the South African health minister's opinion that the African potato is an active AIDS treatment option) does to populations. (washingtonpost.com)
  • According to the approach used in the revised South African Building Regulations and the new building code (SANS 10400 series) performance parameters are outlined first. (iea.org)
  • The South African consumer market tends to trust international retailers more than local business and uses them much more frequently. (export.gov)
  • 38.51 percent of South African consumers use their mobiles for online purchases. (export.gov)
  • I wrote about Chinese oppression in a South African paper. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • South African artist Ayanda Mabulu's first U.S. museum exhibition, indeed his first exhibition anywhere in the country, is currently on view at the DuSable Museum of African American History. (chicagotribune.com)
  • South African artist brings his religious sound project to the Art Institute Chicago, with small speakers playing gospel music, Hare Krishna chants, bits of church services. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Fox News host Tucker Carlson said Friday he's shocked his segments on a South African land reform policy should be considered an appeal to white nationalists. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Hundreds of South African soccer fans disgruntled at the performance of their team rioted at a game on Saturday night. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A little over a year ago, Lucas, son of a railway worker, was just one more schoolboy in one more miserable South African township whose family was often divided by the father's absences at work for days or weeks at a time. (nytimes.com)
  • Now he wants to be one of the several thousand urban guerrillas who, the South African security police say, are being trained in camps in Angola and Tanzania, directed from a headquarters in Lusaka, the Zambian capital, and destined - the bright ones - for advance instruction in East Germany and the Soviet Union. (nytimes.com)
  • Yola Founded by South African-born internet entrepreneur Vinny Lingham in 2007, Yola (formerly known as Synthasite) is a website builder which lets you create your own website with easy-to-use drag and drop multimedia features. (forbes.com)
  • Cobi Interactive Cobi Interactive is a leading South African mobile software development company that provides mobile technology and strategy consulting for top African corporations. (forbes.com)
  • Obami Founded in 2009, Obami is a social network and learning management system for South African schools, teachers and students. (forbes.com)
  • 10Layer A South African startup, 10Layer is a CMS system targeted specifically at newsrooms. (forbes.com)
  • Sembuse Sembuse is a South African mobile social network & instant messaging platform similar to Mxit. (forbes.com)
  • the first program was in a 1994, South African President Inauguration . (c-span.org)
  • South African President Mandela gave an inaugural address. (c-span.org)
  • The South African rhino's perilous situation is in sharp contrast to neighboring Botswana, now eyed by conservationists as a future sanctuary for the animals. (thedailybeast.com)
  • The aircraft stops once to clear South African customs, then flies on to Botswana. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Eskom bought the bulbs from Philips for an undisclosed amount and will subsidize their sale via distributor Karebo Systems to South African businesses such as hotels, restaurants, banks, offices and retail chains, a Philips spokesman said. (zdnet.com)
  • The bulbs in the South African program sell at retail for between 200 and 300 South African rand ($25-to-$37). (zdnet.com)
  • The strike at the General Motors plant in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has been suppressed with the help of police guard dogs and whips and what appears to be the quiet indifference of management both in Detroit and at the South African subsidiary. (latimes.com)
  • A spokesman for General Motors could say only that negotiations are proceeding to sell the South African interests to local investors headed by GM management--a management, incidentally, that includes no blacks or persons of mixed race. (latimes.com)
  • This is bound to result in a significant degree of legal uncertainty with negative effects on the South African creative community at large as well as on foreign investments, including the European ones. (techdirt.com)
  • Preliminary phylogenetic studies indicate that the DENV-1 strain isolated in Angola clustered with strains from Côte d'Ivoire (1985, 1998, and 1999) and Nigeria (1968), which suggested transmission of endemic strains of DENV-1 in Africa ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • My question is this - Rape is endemic in Africa - witness Darfur, etc. (washingtonpost.com)
  • So yes, at some point in the future, water from likely the Red Sea (also an actively rifting and growing ocean) will spill into the East African Rift system and create a new "ocean. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Njorku Founded in Cameroon, Njorku is a career and recruitment services platform focused on Africa. (forbes.com)
  • We find that orphans in Africa on average live in poorer households than non-orphans, and are significantly less likely than non-orphans to be enrolled in school. (nber.org)
  • The Africa Project works to meet the basic needs of orphans, vulnerable children and their extended families (safety, health, education and nutrition). (idealist.org)
  • Poachers in South Africa have already killed 193 of the animals in the first six months of this year alone -- that's according to conservation group WWF. (treehugger.com)
  • I witnessed a decade of unprecedented slaughter of African elephants by poachers, out to profit from rising ivory demand in Asia's fast-growing economies of the day. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Health differences are often due to economic and social conditions that are more common among African Americans than whites. (cdc.gov)
  • But on Thursday, he made a rare public appearance at the World Economic Forum on Africa. (wsj.com)
  • This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995-96. (imf.org)
  • The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3½ and 4 percent in 1996. (imf.org)
  • Despite this, Africa continues to face enormous obstacles to investment and lags behind other parts of the world in taking advantage of carbon finance to develop climate friendly projects and to encourage the transfer of cutting edge technologies and know-how. (worldbank.org)
  • Overall, Africa lags behind, accounting for less than 3 per cent of global gross output, and less than 1 per cent of global manufacturing output. (unido.org)
  • In 1987 geneticists suspected that a 160,000-year-old "African Eve" of sorts was the last common ancestor of modern humans, "but without data from the fossil record, no one knew what she looked like," says University of California, Berkeley, paleontologist Tim White. (newsweek.com)
  • Kindness and the power of forgiveness were among the biggest lessons that six Hartford students brought back from their recent school trip to South Africa - principles promptly put to the test upon their return to Hartford Public High School, they said. (courant.com)