Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.MichiganAflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Dictionaries, ChemicalFood Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Sterigmatocystin: A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Mycotoxicosis: Poisoning caused by the ingestion of mycotoxins (toxins of fungal origin).

Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada. (1/749)

Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (2/749)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (3/749)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Characterization of the promoter for the gene encoding the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway regulatory protein AFLR. (4/749)

Most genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus parasiticus are regulated by the binuclear zinc cluster DNA-binding protein AFLR. The aflR promoter was analyzed in beta-glucuronidase reporter assays to elucidate some of the elements involved in the gene's transcription control. Truncation at 118 bp upstream of the translational start site increased promoter activity 5-fold, while truncation at -100 reduced activity about 20-fold. These findings indicate the presence of an important positive regulatory element between -100 and -118 and a negative regulatory region further upstream. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays on nuclear extracts from A. parasiticus induced for aflatoxin expression suggest that AFLR and another, possibly more abundant, protein bind to the -100/-118 region. Another protein binds to a sequence at position -159 to -164 that matches the consensus binding site for the transcription factor involved in pH-dependent gene regulation, PACC.  (+info)

HGF-mediated apoptosis via p53/bax-independent pathway activating JNK1. (5/749)

Current studies have indicated both positive and negative roles for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met receptor signaling system in tumor development. Recently, we have shown that HGF has the capacity to induce both growth inhibition and programmed cell death in aflatoxin-transformed (AFLB8) rat liver epithelial cells. Using the same cell line, we have now investigated a potential mechanism for HGF-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of bcl-2 gene family member (bax, bcl-2, bclX-s/l) expression showed no correlation with HGF treatment, suggesting that HGF-mediated apoptosis is bax independent. Following HGF treatment retinoblastoma protein (pRB) was present in the hypophosphorylated state. HGF treatment increased cyclin A, cyclin G1 and nuclear transcriptional factor (NFkappaB) protein expression. However, electrophoretic mobility shift analysis showed that NFkappaB activity decreased with HGF treatment. Under these apoptotic conditions, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK2) were activated with lower level activation of ERK2, while no involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase was observed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was not protective, and actually induced cells to undergo apoptosis to a level similar to that of HGF alone or EGF/HGF in combination. These results suggest the possibility of cross-talk between HGF/c-met and EGF/EGFR signaling pathways, and the involvement of JNK1 induction in HGF-mediated apoptotic cell death.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (6/749)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Interactions of saprophytic yeasts with a nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus. (7/749)

The nor mutant of Aspergillus flavus has a defective norsolorinic acid reductase, and thus the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway is blocked, resulting in the accumulation of norsolorinic acid, a bright red-orange pigment. We developed a visual agar plate assay to monitor yeast strains for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production by visually scoring the accumulation of this pigment of the nor mutant. We identified yeast strains that reduced the red-orange pigment accumulation in the nor mutant. These yeasts also reduced aflatoxin accumulation by a toxigenic strain of A. flavus. These yeasts may be useful for reducing aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.  (+info)

Enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins and biosynthetic relationship between G- and B-group aflatoxins. (8/749)

We detected biosynthetic activity for aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) in cell extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26. We found that in the presence of NADPH, aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were produced from O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin, respectively. No G-group aflatoxins were produced from aflatoxin B(1), aflatoxin B(2), 5-methoxysterigmatocystin, dimethoxysterigmatocystin, or sterigmatin, confirming that B-group aflatoxins are not the precursors of G-group aflatoxins and that G- and B-group aflatoxins are independently produced from the same substrates (O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin). In competition experiments in which the cell-free system was used, formation of aflatoxin G(2) from dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin was suppressed when O-methylsterigmatocystin was added to the reaction mixture, whereas aflatoxin G(1) was newly formed. This result indicates that the same enzymes can catalyze the formation of aflatoxins G(1) and G(2). Inhibition of G-group aflatoxin formation by methyrapone, SKF-525A, or imidazole indicated that a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase may be involved in the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Both the microsome fraction and a cytosol protein with a native mass of 220 kDa were necessary for the formation of G-group aflatoxins. Due to instability of the microsome fraction, G-group aflatoxin formation was less stable than B-group aflatoxin formation. The ordA gene product, which may catalyze the formation of B-group aflatoxins, also may be required for G-group aflatoxin biosynthesis. We concluded that at least three reactions, catalyzed by the ordA gene product, an unstable microsome enzyme, and a 220-kDa cytosol protein, are involved in the enzymatic formation of G-group aflatoxins from either O-methylsterigmatocystin or dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin.  (+info)

*Aflatoxin

... but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an infected liver metabolizes aflatoxin B1 and B2. Aflatoxin B1 and B2, produced ... Aflatoxin M2, metabolite of aflatoxin B2 in milk of cattle fed on contaminated foods Aflatoxicol Aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1), major ... Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested. However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin. The United ... Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin M1 ...

*Aflatoxin B1

... is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is an incredibly potent carcinogen with a ... Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic aflatoxin and it is highly implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. In ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolitzed into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ...

*Aflatoxin total synthesis

The synthesis of racemic aflatoxin B1 has been reported by Buechi et al. in 1967 and that of racemic aflatoxin B2 by Roberts et ... Aflatoxin total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of a group of organic compounds called aflatoxins. These compounds occur ... Aflatoxins in particular add another dimension because it is suspected that they have been mass-produced in the past from ... Total synthesis of (±)-aflatoxin-B2". Journal of the Chemical Society C: Organic: 22. doi:10.1039/J39680000022. Trost, B. M.; ...

*2013 European aflatoxin contamination

"B92 - News - Aflatoxin regulations to be harmonized with EU standards". "Balkan States to Step Up Food Control on Aflatoxin ... "Hy-Vee issues recall of several dog food products due to aflatoxin". www.theglobaldispatch.com. "Testing for aflatoxin in milk ... Aflatoxins have been mainly an "import problem" up to now. However, global warming is increasingly affecting the mycotoxin map ... Aflatoxin detected in milk from two Dutch dairy farmer - People's Daily Online Blond, Josie Le (3 March 2013). "Germany tests ...

*Foodborne illness

In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver ... For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin- ... "Aflatoxins". Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in ...

*Almond

If aflatoxin does not meet the strict safety regulations, the entire consignment may be reprocessed to eliminate the aflatoxin ... "Aflatoxins in food". European Food Safety Authority. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. "New EU Aflatoxin ... Almonds are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing molds. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as ... The European Union, for example, introduced a requirement since 2007 that all almond shipments to EU be tested for aflatoxin. ...

*T. A. Venkitasubramanian

He also worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer- ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Khan S. N.; Venkitasubramanian T. A. (February 1986). "Regulation of aflatoxin ... T. V. Reddy; L. Viswanathan; T. A. Venkitasubramanian (September 1971). "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined ... acetate into aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-3240". J Environ Sci Health B. 21 (1): 67-85. doi:10.1080/ ...

*Pistachio

Aflatoxin contamination is a frequent risk, particularly in warmer and humid environments. Food contaminated with aflatoxins ... "Aflatoxins in pistachios" (PDF). European Union. 2008. Doster and Michailides (1994). "Aspergillus Moulds and Aflatoxins in ... As with other tree seeds, aflatoxin is found in poorly harvested or processed pistachios. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic ... Damage or early splits can lead to aflatoxin contamination. In some cases, a harvest may be treated to keep contamination below ...

*Mycotoxicology

... the term aflatoxin can be construed to mean aflatoxin B1. However, well over a dozen other aflatoxins (e.g., P1. Q1, B2a, and ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent natural carcinogen known and is usually the major aflatoxin produced by toxigenic strains. It ... Aflatoxins: The aflatoxins were isolated and characterized after the death of more than 100,000 turkey poults (turkey X disease ... The four major aflatoxins are called B1, B2, G1, and G2 based on their fluorescence under UV light (blue or green) and relative ...

*Biliary atresia

Moreover, the baby feeds aflatoxin M1 from its mom, as aflatoxin M1 is the detoxification product of aflatoxin B1. It is a ... In an Egyptian study, abnormally high levels of aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 was found in liver tissue and ... Some cases of biliary atresia may result from exposure to aflatoxin B1, and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 during late ... The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct cells are removed by neutrophil elastase and by involvement of immune system ...

*Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide

Aflatoxin has a similar mechanism of action, though its binding is through the N7, rather than the N2, position of guanine. ... Eaton, D. L.; Gallagher, E. P. (1994). "Mechanisms of Aflatoxin Carcinogenesis". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. ...

*Aspergillus zonatus

ISBN 1-904-45553-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Abbas, edited by Hamed K. (2005). Aflatoxin and food safety. ...

*Benzo(a)pyrene

This mechanism of action is similar to that of aflatoxin which binds to the N7 position of guanine. There are indications that ... Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994;34:135-72. Pfeifer GP, Denissenko MF, Olivier M, ...

*Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer

Aspergillus nidulans produces sterigmatocystin - a precursor to aflatoxins. Aspergillus was found to have horizontally ... Podospora and Aspergillus show high conservation and microsynteny sterigmatocystin/aflatoxin clusters along with intergenic ... regions containing 14 binding sites for AfIR, a transcription factor for the activation of sterigmatocystin/aflatoxin ...

*Aspergillus fumigatus

Trail F, Mahanti N, Linz J (1995). "Molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis". Microbiology. 141 (4): 755-65. doi:10.1099/ ...

*List of food contamination incidents

See 2013 aflatoxin contamination for further details. 2013, May - A Chinese crime ring was found to have passed off rat, mink, ... 2004 - Aflatoxin-contaminated maize in Kenya resulted in 317 cases of hepatic failure and 125 deaths. 2004 - EHEC O104:H4 in ... 2013, February-March - Contamination with aflatoxins results in a milk recall in Europe and a dog food recall in the United ... The Aflatoxin Investigative Group (2005). "Case-Control Study of an Acute Aflatoxicosis Outbreak, Kenya, 2004". Environmental ...

*Rihab Taha

2,000 litres of aflatoxins, which can cause liver cancer; Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene; and ...

*Aspergillus flavus

... and peppers produces high concentrations of aflatoxins. A. flavus growth on spices produces low concentrations of aflatoxin as ... The four major aflatoxins produced are B1, B2, G1, and G2. The production of the major toxins are a result of particular ... Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2). Unique to the S strains is the production of ... The amount of aflatoxins produced by A. flavus is affected by environmental factors. If other competitive fungal organisms are ...

*Oncom

... ensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ... on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasitus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut' Also, There is an appendix on ...

*Roquefortine C

Aristolochene Aflatoxin Patulin Borthwick AD (2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and ...

*Walnut

"Food, Nutrition & Agriculture - Prevention of aflatoxin". FAO, United Nations. 1998. Forsberg, B.; Joan Clark-Warner, M.S.R.D.C ... Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two ... Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin - a potent ...

*Mycotoxins in animal feed

The most common mycotoxin is aflatoxin. It can be very carcinogenic to both humans and animals. Aflatoxin is produced by two ... The animals most at risk of having serious problems with aflatoxins are trout, ducklings, and pigs, while cattle are less at ...

*Aspergillus parasiticus

A. parasiticus produces aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, named for the colours emitted under UV light on thin-layer ... Most countries put low limits as to how much aflatoxin is allowed to be in the food. This fungus has low resistance to heat so ... A. parasiticus produce aflatoxins at higher concentrations than A. flavus in temperatures ranging from 12-42 °C (54-108 °F) ... The aflatoxins produced by A. parasiticus are hazardous under normal food handling conditions and are especially stable when ...

*Jacobaea vulgaris

It is also seen in poisoning by other alkylating agents, such as nitrosamines and aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are a common ...

*Copra

Unfortunately, copra is highly susceptible to the growth of aflatoxins if not dried properly. Aflatoxins can be highly toxic, ... Aflatoxins in copra cake, fed to animals, can be passed on in milk or meat, leading to human illnesses.[citation needed] In the ... Those samples are measured for aflatoxin contamination. If within standards the bag is shipped.[citation needed] This method ... and minimisation of aflatoxins.[citation needed] Copra meal is used as fodder for horses and cattle. Its high oil and protein ...
Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb,
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
... - Kerry S. Lane MD, 11/13/00 10:19AM. MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF AFLATOXIN AND MYCOTOXIN LEVELS ON TOBACCO AS A HARM REDUCTION STRATEGY. August 30, 2000. Kerry Scott Lane MD Aflatoxin, the fungal carcinogen first identified in 1960, is now recognized as the prototypical laboratory carcinogen. It causes mutations in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene as well as ras mutations, which are involved in the majority of human cancers. Aflatoxin has been shown to contaminate tobacco products. Tobacco-related cancers, including those associated with ETS, often show the same p53 mutations associated with aflatoxin exposure. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate aflatoxin contamination of tobacco. Aflatoxin was first identified in 1960 as one of the most potent carcinogens known, and has been recognized as a teratogen, mutagen, carcinogen, immunosuppressant, and potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. Aflatoxin is likely ...
Insect damage, Aspergillus flavus Link infection, and aflatoxin contamination are recurring problems in preharvest corn (Zea mays L.) in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. A 6-yr study (1977-1982) over 46-county area revealed that insect damage ranged from a mean of 1.7 cm per ear in 1979 to 4.0 cm per ear in 1977. The incidence of aflatoxin contamination in grain samples ranged from 57% in 1982 to 100% in 1980. The highest concentration of aflatoxin (4708 µg kg−1 was recorded in a feld sample collected in 1977. The action level set by the Food and Drug Administration for aflatoxin is 20 µg kg−1. Insect damage contributed significantly to enhanced A. flavus sporulation and aflatoxin contamination. Levels of aflatoxin were positively correlated with temperature and total net evaporation. The occurrence of undamaged, uncontaminated corn in the Coastal Plain during a majority of the years suggests that crop management, including hybrid selection, planting date, and irrigation, may have a ...
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination.
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
PRICE, R. L. and JORGENSEN, K. V. (1985), Effects of Processing on Aflatoxin Levels and on Mutagenic Potential of Tortillas made from Naturally Contaminated Corn. Journal of Food Science, 50: 347-349. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb13398.x ...
Autori: Braicu, C., Puia, C., Bodoki, E., Socaciu, C.. Editorial: Journal of Food Quality, 31 (1), p.108-120, 2008.. Rezumat:. The main focus of our study was to implement a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method that could be utilized to check the cereals for safety (i.e., screening for total aflatoxins, as well as individual B1, B 2, G1, G2 aflatoxins and ochratoxin A). We developed a protocol by which we were able to isolate mycotoxins from cereals collected from different regions of Romania. After extraction in chloroform, the mycotoxins were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using densitometry. Forty-three samples of different cereals (wheat, maize, rye and Triticale) were analyzed. Twenty-five of the 43 samples (58.14% of the total number) were found to be contaminated with different mycotoxins in various concentrations: aflatoxin B1 (1.6-5.7 μg/kg), aflatoxin B 2 (0.89-4 μg/kg), aflatoxin G1 (1.2-5.76 μg/kg), aflatoxin G2 (0.96-3.4 μg/kg) and/or 4.3-30 μg/kg ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
WHEN: Harvest mesquite pods before the summer rains, and never wet or wash your pods-Harvest Early, Harvest Dry. This practice reduces the growth of molds/fungus on pods. There is a relationship between an invisible fungus (Aspergillus flavus) and a natural carcinogen known as aflatoxin B1. Recent research at the University of Arizona by Dr. Nick Garber, Dr. Sadhana Ravishankar, and the Mesquite Harvest Working Group showed a clear correlation between aflatoxin levels and rainfall. Many mature pods harvested after a single rainfall (a single event during which they got wet) were unsafe for human consumption due to high aflatoxin levels. These same studies found mesquite pods harvested before the rains had safe aflatoxin levels-well below the minimum levels allowed by aflatoxin sampling of food products. The Tucson mesquite pod harvest season is mid to late June. Ripe pods range in color from yellowish tan to reddish or purplish (not green), and are dry and brittle. They come off the tree ...
This community-based study evaluated the role of aflatoxin exposure in advanced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-endemic townships. Preventive health examination was performed on 314 adults ≥ 40 years of age recruited from HCV-endemic townships in Tainan, Taiwan. Aflatoxin-albumin in serum was quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. After adjusting serum albumin levels and platelet counts, aflatoxin-Bi albumin adducts was still an independent risk factor for advanced liver disease among all 314 residents (> 8 versus ≤ 8 (AFBi)-albumin/albumin; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.23-4.27, P = 0.009) and particularly in anti-HCV-positive subjects (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.09-4.0, P = 0.026). Levels of AFB1-albumin/albumin were significantly related to ultrasonographic parenchyma scores (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) in all and anti-HCV-positive subjects. The findings indicated aflatoxin exposure may be associated with advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in HCV-endemic
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Forty percent of the food produced in Africa is lost, largely due to poor product handling, storage and processing practices, with aflatoxins often responsible for much of this loss in the post-harvest phase.. Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-causing chemical produced by certain moulds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay and grains.. At the 1st All Africa Post-Harvest Congress held in Nairobi from March 28 -31 to tackle the problem of post-harvest food losses in Africa, aflatoxin management, food safety and nutrition was one of the issues on the agenda, with experts calling for improved post-harvest handling of food.. Elizabeth Ogutu, strategy and operations senior officer with the African Unions Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA), noted that aflatoxins impact food safety, health, trade and agriculture, accounting for 30 percent of liver cancer infections in Africa, and are responsible for the loss of around 670 ...
Studies conducted in Benin, in which the main staple foods are maize, cassava, groundnuts and yams, showed high levels of aflatoxin residues in blood of the exposed population. The natural contamination with fungi and aflatoxins in cassava chips sold at markets in Benin, West Africa was investigated. A total of sixty samples were sampled from open markets in 11 districts of 3 agroecological zones and analyzed for the presence of mycoflora and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Fourteen genera of fungi were associated with marketed dried cassava chips. Within these, twenty- two isolates were identified to species level, whereas four were identified only to genus. The dominating fungal species isolated were Rhizopus oryzae, Nigrospora oryzae, Chrysonilia sitophila, Cladosporium resinae, Cladosporium herbarum, Apergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Fifty-four out of sixty samples were contaminated with A. flavus. The rate of occurrence in CFU/g of A. flavus fungi was lower than for all other fungal ...
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...
A survey was conducted in Nairobi, Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya between March and July 2009 with 1263 peanut products sampled out of which 705 samples underwent microbial analysis. The study aimed at determining the incidence of fungal species - emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi - associated with peanut products. A 0.5kg representative sample was obtained from each surveyed vendor and the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal species determined. The samples were also analyzed for total aflatoxin level while isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were screened for production of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Eight fungal species were detected in the samples and were in decreasing order of CFU/g of sample: A. flavus S-strain (467), A. flavus L-strain (341), Penicillium spp. (326), A. niger (156), A. tamari (27), A. alliaceus (21), A. parasiticus (10), and A. caelatus (5). The overall incidence of A. flavus S-strain in samples from Nairobi was 92 and 1425% higher than samples from ...
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development. More importantly, aflatoxin biosynthesis as well as conidia and sclerotia development were fully blocked in ΔAfStuA. In addition, our results supported that AfStuA regulated the aflatoxin synthesis in an AflR-dependent manner. Intriguingly, it was revealed that AfRafA and AfStuA exert an antagonistic role in the regulation of biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid. In
There are a variety of aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2, M 1, M 2) produced by Apergillus flavus. Temperatures of 82° to 90° F, along with grain moisture levels of 22% to 26% provide ideal conditions for producing aflatoxin in a variety of grains, including corn, wheat, barley, and oats. The mold is abundant in the southeastern United States, but has occasionally become a problem in the Midwestern corn belt when drought conditions occur.. Aflatoxin is the only mycotoxin regulated by FDA because it has been shown to be carcinogenic, and therefore concerns about the mycotoxin entering the human food chain exist. No more than 20 ppb aflatoxin is allowed for interstate shipment of contaminated grain. Grains containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb cannot be used for human consumption and dairy feeds, and should not be fed to young animals. At low levels (20 - 200 ppb), aflatoxin decreases performance and well-being. Feed intake is commonly reduced, resulting in depressed growth rate, while ...
Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. Initial findings associated with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain.. According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. Furthermore, 27 of the 35 feed samples that were analyzed contained more than one mycotoxin. This poses additional risk to animals since in many cases the combined effects of two mycotoxins are higher than the individual effects of each toxin alone.. ...
Use of biocontrol products with atoxigenic active ingredients is a proven method for reducing the aflatoxin content of crops in the US. This method has made its way into sub-Saharan Africa; a region where aflatoxin contamination is still a problem.
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) "These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
We examined the relationship between various health parameters and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adduct levels in plasma. Design. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in four villages in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A survey on socio-demographic and health characteristics was administered to 162 volunteers and blood (20 ml) was donated by 140 participants. AFB1 albumin adduct levels, liver function, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and malaria infections were determined. AFB1 levels ranged from 0.12 to 2.995 pmolmg21 albumin (mean¡standard deviation50.89¡ 0.46) and was categorized based on the median as low (,0.80 pmolmg21) or high (,0.80 pmol mg21) and used in the analyses. By multivariate analysis, significantly higher levels of AFB1 were obtained for participants who reported symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis: history of yellow mouth (odds ratio55.5, confidence interval51.04-29.07, p50.04); history of sore swollen stomach (odds ratio54.54, confidence interval51.28-15.62, p50.01). A ...
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A. flavus include: groundnut cakes, maize, sorghum, sunflower, cottonseed cakes, copra, and cassava. To produce aflatoxin, however, A. flavus must be present alone in a practically pure culture. The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. 3.2.2 Heating and moisture increase Mould growth in feedstuffs is accompanied by rising temperatures and moisture content. Aspergillus glaucus, which has a minimum moisture requirement of 14.5 percent, is the first significant species ...
The Procter and Gamble Co. voluntarily recalled a single-production lot of Iams Proactive Health Smart Puppy dry dog food due to aflatoxin levels detected above the acceptable limit, the Cincinnati-based company reported today. The product has been retrieved from store shelves, and no illnesses have been reported in association with the lot to date, according to the company. The recall includes Iams Proactive Health Smart Puppy dry dog food with Use By or Expiration Dates …
Equipment that is to help Kenya reduce aflatoxin in maize is to be installed at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).. The equipment uses nixtamalization, a process where limewater is used in reducing the content of toxins and preserves the nutrients and healthy properties of maize.. "The equipment removes 30 - 60 percent of aflatoxins from maize leaving maize with acceptable consumption levels," Dr. Natalia Palacios, Maize Nutrition Quality Specialist for Global Consultative Group for the International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) program in Maize said during the launch of nixtamalization in Nairobi.. Palacios said that the process is an ancestral technique used throughout Mexico and Latin America and is used in nixtamalizing flour and dough to make tortillas and over 300 varieties of maize based dishes.. Palacios revealed that the two industrial this machinery that were delivered costs US Dollars 8,000.. In 2004, 124 people died of aflatoxin after consuming ...
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a type of epilepsy characterized by repeated head-nodding seizures that appear in previously healthy children between 3 and 18 years of age. In 2012, during a WHO International Meeting on NS in Kampala, Uganda, it was recommended that fungal contamination of foods should be investigated as a possible cause of the disease. We therefore aimed to assess whether consumption of fungal mycotoxins contributes to NS development. We detected similar high levels of total aflatoxin and ochratoxin in mostly millet, sorghum, maize and groundnuts in both households with and without children with NS. Furthermore, there was no significant association between concentrations of total aflatoxin, ochratoxin and doxynivalenol and the presence of children with NS in households. In conclusion, our results show no supporting evidence for the association of NS with consumption of mycotoxins in contaminated foods.
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a "safer" cigarette, "as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns." Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
Aflatoxin Risk Management. Tim Herrman Professor, State Chemist and Director. FDA Aflatoxin Action Levels. http://otscweb.tamu.edu/Risk/Aflatoxin/Blending.aspx. Boryan et al. 2008. State Climatologist: Global surface temperatures likely to set a new record this year. Slideshow 2976553 by nantai
Several companies recalled dry dog foods in December 2011 after detection of aflatoxin concentrations above the acceptable
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for aflatoxin total (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanu .... ...
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
Table 4: Estimated costs and returns budget for vendors (wholesalers) under the following assumptions. (1) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and do no sort before marketing. (2) Vendors purchased nonsorted peanut and sort before marketing. (3) Vendors purchased sorted peanut at a higher price and do not sort before marketing ...
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News reports have been filled with pet food recalls over the past week, with several manufacturers voluntarily pulling their products from store shelves due to safety concerns.
The presence of aflatoxin in airborne grain dusts collected from the Superior/Duluth region of the United States was investigated. Dusts were collected with an industrial vacuum cleaner during transportation of grains over conveyer belts. Samples were extracted in chloroform, chloroform/water, and methylene- chloride/water mixtures. Extracts were spotted along with reference standards of aflatoxin
A European heat wave in late June and early July has broken monthly and even a few all-time records. The weather is the most important factor in determining whether aflatoxin contamination will be a problem. Hot and dry weather is associated with increased aflatoxin production by the fungus from Aspergillus species.
Speakers: Andrew Emmott (Twin), Isaac B. Gokah (Malawi Partnership for Aflatoxin Control), Julian Smith (Food and Environment Research Agency, UK) Date: November 19, 2013 Time: 09:00 EST (Washington, DC); 14:00 GMT (UK); 16:00 CAT (Malawi)
peanut meal, shipped from Brazil and contaminated with mold that produces a poison known as aflatoxin. At the time, little was known about aflatoxin, but some scientists suspected it could be linked to liver cancer in humans. Soon after the U.K. outbreak, a young MIT toxicologist named Gerald Wogan launched a thorough, decades-long investigation into the toxin, eventually exposing it as one of the most potent carcinogens humans can encounter. Throughout his career, Wogan not only made discoveries illuminating aflatoxins role in liver cancer, which kills about 600,000 people a year, but he also used his knowledge to shape food-safety regulations in the United States and Europe, and helped develop new measures that could fight liver cancer in developing countries, where aflatoxin exposure is still common. "A lot of people are content to do basic science, but he picked up that mantle of responsibility and went right into the regulatory arena," says John Essigmann, MIT professor of toxicology and ...
Doukas EG, Markoglou AN, Vontas JG and Ziogas BN (2012) Characterization of cyp51, mdr and aflR genes and association of DMI resistance phenotypes with fitness and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus Speare. Fungal Genetcis and Biology (submitted 29-3-12).. Veloukas T, Markoglou AN and Karaoglanidis GS (2012) Differential effect of SdhB gene mutations of Botrytis cinerea on the sensitivity to SDHI fungicides. Plant Disease (submitted 4-12).. Chronopoulou EG, Papageorgiou AC, Markoglou AN and Labrou NE (2012) Inhibition of human glutathione transferases by pesticides: Development of a simple analytical assay for the quantification of pesticides in water. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2012.04.022. Malandrakis ΑΑ, Markoglou AN and Ziogas BN (2012) PCR-RFLP detection of the E198A mutation conferring resistance to benzimidazoles in field isolates of Monilia laxa from Greece. Crop Protection 39, 11-17.. Konstantinou S, Karaoglanidis GS, ...
Residents of Qidong, China, located at the mouth of the Yangtze River, are undergoing a rapid fluctuation in cancer incidence rates at many organ sites, reflecting a dynamic interplay of socio-behavioral, economic and environmental factors. As tracked by their cancer registry, there are extraordinary changes in the China age-standardized incidence rates for the two leading cancer killers in the Qidong region: one going down and the other one up, liver and lung cancer respectively. In endemic areas such as Qidong, liver cancer arises from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ingestion of aflatoxins. Agricultural and economic reforms in the 1980s promoted a switch from maize to rice as the dietary staple, with concomitant ,40-fold decreases in aflatoxin exposure over this period as measured by aflatoxin-albumin adducts in archived serum samples. Universal, subsidized vaccination against HBV was initiated in the early 2000s and likely does not account for the 45% drop in liver cancer ...
Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his Mississippi-based team are learning to combat the disease through corn breeding and molecular markers.
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
RASFF - aflatoxins (B1 = 81.2 µg/kg - ppb) in peanut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 133 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK
A. parasiticus is employed to hydroxylate 2-hydroxyterphenyl compounds to terphenyltriols, which can be used to form branched polycarbonates. The hydroxylation reaction is enhanced by maintaining a sufficient amount of a carbon source in the culture medium-reaction medium to maintain the ammonium level below 300 ppm. during the bioconversion phase. Employment of a mutant strain of A. parasiticus which was isolated following ultraviolet light mutagenesis to reduce its tendency to produce aflatoxins is preferred.
Significant progress has been made in the last decade in deciphering aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway (Bennett 1981 1987 1986 1994 Bhatnagar et al. 1988 1991 1992 1993 1998 Bhatnagar and Cleveland 1990 Cary et al. 2000a,b Chang et al. 1992 1993 1995a,b 2000b Cleveland and Bhatnagar 1992 2002 Dutton 1988 Minto and Townsend 1997 Papa 1982 1984 Payne 1998 Payne and Brown 1998 Silva and Townsend 1996 Silva et al. 1996 Townsend 1997 Trail et al. 1995a 1995b Yu et al. 1993 1995a 1997 1998 2000a,b). As.... ...
Farmer-led evaluation of the effect of double row planting pattern and crop residue incorporation on yield, mould prevalence and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts
Aflatoxin contamination is not an uncommon problem in pet food. Its expensive to detect cuz all the grains would have to be checked, entire shipments, everytime they arrived, to avoid the possibility. Natures Recipe had it go through their food, dogs and cats died, they ended up being bought out by Heinz cuz they couldnt come back from the loss. The last one I know of to have that happen was Innova and Cal. Nat., they have survived but it cost them a whole lot of money in vet bills and such. I doubt it will do much harm to this company being so huge ...
Mycotoxins are a problem in the Mediterranean basin as a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local produce. The type and level of mycotoxins vary by country and in some cases by geographic location within a country. The results of existing studies are best summarized by product. This fruit is a good substrate for fungal invasion and aflatoxin formation. Figs are one of the top Turkish export commodities, so intensive studies have been carried out on the.... ...
According to Veterinary Practice News "aflatoxins are produced on peanuts, soybeans, corn and other cereals in the field or during storage when moisture content and temperatures are sufficiently high for mold growth. High doses of aflatoxins result in severe hepatocellular necrosis, and prolonged low dosages result in reduced growth rate and liver enlargement. Pets that have consumed the affected product and are exhibiting symptoms of illness including sluggishness or lethargy combined with a reluctance to eat, vomiting, yellowish tint to the eyes or gums, or diarrhea should be seen by a veterinarian." ...
Towards the goal of establishing useful in vitro models of in vivo responses to toxicants, this work characterizes several advantages and disadvantages of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs) cultured for a short term vs those maintained for three weeks with 2.25% DMSO. PMHs examined 1 day (short term, ST) after isolation demonstrated a dramatic loss in ATP (~27 fold lower compared to in vivo) while those cultured for 3 weeks (3 wk) over-produced ATP. The important liver proteins albumin, Cyp1a1 and Gsta were found to be higher in the 3 wk cultures. Gene expression analysis revealed the ST cultures have unregulated numerous pathways involved in compensatory hyperplasia and oxidative injury.. Aflatoxin and acetaminphen (APAP) were used to investigate the metabolic capability of each system. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by S9 fractions harvested from ST and 3 wk cultures induced for 24 hours with 3-methylcholanthrene, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile, and dexamethasone indicated the ST cultures had higher ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Holovachov, Oleksandr, Boström, Sven (2014): Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 6. Neocamacolaimus parasiticus gen. n., sp. n. Zootaxa 3821 (5): 538-550, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3821.5.2 ...
Use the standard graph to plot the area of the test (whose concentration is not known) and using the standard graph bring it down to the X-axis to find its concentration ...
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MIT researchers have developed a way to determine, by sequencing DNA of liver cells, whether those cells have been exposed to aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen. This profile of mutations could be used to predict who has a high risk of developing liver cancer, potentially many years before tumors actually appear.
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Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
Citation: MAHONEY, N.E., MOLYNEUX, R.J., CAMPBELL, B.C., CARY, J.W. WALNUT CONSTITUENTS INHIBIT AFLATOXIN FORMATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING. 2004. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Tree nuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination and therefore subject to regulatory restrictions both domestically and abroad. In order to identify natural sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation, tree nuts were screened for their ability to support aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus using agar-based media composed of almond, pistachio, or walnut cultivars. A. flavus grown on walnut cultivars produced significantly less aflatoxin than on pistachio or almond cultivars. Walnut cultivars were not uniform in their ability to inhibit aflatoxin; Tulare completely inhibited the production of aflatoxin, while Chico was the most susceptible. The aflatoxin inhibiting property of Tulare kernels was found to reside in the seed coat and ...
Looking for online definition of aflatoxins in the Medical Dictionary? aflatoxins explanation free. What is aflatoxins? Meaning of aflatoxins medical term. What does aflatoxins mean?
Strains of Aspergillus species may produce the mycotoxin called aflatoxin in hot humid weather. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed. Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. Specifically, grain may not contain more than 20 ppb (ppb- not ppm) aflatoxin if intended for use in dairy cattle. Milk is checked for aflatoxin at a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb and cattle ingesting as little as 20 to 50 ppb in the total ration may have more than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 in the milk they produce. Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs associated with dumping that milk ...
A. flavus isolated from Terai and inner Terai produced aflatoxin B1 & B2 at the concentration of 6 gm/kg and 0.9 mg/kg respectively (Table 5). This finding has indicated that A. flavus isolated from hills/mountain and Kathmandu region seem to have lower potency of aflatoxin production. Two strains from Kathmandu Valley produced all four aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. However, two strains from Terai, one from Kathmandu Valley and one from mountain areas did not produce aflatoxin. A. flavus isolated from terse produced the highest amount of aflatoxin compared to valley and other hills/mountainous region.. This result shows that there is a need of precautionary post-harvest measures to minimise the possible aflatoxin hazards. In short, aflatoxin can become a big menace in Terai area where temperature is relatively high and the humidity is also favourable for the growth of A. flavus. However, a careful strategy needs to be initiated to determine the extent of damage caused by A. flavus along the ...
Figs in an orchard were inoculated with an aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain in two ways by spore injection or by dusting at three maturation stages: firm ripe, shrivelled, and dried. Fruits were individually examined for fungal development and
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day-1) or placebo (3 g day-1) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 ...
|p|Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics |/p|
Citation: Chang, P-K., Scharfenstein, L.L., Mack, B.M., Ehrlich, K. 2012. Deletion of the Aspergillus flavus orthologue of A. nidulans fluG reduces conidiation and promotes production of sclerotia but does not abolish aflatoxin biosynthesis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78(21):7557-7563. Interpretive Summary: Defects in fungal development often result in loss of secondary metabolite production. Aspergillus nidulans has been used as a molecular genetic model system for studying development of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. Deletion of the fluG gene of A. nidulans abolished sporulation causing a fluffy phenotype and rendered the fungus unable to produce sterigmatocystin, a precursor of aflatoxins. Our work showed A. flavus fluG deletion strains had decreased conidiation, elevated sclerotial production, and unaltered aflatoxin biosynthesis. The function of fluG in A. flavus is markedly different than in A. nidulans and that such potential variability ...
Different classes of mycotoxins are distinguished on the basis of the structural similarity and originating mold species. For example, more than a dozen different aflatoxin compounds exist but only five of them are routinely tested (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1). Aflatoxin B1 is of particular interest because it is listed as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolic product that can be present in milk upon ingestion of aflatoxin B1 by an animal. Aflatoxins are ubiquitous in important agricultural commodities including maize and peanuts, and are among the most studied mycotoxins.. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by a different fungi species. It is prevalent in cereal crops grown under wet conditions and temperatures above 15o C (60o F). Chronic exposure of livestock to DON may result in slowed growth, impaired immune function and reduced rates of reproduction, particularly in non-ruminants.. Mycotoxins were discovered as the ...
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds that have different structures and different biological effects. They are having high acute toxicity, which is often associated with malignant diseases. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins which synthesize a limited number of strains molds of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most important aflatoxins, related to milk and milk products, are: B1 and B2 (present in the feed of animals) and M1 and M2 (hydroderivates aflatoxin B1 and B2). They are excreted in milk, urine and stool. Fortunately, there is a large gap between the concentration of toxins in feed and the amount of residues in animal products. Ratio of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in milk is about 300:1. For the determination of aflatoxin, today are commonly used imunoassays (ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) during routine analysis because they are very simple and quick. If the positive result of ELISA, confirmatory methods are conducted which are far more sensitive and ...
Abstract: Effects of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin, administered daily within 7 days at the doses of 0.7 mg/kg and 0.54 mg/kg, respectively, on metabolism of Ca and on the vitamin D hormonal system were studied in young rats kept on a ration containing normal (0.025 mg/kg) and high (0.25 mg/kg) amounts of vitamin D. Administration of the mycotoxins caused hypocalcemia, a decrease in absorption of Ca as well as in activity of alkaline phosphatase in small intestine mucose, while alterations in spongy bones (of the type of osteopetrosis) were most distinct in T-2 toxin treatment. Concentration of 25(OH)D3 in blood serum and activity of 25-hydroxylase D3 in liver tissue were decreased by 28% and 58%, respectively, after administration of T-2 toxin, and by 34% nd 33%, respectively, after treatment with aflatoxin B1. In kidney activity of I-hydroxylase 25(OH)D3 was unaltered and the activity of 24-hydroxylase tended to decrease. After treatment with the mycotoxins content of nuclear receptors of ...
Worldwide, there are increasing concerns about food safety and what is really present in the food we are eating, and feeding our children. Antibiotic residues are one of these concerns and a growing global problem. In 2001 India became the worlds largest consumer of antibiotics and the problem with antibiotic resistance is increasing. Studies have shown a link between a high SCC (somatic cell count) in cows milk and high risk for antibiotic residues. In India reports have shown that the average number of clinical mastitis is between 3.94% and 23.25% of the total cow population. In additions to antibiotic residues, there is a risk of mycotoxins in milk products. In countries with a tropical climate such as India, problems due to chronic exposure of aflatoxins are emerging. The fungi that produce the toxin, Aspergillus spp., thrive in a hot and humid climate. The effects of chronic aflatoxin exposure include liver carcinoma, and potentially immune suppression and stunting, with children being ...
This paper reports the contamination of ready-to-use food thickeners, collected from the South-East geo-political zone in Nigeria, by aflatoxigenic form of Aspergillus species. A total of 150 samples from different open markets were observed for fungal contamination by using serial dilution-spread plate method. Although, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated fungi, Aspergillus species were found to be the most prevalent in all the samples. Furthermore, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced aflatoxin on yeast extract sucrose (YES) media incubated for 10 to 15 days at 27°C in a CO2 incubator. Aspergillus niger showed no sign of any secondary metabolite on the media, set at similar conditions. Although, light microscopy was used to identify these fungi, based on colony morphology, PCR method was used to confirm genetic variation among the Aspergillus group, using ITS set
0071]Antony, J. I. X. and M. L. Shankaranarayana, 2001. The World of Food Ingredients. April/May 64-67. [0072]Bewley, J. D.; Black, M. Structure of seeds and their food reserves. In Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds in Relation to Germination, Vol. 1 Development, Germination and Growth; Spinger-Verlag: Berlin, 1978; Chapter 2, pp 7-37. [0073]Dollear, F. G., G. E. Man, L. P. Codifer, H. K. Gardner, S. P. Koltun, and H. L. E. Vix. 1968. Elimination of aflatoxins from peanut meal. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45: 862-865. [0074]Dwarakanath, C. T., E. T. Rayner, G. E. Man, and F. G. Dollear. 1968. Reduction of aflatoxin levels in cottonseed and peanut meals by ozonization. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45: 93-95. [0075]Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 1998. World corn production. FAOSt database, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. [0076]Gonzalez de Mejia, E., M. Ramos-Gomez, G. Loarca-Pina, 1997. Antimutagenic activity of natural xanthophylls against Aflatoxin B1 in Salmonella typhimurium. ...
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects ofthese agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is theevaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled waterat 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactintestosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower(P|0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were
The inhibitory effect of aflatoxin on interferon induction by influenza was investigated. Rhesus-monkey cells from the LLC-MK2 line were exposed to 1 to 100 micrograms of aflatoxin-B1 (1162658), aflatoxin-G1 (1165395), aflatoxin-B2 (7220817), or aflatoxin-G2 (7241987), plus 1 milliliter of influenza virus. Interferon induction was determined. Interferon induction was inhibited by all four aflatoxi
Seasonal milk contamination by aflatoxin m1, organophosphates and carbamates in paraná - brazil . Julio Cesar Damasceno ; Ricardo Kazama ; Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme Vieira ; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom ; Fernand. Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Free Online Library: Determination of an oral aflatoxin dose that acutely impairs hepatic function in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).(Original Studies, Report) by Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery; Health, general Aflatoxins Health aspects Research Deoxycholic acid Enzymes Liver diseases Care and treatment Risk factors Pigeons
The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. The antibody was affinity purified with an AFB1-Agarose column and competitively eluted by free AFB1. The antibody was conjugated to peroxidase (HRP) by reductive amination. This anti-AFB1 HRP conjugates could be utilized for detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin AFB1. ...
These images dont show differences that distinguish A. flavus and A. parasiticus. An oil immersion magnification of the spores may be useful, but the aflatoxin profile is the best information to determine species.. Was this fungus isolated from a person with an Aspergillosis infection?. Only about 50% of A. flavus isolates have been found to make aflatoxin while nearly all A. parasiticus isolates have been found to make aflatoxins. ...
Normal rat liver expresses Ya (Mr 25,500), Yc (Mr 27,500) and Yk (Mr 25,000) Class Alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits. The Ya-type subunit can be resolved into two separate polypeptides, designated Ya1 and Ya2, by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. In rat livers that possess aflatoxin B1-induced pre-neoplastic nodules, a marked increase is observed in the expression of Ya1, Ya2, Yc and Yk; of these subunits, Ya2 exhibited the greatest increase in concentration. The Ya1 and Ya2 subunits isolated from nodule-bearing livers were cleaved with CNBr, and the purified peptides were subjected to automated amino-acid-sequence analysis. Differences in the primary structures of the two Ya GST subunits were found at positions 31, 34, 107 and 117. These data demonstrate that Ya1 and Ya2 are distinct polypeptides and are the products of separate genes. The amino acid sequences obtained from Ya1 and Ya2 were compared with the cloned cDNAs pGTB 38 [Pickett, Telakowski-Hopkins, Ding, Argenbright & Lu (1984) J. ...
New Zealand White rabbits, divided into 4 groups were fed with feed containing aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) @ 0.5ppm (group I), ochratoxin A (OA) @ 1ppm (group II), AFB(1) and OA @ 0.5ppm and 1ppm, respectively (group III) and standard feed (group IV) for
Gurtoo, H L.; Dahms, R; Motycka, L; and Taylor, B, "Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2582 ...
Aflatoxin B1 dichloride | C17H12Cl2O6 | CID 107728 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Purpose To record the clinical profile of patients with keratitis due to and to elaborate on differences in the aflatoxin-producing potential of keratitis strains versus environmental strains of were isolated in culture from corneal scrape or biopsy material of patients who presented with suppurative keratitis (clinical isolates). culture filtrate or mycelial homogenate samples of the clinical isolates (mean concentration: 366.7125.4 parts per billion [ppb]) but in only eight (40%) of 20 samples of environmental isolates (mean concentration: 306.6125.4 ppb). Seven of the eight aflatoxin-producing clinical isolates and two of the four aflatoxin-producing environmental isolates formed sclerotia (>400 m) and a beige ring in culture. Conclusions Aflatoxin B1 was detected in a significantly higher percentage of growth samples of clinical isolates (80%) than growth samples of environmental isolates (40%) (2=6.667; p=0.0098); the therapeutic implications of this finding require further study. The ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kiyoshi Okano, Tsuneyoshi Tomita, Yuji Ohzu, Mitsuhiro Takai, Ayaka Ose, Akiko Kotsuka, Naoko Ikeda, Junko Sakata, Yuko Kumeda, Nobuya Nakamura, Masakatsu Ichinoe].
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
Aflatoxins are naturally-occurring mycotoxins produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which are a major concern to the dairy and pig industries.
If you follow the Beauty Detox lifestyle, it probably comes as no surprise that the peanuts were susceptible to salmonella contamination. In The Beauty Detox System, I discuss in detail just how susceptible peanuts are to contamination.. One of the most concerning toxins associated with peanuts is a mold that produces aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is a known carcinogen associated with liver cancer. Aflatoxin consumption has also been shown to stunt growth in children. Any food that is creating congestion in the liver may potentially impede its important functions, including detoxification and fat-burning.. Why are peanuts so susceptible to toxins? They are actually legumes, and not nuts. While nuts have a hard, protective shell (think about walnut and pecan shells and just how difficult they are to crack), legumes have a soft, permeable pod. Peanuts also grow underground, because they are part of the plants root system. Growing underground with a permeable pod leaves peanuts at the mercy of temperature ...
Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Aflatoxins are the most commonly occurring and economically important mycotoxins, produced largely by a fungi called Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxicosis is associated with grains and other feed sources such as maize, soyabeans, peanuts and millet.
Poultry are the most susceptible food animal species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Feed contaminated with even small amounts of AFB1 results in significant adverse health effects in poultry. The purpose of this study was to explain the biochemical mechanism(s) for this extreme sensitivity. We measured microsomal activation of AFB1 to the AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), the putative toxic intermediate, as well as cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFBO, in addition to other hepatic phase I and phase II enzyme activities, in 3-week-old male Oorlop strain turkeys. Liver microsomes prepared from these turkeys activated AFB1in vitro with an apparent Km of 109 μM and a Vmax of 1.25 nmol/mg/min. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A2 and, to a lesser extent, 3A4 for AFB1 activation was assessed by the use of specific mammalian CYP inhibitors. The possible presence of avian orthologues of these CYPs was supported by
2086 Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a potent carcinogen in many animal models and in humans. Although AFB1 is best known to target the liver, there are epidemiological studies suggesting a link between human lung cancer and pulmonary exposure to AFB1-contaminated grain dusts. Previous studies have demonstrated that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are the principle enzymes in metabolic activation of AFB1 in human liver. In the present study, we determined the role of human CYP2A13, which is predominantly expressed in human respiratory tissues, in AFB1 metabolism. The heterologously expressed CYP2A13 displayed a significant activity in metabolizing AFB1 to its carcinogenic metabolites, AFB1-8,9-epoxide and AFM1-8,9-epoxide, as evidenced by the detection of AFB1-Diol and AFM1-Diol at both low (15 μM) and high (150 μM) substrate concentrations. At 15 μM AFB1 concentration, the activity of CYP2A13 is comparable to CYP1A2 in the formation of ...
The University of Minnesota is one of the most comprehensive public universities in the United States and ranks among the most prestigious. It is both the state land-grant university, with a strong tradition of education and public service, and the states primary research university, with faculty of national and international reputation.
DOBOLYI Cs, F SEBŐK, J VARGA, S KOCSUBÉ, G SZIGETI, N BARANYI, Á SZÉCSI, B TÓTH, M VARGA, B KRISZT, S SZOBOSZLAY, C KRIFATON, J KUKOLYA: Occurence of Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize kernel in Hungary, ACTA ALIMENTARIA HUNGARICA 42: (3) pp. 451-459. pp. 451-459 ...
1AG5: Refined solution structure of 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 opposite CpA in the complementary strand of an oligodeoxynucleotide duplex as determined by 1H NMR.
REYNA-SANTAMARIA, L; BASILIO-NAVARRETE, A; MARTINEZ-ROJERO, RD e CASAUBON-HUGUENIN, MT. Productive performance and poisonous in broilers fed with aflatoxin Bp B2 and three adsorbents of mycotoxins. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2016, vol.48, n.2, pp.215-222. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2016000200012.. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1,200 μg/kg of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and three mycotoxins adsorbents on growth performance, antibody titers to Newcastle, blood chemistry and histopathological lesions in broilers. One hundred ninety two one-day old chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments and 3 replicates of 16 chickens, in a 42-day experiment. Treatments evaluated: T1 = basal diet; T2 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFbj and AFb2; T3 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (A); T4 = basal diet with 1200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (B). The results indicate that the chickens eating the adsorbent ...
Climate conditions in Serbia in the 2012 production year were favorable for fungal growth and mycotoxins production. The presence of fumonisins and aflatoxins in diverse corn-based food was examined using ELISA methods. The applied methods are rapid; demonstrate satisfactory repeatability and recovery rates 99% and 101% for total fumonisins and aflatoxins, respectively. Analysis of samples from 2012 revealed fumonisin contamination in all investigated samples, whereas aflatoxin contamination was detected in 55% of samples. The content of fumonisins did not exceed the maximum permitted level prescribed by the relevant Serbian, i.e., EU Regulation, whereas 3 samples were declared unacceptable due to increased aflatoxin content. High linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.947; p < 0.005) between fumonisin and aflatoxin contents in maize products was obtained. The results of the analysis of food for human nutrition strongly suggest the need for such monitoring and control ...
1. Ein atoxigenes Isolat von Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5565 enthält Viren, deren Genom aus 3 doppelsträngigen RNA Segmenten mit Molekulargewichten um 3kbp besteht. Es gleicht in dieser Hinsicht dem Virus aus Penicillium chrysogenum (PcV). Die vergleichbare Genomzusammensetzung beider Viren und die gestörte Expression der Viren in Aspergillus flavus ‚ die sich in einer verstärkten Produktion leerer Virushüllen und einer extrem verringerten Replikationsfrequenz äußert, läßt vermuten, daß es sich bei den Viren in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5565 um Varianten von PcV handelt, die sich in einem fremden Wirt befinden ...
Citreoviridin contents were measured in eight bulk samples of maize kernels collected from eight fields immediately following harvest in southern Georgia. Citreoviridin contamination in six of the bulk samples ranged from 19 to 2,790 micrograms/kg. In hand-picked samples the toxin was concentrated in a few kernels (pick-outs), the contents of which were stained a bright lemon yellow (range, 53,800 to 759,900 micrograms/kg). The citreoviridin-producing fungus Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum Scott & Stolk was isolated from each of these pick-out kernels. Citreoviridin was not detected in bulk samples from two of the fields. Aflatoxins were also present in all of the bulk samples (total aflatoxin B1 and B2; range, 7 to 360 micrograms/kg), including those not containing citreoviridin. In Biotron-grown maize ears that were inoculated with E. ochrosalmoneum through a wound made with a toothpick, citreoviridin was concentrated primarily in the wounded and fungus-rotted kernels (range, 142,000 to 2,780,000
Aflatoxin Accumulation in Developing Kernels of Eight Maize Single Crosses After Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus. D. L. Thompson, J. O. Rawlings, M. S. Zuber, G. A. Payne, and E. B. Lillehoj. Pages: 465-467 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Overwintering and Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Symptom Development in Peach Trees. Elke Endert, David F. Ritchie. Pages: 468-470 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Occurrence, Impact, and Fungicidal Control of Girdling Stem Cankers Caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus Seedlings in a South Florida Nursery. E. L. Barnard. Pages: 471-473 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Control of Globodera rostochiensis by Solar Heat. J. A. LaMondia, B. B. Brodie. Pages: 474-476 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Control of Criconemella xenoplax and Meloidogyne incognita and Improved Peach Tree Survival Following Multiple Fall Applications of Fenamiphos. David F. Ritchie. Pages: 477-480 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Evaluation of the Tree-Row-Volume Concept ...
Hot and dry weather conditions are associated with increased aflatoxin and fumonisin production by the fungi from Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Weather is therefore the most important factor in determining whether aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination will be a problem or not.". Uncertain mycotoxin situation in 2015 led Nutriad to conduct several mycotoxin surveys in different European countries (UK and Ireland, Poland, Spain). Each survey was conducted on 60-70 samples of wheat or maize.. The Spanish Nutriad Mycotoxin Survey, executed in Q4 2015, covers 60 locally produced maize samples from across Spain. More than 400 analyses were conducted to test for the occurrence of the seven mycotoxins most frequently found in agricultural commodities that are intended for animal feed production.. The survey provided an insight into the incidences of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin, fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) across all ...
Preharvest seed germination occurs in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, during periods of prolonged rainy weather where temperatures are conducive to germination. Differential preharvest seed germination among 42 hybrids in a grain sorghum hybrid test conducted at Midville, Georgia, in 1969 occurred after 5 days of near continuous rainfall. Hybrids were rated for preharvest seed germination, and this index was correlated with astringent tannin content of seed and days from planting to 10% anthesis (maturity). The correlation coefficient between germination index and astringent tannin content was negative and highly significant (r = -0.83). High tannin hybrids were significantly lower in preharvest seed germination than low taninn hybrids. Although tannin content of seed apparently was the dominant influence inhibiting preharvest seed germination, maturity among the nonbrown-seeded hybrids was also involved. Later maturing nonbrown-seeded hybrids showed a lower preharvest germination ...
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare subtype of primary liver cancer. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma was first described Edmondson in 1956.[1][2] Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is most commonly seen in children and young adults. The pathogenesis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is characterized by the lack of cirrhosis. Common causes of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, include: active hepatic inflammation, hepatitis B or C viral infection, alcohol-related liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and dietary aflatoxin B1. The majority of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma remain asymptomatic for years. Early clinical features include abdominal pain, weight loss, and malaise. If left untreated, the majority of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma may progress to develop metastasis to abdominal lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung. Common complications of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma include: hepatic ...
General Information:. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are toxic to other life forms. More than 800 mycotoxins have been detected, but relatively few have been characterized and are considered to be important to animal health. There has been a tremendous increase in the ability to detect new and novel mycotoxins in the last few years.. Mycotoxin prevalence and concentration are sporadic and vary annually, even in the same location. Production is affected by local weather patterns, crop damage and productions practices. Mycotoxins may be produced pre- or post-harvest.. Mycotoxins known to occur in Iowa are aflatoxin, fumonisin, vomitoxin, T-2 and zearalenone. They are mostly found in grain, including corn, wheat, milo, rye, and oats. They may be found in silages or other feeds which contain grain.. Health effects:. Since there are many kinds of mycotoxins, which differ from each other, they produce many different kinds of diseases, called mycotoxicoses. They may cause diseases ...

Toxins | Special Issue : Aflatoxins 2011Toxins | Special Issue : Aflatoxins 2011

... and on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) production was examined. The study showed that Nor-Ib gave a significant ... free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contamination is the development of ... Open AccessReview Developing Resistance to Aflatoxin in Maize and Cottonseed by Jeffrey W. Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Robert L ... Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/journal/toxins/special_issues/aflatoxins

The Aflatoxins: Evolution, Function and Prospects for Control | SpringerLinkThe Aflatoxins: Evolution, Function and Prospects for Control | SpringerLink

Aflatoxins were discovered in 1960, following the deaths of 100,000 turkeys in the United Kingdom, large numbers of ducklings ... which became known as aflatoxins. Subsequent work showed that four aflatoxins occurred naturally, named aflatoxins B 1, B2, GI ... Stoloff, L., 1977, Aflatoxins - an overview, in: Mycotoxin in Human and Animal Health J. V. Rodricks, C. W. Hesseltine and M. A ... Angle, J.S., 1986, Aflatoxin decomposition in various soils, J. Environ. Sci. Health 21: 277-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4439-2_5

912. Aflatoxins (WHO Food Additives Series 40)912. Aflatoxins (WHO Food Additives Series 40)

... aflatoxin (general) AF-alb aflatoxin-albumin (adduct) AFB1 aflatoxin B1 AFB2 aflatoxin B2 AFG1 aflatoxin G1 AFG2 aflatoxin G2 ... Aflatoxin B2 2.2.11.2 Aflatoxin G1 2.2.11.3 Aflatoxin G2 2.2.11.4 Aflatoxin M1 3. Estimating carcinogenic risks from the intake ... Of these six aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 is the most frequent one present in contaminated samples and aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 are ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent carcinogen of the aflatoxins; most of the toxicological data available are related to aflatoxin ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v040je16.htm

Survey of aflatoxins in tomato productsSurvey of aflatoxins in tomato products

... of aflatoxin G1, and 5.9 µg/kg of aflatoxin G2 (addition level I); and with 16.9 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1; 14.3 µg/kg of aflatoxin ... Non-contamined tomato product samples were spiked with 6.8 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1; 5.7 µg/kg of aflatoxin B2; 8.1 µg/kg ... all aflatoxins tested (Table 2). The detection limit of each aflatoxin (Table 3) ranged from 2 to 7 µg/kg and from 8 to 23 µg/ ... kg for total aflatoxins depending on the tomato product. None of the studies found in the literature on aflatoxin determination ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612009000200031

AllAboutFeed - Sunflower seeds often contain aflatoxinsAllAboutFeed - Sunflower seeds often contain aflatoxins

Sunflower seeds are frequently contaminated with aflatoxins. This has been shown by researchers from Michigan State University ... Nearly 60% of seed samples and 80% of cake samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. "These high aflatoxin levels, in a ... Aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus moulds commonly infect corn, peanuts, pistachios and almonds. The US study (done in ... Juma Mmongoyo, a former MSU food science doctoral student and lead author of the study, analysed aflatoxin levels of seeds and ...
more infohttp://www.allaboutfeed.net/Raw-Materials/Articles/2017/5/Sunflower-seeds-often-contain-aflatoxins-138093E/

Aflatoxin - definition of aflatoxin by The Free DictionaryAflatoxin - definition of aflatoxin by The Free Dictionary

aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a ... aflatoxin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to aflatoxin: Aflatoxin b1 af·la·tox·in. (ăf′lə ... Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products.. Neogen introduces Veratox[R] for Aflatoxin ... Periods Description Binder I Aflatoxin ppb 0 Nil 80.. Evaluation of different mycotoxin binders on aflatoxin B1 {Aspergillus ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/aflatoxin

Aflatoxin Poisoning in Horses | petMDAflatoxin Poisoning in Horses | petMD

Learn the signs of aflatoxin poisoning and how to prevent it. ... Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that ... Poisoning by Aflatoxins in Horses. Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that have proven to be toxic to ... aflatoxin. A substance created by a certain fungus, Aspergillus flavus, a carcinogen; known to contaminate corn, some nuts, and ... Aflatoxins primarily affect the liver where they lead to problems with protein synthesis, blood clotting, and fat metabolism. ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/horse/conditions/digestive/c_hr_aflatoxin_poisoning

Aflatoxins Detection | Biotechnology | GeneqAflatoxins Detection | Biotechnology | Geneq

Accurately detect and measure total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at levels as low as 2 ppb and as high as 100 ppb. Get a ... Tests utilize the proven sensitivity and selectivity of monoclonal antibodies to accurately detect and measure total aflatoxins ...
more infohttps://geneq.com/biotechnology/en/product/vicam/aflatoxins-detection-11856

Aflatoxins | definition of aflatoxins by Medical dictionaryAflatoxins | definition of aflatoxins by Medical dictionary

... aflatoxins explanation free. What is aflatoxins? Meaning of aflatoxins medical term. What does aflatoxins mean? ... Looking for online definition of aflatoxins in the Medical Dictionary? ... aflatoxins. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to aflatoxins: ergotism, Ochratoxins aflatoxins. [af′ ... Aflatoxins are one of the most potent toxic substances that occur naturally.. Aflatoxin milk might have reached consumers ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aflatoxins

Aflatoxins: Poisoning Health and Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa | Inter Press ServiceAflatoxins: Poisoning Health and Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa | Inter Press Service

Aflatoxins: Poisoning Health and Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. By Busani Bafana Reprint , , Print , ,En español ... a plant pathologist and member of the IITA team in Zambia under Aflatoxin Biocontrol. "Exposure to aflatoxin through ... Aflatoxins are toxic and cancer causing poisons produced by certain green mould fungus that naturally occurs in the soil. The ... High aflatoxins levels have threatened the export of groundnuts from Malawi, a key grower of the legume in Africa, credit: ...
more infohttp://www.ipsnews.net/2015/11/aflatoxins-poisoning-health-and-trade-in-sub-saharan-africa/

aflatoxin - definition and meaningaflatoxin - definition and meaning

aflatoxin: Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored ... chained_bear commented on the word aflatoxin "The fungus Aspergillus flavus, for example, which grows on ground-nuts, produces ... No more than a single dose of aflatoxin is needed to set in train a steadily progressive liver disease.�?. -Michael Howell and ... reesetee commented on the word aflatoxin A big threat in agriculture, especially, as you suggest, in nut processing. (I ...
more infohttps://www.wordnik.com/words/aflatoxin

Aflatoxin Timeline - ICRISATAflatoxin Timeline - ICRISAT

Aflatoxin educational video, Aflatoxin awareness flyer, a radio program on aflatoxin control - produced in Malawi ... Peanuts that keep aflatoxin at bay: A threshold that matters. How to Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnuts and Maize: A ... Ghana studies confirm Aflatoxins role in suppressing immunity. *Research showed that the aflatoxin exposure in Ghana is enough ... Effects of aflatoxin * Aflatoxin is carcinogenic and can cause liver and other cancers in humans.. ...
more infohttp://www.icrisat.org/aflatoxin-timeline/

Scientists study foodborne carcinogens called aflatoxins - Fogarty International Center @ NIH
		Scientists study foodborne carcinogens called aflatoxins - Fogarty International Center @ NIH

... as a treatment for aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. Aflatoxins may also play a harmful role in child development, another ... Aflatoxins are a by-product of mold that can grow in corn, nuts, cereals and other crops. Theyve been implicated in hundreds ... More than 10,000 people in the region develop aflatoxin-induced liver cancer each year and nine out of 10 of them die from it. ... Scientists study foodborne carcinogens called aflatoxins March / April 2016 , Volume 15, Issue 2 * Full March / April 2016 ...
more infohttps://www.fic.nih.gov/News/GlobalHealthMatters/march-april-2016/Pages/environmental-health-niehs-aflatoxin.aspx

Aflatoxin, Mycotoxins Again a Concern | Agweb.comAflatoxin, Mycotoxins Again a Concern | Agweb.com

Field reports of aflatoxin contamination of corn and corn silage are coming in, particularly from southern states where wet ... Field reports of aflatoxin contamination of corn and corn silage are coming in, particularly from southern states where wet ... Approximately 1.7% of consumed aflatoxin in feed is transferred to the milk, he says. ...
more infohttps://www.agweb.com/article/aflatoxin_mycotoxins_again_a_concern/

aflatoxin-m1-milk | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrichaflatoxin-m1-milk | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

The most biologically active aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)4. A recent risk assessment determined that aflatoxins may be ... Aflatoxins are produced by fungi of the Aspergillus genus. Of several aflatoxin producing species, two are widely studied due ... Anfossi, L.; Baggiani, C.; Giovannoli, C.; Giraudi, G. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products, Aflatoxins - Detection, ... Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins, 2013, 5, 73-83. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/analytical/food-beverage/aflatoxin-m1-milk.html

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products | HTMLToxins | Free Full-Text | Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Liquorice Products | HTML

... and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. Twenty-eight samples of dried liquorice extract and ... Aflatoxins (AFs: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus [1]. AFB1, the most ... Table 1. EU maximum admissible limits for OTA, AFB1, total aflatoxins (sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in foodstuffs for direct ... Table 1. EU maximum admissible limits for OTA, AFB1, total aflatoxins (sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in foodstuffs for direct ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/2/4/758/htm

Aflatoxin extract AA 34-8 EMTDP07Aflatoxin extract AA 34-8 EMTDP07

Testing Status of Aflatoxin extract AA 34-8 EMTDP07. CASRN: EMTDP-07. Formula: N/F. Known Uses. Isolated from Aspergillis ... Citation: Haworth, S., Lawlor, T.E., Zeiger, E., Lee, L.S., and Park, D.L., Mutagenic Potential of Ammonia-Related Aflatoxin ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-emtdp07.html

The Fate of Aflatoxin in Corn FermentationThe Fate of Aflatoxin in Corn Fermentation

Addition of the binder showed a significant reduction in aflatoxin levels in comparison to a positive control. Aflatoxin ... Results indicated no aflatoxin was found in the distilled ethanol. Some aflatoxin (13%) was detected in the stillage, but most ... Four corn samples with high levels of aflatoxin (ranging from 7750 - 17,208 parts per billion) and their replicates were ... A lab-scale ethanol fermentation was investigated to determine where aflatoxin concentrated during each phase of production. ...
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=23249

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxins and DiseaseThe American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxins and Disease

One such factor which has been widely studied is aflatoxin, a chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because of ... This paper attempts to summarize some of the historical and epidemiological evidence regarding aflatoxins and disease. ... the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a ... One such factor which has been widely studied is aflatoxin, a chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because of ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1981.30.422

Corn aflatoxin: breeding, molecular markers | Delta Farm PressCorn aflatoxin: breeding, molecular markers | Delta Farm Press

Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his ... Corn aflatoxin: breeding, molecular markers. Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA ... Williams began his aflatoxin research in the mid-1990s.. "Some of the scientists in the group I work with had begun researching ... Then, aflatoxin rode in on a pale horse and ruined the party. The fungal toxin proved devastating for a large group of growers. ...
more infohttp://www.deltafarmpress.com/corn/corn-aflatoxin-breeding-molecular-markers?page=2

How To Avoid Aflatoxin In Common Foods | Care2 Healthy LivingHow To Avoid Aflatoxin In Common Foods | Care2 Healthy Living

Aflatoxins are chemicals created by certain food molds of the genus Aspergillus. They are toxic byproducts from the normal ... In extreme cases, aflatoxin poisoning can lead to death.. One type of aflatoxin is a carcinogen that targets the liver in many ... How can aflatoxins affect your health?. Humans and many other animals can be affected by aflatoxins. In fact, the first ... You re likely aware of the dangers of food poisoning from bacteria, but have you heard about aflatoxins? Aflatoxins are ...
more infohttps://www.care2.com/greenliving/how-to-avoid-these-common-food-carcinogens.html

Aflatoxin derivative (P-1-Me-82107) EMTDP14Aflatoxin derivative (P-1-Me-82107) EMTDP14

Testing Status of Aflatoxin derivative (P-1-Me-82107) EMTDP14. CASRN: EMTDP-14. Formula: N/F. Known Uses. Isolated from ... Citation: Lawlor, T.E., Haworth, S.R., Zeiger, E., Park, D.L., and Lee, L.S. Mutagenic potential of ammonia-related aflatoxin ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/status/agents/ts-emtdp14.html

How Aflatoxins Threaten Pangasius Catfish Production | The Fish SiteHow Aflatoxins Threaten Pangasius Catfish Production | The Fish Site

Aflatoxins in aquaculture. Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many ... In other words, aflatoxin contamination makes animals more prone to infection. In the study, fish fed aflatoxin contaminated ... 5 with varying amounts of aflatoxins, and one with aflatoxins and Mycofix® Secure. ... In fish, aflatoxin exposure results in pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain. ...
more infohttps://thefishsite.com/articles/how-aflatoxins-threaten-pangasius-catfish-production

Aflatoxins in Nuts: Danger or Hype? | Nutrition DivaAflatoxins in Nuts: Danger or Hype? | Nutrition Diva

Some of the scary information youve heard about aflatoxins in nuts is exaggerated or taken out of context. But these are not ... a group of mycotoxins called aflatoxins. These are known to be carcinogenic. Chronic aflatoxin exposure can lead to liver ... What Are Apergillus and Aflatoxins? Aspergillus is type of fungus thats found in the soil and can cause disease in certain ... But, several Nutrition Diva listeners have written to ask me about aspergillus or aflatoxin in nuts-and whether this is ...
more infohttps://www.quickanddirtytips.com/health-fitness/healthy-eating/aflatoxins-in-nuts-danger-or-hype

Quick, Sensitive LC/MS/MS Analysis of Aflatoxins in Cannabis | Sigma-AldrichQuick, Sensitive LC/MS/MS Analysis of Aflatoxins in Cannabis | Sigma-Aldrich

Excellent recovery values were even observed for Aflatoxins B2 and G2 which were spiked at a low level of 6.1 ppb. ... Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B2. Aflatoxin G1. Aflatoxin G2. ... Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B2. Aflatoxin G1. Aflatoxin G2. ... Figure 2. LC/MS/MS Chromatogram of Aflatoxins Spiked Into Cannabis Sample at 24.4 ppb (Aflatoxin B1 and G1), and 6.1 ppb ( ... This aflatoxin study was performed on an Ascentis® Express Phenyl-Hexyl HPLC column (Figure 2). In a previous study, the phenyl ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/reporter-us/lcms-ms-aflatoxins-cannabis.html
  • The likely contamination of complementary food ingredients with aflatoxins and fumonisins, and the demonstrated adverse effects on animal and human health, supports the need to investigate whether these myco-toxins are associated with child growth impairment in Tanzania. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another area that could be ripe for investigation is the impact of climate change on aflatoxins and other natural toxins, notes NIEHS senior advisor Dr. John Balbus. (nih.gov)
  • It s also been proven that when cattle or other animals ingest aflatoxins in contaminated feed, the toxins can be present in their milk or meat. (care2.com)
  • Aflatoxins were not detected in any evaluated sample indicating that they did not pose a risk to human health since there was no invasion of raw materials by toxigenic fungi or no conditions for toxin production. (scielo.br)
  • Aflatoxins are produced by fungi of the Aspergillus genus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • H. M. Martins, M. L. Martins and F. M. A. Bernardo, "Bacillaceae Spores, Fungi and Aflatoxin Determination in Honey," RPCV (Revista Portuguesa De Ciências Vet- erinárias), Vol. 98, No. 546, 2003, pp. 85-88. (scirp.org)
  • Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dietary intake of aflatoxins arises mainly from contamination of maize and groundnuts and their products. (inchem.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is annually losing more than 450 million dollars in trade revenue of major staples, particularly maize, and groundnuts as a result of contamination from aflatoxins, researchers told IPS. (ipsnews.net)
  • In 2009, the IITA, the African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF), United States Department of Agriculture -Agriculture Research Service (USDA-ARS) and other partners developed an indigenous biological control technology, named AflaSafe to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnuts. (ipsnews.net)
  • In all the six countries where the bio control products have been tested since 2008 to date, IITA said farmers have consistently achieved up to 99 per cent reduction in aflatoxin contamination by using Aflasafe in maize and groundnut fields. (ipsnews.net)
  • In Zimbabwe, researchers at the University of Zimbabwe and Action Contre la Faim are working with communities in two districts to investigate whether improved storage can reduce aflatoxin contamination in local maize grain. (ipsnews.net)
  • Using a unique dataset of maize samples and consumer interviews form Eastern Kenya, we find that the presence of the fungal contaminant aflatoxin is negatively associated with the use of maize flour for food. (repec.org)
  • Retail maize prices are strongly correlated with an easily observable quality attribute, discoloration, but the correlation between price and aflatoxin contamination is not statistically distinguishable from zero. (repec.org)
  • This suggests that consumers observe attributes that are correlated with aflatoxin upon careful inspection, or perhaps consumption of a portion of maize from a particular batch, and that their use of flour is based on this information. (repec.org)
  • A comparison of maize quality by source provides evidence of such problems: purchased maize is more likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin than maize households have grown themselves, despite the fact that maize from larger producers is less likely to be contaminated. (repec.org)
  • Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Kenya: Observability and Mitigation Behavior ," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 155024, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. (repec.org)
  • Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of market maize contamination and evaluate the relationship between market maize aflatoxin and the aflatoxicosis outbreak. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fifty-five percent of maize products had aflatoxin levels greater than the Kenyan regulatory limit of 20 ppb, 35% had levels>100 ppb, and 7% had levels>1,000 ppb. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Makueni, the district with the most aflatoxicosis case-patients, had significantly higher market maize aflatoxin than did Thika, the study district with fewest case-patients (geometric mean aflatoxin = 52.91 ppb vs. 7.52 ppb, p = 0.0004). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Contaminated homegrown maize bought from local farms in the affected area entered the distribution system, resulting in widespread aflatoxin contamination of market maize. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The experiment was conducted at Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in order to test the effects of aflatoxin B 1 and the counteracting properties of the binder Mycofix® Secure. (thefishsite.com)
  • Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Iraq also loaded a little-known fungal poison called aflatoxin , which may cause cancer, and it experimented with infectious viruses. (wordnik.com)
  • Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across 2 years, and analysed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Neogen has developed the first quantitative microwell test for total aflatoxin that uses only a water-based solution for extraction, which completely eliminates the need for methanol and ethanol in the extraction process. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Neogen's new Veratox ® for Total Aflatoxin can deliver precise results ranging from 5 to 300 parts per billion (ppb) of aflatoxin after only 10 minutes. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Climate change is indeed predicted to have a profound effect on aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops," said Joao, adding that, "Consequently, any reduction in precipitation level or increment in temperature is expected to make aflatoxin problem more acute. (ipsnews.net)
  • The effects of aflatoxins can be acute or chronic . (care2.com)
  • Because of the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a significant cause of cancer worldwide. (ajtmh.org)
  • The liver is the most susceptible organ to aflatoxin B1 toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provet healthcare information article on aflatoxin toxicity in birds, dogs and small mammals. (dmoztools.net)
  • The Committee urged that the intake of dietary aflatoxin be reduced to the lowest practicable levels so as to reduce, as far as possible, the potential risk. (inchem.org)
  • The analytical method showed an average recovery of 86% for all aflatoxins at two spiking levels. (scielo.br)
  • Juma Mmongoyo, a former MSU food science doctoral student and lead author of the study, analysed aflatoxin levels of seeds and cakes in 7 regions of Tanzania in 2014 and 2015. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • These high aflatoxin levels, in a commodity frequently consumed by the Tanzanian population, indicate that local authorities must implement interventions to prevent and control aflatoxin contamination along the sunflower commodity value chain, to enhance food and feed safety in Tanzania," said Gale Strasburg, MSU food science and human nutrition professor and one of the study's co-authors. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Citing sources, the paper reported that the minister had known since Wednesday that unacceptably high levels of aflatoxin had also been found in cows' milk -- until now, the ministry has only admitted to finding the bacteria in goat's milk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending on the duration-gas combinations, a 20% to 40% decrease in aflatoxin levels also occurred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Afla-V AQUA Strip Tests utilize the proven sensitivity and selectivity of monoclonal antibodies to accurately detect and measure total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at levels as low as 2 ppb and as high as 100 ppb. (geneq.com)
  • Studies carried out in The Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Benin, Togo, and Senegal, revealed that about 85% to 100% of children had either detectable levels of serum aflatoxin albumin adducts or urinary aflatoxins . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of lax or nonexistent regulation, 4.5 billion people in developing countries are chronically exposed to vast amounts of this toxin, called aflatoxin -- often hundreds of times higher than safe levels. (wordnik.com)
  • Addition of the binder showed a significant reduction in aflatoxin levels in comparison to a positive control. (scirp.org)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action levels for aflatoxin present in food or feed is 20 to 300 ppb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of those molds does not always indicate that harmful levels of aflatoxin are present, but does indicate a significant risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the worldwide maximum tolerated levels of aflatoxin B1 was reported to be in the range of 1-20 µg/kg in food, and 5-50 µg/kg in dietary cattle feed in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFs) in liquorice products made in Italy was surveyed. (mdpi.com)
  • Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste. (nih.gov)
  • A study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste samples was conducted. (nih.gov)
  • PEKyN (CyHAN)- The Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Thursday warned the public to be wary of several pre-packaged peanut products as these were found to contain aflatoxin , a by-product of molds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxins are chemicals created by certain food molds of the genus Aspergillus . (care2.com)
  • Technological and Market Interventions for Aflatoxin Control in Ghana: Preliminary Findings ," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236267, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. (repec.org)
  • Ingestion of food that is contaminated with aflatoxins. (petmd.com)
  • It s estimated that ingestion of aflatoxin contaminated foods is one of the factors behind over 250,000 liver cancer deaths in China and Africa each year. (care2.com)
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Nov 20 2015 (IPS) - Aflatoxin contamination is a growing threat to trade, food and health security in sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farmers are challenged by food production and now climate change, researchers said. (ipsnews.net)
  • Focused aflatoxin biocontrol research in Africa first started in Nigeria where Aflasafe is today a fully registered commercial product. (ipsnews.net)
  • Together with its donors and partners, ICRISAT has made contributions and scientific achievements towards finding solutions to aflatoxin contamination in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (icrisat.org)
  • Meanwhile in Africa, chemical hazards including aflatoxins cause a quarter of deaths from foodborne disease, the WHO reports. (nih.gov)
  • More than 10,000 people in the region develop aflatoxin-induced liver cancer each year and nine out of 10 of them die from it. (nih.gov)
  • Investigators have also been examining chlorophyllin, a derivative of chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, as a treatment for aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent work showed that four aflatoxins occurred naturally, named aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G I and G 2 , based on the compounds' blue or green fluorescence under ultra violet light and their relative position on thin layer chromatography plates. (springer.com)
  • Aflatoxins are one of many different types of chemicals that have proven to be toxic to horses, and they can come in many forms. (petmd.com)
  • However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic aflatoxin and it is highly implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal studies, pathological lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 intoxication include reduction in weight of liver, vacuolation of hepatocytes, and hepatic carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxins were discovered in 1960, following the deaths of 100,000 turkeys in the United Kingdom, large numbers of ducklings in Kenya, and, almost simultaneously, the finding of widespread hepatoma in hatchery reared trout in California. (springer.com)
  • 2. BIOLOGICAL DATA 2.1 Biochemical aspects 2.1.1 Metabolism of aflatoxins An excellent review on the cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin has been produced by McLean & Dutton (1995). (inchem.org)
  • Aflatoxins act by binding to enzymes so that cell metabolism is blocked. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to verify a possible aflatoxin contamination of tomato products commercialized in Brazil, 63 samples of tomato products (pulp, paste, purée, ketchup, dehydrated tomatoes, and dried tomatoes preserved in oil) produced in 5 Brazilian states and 1 imported sample (ketchup), totalizing 29 brands, were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. (scielo.br)
  • When infected, such commodities may become contaminated with aflatoxins and may subsequently be introduced into products routinely used in human and animal nutrition 2,3 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This paper attempts to summarize some of the historical and epidemiological evidence regarding aflatoxins and disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • For 8 weeks a total of 100 fish with an average initial weight of 8 g were fed seven diets: one control, 5 with varying amounts of aflatoxins, and one with aflatoxins and Mycofix® Secure. (thefishsite.com)
  • For example, contaminated poultry feed is suspected in the findings of high percentages of samples of aflatoxin-contaminated chicken meat and eggs in Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ELISA microwell test detects the four principle types of aflatoxin, B1, B2, G1 and G2, with superior cross-reactivity when compared to other available aflatoxin tests. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In fact, the first documented incident of serious harm was in 1960 when 100,000 turkeys and other farmed birds in the United Kingdom died from groundnut meal in the birds feed that was contaminated with aflatoxins. (care2.com)
  • Paper discussing the aflatoxins and their effects on humans and animals. (dmoztools.net)
  • Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) was the predominant toxin detected abundantly and frequently at a level up to 68.51 microg/kg in 41 of 50 peanut butter samples and 20.45 microg/kg in 37 of 100 sesame paste samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC). (nih.gov)