Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
Poisoning caused by the ingestion of mycotoxins (toxins of fungal origin).
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.

Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada. (1/749)

Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (2/749)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (3/749)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Characterization of the promoter for the gene encoding the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway regulatory protein AFLR. (4/749)

Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus parasiticus are regulated by the binuclear zinc cluster DNA-binding protein AFLR. The aflR promoter was analyzed in beta-glucuronidase reporter assays to elucidate some of the elements involved in the gene's transcription control. Truncation at 118 bp upstream of the translational start site increased promoter activity 5-fold, while truncation at -100 reduced activity about 20-fold. These findings indicate the presence of an important positive regulatory element between -100 and -118 and a negative regulatory region further upstream. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays on nuclear extracts from A. parasiticus induced for aflatoxin expression suggest that AFLR and another, possibly more abundant, protein bind to the -100/-118 region. Another protein binds to a sequence at position -159 to -164 that matches the consensus binding site for the transcription factor involved in pH-dependent gene regulation, PACC.  (+info)

HGF-mediated apoptosis via p53/bax-independent pathway activating JNK1. (5/749)

Current studies have indicated both positive and negative roles for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met receptor signaling system in tumor development. Recently, we have shown that HGF has the capacity to induce both growth inhibition and programmed cell death in aflatoxin-transformed (AFLB8) rat liver epithelial cells. Using the same cell line, we have now investigated a potential mechanism for HGF-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of bcl-2 gene family member (bax, bcl-2, bclX-s/l) expression showed no correlation with HGF treatment, suggesting that HGF-mediated apoptosis is bax independent. Following HGF treatment retinoblastoma protein (pRB) was present in the hypophosphorylated state. HGF treatment increased cyclin A, cyclin G1 and nuclear transcriptional factor (NFkappaB) protein expression. However, electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed that NFkappaB activity decreased with HGF treatment. Under these apoptotic conditions, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK2) were activated with lower level activation of ERK2, while no involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase was observed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was not protective, and actually induced cells to undergo apoptosis to a level similar to that of HGF alone or EGF/HGF in combination. These results suggest the possibility of cross-talk between HGF/c-met and EGF/EGFR signaling pathways, and the involvement of JNK1 induction in HGF-mediated apoptotic cell death.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (6/749)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (7/749)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins and biosynthetic relationship between G- and B-group aflatoxins. (8/749)

We detected biosynthetic activity for aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) in cell extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26. We found that in the presence of NADPH, aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were produced from O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin, respectively. No G-group aflatoxins were produced from aflatoxin B(1), aflatoxin B(2), 5-methoxysterigmatocystin, dimethoxysterigmatocystin, or sterigmatin, confirming that B-group aflatoxins are not the precursors of G-group aflatoxins and that G- and B-group aflatoxins are independently produced from the same substrates (O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin). In competition experiments in which the cell-free system was used, formation of aflatoxin G(2) from dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin was suppressed when O-methylsterigmatocystin was added to the reaction mixture, whereas aflatoxin G(1) was newly formed. This result indicates that the same enzymes can catalyze the formation of aflatoxins G(1) and G(2). Inhibition of G-group aflatoxin formation by methyrapone, SKF-525A, or imidazole indicated that a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase may be involved in the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Both the microsome fraction and a cytosol protein with a native mass of 220 kDa were necessary for the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Due to instability of the microsome fraction, G-group aflatoxin formation was less stable than B-group aflatoxin formation. The ordA gene product, which may catalyze the formation of B-group aflatoxins, also may be required for G-group aflatoxin biosynthesis. We concluded that at least three reactions, catalyzed by the ordA gene product, an unstable microsome enzyme, and a 220-kDa cytosol protein, are involved in the enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins from either O-methylsterigmatocystin or dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin.  (+info)

Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb,
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Maize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in Uganda. However, in tropical and subtropical climates, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, a group of cancer-causing and immuno-suppressive mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. In Uganda, there is limited knowledge about the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination. The current study determined both the aflatoxin levels in pre-harvest maize across Uganda and the structures of communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with the maize. A total of 256 pre-harvest maize samples were collected from 23 major maize-growing districts in eight agro-ecological zones (AEZ). Maize aflatoxin content ranged from 0 to 3760 ng/g although only around 5% for Ugandan thresholds. For EU it is about 16% of the samples contained aflatoxin concentrations above tolerance thresholds. A total of 3105 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were recovered and these were dominated by the A. flavus L morphotype ...
Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination.
Scope Aflatoxin exposure coincides with micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. group, compared to the least expensive, were 1.98 (95%CI: 1.00, 3.92) and 3.56 (95%CI: 1.13, 11.15) instances more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient. Summary Although children with high aflatoxin exposure levels were more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient, further study is necessary to determine a cause and effect relationship. to aflatoxin B1 and G1 [44]. This conflicting evidence from previous study, and the fact that the strength of the significant associations observed in the current study were fragile, makes it hard to attract valid conclusions concerning this complex relationship between aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient deficiency. Therefore further study is necessary to help set up if there is a cause and effect relationship. The relationship between aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient deficiency was not significant during the post-harvest time of year. There were, however, ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspergillus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in peanut genotypes with reduced linoleic acid composition. AU - Holbrook, C. Corley. AU - Wilson, David M.. AU - Matheron, Michael E. AU - Hunter, John E.. AU - Knauft, David A.. AU - Gorbet, Daniel W.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus can contaminate several agricultural crops with the toxic fungal metabolite aflatoxin. Previous research has indicated that resistance may be conferred by altering the fatty acid composition of these crops. Recently, peanut breeding lines with reduced linoleic acid content have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced linoleic acid composition on preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut. Seven breeding lines with relatively low linoleic acid and two check genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates for 4 years in Georgia and for 3 years in Arizona. The plots were inoculated with a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of aflatoxin B1 contamination in pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, Food products, Poultry and livestock feeds in Tamil Nadu, India. AU - Vijayasamundeeswari, Ayyathurai. AU - Mohankumar, Munusamy. AU - Karthikeyan, Muthusamy. AU - Vijayanandraj, Selvaraj. AU - Paranidharan, Vaikuntavasen. AU - Velazhahan, Rethinasamy. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, have adverse health effects on humans and livestock that ingest aflatoxin- contaminated food products and feeds. To secure the safety of food and feed, regular monitoring of aflatoxin levels is necessary. In order to understand the magnitude of aflatoxin contamination, a survey was conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India and 242 samples consisting of pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, food products, poultry and livestock feeds were collected from farmers fields, poultry farms, retail shops and ...
No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,[23] but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below.[4] High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis (acute aflatoxicosis), resulting later in cirrhosis or carcinoma of the liver. Acute liver failure is made manifest by bleeding, edema, alteration in digestion, changes to the absorption and/or metabolism of nutrients, and mental changes and/or coma.[23] Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. Chronic exposure increases the risk of developing liver and gallbladder cancer,[24] as aflatoxin metabolites may intercalate into DNA and alkylate the bases through epoxide moiety. This is thought to cause mutations in the p53 gene, an important gene in ...
The saprophytic soil fungus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. (valine leucine and isoleucine) were considerably enriched in the down-regulated gene group while those connected with ribosome biogenesis translation and biosynthesis of α-amino acids had been over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway evaluation uncovered that metabolic pathways adversely impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to people energetic at 30 °C an ailment conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the other hand metabolic pathways favorably linked to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C which mementos rapid fungal development and it is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The outcomes demonstrated that 2-PE at a minimal level stimulated energetic development of but concomitantly rendered reduced actions in branched-chain amino acidity degradation. Since supplementary metabolism takes place after active development provides ceased ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce the synthesis of a myriad of secondary metabolites, including aflatoxins. It raises significant concern as it is a potent environmental contaminant. In Aspergillus flavus., antioxidant enzymes link ROS stress response with coordinated gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the function of a core component of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CTA1) of A. flavus. Firstly, we verified the presence of cta1 corresponding protein (CTA1) by Western blot analysis and mass-spectrometry based analysis. Then, the functional study revealed that the growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation significantly increased, while aflatoxins production and virulence were decreased in the cta1 deletion mutant as compared with the WT and complementary strains. Furthermore, the absence of the cta1 gene resulted in a significant rise in the intracellular ROS level, which in turn added to the oxidative stress level of cells. A further quantitative ...
Aflatoxins are important because some are extremely toxic to many kinds of animals; 10 ppb AFB1 consumed regularly by rats may eventually result in fatal liver cancer and in somewhat larger amounts-a few hundred ppb-aflatoxin cause a great variety of ill effects in wild and domestic animals. An aflatoxin contamination level of 20 ppb is permitted in feed grains and in feeds in the U.S.A. but in foods intended for human consumption the tolerance is zero. However, these guidelines were then revised. North Carolina agricultural officials reported that maize containing up to 200 ppb could be fed to heifers (older than 6 months), calves and bulls and to non-lactating brood cows. Maize containing aflatoxin higher than 20 ppb should not be fed to lactating animals, used as any starter ration or feed to poultry. All other animals could be fed with maize containing aflatoxin levels up to 100 ppb. For human consumption, a level, below 20 ppb is enforced (Mirocha and Christensen 1982 and Pitt, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01236 Interpretive Summary: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi within Aspergillus section Flavi. Certain isolates with section Flavi have the small sclerotia or S morphology (< 400 µm) and contaminate crops with high concentrations of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops in both United States (US) and Africa has been attributed to S morphology fungi; however, knowledge of genetic diversity of these highly aflatoxigenic fungi in the US remains limited. The current study utilized molecular, phylogenetic and aflatoxin analyses to identify communities of S morphology fungi resident in regions of the US where crops are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Individual and concatenated phylogenies constructed using calmodulin (1.9 kb) and nitrate reductase (2.1 kb) genes along with deletions in norB-cypA genes of aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster resolved 494 S morphology fungi from the US into four species, including ...
This community-based study evaluated the role of aflatoxin exposure in advanced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-endemic townships. Preventive health examination was performed on 314 adults ≥ 40 years of age recruited from HCV-endemic townships in Tainan, Taiwan. Aflatoxin-albumin in serum was quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. After adjusting serum albumin levels and platelet counts, aflatoxin-Bi albumin adducts was still an independent risk factor for advanced liver disease among all 314 residents (> 8 versus ≤ 8 (AFBi)-albumin/albumin; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.23-4.27, P = 0.009) and particularly in anti-HCV-positive subjects (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.09-4.0, P = 0.026). Levels of AFB1-albumin/albumin were significantly related to ultrasonographic parenchyma scores (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) in all and anti-HCV-positive subjects. The findings indicated aflatoxin exposure may be associated with advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in HCV-endemic
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Studies conducted in Benin, in which the main staple foods are maize, cassava, groundnuts and yams, showed high levels of aflatoxin residues in blood of the exposed population. The natural contamination with fungi and aflatoxins in cassava chips sold at markets in Benin, West Africa was investigated. A total of sixty samples were sampled from open markets in 11 districts of 3 agroecological zones and analyzed for the presence of mycoflora and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Fourteen genera of fungi were associated with marketed dried cassava chips. Within these, twenty- two isolates were identified to species level, whereas four were identified only to genus. The dominating fungal species isolated were Rhizopus oryzae, Nigrospora oryzae, Chrysonilia sitophila, Cladosporium resinae, Cladosporium herbarum, Apergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Fifty-four out of sixty samples were contaminated with A. flavus. The rate of occurrence in CFU/g of A. flavus fungi was lower than for all other fungal ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
A survey was conducted in Nairobi, Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya between March and July 2009 with 1263 peanut products sampled out of which 705 samples underwent microbial analysis. The study aimed at determining the incidence of fungal species - emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi - associated with peanut products. A 0.5kg representative sample was obtained from each surveyed vendor and the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal species determined. The samples were also analyzed for total aflatoxin level while isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were screened for production of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Eight fungal species were detected in the samples and were in decreasing order of CFU/g of sample: A. flavus S-strain (467), A. flavus L-strain (341), Penicillium spp. (326), A. niger (156), A. tamari (27), A. alliaceus (21), A. parasiticus (10), and A. caelatus (5). The overall incidence of A. flavus S-strain in samples from Nairobi was 92 and 1425% higher than samples from ...
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. More importantly, aflatoxin biosynthesis as well as conidia and sclerotia development were fully blocked in ΔAfStuA. In addition, our results supported that AfStuA regulated the aflatoxin synthesis in an AflR-dependent manner. Intriguingly, it was revealed that AfRafA and AfStuA exert an antagonistic role in the regulation of biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid. In
There are a variety of aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2, M 1, M 2) produced by Apergillus flavus. Temperatures of 82° to 90° F, along with grain moisture levels of 22% to 26% provide ideal conditions for producing aflatoxin in a variety of grains, including corn, wheat, barley, and oats. The mold is abundant in the southeastern United States, but has occasionally become a problem in the Midwestern corn belt when drought conditions occur.. Aflatoxin is the only mycotoxin regulated by FDA because it has been shown to be carcinogenic, and therefore concerns about the mycotoxin entering the human food chain exist. No more than 20 ppb aflatoxin is allowed for interstate shipment of contaminated grain. Grains containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb cannot be used for human consumption and dairy feeds, and should not be fed to young animals. At low levels (20 - 200 ppb), aflatoxin decreases performance and well-being. Feed intake is commonly reduced, resulting in depressed growth rate, while ...
Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. Initial findings associated with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain.. According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. Furthermore, 27 of the 35 feed samples that were analyzed contained more than one mycotoxin. This poses additional risk to animals since in many cases the combined effects of two mycotoxins are higher than the individual effects of each toxin alone.. ...
Several mycotoxins are known to contaminate crop produce and processed forms but aflatoxins are the most common. They are mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Cereals and their products which constitute the staples in most developing countries are particularly vulnerable to attack by aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the potential health risk posed to animals and humans, many people in developing countries are oblivious of the ability of aflatoxins to cause cancer and other debilitating diseases. This review therefore examines the various types of aflatoxigenic fungi and toxins, their occurrence in foodstuffs, their harmful effects, economic losses caused, regulation including the tolerable limits set by various national and international agencies and how their effects can be minimized or eliminated. Since developing countries are less resourced, there is the need for their developed counterparts and international agencies to offer them financial and technical
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
We examined the relationship between various health parameters and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adduct levels in plasma. Design. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in four villages in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A survey on socio-demographic and health characteristics was administered to 162 volunteers and blood (20 ml) was donated by 140 participants. AFB1 albumin adduct levels, liver function, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and malaria infections were determined. AFB1 levels ranged from 0.12 to 2.995 pmolmg21 albumin (mean¡standard deviation50.89¡ 0.46) and was categorized based on the median as low (,0.80 pmolmg21) or high (,0.80 pmol mg21) and used in the analyses. By multivariate analysis, significantly higher levels of AFB1 were obtained for participants who reported symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis: history of yellow mouth (odds ratio55.5, confidence interval51.04-29.07, p50.04); history of sore swollen stomach (odds ratio54.54, confidence interval51.28-15.62, p50.01). A ...
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Interpretive Summary: The fungus named Aspergillus flavus produces a poison called aflatoxin when it infects corn kernels. Aflatoxin prevents the corn from being used commercially. The best strategy for controlling this problem is to develop corn that is resistant to aflatoxin contamination. Towards this aim, we compared the expression of genes after kernel infection between a susceptible corn line and one that was resistant to aflatoxin contamination to identify the genes that are related to resistance; the resistant and susceptible lines used were selected because they are closely related which makes it easier to identify genes involved in resistance. Gene expression differences were detected between resistant and susceptible lines, noninoculated and inoculated kernels. Out of the genes identified may come useful markers which allow breeders to transfer resistance to commercial lines. This could lead to future savings of millions of dollars to growers, as a result of the elimination of ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a type of epilepsy characterized by repeated head-nodding seizures that appear in previously healthy children between 3 and 18 years of age. In 2012, during a WHO International Meeting on NS in Kampala, Uganda, it was recommended that fungal contamination of foods should be investigated as a possible cause of the disease. We therefore aimed to assess whether consumption of fungal mycotoxins contributes to NS development. We detected similar high levels of total aflatoxin and ochratoxin in mostly millet, sorghum, maize and groundnuts in both households with and without children with NS. Furthermore, there was no significant association between concentrations of total aflatoxin, ochratoxin and doxynivalenol and the presence of children with NS in households. In conclusion, our results show no supporting evidence for the association of NS with consumption of mycotoxins in contaminated foods.
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a safer cigarette, as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns. Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
Design a symmetric protein tetramer, with 4 identical chains that assemble together! This puzzle includes a Secondary Structure Objective, so no more than 50% of your design can form helices. The H-bond Network Objective encourages players to build buried, satisfied H-bond networks at the interface between symmetric chains. H-bond networks are a great way to introduce polar residues at the interface, but its important that all of the bondable atoms make hydrogen bonds! Weve also adjusted the H-bond Network Objective so that poor-scoring H-bonds may not contribute to networks; poor-scoring H-bonds will be displayed in red. This puzzle uses the Buried Unsats Objective, with a large penalty for buried polar atoms that cant make H-bonds. In this puzzle, there are no limits on the Complex Core, but weve included the Complex Core objective so players can see the core residues that can be incorporated into H-bond Networks ...
When dairy cattle consume aflatoxin-contaminated feed, they are lethargic, their appetite wanes, they produce less milk, and their immune system goes awry. Some of those symptoms relate to oxidative stress, in which dangerous free-radicals bounce around, damaging cells. In a new study, researchers at the University of Illinois investigated the potential of injectable trace minerals to reduce the damage and keep dairy cows healthier.. If were providing enough trace minerals to manufacture more detoxifying enzymes, the liver has a better chance of fighting the aflatoxin, explains Russell Pate, doctoral student in the Department of Animal Sciences at U of I and lead author on the study.. Phil Cardoso, assistant professor in the department and co-author on the paper, adds that an injectable product could be helpful during aflatoxin challenge, when a cows appetite is suppressed. Our idea for injecting is that it might help during a time when intake is impacted. If something is causing her to eat ...
Information is fragmented on the prevalence of aflatoxins, a variety of mycotoxin, in the maize value chain in Kenya and in the groundnut value chain in Mali. The purpose of this study is to generate a consistent database of aflatoxin prevalence along the maize and groundnut value chains through systematic sampling, and to identify critical points where intervention strategies are likely to have the greatest impact ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
Veratox HS for Aflatoxin is an ELISA that provides a quantitative analysis of very low levels of aflatoxin in commodities like corn, wheat and more.
Veratox HS for Aflatoxin is an ELISA that provides a quantitative analysis of very low levels of aflatoxin in commodities like corn, wheat and more.
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by two species of Aspergillus, a fungus which is especially found in areas with hot and humid climates.. Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and animals. M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the presence of Alfatoxin M1 in the milk.. The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to detect the presence of Aflatoxin M1. This kit can be used as a screening method for the presence of Aflatoxin M1. ...
Oilseed crops such as maize and peanut are staple food crops which are vital for global food security. The contamination of these crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins during infection by Aspergillus flavus under drought stress conditions is a serious threat to the safety of these commodities. In order to better understand the role of aflatoxin production in the biology of this pathogen under environmental stress, a collaborative transcriptome project was undertaken to examine the transcriptional responses of toxigenic and atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus to oxidative stress. Selected isolates were cultured in aflatoxin production-conducive and non-conducive media amended with varying levels of H2O2. Isolates which possessed greater tolerance to H2O2 stress and aflatoxin production capability exhibited fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than those which possessed less tolerance and lower aflatoxin production. Primary metabolic mechanisms were also stimulated in response to stress along ...
Global Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market research report 2021 provides key statistics on the market status of the Aflatoxicosis Treatment Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Aflatoxicosis Treatment Industry. In the Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market report, there is a section for the competitive landscape of the global Aflatoxicosis Treatment Industry. This competition landscape shows a view of the key players operating in the global Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market along with their Profile and Contact information.. Regions Covered in Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market Report: North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa, Rest of World (ROW). Get a Sample PDF of the Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/12663534. Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market report studies in detail the market dynamics of the global Aflatoxicosis Treatment Industry. The Aflatoxicosis Treatment Market dynamics ...
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Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Haemato-immunology and histo-architectural changes in Labeo rohita fingerlings. T2 - Effect of dietary aflatoxin and mould inhibitor. AU - Mohapatra, S.. AU - Sahu, N. P.. AU - Pal, A. K.. AU - Prusty, A. K.. AU - Kumar, Vikas. AU - Kumar, Shivendra. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to The Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, for providing facilities for carrying out the research work. The first author is grateful to Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, for financial support by awarding Institutional Fellowship.. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - A feeding trail of 60 days was conducted for delineating the effect of dietary aflatoxin (AFB1) with or without supplementation of a mixture of mould inhibitor (0.25% clove oil + 0.32% sodium propionate) on haematology, respiratory burst activity and histology of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fishes (avg. wt. 1.48-1.54 g) were randomly distributed into ...
Looking for online definition of aflatoxins in the Medical Dictionary? aflatoxins explanation free. What is aflatoxins? Meaning of aflatoxins medical term. What does aflatoxins mean?
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
per fungal biomass dry weight/colony size has rarely been reported. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to model the kinetics of mycotoxin production under the assumption of existing both no-growth-associated and growth-associated production. Aspergillus flavus was chosen as a model mycotoxigenic microorganism, and it was grown in maize agar medium and maize grain at 0.90 and 0.99 aw at 25 °C. A significant positive correlation (p , 0.05) was observed among the biomass responses (colony radius and biomass dry weight) in agar medium and colony radius in maize at both aw levels assayed. The Luedeking-Piret model was used to model AFB1 production and reasonable percentages of variability were explained. Moreover, AFB1 production was in general slightly better predicted through colony area. As conclusion, aflatoxin production may follow a mixed-growth associated trend, confirming that toxin formation does not present a clear delay in relation to growth under certain conditions ...
Aflatoxins are fungal toxins produced by . Food and feed crops contaminated with carcinogenic aflatoxins result in economic losses as well as potentially serious health issues. Grain elevators need to unload, on average, one 2.27 metric ton (MT) truckload every 2 min. Current sampling-based analytical chemistry methods for aflatoxin detection cannot meet these large throughput screening requirements. Therefore, a high-speed, batch screening system with reliable accuracy is needed. To develop a high-speed multispectral screening system, two high-performance cameras in conjunction with dual UV excitation sources and novel image processing software were used to collect fluorescence images of corn samples. Each camera simultaneously captures a single-band fluorescence image (436 nm or 532 nm) from corn kernel samples, and the detection software processes the images to automatically detect contaminated kernels using a normalized difference fluorescence index (NDFI). The system was tested with various ...
Strains of Aspergillus species may produce the mycotoxin called aflatoxin in hot humid weather. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed. Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. Specifically, grain may not contain more than 20 ppb (ppb- not ppm) aflatoxin if intended for use in dairy cattle. Milk is checked for aflatoxin at a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb and cattle ingesting as little as 20 to 50 ppb in the total ration may have more than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 in the milk they produce. Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs associated with dumping that milk ...
Welsh onion ethanol extracts were tested for their inhibitory activity against the growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The survival of spores of A. flavus and A. parasiticus depended on both the extract concentration and the exposure time of the spores to the We …
Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
The method of spectroscopic ellipsometry in total internal reflection mode (TIRE) was utilised for detection of Aflatoxin B1. The method of TIRE with the improved data analysis was capable of detection of aflatoxin molecules in low concentrations (down to 0.04 ng/ml) using a label-free and cost-effective direct immunoassay format. TIRE study of the binding kinetics yielded a large value of the association constant in the range of 106 l mol−1 which is typical for highly specific immune reactions. The comparison of the experimental data for three mycotoxins studied (e.g. aflatoxin B1, T-2 mycotoxin, and zearalenone) confirmed a common mechanism of the sensitivity boost due to the aggregation of hydrophobic molecules of mycotoxins in aqueous solutions.. ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
Using duplex-consensus sequencing technology, we recently identified the characteristic high-resolution mutational spectrum of the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B₁ in a mouse model, many months before aflatoxin-induced tumors are detectable. The diagnostic power of this spectrum is then demonstrated by accurately identifying, among the sequenced human liver tumors, the subset of cancers associated with aflatoxin B₁ exposure. Keywords: Duplex sequencing; HCC; hepatocellular carcinoma; mutagenesis; mutational signature; ...
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day-1) or placebo (3 g day-1) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 ...
|p|Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics |/p|
Resveratrol has been reported as a natural phytoalexin that inhibits infection or the growth of certain fungi including Aspergillus flavus. Our previous research revealed that aflatoxin production in A. flavus was reduced in medium with resveratrol. To understand the molecular mechanism of the A. flavus response to resveratrol treatment, the high-throughput paired-end RNA-Seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of A. flavus. In total, 366 and 87 genes of A. flavus were significantly up- and down- regulated, respectively, when the fungus was treated with resveratrol. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis revealed that 48 significantly differentially expressed genes were involved in 6 different terms. Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes cluster (#54) did not show a significant change when A. flavus was treated with resveratrol, but 23 of the 30 genes in the #54 cluster were down-regulated. The transcription of aflA and aflB was significantly suppressed under
Different classes of mycotoxins are distinguished on the basis of the structural similarity and originating mold species. For example, more than a dozen different aflatoxin compounds exist but only five of them are routinely tested (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1). Aflatoxin B1 is of particular interest because it is listed as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolic product that can be present in milk upon ingestion of aflatoxin B1 by an animal. Aflatoxins are ubiquitous in important agricultural commodities including maize and peanuts, and are among the most studied mycotoxins.. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by a different fungi species. It is prevalent in cereal crops grown under wet conditions and temperatures above 15o C (60o F). Chronic exposure of livestock to DON may result in slowed growth, impaired immune function and reduced rates of reproduction, particularly in non-ruminants.. Mycotoxins were discovered as the ...
Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen and may produce aflatoxins in maize, one of the most important crops in Argentina. A promising strategy to reduce aflatoxin accumulation is the biological control based on competitive exclusion. In order to select potential biocontrol agents among isolates from the maize growing region in Argentina, a total of 512 A. flavus strains were isolated from ...
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds that have different structures and different biological effects. They are having high acute toxicity, which is often associated with malignant diseases. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins which synthesize a limited number of strains molds of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most important aflatoxins, related to milk and milk products, are: B1 and B2 (present in the feed of animals) and M1 and M2 (hydroderivates aflatoxin B1 and B2). They are excreted in milk, urine and stool. Fortunately, there is a large gap between the concentration of toxins in feed and the amount of residues in animal products. Ratio of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in milk is about 300:1. For the determination of aflatoxin, today are commonly used imunoassays (ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) during routine analysis because they are very simple and quick. If the positive result of ELISA, confirmatory methods are conducted which are far more sensitive and ...
Understanding the role of phytohormone auxin in defense responses is one of the vital tools for plant breeders to develop maize germplasm lines that exhibit high resistance to Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. Besides its critical role in different developmental processes throughout the life cycle of plants, auxin is also involved in the network of plant-pathogen interaction as demonstrated in previous studies. However, the actual mechanism for the auxin signaling pathway leading to resistance is unknown. Therefore, the critical gap in the knowledge base is a lack of understanding of the role of auxin signaling in pathogen resistance in maize. Continuation of this gap is an important problem because fungal resistance is a highly quantitative trait and breeding for resistance is a challenge. A complete understanding of the auxin mechanism in resistance could lead the production of corn hybrids with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. The focus of this ...
Background: Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus produce a variety of natural products, including aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin biosynthesis, one of the most highly characterized secondary metabolic pathways, offers a model system to study secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. To control or customize biosynthesis of natural products we must understand how secondary metabolism integrates into the overall cellular metabolic network. By applying a metabolomics approach we analyzed volatile compounds synthesized by Aspergillus parasiticus in an attempt to define the association of secondary metabolism with other metabolic and cellular processes. Results: Volatile compounds were examined using solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the wild type strain Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1, the largest group of volatiles included compounds derived from catabolism of branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine); we also
Worldwide, there are increasing concerns about food safety and what is really present in the food we are eating, and feeding our children. Antibiotic residues are one of these concerns and a growing global problem. In 2001 India became the worlds largest consumer of antibiotics and the problem with antibiotic resistance is increasing. Studies have shown a link between a high SCC (somatic cell count) in cows milk and high risk for antibiotic residues. In India reports have shown that the average number of clinical mastitis is between 3.94% and 23.25% of the total cow population. In additions to antibiotic residues, there is a risk of mycotoxins in milk products. In countries with a tropical climate such as India, problems due to chronic exposure of aflatoxins are emerging. The fungi that produce the toxin, Aspergillus spp., thrive in a hot and humid climate. The effects of chronic aflatoxin exposure include liver carcinoma, and potentially immune suppression and stunting, with children being ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 in C57BL/6N mice carrying a human fetus-specific CYP3A7 gene. AU - Li, Yong. AU - Yokoi, Tsuyoshi. AU - Katsuki, Motoya. AU - Wang, Jia Sheng. AU - Groopman, John D.. AU - Kamataki, Tetsuya. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - The in vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was assessed by using two transgenic mouse lines, M2 and M10, in which the human fetus-specific CYP3A7 was expressed in the kidney (M2) and the liver (M10), respectively. Male mice of 8 weeks old from these two lines were treated with a single i.p. injection of AFB1 (4 mg/kg body weight). AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage was measured using the alkaline elution technique 2 and 6 h after AFB1 treatment. Administration of AFB1 resulted in a significantly higher level of AFB1- N7-guanine in the livers of M10 transgenic mice compared with their nontransgenic littermates (16.5 ± 4.2 versus 10.4 ± 1.2 ng/mg DNA, P , 0.01). The level ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1. AU - Ilic, Zoran. AU - Crawford, Dana. AU - Egner, Patricia A.. AU - Sell, Stewart. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH R01 CA112481 and R01 ES09495 grants. Patricia A. Egners work is supported by grant NIH PO1 ES006052 . PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were ...
This paper reports the contamination of ready-to-use food thickeners, collected from the South-East geo-political zone in Nigeria, by aflatoxigenic form of Aspergillus species. A total of 150 samples from different open markets were observed for fungal contamination by using serial dilution-spread plate method. Although, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated fungi, Aspergillus species were found to be the most prevalent in all the samples. Furthermore, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced aflatoxin on yeast extract sucrose (YES) media incubated for 10 to 15 days at 27°C in a CO2 incubator. Aspergillus niger showed no sign of any secondary metabolite on the media, set at similar conditions. Although, light microscopy was used to identify these fungi, based on colony morphology, PCR method was used to confirm genetic variation among the Aspergillus group, using ITS set
Mycotoxins are toxic chemicals produced by certain species of molds during their growth on numerous substrates. Molds can invade the food and feed supply at various points throughout production, storage, processing, and distribution. Of most concern are the aflatoxins, which are highly toxic and classified as probable human carcinogens. Aflatoxins are often associated with crops that have undergone stress or feeds and foods that have been stored improperly. Tremendous economic implications are associated with regulation, testing, and loss of agricultural products from aflatoxin contamination. Dairy cattle excrete a portion of consumed aflatoxins into milk, thus, leading to a strict action level of 0.5 ppb in fluid milk. Several types of processed food products have been demonstrated to be occasionally contaminated with these toxins.; Dairy Day, 1993, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1993;
Role of pH in the Mutagenicity of Aflatoxin B1 in Maize Tortillas during In Vitro Human Digestion Model Aflatoxins (AFs) are potent mutagens, carcinogens and teratogens ..
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects ofthese agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is theevaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled waterat 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactintestosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower(P|0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were
Free Online Library: Determination of an oral aflatoxin dose that acutely impairs hepatic function in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).(Original Studies, Report) by Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery; Health, general Aflatoxins Health aspects Research Deoxycholic acid Enzymes Liver diseases Care and treatment Risk factors Pigeons
Aflatoxins are known to have a hepatotoxic effect in poultry and also a hepatocarcinogenic effect in exposed animals. The most common pathological lesions associated with aflatoxicosis in poultry are found in the liver, lymphoid organs, and testes, often occurring over a period of chronic exposure. In acute-subacute aflatoxicosis, the liver appears enlarged, pale yellow in color, friable, and usually the gall bladder is also enlarged and filled with bile (see Figure 8). The pancreas is usually small and depigmented and there could be hemorrhages on subcutaneous tissue and muscles. In chronic aflatoxicosis, the liver is small, firm, and rounded. Sometimes this organ is very small, rounded, and rubbery, and often complicated with ascites and hydropericardium. The other consistent lesions in aflatoxicosis can be found in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen, all of which appear smaller than normal. In male parent stock breeder birds, the size of the testes could also be significantly ...
Aflatoxins[edit]. Almonds are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing molds.[62] Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals ... "Aflatoxins in food". European Food Safety Authority. 2010.. *^ "New EU Aflatoxin Levels and Sampling Plan" (PDF). USDA Foreign ... If aflatoxin does not meet the strict safety regulations, the entire consignment may be reprocessed to eliminate the aflatoxin ... "The high cost of aflatoxins" (PDF). Almond Board of California. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2013. ...
In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver ... For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin- ... "Aflatoxins". Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in ...
He also worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer- ... T. V. Reddy; L. Viswanathan; T. A. Venkitasubramanian (September 1971). "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined ... "Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: effect of adenine nucleotides, cyclic AMP and N6-O2' -dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the ... "Biosynthesis of aflatoxins". Bacteriol Rev. 41 (4): 822-855. doi:10.1128/MMBR.41.4.822-855.1977. PMC 414029. PMID 23090.CS1 ...
Sajjad continued his advocacy by bringing to light the Aflatoxin epidemic in Tanzania and proposing a solution for it. ... "Aflatoxins : The invisible poison". 1 August 2016. "New questions on food poison". 2 August 2016. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/ ... news/-Tanzania-eyes-new-tech-to-fight-aflatoxins/1840340-4741030-592lw1/index.html "PHARMACIST: Cut cost by physical fitness in ...
... the term aflatoxin can be construed to mean aflatoxin B1. However, well over a dozen other aflatoxins (e.g., P1. Q1, B2a, and ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known and is usually the major aflatoxin produced by toxigenic strains. It ... Aflatoxins: The aflatoxins were isolated and characterized after the death of more than 100,000 turkey poults (turkey X disease ... The four major aflatoxins are called B1, B2, G1, and G2 based on their fluorescence under UV light (blue or green) and relative ...
Dhand NK, Joshi DB, Jand SK (1998). "Aflatoxins in dairy feeds/ingredients". Ind. J. Anim. Nutr. 15: 285-286. Vasanthi S, Bhat ... Hesseltine CW, Shotwell OL, Smith M, Ellis JJ, Vandegraft E, Shannon G (1970). "Production of various aflatoxins by strains of ... Skrinjar M, Danev M, Dimic G (1995). "Investigation on the presence of toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins in raw milk". Acta ... Phillips SI, Wareing PW, Dutta A, Panigrahi S, Medlock V (1996-01-01). "The mycoflora and incidence of aflatoxin, zearalenone ...
The umbrella term aflatoxin refers to four different types of mycotoxins produced, which are B1, B2, G1, and G2. Aflatoxin B1, ... Aflatoxins are a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. ... Aflatoxins are largely associated with commodities produced in the tropics and subtropics, such as cotton, peanuts, spices, ... 2005). "Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central ...
Aflatoxin contamination is a frequent risk, particularly in warmer and humid environments. Food contaminated with aflatoxins ... As with other tree seeds, aflatoxin is found in poorly harvested or processed pistachios. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic ... E. Boutrif (1998). "Prevention of aflatoxin in pistachios" (PDF). FAO, United Nations.[permanent dead link] "Aflatoxins in ... Damage or early splits can lead to aflatoxin contamination. In some cases, a harvest may be treated to keep contamination below ...
ISBN 978-1-904-45553-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Abbas, edited by Hamed K. (2005). Aflatoxin and food safety. ...
This mechanism of action is similar to that of aflatoxin which binds to the N7 position of guanine. There are indications that ... Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994;34:135-72. Pfeifer GP, Denissenko MF, Olivier M, ...
This mechanism of action is similar to that of aflatoxin which binds to the N7 position of guanine.[24] ... Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994;34:135-72. ...
3D image of Aflatoxin. Characterisic units within a molecule[edit]. Residue may refer to an atom or a group of atoms that forms ...
"Aflatoxins in pistachios" (PDF). European Union. 2008.. *^ Doster and Michailides (1994). "Aspergillus Moulds and Aflatoxins in ... It is unsafe to eat mold-infected and aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios.[35] Aflatoxin contamination is a frequent risk, ... As with other tree seeds, aflatoxin is found in poorly harvested or processed pistachios. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic ... Food contaminated with aflatoxins has been found as the cause of frequent outbreaks of acute illnesses in parts of the world. ...
Aspergillus nidulans produces sterigmatocystin - a precursor to aflatoxins. Aspergillus was found to have horizontally ... Podospora and Aspergillus show high conservation and microsynteny sterigmatocystin/aflatoxin clusters along with intergenic ... regions containing 14 binding sites for AfIR, a transcription factor for the activation of sterigmatocystin/aflatoxin ...
Moreover, the baby feeds aflatoxin M1 from its mom, as aflatoxin M1 is the detoxification product of aflatoxin B1. It is a ... abnormally high levels of aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 was found in liver tissue and blood of all neonates ... Some cases of biliary atresia may result from exposure to aflatoxin B1, and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 during late ... The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct cells are removed by neutrophil elastase and by involvement of immune system ...
Trail F, Mahanti N, Linz J (April 1995). "Molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis". Microbiology. 141 (4): 755-65. doi: ...
Shotwell is best known for her contributions to the research of mycotoxins, especially to the study of aflatoxin, a carcinogen ... 37 (7): 8-9. Shotwell, O. L.; Hesseltine, C. W.; Stubblefield, R. D.; Sorenson, W. G. (1 May 1966). "Production of aflatoxin on ...
2013 aflatoxin contamination - Contamination with aflatoxins results in a milk recall in Europe and a dog food recall in the ... 2004 - Aflatoxin-contaminated maize in Kenya resulted in 317 cases of hepatic failure and 125 deaths. 2004 - EHEC O104:H4 in ... The Aflatoxin Investigative Group (2005). "Case-Control Study of an Acute Aflatoxicosis Outbreak, Kenya, 2004". Environmental ...
2,000 litres of aflatoxins, which can cause liver cancer; Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ...
2,000 litres of aflatoxins, which can cause liver failure; Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; ...
2,000 litres of aflatoxins, which can cause liver cancer; clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ...
This process removes up to 97%-100% of aflatoxins from mycotoxin-contaminated corn. The term can also refer to the removal via ... Doralinda Guzmán-de-Peña (2010). "The Destruction of Aflatoxins in Corn by "Nixtamalización"" (PDF). In M. Rai; A. Varma (eds ...
... and peppers produces high concentrations of aflatoxins. A. flavus growth on spices produces low concentrations of aflatoxin as ... The four major aflatoxins produced are B1, B2, G1, and G2. The production of the major toxins are a result of particular ... Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2). Unique to the S strains is the production of ... The amount of aflatoxins produced by A. flavus is affected by environmental factors. If other competitive fungal organisms are ...
Enantioselective Synthesis of (−)-Aflatoxin B Lactone". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 121 (14): 3543-3544. doi: ...
... ensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93 (4 ...
Aristolochene Aflatoxin Patulin Borthwick AD (2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and ...
... and produces aflatoxins. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service found that when pistachio trees were treated with P. ... "Helpful Yeast Battles Food-Contaminating Aflatoxin". Retrieved 2020-05-05. Pichia Species Archived 2014-07-02 at the Wayback ...
Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two ... Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin - a potent ... "Food, Nutrition & Agriculture - Prevention of aflatoxin". FAO, United Nations. 1998. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07. ...
Exposure to aflatoxin is known to cause both chronic and acute hepatocellular injury. In Kenya, acute aflatoxin poisoning ... Aflatoxin is a fungal toxin that commonly contaminates maize and other types of crops during production, harvest, storage or ... CDC teams worked with the Kenyan Ministry of Health to trial a rapid, portable aflatoxin screening tool that could be used in ... Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning - Eastern and Central Provinces, Kenya, January-July 2004. MMWR. September 3, 2004 / 53(34);790 ...
Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin M1 ... Aflatoxin M1, metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in humans and animals (exposure in ng levels may come from a mothers milk) ... Aflatoxins are among the most carcinogenic substances known.[12] After entering the body, aflatoxins may be metabolized by the ... Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested. However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin.[13] ...
... and on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) production was examined. The study showed that Nor-Ib gave a significant ... free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of ... Open AccessReview Developing Resistance to Aflatoxin in Maize and Cottonseed by Jeffrey W. Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Robert L ... Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to ...
Aflatoxins are toxins produced by a mold (fungus) that grows in nuts, seeds, and legumes. ... Aflatoxins. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/aflatoxins. Updated December 28, 2018. Accessed April ... Although aflatoxins are known to cause cancer in animals, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows them at ... Aflatoxins ingested in large mounts may cause acute liver damage. Chronic intoxication may lead to weight gain or weight loss, ...
Aflatoxins were discovered in 1960, following the deaths of 100,000 turkeys in the United Kingdom, large numbers of ducklings ... which became known as aflatoxins. Subsequent work showed that four aflatoxins occurred naturally, named aflatoxins B 1, B2, GI ... Stoloff, L., 1977, Aflatoxins - an overview, in: Mycotoxin in Human and Animal Health J. V. Rodricks, C. W. Hesseltine and M. A ... Angle, J.S., 1986, Aflatoxin decomposition in various soils, J. Environ. Sci. Health 21: 277-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON INNOVATION PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA: 17TH JUNE, 2015 ... Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Awareness of the terms mycotoxin and aflatoxin Mycotoxin Aflatoxin ... Aflatoxins and kwashiokor • Aflatoxin and human male sterility problems ... PLATFORM ON AFLATOXIN MANAGEMENT IN GHANA * 1. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology STAKEHOLDER MEETING ON ...
Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is a very potent carcinogen with a TD50 3.2 ... Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic aflatoxin and it is highly implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans.[ ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolized into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ...
ARS Home » News & Events » News Articles » Research News » 2004 » New Protection for Peanuts From Aflatoxin ... Aflatoxin outbreaks occur when certain crops, like peanuts and corn, are stressed by drought conditions. ... Peanut farmers now have a biological pesticide for protecting their crops from fungi that produce aflatoxin. A biological ... Afla-Guard, in field trials, reduced aflatoxin typically 70 to 90 percent after the first application. Repeated applications in ...
aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a ... aflatoxin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to aflatoxin: Aflatoxin b1 af·la·tox·in. (ăf′lə ... Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products.. Neogen introduces Veratox[R] for Aflatoxin ... Periods Description Binder I Aflatoxin ppb 0 Nil 80.. Evaluation of different mycotoxin binders on aflatoxin B1 {Aspergillus ...
... aflatoxin (general) AF-alb aflatoxin-albumin (adduct) AFB1 aflatoxin B1 AFB2 aflatoxin B2 AFG1 aflatoxin G1 AFG2 aflatoxin G2 ... Aflatoxin B2 2.2.11.2 Aflatoxin G1 2.2.11.3 Aflatoxin G2 2.2.11.4 Aflatoxin M1 3. Estimating carcinogenic risks from the intake ... Of these six aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 is the most frequent one present in contaminated samples and aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 are ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent carcinogen of the aflatoxins; most of the toxicological data available are related to aflatoxin ...
Aflatoxins: Poisoning Health and Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. By Busani Bafana Reprint , , Print , ,En español ... a plant pathologist and member of the IITA team in Zambia under Aflatoxin Biocontrol. "Exposure to aflatoxin through ... Aflatoxins are toxic and cancer causing poisons produced by certain green mould fungus that naturally occurs in the soil. The ... High aflatoxins levels have threatened the export of groundnuts from Malawi, a key grower of the legume in Africa, credit: ...
Trace amounts of aflatoxin have shown up in some of the corn harvested in the United States, with top U.S. dairy company Dean ... Aflatoxin is the byproduct of a powdery, olive-green mold that has emerged in corn fields from Kansas through Indiana and can ... Aflatoxin, caused by the Aspergillus fungus, develops on crops stressed by severe heat and drought and is most commonly found ... Aflatoxin contamination prompted a series of pet food and livestock food recalls last December, including products produced at ...
... of aflatoxin G1, and 5.9 µg/kg of aflatoxin G2 (addition level I); and with 16.9 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1; 14.3 µg/kg of aflatoxin ... Non-contamined tomato product samples were spiked with 6.8 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1; 5.7 µg/kg of aflatoxin B2; 8.1 µg/kg ... all aflatoxins tested (Table 2). The detection limit of each aflatoxin (Table 3) ranged from 2 to 7 µg/kg and from 8 to 23 µg/ ... kg for total aflatoxins depending on the tomato product. None of the studies found in the literature on aflatoxin determination ...
The FDA offers no objection to the shipment of peanuts over the 25 ppb level for aflatoxin to processors if facilities are ... CPG Sec 570.375 Aflatoxin in Peanuts and Peanut Products November 2005 Download the Final Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) ... The FDA offers no objection to the shipment of peanuts over the 25 ppb level for aflatoxin to processors if facilities are ... The above guideline criteria do not preclude recommending action at lower than 20 mcgs/kg levels of aflatoxin in the finished ...
Aflatoxins are chemicals created by certain food molds of the genus Aspergillus. They are toxic byproducts from the normal ... In extreme cases, aflatoxin poisoning can lead to death.. One type of aflatoxin is a carcinogen that targets the liver in many ... How can aflatoxins affect your health?. Humans and many other animals can be affected by aflatoxins. In fact, the first ... You re likely aware of the dangers of food poisoning from bacteria, but have you heard about aflatoxins? Aflatoxins are ...
Genetic studies on aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and steri … ... Elegant early research on the biosynthetic scheme of the pathway has allowed a molecular characterization of aflatoxin ... Genetics and physiology of aflatoxin biosynthesis Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1998;36:329-62. doi: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.329. ... Aflatoxins are the most thoroughly studied mycotoxins. Elegant early research on the biosynthetic scheme of the pathway has ...
Aflatoxin B2 reference material; CAS Number: 7220-81-7; EC Number: 230-618-8; Linear Formula: C17H14O6; find Supelco-32755 MSDS ... Aflatoxin B2 may be used as a reference standard for the determination of aflatoxin B2 in animal feed by high performance ... HPLC Analysis of Aflatoxins in Pistachios on Titan™ C18 following SPE using Supel™ Tox AflaZea From our library of Articles, ... TLC Analysis of Aflatoxins on HPTLC Silica Gel 60 F 254 with Concentrating Zone From our library of Articles, Sigma-Aldrich ...
High Temps + Drought = Aflatoxins. Genetics and reproduction Husbandry Research and innovation Feed and nutrition Drinkers and ... Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by the fungi, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Four major toxins are produced (B1, B2, G1, G2). Toxin ... Aflatoxins are not affected by heat, cold or light. They are also colorless, odorless and tasteless. Detecting them in grain is ... Aflatoxin is also considered carcinogenic in humans. Contributions to this article were made by: ...
... and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. Twenty-eight samples of dried liquorice extract and ... Aflatoxins (AFs: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus [1]. AFB1, the most ... Table 1. EU maximum admissible limits for OTA, AFB1, total aflatoxins (sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in foodstuffs for direct ... Table 1. EU maximum admissible limits for OTA, AFB1, total aflatoxins (sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in foodstuffs for direct ...
AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION IN SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDERS PROVIDED FOR NORTHERN BOBWHITE IN... Survey of Aflatoxin Concentrations in Wild ... aflatoxin; n=50). We orally administered 100 μL of aflatoxin, derived from Aspergillus flavus, once per week for 4 wk and ... Deana L. Moore, Scott E. Henke, Alan M. Fedynich, Jamie C. Laurenz, and Robert Morgan "ACUTE EFFECTS OF AFLATOXIN ON NORTHERN ... ACUTE EFFECTS OF AFLATOXIN ON NORTHERN BOBWHITES (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS). Deana L. Moore, Scott E. Henke, Alan M. Fedynich, Jamie ...
A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ... Any aflatoxin consumed by dairy animals can pass into the milk supply. Milk screening for aflatoxin is a final verification ... Aflatoxin is a natural toxin produced by molds that can grow in drought stressed crops and poorly stored or dried feeds and ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a class 2 rated carcinogen closely controlled and monitored by dairies to prevent detrimental human and ...
Three more labels of dry dog food from another manufacturer have been added to the recall list because of levels of aflatoxins ... Three more labels of dry dog food from another manufacturer have been added to the recall list because of levels of aflatoxins ... More Dog Food Recalled Due to Aflatoxins. By News Desk on December 13, 2011. ...
... as a treatment for aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. Aflatoxins may also play a harmful role in child development, another ... Aflatoxins are a by-product of mold that can grow in corn, nuts, cereals and other crops. Theyve been implicated in hundreds ... More than 10,000 people in the region develop aflatoxin-induced liver cancer each year and nine out of 10 of them die from it. ... Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, July 2013 ...
Addition of the binder showed a significant reduction in aflatoxin levels in comparison to a positive control. Aflatoxin ... Results indicated no aflatoxin was found in the distilled ethanol. Some aflatoxin (13%) was detected in the stillage, but most ... Four corn samples with high levels of aflatoxin (ranging from 7750 - 17,208 parts per billion) and their replicates were ... A lab-scale ethanol fermentation was investigated to determine where aflatoxin concentrated during each phase of production. ...
The most biologically active aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)4. A recent risk assessment determined that aflatoxins may be ... Aflatoxins are produced by fungi of the Aspergillus genus. Of several aflatoxin producing species, two are widely studied due ... Anfossi, L.; Baggiani, C.; Giovannoli, C.; Giraudi, G. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products, Aflatoxins - Detection, ... Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins, 2013, 5, 73-83. ...
Field reports of aflatoxin contamination of corn and corn silage are coming in, particularly from southern states where wet ... Field reports of aflatoxin contamination of corn and corn silage are coming in, particularly from southern states where wet ... Approximately 1.7% of consumed aflatoxin in feed is transferred to the milk, he says. ...
Learn the signs of aflatoxin poisoning and how to prevent it. ... Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that ... Poisoning by Aflatoxins in Horses. Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that have proven to be toxic to ... aflatoxin. A substance created by a certain fungus, Aspergillus flavus, a carcinogen; known to contaminate corn, some nuts, and ... Aflatoxins primarily affect the liver where they lead to problems with protein synthesis, blood clotting, and fat metabolism. ...
A study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste samples was conducted. Aflatoxin B(1 ... Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste.. Li FQ1, Li YW, Wang YR, Luo XY. ...
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Most of the genes involved in ... A pair of fatty acid synthase genes were identified that are involved uniquely in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Two genes were also ... Gene expression is coordinated during aflatoxin production and is under the control of a positive regulatory gene belonging to ... Genetic organization and function of the aflatoxin B1 biosynthetic genes.. Woloshuk CP1, Prieto R. ...
  • Aflatoxins are among the most carcinogenic substances known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus . (mdpi.com)
  • Experimental lung carcinogenic in vivo study of aflatoxin G1 in NIH mice]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A working group convened by the International Agency for Research on Cancer also concluded that naturally occurring aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans 1 . (inchem.org)
  • In 1971 aflatoxins were reviewed in Volume 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk and again in Volume 56 of the IARC monographs in 1993. (inchem.org)
  • Trace amounts of aflatoxin have shown up in some of the corn harvested in the United States, with top U.S. dairy company Dean Foods in talks with state officials in Indiana and Iowa about testing milk for the carcinogenic byproduct of mold. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus have been isolated from tomatoes and tomato products, and both fungi species can produce aflatoxin, mycotoxin with hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects on all animal species tested so far. (scielo.br)
  • Aflatoxin is also considered carcinogenic in humans. (thepigsite.com)
  • Aflatoxins in other species are known to be carcinogenic and can be immunosuppressive as well. (petmd.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a toxic and carcinogenic substance produced by certain strains of the molds Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus . (neogen.com)
  • Oral doses of calcium montmorillonite clay reduced urinary biomarkers and bioavailability of Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin, two contaminants of grain that are carcinogenic. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Genetic variability in the expression of these and other cytochromes P450 may result in substantial interindividual differences in susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of aflatoxins. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are known to cause acute toxic illness and cancer in animals and humans, and are considered among the most carcinogenic substances on the planet. (mercola.com)
  • Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, especially hepatocellular carcinoma effect. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxins are the most studied groups of mycotoxins on account of their natural carcinogenic properties and their pathogenetic effects to animals and humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxins are carcinogenic. (icrisat.org)
  • Aflatoxin is carcinogenic and can cause liver and other cancers in humans. (icrisat.org)
  • While the clinical evaluation of the efficacy of oltipraz as a human chemopreventive agent continues, it is prudent to consider additional strategies for preventing the toxic and carcinogenic consequences of unavoidable exposures to aflatoxins. (pnas.org)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin with mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatogenic and immunosuppressive properties. (scielo.br)
  • Aflatoxins are toxic and can be carcinogenic to humans and animals, with B1 and G1 more potent than B2 and G2 1 . (waters.com)
  • To study the modulation of lycopene in aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )-induced carcinogenic effect, young F344 rats were pretreated orally with either corn oil (control group) or lycopene (100 mg/kg body weight, intervention group) 5 days a week for 2 weeks. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One family of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins, are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and cause growth retardation in animals. (bmj.com)
  • There are four types of aflatoxins these are B1, B2, G1 and G2 in which all are teratogenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. (biology-online.org)
  • Aflatoxin is carcinogenic. (icrisat.org)
  • Aflatoxins belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, commonly found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood and animal feed.Aflatoxin B1 appears nearly in all cases together with Aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 and it is the analyte with the highest toxic significance. (krishgen.com)
  • Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) is one of the strongest carcinogenic chemicals currently known, the State AQSIQ stipulate that AFB1 is one of the must inspection material for most food. (krishgen.com)
  • Therefore, we have investigated fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterization of carcinogenic aflatoxins. (spie.org)
  • [15] Aflatoxins form one of the major groupings of mycotoxins . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to IITA researchers, exposure to mycotoxins is an important constraint to improving the health and well-being of people in Africa where high levels of aflatoxin contamination have been confirmed. (ipsnews.net)
  • Aflatoxins are the most thoroughly studied mycotoxins. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are generated as a result of secondary metabolism of various fungal species such as Aspergillus , Penicillium and Fusarium . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) "Aflatoxins and Other Mycotoxins, an Agricultural Perspective," Report No. 80. (scirp.org)
  • 6][7] According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), about 25 percent of the world's crops are affected by mycotoxins - including aflatoxins - and scientists warn that extreme weather and drought cycles are increasing their prevalence. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (515-294-1950) routinely tests for aflatoxins, and other mycotoxins in grain. (iastate.edu)
  • Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced as metabolites by the fungi Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus . (waters.com)
  • Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins produced by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, and are the most extensively researched mycotoxins in the world. (mercola.com)
  • Several mycotoxins are known to contaminate crop produce and processed forms but aflatoxins are the most common. (academicjournals.org)
  • Aflatoxins are the most widely studied and dangerous mycotoxins (Okello et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • I n aquaculture the importance of mycotoxins -fungal metabolites toxic to animals and humans- first became apparent during the early 1960s with an outbreak of aflatoxicosis in hatchery-reared rainbow trout, Onchorynchus mykiss, after being accidently fed cottonseed meal contaminated with aflatoxins. (thefishsite.com)
  • But the main concern in terms of human health is that aspergillus produces potentially harmful compounds called mycotoxins - in particular, a group of mycotoxins called aflatoxins. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • Aspergillus produces potentially harmful compounds called mycotoxins-in particular, a group of mycotoxins called aflatoxins. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • Among these mycotoxins, aflatoxins have gained considerable attention because they are most toxic and potent carcinogen even in small quantities (FAO, 1979, Mirocha and Christensen, 1982, and Campos, 1987). (fao.org)
  • However, science has given it more official names - like aflatoxins and mycotoxins. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • According to crop insurance data from the US Department of Agriculture, payouts for mycotoxins, of which aflatoxin is the most common, totaled nearly $75 million, triple the level of a year ago. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • Molds like aflatoxins and mycotoxins can cause kidney and liver damage, suppress the immune system and disrupt the absorption of nutrients - among a bevy of other problems you don't want to happen to your best friend! (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • Mycotoxins, to which aflatoxins belong, are naturally-occurring toxins produced by certain fungi that can grow on various foods such as cereals, nuts, dried fruits, apples and legumes under certain environmental conditions. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • In contrast to other mycotoxins, no Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDIs) has been set by Europe for aflatoxins because they have been shown to cause cancer in the liver of laboratory animals by damaging DNA. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • 2008). Food contaminated with mycotoxins, particularly with aflatoxins, a subcategory, can cause sometimes fatal acute illness and are associated with cancer risk. (usda.gov)
  • Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The most biologically active aflatoxin is aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) 4 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The focus of this study is the metabolite of AFB1, aflatoxin M 1 (AFM1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In humans, the constitutively expressed GSTs have very little activity toward AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide, suggesting that--on a biochemical basis--humans should be quite sensitive to the genotoxic effects of aflatoxins. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is metabolized to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which is excreted in milk and urine [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. (infiniteunknown.net)
  • MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. (scielo.br)
  • aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and to explore the potential association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a case-control study. (springer.com)
  • There are 14 known aflatoxins but most of these are metabolises formed endogenously in animals administered by one major toxins, i.e., aflatoxin B. (AFB1) aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G. (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (B= blue fluorescence and G = green fluorescence). (fao.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 DNA (against the midazole ring-opened persistent form of the major N-7 guanine adduct of AFB1). (novusbio.com)
  • A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was explored for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) simultaneous determination. (rsc.org)
  • A study of liver apoptosis after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and the effect of melatonin (MEL) was investigated in male rats. (nel.edu)
  • We developed a simple aptamer fluorescence assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection by using an array of capillaries. (rsc.org)
  • Aflatoxin is a widely occurring and harmful mycotoxin produced by strains of Aspergillus species that grow on vegetable matter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Easiness of use and cost-effectiveness of techniques will be explored for future routine mycotoxin analysis Background and objectives: The prevalence and concentration of aflatoxins in food chains in Ethiopia are not well studied. (slideshare.net)
  • The deadly mycotoxin called aflatoxin is disturbingly common in our foods today. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • One type of mycotoxin is aflatoxin , which is most prevalent in corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts. (wordnik.com)
  • Raw peanuts were purchased from retail outlets in Botswana and examined for fungi and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) contamination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Of the 32 isolates of A. flavus screened for mycotoxin production, 11 did not produce detectable aflatoxins, 8 produced only aflatoxins B1 and B2, and 13 produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in varying amounts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. (thefishsite.com)
  • According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. (thefishsite.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. (novusbio.com)
  • Molecular model of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (C17.H12.O6), produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 1996).. The above described issues of mycotoxin contamination is a nation-wide problem within USA and needs to be addressed with novel strategies and intelligent research initiatives.ObjectivesThe strategic objective of this research project is to operationally define and engrain within the consortium through disciplined implementation, a holistic Roadmap for accelerating the innovation process in irradiation research for aflatoxins detoxification. (usda.gov)
  • Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. (ajtmh.org)
  • Aflatoxin is a fungal toxin that commonly contaminates maize and other types of crops during production, harvest, storage or processing. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxins were not detected in any evaluated sample indicating that they did not pose a risk to human health since there was no invasion of raw materials by toxigenic fungi or no conditions for toxin production. (scielo.br)
  • Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by the fungi, Aspergillus and Penicillium. (thepigsite.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a natural toxin produced by molds that can grow in drought stressed crops and poorly stored or dried feeds and grains. (prweb.com)
  • Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) was the predominant toxin detected abundantly and frequently at a level up to 68.51 microg/kg in 41 of 50 peanut butter samples and 20.45 microg/kg in 37 of 100 sesame paste samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC). (nih.gov)
  • Williams believes some of the aflatoxin events - "and there was already fungus and toxin" - were exacerbated by the lack of adequate drying facilities on some farms. (deltafarmpress.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a potent toxin. (iastate.edu)
  • Mngadi said the health department was extremely concerned over the effect of long-term exposure to aflatoxin , which is a cancer-causing toxin. (wordnik.com)
  • Because of lax or nonexistent regulation, 4.5 billion people in developing countries are chronically exposed to vast amounts of this toxin, called aflatoxin -- often hundreds of times higher than safe levels. (wordnik.com)
  • Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites Aflatoxin M1 and Q1. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • When animals are fed grain or feed contaminated with the toxin, aflatoxin B1 is converted by hydroxylation to aflatoxin M1, which is subsequently secreted in the milk of lactating cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The term aflatoxin was derived from Aspergillus (A-) falvus (-fla-) and toxin. (fao.org)
  • In the fight against aflatoxin, dairy producers often turn to sequestering agents such as clay to reduce transference of the toxin into milk. (phys.org)
  • Cows fed the greater quantity of clay produced more milk with less aflatoxin M1, the form of the toxin that is excreted in milk. (phys.org)
  • Given the widespread exposure to this toxin in developing countries, longitudinal studies in pregnant women are needed to provide stronger evidence for the role of aflatoxin in adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to explore biological mechanisms. (ajtmh.org)
  • Peanut farmers now have a biological pesticide for protecting their crops from fungi that produce aflatoxin. (usda.gov)
  • H. M. Martins, M. L. Martins and F. M. A. Bernardo, "Bacillaceae Spores, Fungi and Aflatoxin Determination in Honey," RPCV (Revista Portuguesa De Ciências Vet- erinárias), Vol. 98, No. 546, 2003, pp. 85-88. (scirp.org)
  • Aflatoxins are produced by fungi of the Aspergillus genus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin are contained within a single cluster in the genome of these filamentous fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression is coordinated during aflatoxin production and is under the control of a positive regulatory gene belonging to a family of fungal transcriptional activators associated with various metabolic pathways in fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are poisonous compounds produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus , which grow when temperature and humidity conditions are favorable. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 8] Fortunately, scientists are developing innovative ways to reduce aflatoxins, such as UC Davis researchers who are using benign fungi to displace Aspergillus from pistachio trees. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aflatoxins are a highly toxic group of secondary metabolites that are produced by soil fungi, especially Aspergillus spp. (novapublishers.com)
  • Sowley and Baalabong (2013) isolated some aflatoxigenic fungi namely, A. niger , A. flavus and A. ochraceus from grains stored by indigenous methods with A. flavus which is the most common producer of aflatoxin (Bankole and Adebanjo, 2003) as the most frequent. (academicjournals.org)
  • Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a poisonous substance produced by mould fungi ( Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus ) that can grow on poorly managed agricultural crops, particularly groundnuts. (icrisat.org)
  • Aflatoxins are potent hepatocarcinogens produced by fungi and are consistent contaminants of the food supply in this area, particularly in corn, peanuts, soy sauce, and fermented soy beans. (pnas.org)
  • This review provides an overview of aflatoxigenic fungi, chemistry and biosynthesis of aflatoxins, along with their diversity in occurrence, and their health related risks to humans and livestock. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aflatoxin is a poisonous chemical produced by naturally occurring fungi Aspergillus flavus that is found in soils and is a serious threat to health and food security in the country and many parts of the world. (iita.org)
  • It is a biocontrol product developed using the same family of fungi as those that produce aflatoxins, which do not produce the poison and are further able to outcompete and displace the aflatoxin producing fungi. (iita.org)
  • Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of the major problems, the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus have been identified as the quality deterrent producing aflatoxin contaminated grain when stored. (fao.org)
  • Aflatoxins are a family of related bisfuranocoumarin compounds produced by fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. (fao.org)
  • Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. (krishgen.com)
  • Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most rigorously tested products because they often contain aflatoxins and are widely eaten. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aflatoxin outbreaks occur when certain crops, like peanuts and corn, are stressed by drought conditions. (usda.gov)
  • However, the commodities with the highest risk of aflatoxin contamination are corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The USDA has a comprehensive program involving raw peanuts which can be expected to result in proper processing or destruction of any high aflatoxin raw peanuts. (fda.gov)
  • Also, some *Field Offices within the Human and Animal Food Program* have been detaining shipments of U.S. raw peanuts returned from Canada because Canadian officials had found them to contain aflatoxin in excess of the Canadian limit. (fda.gov)
  • The FDA offers no objection to the shipment of peanuts over the 25 ppb level for aflatoxin to processors if facilities are available to remove moldy or otherwise defective nuts from the lot before incorporation into the finished product. (fda.gov)
  • Lots of raw peanuts which have been shipped to processors containing aflatoxin above 25 ppb level may be subject to appropriate action in cases where there is a lack of assurance that the finished product will comply with the current action level. (fda.gov)
  • Raw peanuts, returned to the U.S. after export, should not be detained because of aflatoxin contamination. (fda.gov)
  • However, sampling and appropriate follow-up is indicated when lots of raw peanuts are reported by USDA certificate of analysis as exceeding 25 micrograms of aflatoxin per kilogram, and when such peanuts are destined for processors that do not have facilities and procedures to remove defective nuts, and there is no assurance that the finished products will be below the 20 mcgs/kg guideline. (fda.gov)
  • 4] People consuming normal-appearing corn , peanuts , or grain have become critically ill and even died from acute aflatoxin poisoning, which can cause life-threatening hemorrhage, liver damage, pulmonary edema, convulsions and brain damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aspergillus parasiticus, commonly known as aflatoxin , is a carginogenic mold that is found on improperly stored grains and peanuts. (wordnik.com)
  • Products that are most likely to be infected, such as peanuts or tree nuts are routinely screened and if aspergillus or aflatoxin levels are above a certain threshold, the foods cannot be distributed. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • Aflatoxin contamination has affected maize and peanuts in Thailand arid India and also in coconut in the Philippines, Sri Lanka and other Pacific countries. (fao.org)
  • Aflatoxin in Peanuts: Should You Be Worried? (berkeleywellness.com)
  • Moreover, the USDA monitors peanuts for aflatoxin, while the FDA routinely samples peanut products to make sure they don't exceed maximum allowable levels. (berkeleywellness.com)
  • Although Spain alerted members to shelled almonds from the US with aflatoxins, and coated peanuts from China. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in cereals, meat/fish, feed, peanuts, pistachios cheese, milk powder and milk. (worldbid.com)
  • Corn, rice, cottonseed, and peanuts are the major crops regularly displaying high levels of aflatoxin contamination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In May, 2006, an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis was reported in a region of Kenya where aflatoxin contamination of homegrown maize has been a recurrent problem. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC teams worked with the Kenyan Ministry of Health to trial a rapid, portable aflatoxin screening tool that could be used in the field to identify contaminated maize and guide urgent maize replacement efforts during an outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • We randomly surveyed 165 households in Southeastern Kenya and tested a small portion of their maize supplies for the presence of aflatoxin using our modified rapid screening test. (cdc.gov)
  • A study conducted in Kenya and Mali found that the predominant practices for drying and storage of maize were inadequate in minimizing exposure to aflatoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary intake of aflatoxins arises mainly from contamination of maize and groundnuts and their products. (inchem.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is annually losing more than 450 million dollars in trade revenue of major staples, particularly maize, and groundnuts as a result of contamination from aflatoxins, researchers told IPS. (ipsnews.net)
  • In 2009, the IITA, the African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF), United States Department of Agriculture -Agriculture Research Service (USDA-ARS) and other partners developed an indigenous biological control technology, named AflaSafe to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnuts. (ipsnews.net)
  • In all the six countries where the bio control products have been tested since 2008 to date, IITA said farmers have consistently achieved up to 99 per cent reduction in aflatoxin contamination by using Aflasafe in maize and groundnut fields. (ipsnews.net)
  • In Zimbabwe, researchers at the University of Zimbabwe and Action Contre la Faim are working with communities in two districts to investigate whether improved storage can reduce aflatoxin contamination in local maize grain. (ipsnews.net)
  • Using a unique dataset of maize samples and consumer interviews form Eastern Kenya, we find that the presence of the fungal contaminant aflatoxin is negatively associated with the use of maize flour for food. (repec.org)
  • Retail maize prices are strongly correlated with an easily observable quality attribute, discoloration, but the correlation between price and aflatoxin contamination is not statistically distinguishable from zero. (repec.org)
  • This suggests that consumers observe attributes that are correlated with aflatoxin upon careful inspection, or perhaps consumption of a portion of maize from a particular batch, and that their use of flour is based on this information. (repec.org)
  • A comparison of maize quality by source provides evidence of such problems: purchased maize is more likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin than maize households have grown themselves, despite the fact that maize from larger producers is less likely to be contaminated. (repec.org)
  • Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Kenya: Observability and Mitigation Behavior ," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 155024, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. (repec.org)
  • Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of market maize contamination and evaluate the relationship between market maize aflatoxin and the aflatoxicosis outbreak. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fifty-five percent of maize products had aflatoxin levels greater than the Kenyan regulatory limit of 20 ppb, 35% had levels>100 ppb, and 7% had levels>1,000 ppb. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Makueni, the district with the most aflatoxicosis case-patients, had significantly higher market maize aflatoxin than did Thika, the study district with fewest case-patients (geometric mean aflatoxin = 52.91 ppb vs. 7.52 ppb, p = 0.0004). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Contaminated homegrown maize bought from local farms in the affected area entered the distribution system, resulting in widespread aflatoxin contamination of market maize. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Contaminated market maize, purchased by farmers after their homegrown supplies are exhausted, may represent a source of continued exposure to aflatoxin. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Dar es Salaam - Results from two-year field trials of AflasafeTZ, an innovative technology to control aflatoxin contamination, have proven the effectiveness of the technology in reducing the poison in maize and groundnut. (iita.org)
  • Overall, the technology was able to reduce contamination of aflatoxin on maize and groundnut by over 85% to levels that are fit for human consumption. (iita.org)
  • Contamination of maize ( Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. (usda.gov)
  • Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly reduced aflatoxin accumulation have been identified. (usda.gov)
  • Past linkage mapping studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that consistently reduce aflatoxin levels in maize. (usda.gov)
  • In addition, an association mapping panel of 300 maize inbred lines was previously created specifically for the dissection of aflatoxin accumulation resistance. (usda.gov)
  • 2 Aflatoxins contaminate staple foods in West Africa, particularly maize and groundnuts, as a result of hot, humid storage conditions that promote fungal growth. (bmj.com)
  • Aflatoxins are carcinogens produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus during infection of susceptible crops such as maize. (apsnet.org)
  • The mode of action of MG may be to stimulate the expression of aflR , an aflatoxin biosynthesis regulatory gene, which was found to be significantly upregulated in the presence of 5 to 20 μM MG. These data suggest that GLX-I may play an important role in controlling MG levels inside kernels, thereby contributing to the lower levels of aflatoxins found in resistant maize genotypes. (apsnet.org)
  • Afterwards, we applied our characterization setup to the detection of aflatoxins in maize grains. (spie.org)
  • In addition to the fluorescence spectrum of the pure aflatoxin, we observed an unwanted influence of the intrinsic fluorescence of the maize. (spie.org)
  • As a result, this illustrates the use of fluorescence spectroscopy as a valuable tool for the non-destructive, real-time and high-sensitive detection of aflatoxins in maize. (spie.org)
  • A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. (mdpi.com)
  • Kana JR, Gnonlonfin BGJ, Harvey J, Wainaina J, Wanjuki I, Skilton RA, Teguia A. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon. (mdpi.com)
  • Groundnuts, maize, sorghum, cotton-seed, chili and millet are amongst some of the foods prone to aflatoxin, with groundnuts and maize particularly vulnerable. (iita.org)
  • Aflatoxins in Wildlife is a compilation of research concerning the effects of aflatoxin exposure to wildlife by researchers of the Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. (novapublishers.com)
  • Chapter Thirteen specifically addresses the effects of aflatoxin exposure in wild mammals. (novapublishers.com)
  • The experiment was conducted at Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in order to test the effects of aflatoxin B 1 and the counteracting properties of the binder Mycofix® Secure. (thefishsite.com)
  • Acute and chronic effects of aflatoxin on the liver of Domestic and laboratory animals. (springer.com)
  • What was new about the study was that Pate and Cardoso, along with co-author Devan Compart, looked at the effects of aflatoxin and clay on the liver, through biopsies, and at blood metabolites. (phys.org)
  • The cytotoxic and systemic effects of aflatoxin could plausibly mediate maternal anemia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal loss, and preterm birth. (ajtmh.org)
  • Indeed aflatoxin B 1 is regarded as the most potent known liver carcinogen. (springer.com)
  • Aflatoxins were evaluated at the thirty-first meeting of the Committee (Annex 1, reference 77), at which time the Committee considered aflatoxin to be a potential human carcinogen. (inchem.org)
  • One type of aflatoxin is a carcinogen that targets the liver in many animals and potentially humans. (care2.com)
  • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a class 2 rated carcinogen closely controlled and monitored by dairies to prevent detrimental human and animal health consequences. (prweb.com)
  • Although this aflatoxin is less biologically active than its precursor, it is also listed by the IARC as a group 1 human carcinogen 6 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 (the most common aflatoxin) is the most potent naturally occurring liver carcinogen known to humankind. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Some synthesize deadly toxins that can cause cancer and other diseases for example, species of Aspergillus produce a carcinogen called aflatoxin , and Fusarium moniliforme produces another called fumonisin. (wordnik.com)
  • Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. (pnas.org)
  • Preparation of 8 9-epoxide of aflatoxin B1 the ultimate carcinogen species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin is considered by many to be the most potent, naturally-occurring carcinogen. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Using duplex-consensus sequencing technology, we recently identified the characteristic high-resolution mutational spectrum of the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B₁ in a mouse model, many months before aflatoxin-induced tumors are detectable. (mit.edu)
  • Aflatoxin is listed as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens and mutagens that are produced by certain molds ( Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus ) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "aflatoxin" is derived from the name of one of the molds that produce it, Aspergillus flavus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxins are produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus , which are common forms of 'weedy' molds widespread in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus . (mdpi.com)
  • The turkey deaths was traced to toxic feed from Brazil, and led to the discovery that the common mould Aspergillus flavus was a producer of a potent set of hepatotoxins, which became known as aflatoxins. (springer.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • While toxicity of its products, aflatoxins, are explored throughout this article, Aspergillus flavus itself also exerts pathogenic effects through aspergillosis, or infection with the mold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other strains of A. flavus, as well as A. parasiticus, are the primary producers of aflatoxin. (usda.gov)
  • Aflasafe is a mixture of four non-aflatoxin producing strains of the green mould fungus (Aspergilllus flavus) of native origin. (ipsnews.net)
  • Genetic studies on aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in A. nidulans, led to the cloning of 17 genes responsible for 12 enzymatic conversions in the AF/ST pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins (AFs: AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 ) are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We orally administered 100 μL of aflatoxin, derived from Aspergillus flavus , once per week for 4 wk and monitored bird mass, daily feed consumption, liver histology, and blood chemistries. (bioone.org)
  • G. A. Payne, "Epidemiology of Aflatoxin Formation by A. flavus. (scirp.org)
  • D. L. Wei and S. C. Jong, "Production of Aflatoxins by Strains of the Aspergillus flavus Group Maintained at ATCC," Mycopathologia, Vol. 93, No. 1, 1986, pp. 19-24. (scirp.org)
  • Usually produced by a type of fungus called Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxins have been found in several different types of foodstuffs, usually to the surprise of the horse owner. (petmd.com)
  • A "black light" (ultraviolet light) illuminating aflatoxin-contaminated grain causes a firefly-like greenish-yellow fluorescence which is caused by a non-aflatoxin product that results from growth of A. flavus mold. (iastate.edu)
  • The fungus Aspergillus flavus , for example, which grows on ground-nuts, produces aflatoxin , a chemical which not only attacks the liver in animals but provokes the formation of rare liver tumours. (wordnik.com)
  • Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus parasiticus , Aspergillus nomius , Aspergillus ochraceoroseus , Aspergillus pseudotamarii , Aspergillus bombycis , a species with the imperfect stage, Emericella venezuelensis and Aspergillus niger (Moss, 2002). (academicjournals.org)
  • Distribution of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in sugarcane fiel. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are produced by special strains of A . flavus and A . parasiticus . (hindawi.com)
  • The species A . flavus merely produces aflatoxin B, while other species produce both aflatoxin B and aflatoxin G [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aflatoxins are one of the highly toxic secondary metabolites derived from polyketides produced by fungal species such as Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus , and A. nomius ( Payne and Brown, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Each of the inbred parents of the testcrossed hybrids was genotyped by sequencing to generate 261,184 robust single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and the entire panel was phenotyped for aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus in multilocation, replicated field trials. (usda.gov)
  • Produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin can occur in nuts, legumes, seeds, corn, wheat, and other crops and in some spices (such as chili and paprika). (berkeleywellness.com)
  • Aflatoxins were detected and Aspergillus flavus was identified from water from a cold water storage tank. (ovid.com)
  • Further, MG was found to induce aflatoxin production in A. flavus culture at a concentration as low as 5.0 μM. (apsnet.org)
  • The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Since A. flavus and A. parasiticus are nearly ubiquitous in the natural environment, numerous other grain, legume, nut, and spice crops, as well as coffee and cocoa, have been reported to contain aflatoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring poison from toxic types of the Aspergillus flavus fungus. (iita.org)
  • However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B 1 , can permeate through the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic aflatoxin and it is highly implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxins are toxic and cancer causing poisons produced by certain green mould fungus that naturally occurs in the soil. (ipsnews.net)
  • Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that have proven to be toxic to horses, and they can come in many forms. (petmd.com)
  • There are at least 13 different species of mold that produce 20 different aflatoxins, with aflatoxin B1 considered the most toxic. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 is the most frequently encountered of the group and the most toxic. (neogen.com)
  • This fungus has the potential under adverse conditions of drought stress and insect damage to produce toxic metabolites known as aflatoxins. (iastate.edu)
  • While four specific aflatoxins are generally produced (designated B1, B2, G1, G2), the most frequent and toxic is aflatoxin B1. (iastate.edu)
  • Aflatoxins are one of the most potent toxic substances that occur naturally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi . (apsnet.org)
  • At least 13 different types of aflatoxin are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1 considered as the most toxic. (novusbio.com)
  • Aflatoxins have been shown to cause cancer in animals and aflatoxin B1, the most toxic, can cause cancer in humans. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Garner, R.C. Miller, E.C. and Miller, J.A. (1972) Liver microsomal metabolism of aflatoxin B 1 to a reactive derivative toxic to Salmonella Typhimurium TA 1530 Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • More than 5 billion people in the developing world are at risk of eating food contaminated with fungal poisons known as aflatoxins, according to a report jointly issued by the WHO and CDC. (nih.gov)
  • Iraq also loaded a little-known fungal poison called aflatoxin , which may cause cancer, and it experimented with infectious viruses. (wordnik.com)
  • The relative proportions of the four major aflatoxins synthesized by Aspergillus reflect the genetic constitution of the producing strain and the parameters associated with fungal growth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Elegant early research on the biosynthetic scheme of the pathway has allowed a molecular characterization of aflatoxin biosynthesis and its regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Less is known about the global factors that regulate aflatoxin biosynthesis, but there is a clear link between development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • There is also a large body of information on physiological factors involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis, but it has been difficult to understand their role in the regulation of this pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Studies directed toward understanding the molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis have led to a number of important discoveries. (nih.gov)
  • A pair of fatty acid synthase genes were identified that are involved uniquely in aflatoxin biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins will impair the biosynthesis of protein which results to the degranulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. (biology-online.org)
  • AFM1 can be present in the milk of lactating dairy animals that have consumed aflatoxin contaminated feeds 3 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • If verified, reducing aflatoxin exposure may reduce GBC incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study further develops the AFM1 sample cleanup and analysis method to detect and quantify aflatoxin M1 at concentrations corresponding to the lowest EU regulatory limit. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Either 40 or 400 µL of the 50 ng/mL aflatoxin spiking solution was added to 80 mL of milk, resulting in 25 and 250 pg/mL concentrations of AFM1 in the respective spikes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across 2 years, and analysed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Veratox for Aflatoxin is a direct competitive ELISA in a microwell format, which allows the user to obtain exact concentrations in parts per billion (ppb). (neogen.com)
  • A fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota could reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct concentrations. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Measurement of concentrations (ng/mL) of aflatoxin B1-lysine, derived from aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts, in a 2,104 serum sample subset of NHANES 1999-2000. (cdc.gov)
  • However, to date in the United States, aflatoxin concentrations are not restricted within cereal grain provided to wildlife. (novapublishers.com)
  • Various wildlife agencies and organizations recommend limits in aflatoxin concentrations, but these are only recommendations and not mandated by law. (novapublishers.com)
  • When the raw peanut samples (n = 120) were analyzed for total aflatoxins, 78% contained aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12 to 329 microg/kg. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many of the samples (49%) contained total aflatoxins at concentrations above the 20 microg/kg limit set by the World Health Organization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and lower growth appeared more linear: higher concentrations of aflatoxins further slowed growth. (thefishsite.com)
  • Two standard mixes in acetonitrile were purchased from Supelco: aflatoxin M1 ~10.0 parts per million (ppm) (46319- U), and B1 and G1 ~1.0 ppm with B2 and G2 ~0.3 ppm (46304- U). Actual certification values were used to compute concentrations. (waters.com)
  • Children with stunting or who were underweight had 30-40% higher mean aflatoxin-albumin concentrations. (bmj.com)
  • Concentrations of aflatoxin-albumin adduct categorised into four groups for height for age and weight for age z scores on the basis of the WHO classification of malnutrition (z score 2) and severe malnutrition (3). (bmj.com)
  • Europe's former Scientific Committee for Food (tasks of which are now handled by the European Food Safety Authority) recommends that aflatoxin concentrations in food should be reduced to the lowest levels reasonably achievable. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Exposure to aflatoxin is known to cause both chronic and acute hepatocellular injury. (cdc.gov)
  • In Kenya, acute aflatoxin poisoning results in liver failure and death in up to 40% of cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxins ingested in large mounts may cause acute liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The acute toxicity of aflatoxins to all domestic animal species was established soon after their discovery. (springer.com)
  • Climate change is indeed predicted to have a profound effect on aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops," said Joao, adding that, "Consequently, any reduction in precipitation level or increment in temperature is expected to make aflatoxin problem more acute. (ipsnews.net)
  • The effects of aflatoxins can be acute or chronic . (care2.com)
  • Ingestion of a large amount of aflatoxin causing acute disease can manifest as sudden death, excessive bleeding or haemorrhaging and icterus. (thepigsite.com)
  • We concluded that short-term, acute doses of aflatoxin as low as 100 ppb can be detrimental to the health of Northern Bobwhites. (bioone.org)
  • Kenya in particular has suffered widespread exposure to aflatoxins and multiple poisoning outbreaks since 2004, resulting in nearly 500 acute illnesses and 200 deaths, according to CDC data. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin is a bigger threat in developing countries, such as Kenya, where outbreaks of acute poisoning (aflatoxicosis) have occurred and where high intakes of aflatoxin have been linked to liver cancer. (berkeleywellness.com)
  • Aflatoxins M 1 and M 2 , the hydroxylated metabolites of aflatoxin B 1 and B 2 , may be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that has ingested contaminated feed. (inchem.org)
  • Recently, we reported that intervention with oltipraz, an effective inhibitor of experimental aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, produced protective alterations in the excretion of metabolites of AFB 1 in exposed individuals ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Invitro metabolic Conversion of aflatoxins and Benzo(a)pyrene to Nucleic acid binding metabolites. (springer.com)
  • The concept of reactive electrophilic metabolites in chemical carcino-genesis: Recent results with aromatic amines, safrole and as aflatoxin B 1 In Biological Reactive intermediates: formation, toxicity and interactions Edited by Jollow, D.J. Kocsis, J.J. Synder, R. and Vainio, T.J., 6-24 Plenum press, N. York, London. (springer.com)
  • In laboratory cultures, aflatoxins are biosynthesized after active growth has ceased, as is typical for secondary metabolites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nearly 60% of seed samples and 80% of cake samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The results showed that 85.39% (76/89) of groundnut and 72.3% (45/65) of soybean samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. (hindawi.com)
  • Inadequate harvesting and storage techniques allow for the growth of aflatoxin-producing fungus and homegrown crops are not routinely tested for the presence of aflatoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are toxins produced by a mold (fungus) that grows in nuts, seeds, and legumes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers say high temperatures and drought conditions favour the growth of fungus, while poor farming practises and food insecurity status of many people in sub-Saharan Africa increase their exposure to aflatoxin contamination. (ipsnews.net)
  • Aflatoxin, caused by the Aspergillus fungus, develops on crops stressed by severe heat and drought and is most commonly found in the southern United States. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Mokdad explained that while some fungus and mold may be visible to the consumer, the presence of aflatoxins is not detectable. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxins are potent toxins and experimentally are known also to cause cancer in some animals. (iastate.edu)
  • B1 and G1 are the more potent of the four naturally-occurring aflatoxins. (waters.com)
  • Aflatoxins are potent molecules with many biological effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 is the most potent hepatocarcinogenic agent known, although the liver by no means is the only organ susceptible to aflatoxin carcinogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin transformation products are sometimes found in eggs, milk products, and meat when animals are fed contaminated grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • During field tests in the Mississippi Delta from 2001 to 2004, inoculation of grains with K49 dramatically reduced aflatoxin levels in corn (see "Protecting Corn From Aflatoxin ," Agricultural Research, September 2010, pp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other feed grains, especially sorghum, milo and cottonseed can also be infected and support production of aflatoxins. (iastate.edu)
  • When crop conditions or other factors require use of aflatoxins contaminated grains in livestock, special care must be taken to avoid adverse effects in the animals and to prevent residues of aflatoxins in foods from animals. (iastate.edu)
  • Therefore, aflatoxins, when present in cereal grains, contribute to major economic losses in these commodities. (novapublishers.com)
  • Dietary exposure to high levels of aflatoxin B1 in grains is linked to the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas reported in Africa and China. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This application note introduces a methodology that utilizes VICAM's AflaTest cleanup columns and the ACQUITY UPLC with Fluorescence (FLR) Detector with the large volume flow cell, to obtain aflatoxin content in cereals, grains, nuts, and other foodstuffs without derivatization. (waters.com)
  • His office was testing corn samples from Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa and finding some aflatoxin in most of them. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Aflatoxin is the byproduct of a powdery, olive-green mold that has emerged in corn fields from Kansas through Indiana and can be fatal to livestock. (chicagotribune.com)
  • With the corn harvest only 6 percent complete in the United States, the world's largest corn producer and exporter, it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Typically, the heart of the Corn Belt, which tends to benefit from cooler summers and ample rains, is spared from aflatoxin. (chicagotribune.com)
  • CANADA - Prolonged high temperatures and record drought conditions for much of this year's US Corn Belt have made it possible for the corn crop to already be stressed and subject to aflatoxin. (thepigsite.com)
  • Aflatoxins are a by-product of mold that can grow in corn, nuts, cereals and other crops. (nih.gov)
  • Four corn samples with high levels of aflatoxin (ranging from 7750 - 17,208 parts per billion) and their replicates were compared with a replicated negative control. (scirp.org)
  • Field reports of aflatoxin contamination of corn and corn silage are coming in, particularly from southern states where wet growing and harvest conditions were common this season. (agweb.com)
  • When aflatoxin levels reach 20 parts per billion, affected corn can't be shipped across state lines and elevators shy away. (deltafarmpress.com)
  • To reduce the incidence of aflatoxin, handling corn at harvest and post-harvest is very important. (deltafarmpress.com)
  • Is the research focus on breeding corn that can resist aflatoxin or suppression through other means? (deltafarmpress.com)
  • Reveal® Q+ for Aflatoxin ENDPOINT is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay based on a competitive immunoassay format intended for the quantitative testing of aflatoxin in corn using the Raptor® Solo Platform. (neogen.com)
  • could have weakened Chavez' immune system by, say, bombarding him with radiation or feeding him foods like corn or bread with high levels of aflatoxin , which is associated with liver cancer. (wordnik.com)
  • They granted approval so more aflatoxin-ridden corn can be blended with the "good" corn in animal feeds. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • Children are particularly affected by aflatoxin exposure, which is associated with stunted growth, [3] delayed development, [4] liver damage, and liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It s estimated that ingestion of aflatoxin contaminated foods is one of the factors behind over 250,000 liver cancer deaths in China and Africa each year. (care2.com)
  • Aflatoxin-infected crops, mostly found in developing countries, can cause liver cancer. (nih.gov)
  • More than 10,000 people in the region develop aflatoxin-induced liver cancer each year and nine out of 10 of them die from it. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS-funded scientists have established the link between hepatitis B, longtime exposure to aflatoxins, and increased risk for liver cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Investigators have also been examining chlorophyllin, a derivative of chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, as a treatment for aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 exposure increases the risk for primary liver cancer in north Indian population. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aflatoxin exposure contributes to the development of primary liver cancer in patients with chronic hepatitis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • There is evidence that aflatoxin exposure plays a role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer in the US population. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Chronic aflatoxin exposure can lead to liver damage or liver cancer, especially in individuals with pre-existing conditions such as a Hepatitis B infection. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • These great potentials make terahertzimaging/spectroscopy systems an excellent platform for high-sensitivity, high-throughput, and non-destructivedetection of aflatoxins, which can grow in various agricultural food products and cause various chronic healthproblems if consumed, including liver cancer. (usda.gov)
  • They have also been linked to liver cancer in a number of developing countries, where some foods that are an important part of the diet can contain high levels of aflatoxins. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Symptoms of aflatoxin poisoning include: liver cancer, fluid retention, increased incidence of Hepatitis B infection, and stunting in children. (icrisat.org)
  • This review highlights the findings of recent randomized clinical trials with oltipraz and chlorophyllin conducted in individuals exposed to dietary aflatoxins and at high risk for development of liver cancer . (curehunter.com)
  • Aflatoxin leads to child stunting, weakened immunity - meaning it depresses the body's capacity to resist illnesses - and liver cancer, with aflatoxin accounting for 30% of Africa's liver-cancer cases," he elaborated. (iita.org)
  • Aflatoxins are among the most poisonous natural compounds on the planet, and aflatoxicosis is what happens if you ingest enough. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Storing nuts and seeds in their shells and protecting them from heat, moisture, light, and pest damage reduces the chances of oils becoming rancid and prevents the growth of poisonous molds such as aflatoxin (section 2.10). (wordnik.com)
  • Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. (fold.it)
  • Animals fed contaminated food can pass aflatoxin transformation products into eggs, milk products, and meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aflatoxin scare began with the banning of Croatian milk earlier this month. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Citing sources, the paper reported that the minister had known since Wednesday that unacceptably high levels of aflatoxin had also been found in cows' milk -- until now, the ministry has only admitted to finding the bacteria in goat's milk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin previously has been found in milk from China's biggest dairy company, Mengniu, and another company, Changfu. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It s also been proven that when cattle or other animals ingest aflatoxins in contaminated feed, the toxins can be present in their milk or meat. (care2.com)
  • Reference laboratory validates Charm Sciences' ROSA Quantitative Aflatoxin M1 Test in raw, commingled, bovine milk to detect 50 ppt European Union Maximum Limit. (prweb.com)
  • Any aflatoxin consumed by dairy animals can pass into the milk supply. (prweb.com)
  • Milk screening for aflatoxin is a final verification that grain and feed control programs used for dairy animals are effectively protecting the animals and the milk they produce. (prweb.com)
  • Approximately 1.7% of consumed aflatoxin in feed is transferred to the milk,' he says. (agweb.com)
  • Aflatoxin has been shown to cause liver damage or cancer, decreased milk and egg production, immune suppression, and interference with reproductive efficiency. (neogen.com)
  • Aflatoxin is capable of transferring to newborns through breast milk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In poultry and livestock, aflatoxin can cause feed refusal, loss of weight, reduced egg production, and contamination of milk. (icrisat.org)
  • With aflatoxin challenge, cows are producing less protein for themselves, for the milk, everything. (phys.org)
  • If you add clay to the diet, you will have a decrease in aflatoxin getting to the milk and will potentially be bolstering the immune system as well," Pate says. (phys.org)
  • When dairy cattle consume aflatoxin-contaminated feed, they are lethargic, their appetite wanes, they produce less milk, and their immune system goes awry. (phys.org)
  • Animals are also affected if feed is laced with aflatoxin, and they then transmit the poison to humans through their products, be this meat, milk or eggs. (iita.org)
  • Gorelick (1990) compared metabolism of aflatoxin by different species. (inchem.org)
  • At least 10 Aspergillus species can be recognized as able to biosynthesize aflatoxins (PETERSON et al. (scielo.br)
  • This volume contains sixteen chapters, beginning with a review of aflatoxin, what it is, how it functions in the environment, and its known effects on various species (Chapter One and Two). (novapublishers.com)
  • Chapters Seven-Ten focus on specific effects that aflatoxins have on the physiology of wildlife species, mainly birds, while Chapters Eleven and Twelve research the recovery time needed after aflatoxin exposure and the ability of species to detect aflatoxin within feed. (novapublishers.com)
  • The balance of the rate of activation (exo-epoxide production) to inactivation (GST conjugation plus other P450-mediated non-epoxide oxidations) may be a strong indicator of individual and species susceptibility to aflatoxin carcinogenesis, if the experimental conditions are reflective of true dietary exposures. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins can cause serious health concerns because they are known carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, and immunosuppressive agents. (novapublishers.com)
  • Given the potential of aflatoxins as human carcinogens and their known activity as toxins in animal feeds, many international regulatory agencies monitor aflatoxin levels in susceptible crops. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. (mdpi.com)
  • The Aspergillus molds that produce aflatoxins grow best in hot, humid environments. (care2.com)
  • The liver is the most susceptible organ to aflatoxin B1 toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a significant cause of cancer worldwide. (ajtmh.org)
  • Due to their toxicity, government regulatory agencies impose strict limits on aflatoxins in foodstuffs. (waters.com)
  • Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensure food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, consumption of nuts infected with aflatoxins caused toxicity mainly at the kidney and liver. (biology-online.org)
  • But intake of selenium-fortified yogurt can definitely suppress against aflatoxins toxicity. (biology-online.org)
  • Indeed, it is recommended to eat fresh nuts to avoid aflatoxins along with selenium-fortified yogurt to lessen its toxicity. (biology-online.org)
  • The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired placental growth, or elevation of placental cytokines. (ajtmh.org)
  • This work aimed to investigate the presence of aflatoxins in groundnuts and soybeans that are consumed in Yemen. (hindawi.com)
  • Groundnuts for sale and export should be free from aflatoxin. (icrisat.org)
  • Aflatoxins are often isolated in cereals, cereal products, groundnuts and beans. (fao.org)
  • Currently, the test can be applied to detect aflatoxin in groundnuts. (icrisat.org)
  • Other innovative approaches are being tried in Africa to curbing pre and post harvest losses in addition to eliminating aflatoxin contamination using Aflasafe. (ipsnews.net)
  • The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. (mdpi.com)
  • Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste. (nih.gov)
  • A study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste samples was conducted. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin M 1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticus , but it and aflatoxin M 2 are also produced when an infected liver metabolizes aflatoxin B 1 and B 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In developed countries, commercial crops are routinely screened for aflatoxin using detection techniques that are performed in a laboratory setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxins have been isolated from all major cereal crops, and from sources as diverse as peanut butter and cannabis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic crops, which are not treated with fungicides, may be more susceptible to contamination with aflatoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until now, there were no chemical or biological applications that farmers could put on their peanut crops to protect them from aflatoxin. (usda.gov)
  • However, aflatoxin-producing molds show an affinity for multiple types of crops and can grow under a broad-range of moisture and temperature conditions. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • FAO has declared that 25% of all crops in the world are affected by aflatoxins. (icrisat.org)
  • With funding from the McKnight Foundation and in collaboration with partners including the National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi-NASFAM, Farmers Union Malawi (FUM), Kamuzu Central Hospital and Nkhoma Hospital, Malawi, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) developed the rapid test kit for aflatoxins. (icrisat.org)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action levels for aflatoxin present in food or feed is 20 to 300 ppb . (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of those molds does not always indicate that harmful levels of aflatoxin are present, but does indicate a significant risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although aflatoxins are known to cause cancer in animals, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows them at low levels in nuts, seeds, and legumes because they are considered "unavoidable contaminants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the worldwide maximum tolerated levels of aflatoxin B1 was reported to be in the range of 1-20 μg/kg in food, and 5-50 μg/kg in dietary cattle feed in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending on the duration-gas combinations, a 20% to 40% decrease in aflatoxin levels also occurred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Committee urged that the intake of dietary aflatoxin be reduced to the lowest practicable levels so as to reduce, as far as possible, the potential risk. (inchem.org)
  • Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds should prevent a major health scare, and human exposure to high levels of aflatoxin is rare. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The analytical method showed an average recovery of 86% for all aflatoxins at two spiking levels. (scielo.br)
  • The above guideline criteria do not preclude recommending action at lower than 20 mcgs/kg levels of aflatoxin in the finished product where there are inadequate control and sorting procedures, or deliberate attempts to dilute aflatoxin containing lots. (fda.gov)
  • Immunosuppression, reduction in gamma-globulin, glucose, and gamma-glutamyltransferase blood levels, and abnormal liver histology were observed in aflatoxin-exposed quail. (bioone.org)
  • Three more labels of dry dog food from another manufacturer have been added to the recall list because of levels of aflatoxins above acceptable limits. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Addition of the binder showed a significant reduction in aflatoxin levels in comparison to a positive control. (scirp.org)
  • Juma Mmongoyo, a former MSU food science doctoral student and lead author of the study, analysed aflatoxin levels of seeds and cakes in 7 regions of Tanzania in 2014 and 2015. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • These high aflatoxin levels, in a commodity frequently consumed by the Tanzanian population, indicate that local authorities must implement interventions to prevent and control aflatoxin contamination along the sunflower commodity value chain, to enhance food and feed safety in Tanzania," said Gale Strasburg, MSU food science and human nutrition professor and one of the study's co-authors. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin in food and feed. (neogen.com)
  • Low levels of aflatoxins in feeds - sometimes less than 1 part per million (ppm) - can cause poor growth, interfere with the immune system and result in liver damage and bleeding. (iastate.edu)
  • Studies carried out in The Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Benin, Togo, and Senegal, revealed that about 85% to 100% of children had either detectable levels of serum aflatoxin albumin adducts or urinary aflatoxins [19]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The highest levels of contamination occurred in 1999, with an average aflatoxin content of 112 ng/g and 66% of the cottonseed truckloads exceeding 20 ng/g. (apsnet.org)
  • Years 1997 and 2000 had the lowest aflatoxin levels, averaging 24 ng/g, with the lowest incidence (16%) of the truckloads exceeding 20 ng/g in 1997. (apsnet.org)
  • The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N 7 -guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. (pnas.org)
  • Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction ( P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. (pnas.org)
  • The tested products, both imported and locally manufactured, contained levels of Aflatoxin B1 "beyond the acceptable limit of 20 parts per billion," according to Go. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Afla-V AQUA Strip Tests utilize the proven sensitivity and selectivity of monoclonal antibodies to accurately detect and measure total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at levels as low as 2 ppb and as high as 100 ppb. (geneq.com)
  • The other was spiked with the aflatoxin standards at the levels listed in Table 2. (waters.com)
  • In the last decade, aflatoxin levels on produce was found to exceed an acceptable level limit of 50 ppb stipulated in most export specifications. (fao.org)
  • The key innovations that enable such a high-performance aflatoxin scanner are: (1) theuse of a breakthrough plasmonic terahertz source and detector technology that offers several orders ofmagnitude higher SNR levels compared to those offered by conventional terahertz devices, (2) the use of anadvanced data analysis algorithm that is capable of direct calculation of aflatoxin concentration regardless of thetype and shape of the sample under test. (usda.gov)
  • Advanced Animal Nutrition has recalled lots of its dry dog food brand, Dog Power, for aflatoxin levels that are above the acceptable limit. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Many countries reject imports of agricultural products that exceed certain levels of aflatoxin, costing farmers millions of dollars every year. (icrisat.org)
  • Both chemopreventive agents modulated levels of aflatoxin biomarkers in the study participants in manners consonant with protection. (curehunter.com)
  • Several commercially feasible methods of ammoniation have been developed for reducing levels of aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With more than 40% of food on sale in our local markets containing unsafe levels of aflatoxin, "we need an inter-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder, systemic approach," said Ms Denloye, "and a mix of pre- and post-harvest measures and good agricultural practices. (iita.org)
  • Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Nov 20 2015 (IPS) - Aflatoxin contamination is a growing threat to trade, food and health security in sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farmers are challenged by food production and now climate change, researchers said. (ipsnews.net)
  • Focused aflatoxin biocontrol research in Africa first started in Nigeria where Aflasafe is today a fully registered commercial product. (ipsnews.net)
  • Meanwhile in Africa, chemical hazards including aflatoxins cause a quarter of deaths from foodborne disease, the WHO reports. (nih.gov)
  • Poster by Barbara Szonyi, Dawit Gizachew, Azage Tegegne, Jean Hanson and Delia Grace presented at the first Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA) meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 7-9 October 2014. (slideshare.net)
  • Together with its donors and partners, ICRISAT has made contributions and scientific achievements towards finding solutions to aflatoxin contamination in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (icrisat.org)
  • ICRISAT has been working with smallholder farmers in Africa to combat the aflatoxin problem. (icrisat.org)
  • At hand to present the facts and figures were experts from the ECOWAS Commission, the African Union's Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). (iita.org)
  • And although a worldwide problem, Dr Falade pointed out that aflatoxins are a particularly big problem in the tropics, where Africa squarely sits, hence why Africa as one must rise to the challenge. (iita.org)
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veratox® for Aflatoxin is a competitive direct ELISA that provides a quantitative analysis of aflatoxin in grain and grain products. (neogen.com)
  • The concentration of total aflatoxins was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (hindawi.com)
  • The ELISA microwell test detects the four principle types of aflatoxin, B1, B2, G1 and G2, with superior cross-reactivity when compared to other available aflatoxin tests. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This Aflatoxin B1 antibody is useful for ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence and Western blot. (novusbio.com)
  • The use of aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit to analyze aflatoxin B1 residue of samples is fast and accurate. (krishgen.com)
  • Fermentation and sprouting have been shown to reduce the amount of aflatoxins in foods. (care2.com)
  • The drug Oltipraz can counteract the poison and reduce the amount of aflatoxins circulating in the body, research shows. (nih.gov)
  • This technique should not be used to measure the amount of aflatoxins in the grain. (iastate.edu)
  • They are generally useful and can give approximations of the amount of aflatoxins in a specific sample. (iastate.edu)
  • A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ML) of 50 part per trillion (ppt) was issued today by the Belgium National Reference Laboratory, ILVO T&V, under the direction of Dr. Wim Reybroeck. (prweb.com)
  • But despite European rules, last week more than a third of the total 55 alerts came from the detection of aflatoxin in a range of nuts. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Subsequent work showed that four aflatoxins occurred naturally, named aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G I and G 2 , based on the compounds' blue or green fluorescence under ultra violet light and their relative position on thin layer chromatography plates. (springer.com)
  • The naturally occurring aflatoxins are identified in physicochemical assays as intensely blue (aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 ) or blue-green (aflatoxins G 1 and G 2 ) fluorescent compounds under long-wave ultraviolet light. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 is usually the most abundant naturally occurring member of the family, and most studies on the pharmacological activity of aflatoxin have been conducted with this congener. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • At its present meeting, the Committee reviewed a wide range of studies in both animals and humans that provided qualitative and quantitative information on the hepatocarcinogenicity of the aflatoxins. (inchem.org)
  • Humans and many other animals can be affected by aflatoxins. (care2.com)
  • Our objectives are to 1) study to the prevalence and concentration of aflatoxins in animal feeds, dairy and poultry in representative regions of Ethiopia, and 2) to identify approaches to mitigate the risk of exposure to aflatoxins in humans and animals using locally available methods. (slideshare.net)
  • Therefore, limits are in place by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding how much aflatoxin can occur in cereal grain that will be consumed by humans and livestock within the human food chain. (novapublishers.com)
  • Unfortunately, wild animals befall the same health concerns as humans when it comes to aflatoxin exposure. (novapublishers.com)
  • Despite the potential health risk posed to animals and humans, many people in developing countries are oblivious of the ability of aflatoxins to cause cancer and other debilitating diseases. (academicjournals.org)
  • PEKyN (CyHAN)- The Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Thursday warned the public to be wary of several pre-packaged peanut products as these were found to contain aflatoxin , a by-product of molds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The FDA program activity involving aflatoxin in domestic peanut products is directed toward products intended for direct consumption and not raw peanut products. (fda.gov)
  • Many of us who have studied whole-food and holistic nutrition have heard of aflatoxins in peanut butter. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • They're one of the prime reasons many of us have kicked peanut butter to the curb and starting started using almond butter instead (or, peanut butters from climates where aflatoxins are not present. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said they found Aflatoxin B1 beyond the acceptable limit in the tested samples of peanut products made here and abroad. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxins are chemicals created by certain food molds of the genus Aspergillus . (care2.com)
  • The extent of aflatoxin contamination in foods is a function of the ecology of molds and is not completely preventable. (pnas.org)
  • A recent risk assessment determined that aflatoxins may be implicated in 4.6-28.2% of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) worldwide 8 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, exposure to aflatoxins may cause mutations (mutagenesis) and cancers (carcinogenesis), especially hepatocellular carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. (pnas.org)
  • Aflatoxin, which is a risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer (GBC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 exposure may be a potential etiological agent in hepatocellular carcinoma. (novusbio.com)
  • Chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in aflatoxin endemic areas. (curehunter.com)
  • 2005) was used to assess aflatoxin-albumin adducts in serum. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 adducts were hydrolyzed from serum albumin using enzymatic digestion with pronase which was incubated in a 40°C water bath for 4 hours or overnight at 37°C. Once digestion was complete, samples were transferred to an automated solid phase extraction (SPE) system. (cdc.gov)
  • AFB-lys eluted 0.02±0.01 min after the internal standard in the QC pools which were known to contain aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts and similarly, 0.02±0.02 min after the internal standard in the unknown NHANES samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 267 GBC and 730 gallstone participants with plasma available, 250 GBC patients and 250 controls with gallstones were randomly selected for measurement of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )-lysine plasma adducts using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We detected aflatoxin-albumin adducts in 475/479 (99%) samples (one sample missing), with a geometric mean concentration of 32.8 (range 5-1064) pg/mg albumin. (bmj.com)
  • From a public health perspective, these findings suggest that hepatitis virus vaccination programs and efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposures could have a major impact on the incidence of this disease. (pnas.org)
  • The situation may be aggravated by the fact that there is a relatively high incidence of aflatoxin in warmer areas which is true in most Asian countries. (fao.org)
  • From a public health perspective, hepatitis virus vaccination programs and efforts to both reduce aflatoxin exposures and to attenuate the toxicological consequences of unavoidable exposures should have major impacts on the global incidence of this disease. (curehunter.com)
  • Mycoflora and incidence of aflatoxin B1 , zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in poultry feeds in Argentina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, in 49.44% and 27.6% of the groundnut and soybean samples, total aflatoxins exceed the acceptable level of European Commission (4 μ g/kg), while in only 6.2% of soybean samples and 22.47% of groundnut samples, total aflatoxins were beyond the maximum limit of FDA/Yemen standards (20 μ g/kg). (hindawi.com)
  • To help minimize risk, the FDA tests foods that may contain aflatoxin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture 's Risk Management Agency, which oversees crop insurance programs, warns that insured farmers who suspect their fields might have aflatoxin must contact their agents before they harvest the grain to receive compensation. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Aflatoxins can infect animals through grain-based feeds. (care2.com)
  • Aflatoxin can be produced in standing grain before harvest. (iastate.edu)
  • Laboratory testing of aflatoxins is recommended whenever there is a positive black light result and the grain is intended for livestock use. (iastate.edu)
  • The remainder of the book (Chapters Fourteen-Sixteen) focus on testing feed for aflatoxin and how a person can reduce the risk of providing aflatoxin-contaminated grain to wildlife. (novapublishers.com)
  • This study reviews aflatoxin research on grain in the Asian region. (fao.org)
  • Aflatoxin is the byproduct of a mold that flourishes in dry conditions, and last year's historic drought in the US Midwest put everyone from farmers to grain handlers and food industry officials on high alert. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • Gallagher (1994) wrote a review of the mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. (inchem.org)
  • Aflatoxins in Nuts: Danger or Hype? (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • Some of the scary things you may have heard about nuts and aflatoxins are probably exaggerated or taken out of context. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • But, several Nutrition Diva listeners have written to ask me about aspergillus or aflatoxin in nuts - and whether this is something that we need to worry about. (quickanddirtytips.com)
  • As a result, the proposed terahertz scanner offers an excellentregulatory tool for high-throughput, non-destructive, non-contact detection of aflatoxins in nuts and processednut products, minimizing regulatory non-compliance risks and providing high-quality products to the public. (usda.gov)
  • Bythe end of the Phase I, a thorough experimental analysis will be completed on aflatoxin tablets and aflatoxin-contaminated nuts with a single-pixel terahertz scanner prototype to assess the sensitivity and specificity of theproposed scanner. (usda.gov)
  • Exposure to aflatoxin through consumption of contaminated foods is a combination of unawareness, poverty and poor enforcement of standards by governments. (ipsnews.net)
  • Aflatoxins , which withstand cooking, occasionally cause rapid, deadly poisonings in people who have eaten heavily contaminated foods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In developing nations, many people are exposed to aflatoxin through food grown at home. (cdc.gov)
  • When contaminated food is processed, aflatoxins enter the general food supply where they have been found in both pet and human foods, as well as in feedstocks for agricultural animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not practical to attempt to remove aflatoxin from food products in order to make them safer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Globally aflatoxins are a known threat that have been reduced thanks to investment in food safely controls. (ipsnews.net)
  • Aflatoxin contamination prompted a series of pet food and livestock food recalls last December, including products produced at Cargill's Lecompte, La., plant and Procter & Gamble Co. plant in Henderson, N.C. (chicagotribune.com)
  • You re likely aware of the dangers of food poisoning from bacteria, but have you heard about aflatoxins? (care2.com)
  • Ingestion of food that is contaminated with aflatoxins. (petmd.com)
  • HPLC is one of the most common methods to detect and quantify aflatoxins in food. (slideshare.net)
  • Aflatoxin can easily lead to food and feed safety issues. (deltafarmpress.com)
  • Therefore, accurate determination of the toxin's presence is crucially important to those monitoring the quality of food and feed in which aflatoxin may occur. (neogen.com)
  • The likely contamination of complementary food ingredients with aflatoxins and fumonisins, and the demonstrated adverse effects on animal and human health, supports the need to investigate whether these myco-toxins are associated with child growth impairment in Tanzania. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin contamination was responsible for a number of regional pet food recalls and several major disease outbreaks over the past 20 years. (mercola.com)
  • This review focuses on resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1981, the maximum limit for aflatoxin in food (aflatoxin B. or the sum of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 vary from zero to 50 parts per billion (ppb) (Van Egmond, 1987 and Jewers 1987). (fao.org)
  • For instance,to achieve a sufficiently sensitive measurement to detect the maximum allowed aflatoxin contamination levelregulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with conventional terahertz scanners, more than thousandmeasurements should be taken on the same sample to reduce the noise of the acquired data, which increasesthe measurement time significantly. (usda.gov)
  • In Phase II, the aflatoxin scan rate will be boosted by using focal plane detector arrays andthe use of the developed multi-pixel scanner for detection of aflatoxins will be extended to a wider range ofagricultural food products, while developing a prototype that can be used in realistic field/packaging/distributionsettings. (usda.gov)
  • In order to address aflatoxin contamination issues, Ruparel Foods turned to TOMRA Sorting Food. (tomra.com)
  • Alerts' require immediate action (the case for the Listeria alerts in week 26) due to the risk of food contamination to the consumer, whereas for 'information' notifications - as is the case for the aflatoxin notifications last week - the food product has yet to reach other member markets in the RASSF network. (foodqualitynews.com)
  • Around 90 countries have regulations that establish maximum aflatoxin limits in food and feed products. (icrisat.org)
  • Aflatoxin contaminated food can pose a serious health risk. (icrisat.org)
  • Prevention is the main line of defense against aflatoxins entering the food chain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Abuja, Nigeria, 9th December 2019 - The fight against aflatoxin in West Africa's food went a notch higher at regional level, with the Parliament of the 15-country Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) holding a special session on 2nd December 2019 in Abuja, Nigeria, dedicated to aflatoxin. (iita.org)
  • You cannot see, smell or taste aflatoxin," revealed Dr Titilayo Falade, Food Safety Scientist at IITA. (iita.org)
  • Since we all eat food, all are at risk of aflatoxin including the unborn and the youngest, who are also exposed to the poison if the mother eats aflatoxin-contaminated food. (iita.org)
  • Ingestion of aflatoxins leads to weight loss due to the change in digestive enzymes activity that causes malabsorption of nutrients. (biology-online.org)
  • Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB(1)-N7-dG). (rcsb.org)
  • Much progress has been made in elucidating the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie aflatoxin carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • In animal studies, pathological lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 intoxication include reduction in weight of liver, vacuolation of hepatocytes, and hepatic carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition , contamination of animal feeds with aflatoxins has negative effects on poultry including reduction in weight gain and decreased egg production. (slideshare.net)
  • policies on aflatoxin contaminated produce and other possible problems towards the reduction of aflatoxin contaminated produce. (fao.org)