Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.

Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. (1/28)

Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dosimetry of urinary aflatoxin-DNA adducts in people living in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. (2/28)

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the five leading human cancers causing at least 250,000 deaths each year. One of the major risk factors for this disease is exposure to dietary aflatoxins, and the development of appropriate molecular dosimetry biomarkers would facilitate the identification of individuals at risk. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between dietary intake of aflatoxins and the excretion of the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct and other metabolites into the urine of chronically exposed people. The following protocol was developed for this investigation in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, where the diets of 30 males and 12 females (ages, 25-64 years) were monitored for 1 week and aflatoxin intake levels determined each day. Starting on the fourth day, total urine volumes were obtained in consecutive 12-h fractions for 3 or 4 days. High performance liquid chromatography and competitive radioimmunoassay analyses were done on each of the urine samples, and the relationships between excretion of total aflatoxin metabolites, aflatoxin-N7-guanine, aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin P1, and aflatoxin B1, and aflatoxin B1 intake values were determined. The average intake of aflatoxin B1 by men was 48.4 micrograms/day, giving a total mean exposure during the study period of 276.8 micrograms. The average daily intake by women was 77.4 micrograms/day, resulting in a total average exposure during the 7-day period of 542.6 micrograms aflatoxin B1. Initial efforts to characterize aflatoxin metabolites in urine samples were with an analysis by competitive radioimmunoassay. The analysis by linear regression of the association between aflatoxin B1 intake/day and total aflatoxin metabolite excretion/day showed a correlation coefficient of only 0.26. These findings stimulated the immunoaffinity/analytical high performance liquid chromatography analysis for individual metabolites. When the data were analyzed by linear regression analysis, the aflatoxin N7-guanine excretion and aflatoxin B1 intake from the previous day showed a correlation coefficient of 0.65 and P less than 0.000001. Similar analysis for aflatoxin M1 resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.55 and P less than 0.00001, whereas there was no positive statistical association between exposure in the diet and aflatoxin P1 excretion, despite aflatoxin P1 being quantitatively a major metabolite. Analysis of the total aflatoxin-N7-guanine excretion in the urine during the complete collection period plotted against the total aflatoxin B1 exposure in the diet for each of the individuals, smoothing the day to day variations, revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.80 and P less than 0.0000001.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

Measurement of aflatoxin and aflatoxin metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (3/28)

Automated immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemical analogue internal standardization is employed to detect and quantify the aflatoxins AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2), and the metabolites AFM(1) and AFP(1) in urine. The dynamic range of the method is nearly three orders of magnitude with limits of detection in the low femtogram on column range. The method was validated over a 12-day period by eight analysts. This method is suitable for agricultural, forensic, and public health laboratories during an accidental outbreak or a chemical terrorism event where a rapid and accurate diagnosis of aflatoxicosis is needed.  (+info)

Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan. (4/28)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.  (+info)

Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain). (5/28)

 (+info)

Effects of mycotoxins on chemiluminescent response and cytokine mRNA expression of bovine neutrophils. (6/28)

The effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on the viability, chemiluminescent (CL) response and expression of cytokine mRNA of bovine neutrophils (PMNs) were evaluated. The opsonized zymosan (OPZ)-stimulated CL response of PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) ( > 50 pg/ml), AFM(1) ( > 50 pg/ml) and ZEA (>50 pg/ml). The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL response PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) (> 0.5 pg/ml), AFM(1) (> 50 pg/ml), ZEA (> 500 pg/ml) and DON ( > 5 pg/ml). Treatment with AFB(1) resulted in reduction in the mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha of PMNs stimulated with OPZ and PMA. These results suggest that these four mycotoxins have inhibitory effects on the function of bovine PMNs.  (+info)

Biological reactive intermediates of bisfuranoid mycotoxins. (7/28)

Based on the mode of action of AFB1 and the activities of its biologically active intermediates, one may conclude that: 1. The mode of toxic action of the bisfuranoid mycotoxin is through epoxidation of the vinyl ether double bond of their dihydrobisfuran functionality. 2. The DNA and plasma albumin adducts formed in vivo may be useful in the molecular dosimetry of these environmental carcinogens. 3. Monitoring of these adducts of AFB1 in biological samples so far indicates that aflatoxin is likely involved in the etiology of human liver cancer.  (+info)

Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from urban centers in Kenya. (8/28)

BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated AFB1 metabolite present in milk of cows fed with a diet contaminated with AFB1and excreted within 12 hours of administration of contaminated feeds. OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. METHODS: This work was carried out in the Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, between February 2006 and March 2007. RESULTS: A total of 830 animal feed and 613 milk samples from four urban centers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 and M1 respectively using competitive enzyme immunoassay. Eighty six percent (353/412) of the feed samples from farmers were positive for aflatoxin B1 and 67% (235/353) of these exceeded the FAO/WHO level of 5micro gKg-1. Eighty one percent (197/243) of the feed samples from feed millers and 87% (153/175) from agrochemical shops were positive, while 58% (115/197) and 66% (92/153) of the positive samples exceeded the FAO/WHO limits respectively. Seventy two percent (315/439) of the milk from dairy farmers, 84% (71/85) from large and medium scale farmers and 99% (88/89) of the pasteurized marketed milk were positive for aflatoxin M1, and 20%, 35% an 31% of positive milk from dairy farmers, medium and large scale farmers and market outlets respectively, exceeded the WHO/FAO levels of 0.05micro g/Kg-1. Sixty seven percent of the urban smallholder dairy farmers had no knowledge that milk could be contaminated with aflatoxin M1 and neither knew how they could mitigate against this exposure. Feed millers knew about aflatoxin B1 in grains and excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk, but were not alleviating exposure to animals. CONCLUSION: There is need to create awareness and establish routine monitoring of animal feeds and milk to reduce animal and consequently human response.  (+info)

*Beverage Institute for Health and Wellness

... methods to eliminate aflatoxin M1 from milk and fate of aflatoxin M1 in cottage cheese". Some research has been published in ... methods to eliminate aflatoxin M1 from milk and fate of aflatoxin M1 in cottage cheese". WorldCat. p. 279. Retrieved 23 August ... Her PhD was in food microbiology and her thesis was entitled, "Responses of dairy cows to dietary aflatoxin, ... Applebaum, Rhona S. (1981). "Responses of dairy cows to dietary aflatoxin, ...

*Aflatoxin

... M1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticus, but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an ... parasiticus Aflatoxin G1 and G2, produced by some Group II A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxin M1, metabolite of ... Aflatoxin M2, metabolite of aflatoxin B2 in milk of cattle fed on contaminated foods Aflatoxicol Aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1), major ... Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested. However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin. The United ...

*Electrophysiology

... ultra-rapid detection of aflatoxin M1. Food Control 29: 208-212 Varelas, V., Sanvicens N, Marco MP, Kintzios S (2010) ...

*Biliary atresia

Moreover, the baby feeds aflatoxin M1 from its mom, as aflatoxin M1 is the detoxification product of aflatoxin B1. It is a ... The babies have homozygous deficiency of glutathione S transferase (GST) M1. The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct ... In an Egyptian study, abnormally high levels of aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 was found in liver tissue and ... Some cases of biliary atresia may result from exposure to aflatoxin B1, and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 during late ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... aflatoxins MeSH D03.438.150.119.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.438.150.119.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.438.150.240 --- ... aflatoxins MeSH D03.830.219.119.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.830.219.119.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.830.219.240 --- ...

*Foodborne illness

In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver ... For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin- ... "Aflatoxins". Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in ...

*Mold health issues

For example, in China in December 2011, high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be ... Aflatoxin is an example of a mycotoxin. It is a cancer-causing poison produced by certain fungi in or on foods and feeds, ... Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... Mark Brinkman (December 20, 2005). "Diamond Pet Food Recalled Due to Aflatoxin". FDA.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2014. FDA, Center ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... aflatoxins MeSH D23.946.587.142.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D23.946.587.142.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D23.946.587.175 --- ...

*CYP3A4

Ligand binding increases when in the presence of CYP3A4 ligands, such as in the presence of aflatoxin B1, M1, and G1. Indeed, ... Ratajewski M, Walczak-Drzewiecka A, Sałkowska A, Dastych J (August 2011). "Aflatoxins upregulate CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a ...

*National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

The laboratory can determine the concentrations of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin ...

*EPHX1

"Genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, interactions with smoking ... "Susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with genetic variation in the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 ...
|p|Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics |/p|
Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
Seasonal milk contamination by aflatoxin m1, organophosphates and carbamates in paraná - brazil . Julio Cesar Damasceno ; Ricardo Kazama ; Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme Vieira ; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom ; Fernand. Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Autori: L. MICHELI , R. GRECCO, M. BADEA, D. MOSCONE, G. PALLESCHI. Editorial: Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 21, p.588-596, 2005.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: creen-printed electrodes, Aflatoxin M1, immunosensors. ...
Strains of Aspergillus species may produce the mycotoxin called aflatoxin in hot humid weather. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed. Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. Specifically, grain may not contain more than 20 ppb (ppb- not ppm) aflatoxin if intended for use in dairy cattle. Milk is checked for aflatoxin at a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb and cattle ingesting as little as 20 to 50 ppb in the total ration may have more than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 in the milk they produce. Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs associated with dumping that milk ...
Aflatoxins are produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are common food contaminants in tropical developing countries. Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. A questionnaire was administered to examine socio-demographic characteristics and food storage and consumption practices, and urine samples were collected to measure levels of the aflatoxin metabolite (AFM1). Two hundred and seventy-six people participated in the study; 38 had liver disease (cases), 136 had neither hepatitis B/C nor liver disease (negative controls), and 102 were hepatitis B/C positive without liver cancer (positive controls). A much higher percent of participants in each group was male (76% of cases, 88% of negative controls and 65% of positive controls). Multivariate analysis showed that age was a significant predictor for being a
Different classes of mycotoxins are distinguished on the basis of the structural similarity and originating mold species. For example, more than a dozen different aflatoxin compounds exist but only five of them are routinely tested (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1). Aflatoxin B1 is of particular interest because it is listed as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolic product that can be present in milk upon ingestion of aflatoxin B1 by an animal. Aflatoxins are ubiquitous in important agricultural commodities including maize and peanuts, and are among the most studied mycotoxins.. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by a different fungi species. It is prevalent in cereal crops grown under wet conditions and temperatures above 15o C (60o F). Chronic exposure of livestock to DON may result in slowed growth, impaired immune function and reduced rates of reproduction, particularly in non-ruminants.. Mycotoxins were discovered as the ...
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds that have different structures and different biological effects. They are having high acute toxicity, which is often associated with malignant diseases. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins which synthesize a limited number of strains molds of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most important aflatoxins, related to milk and milk products, are: B1 and B2 (present in the feed of animals) and M1 and M2 (hydroderivates aflatoxin B1 and B2). They are excreted in milk, urine and stool. Fortunately, there is a large gap between the concentration of toxins in feed and the amount of residues in animal products. Ratio of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in milk is about 300:1. For the determination of aflatoxin, today are commonly used imunoassays (ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) during routine analysis because they are very simple and quick. If the positive result of ELISA, confirmatory methods are conducted which are far more sensitive and ...
ECAE, chemical laboratory, launched analysizing of Aflatoxin (B1,B2,G1,G2 and Aflatoxin M1) as of July 2015. Using the latest technological equipment called LC MS/MS, laboratories globally perform multitoxin analyses. Thus as a part of well recognized and globally accredited laboratory, ECAEs Chemical laboratory also has increased its capacities for analyzing aflatoxin in different food, food products and animal feeds with a shortest turn round times.. Starting from July 2015, the laboratory with its well trained staffs is able to ensure the necessary detection of Mycotoxin in trace amounts with a high number of specific , partly selective extraction , purification methods and modern testing equipment (triple quad liquid chromatography with Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector) (HPLC-FLD) are used to identify Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in different cereals, pulses, cereal based food and in animal feed products.. ...
* found in: Biapenem, Astilbin, Allicin, aqueous solution, Aristolochic Acid B, Aflatoxin B2, Antimycin A, Aflatoxin M1, 7-Aminoactinomycin D, Aztreonam,..
Mycotoxin contamination of milk problem is the problem of current interest and has received great attention in the last three decades. It is known that the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem, it has been recently classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen factor. Because of this goal, the aim of this paper is to study some lactic cultures in order to reduce the content of AFM1 in milk contaminated. Results indicate significant differences (p ...
Mycotoxin contamination of milk problem is the problem of current interest and has received great attention in the last three decades. It is known that the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem, it has been recently classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen factor. Because of this goal, the aim of this paper is to study some lactic cultures in order to reduce the content of AFM1 in milk contaminated. Results indicate significant differences (p ...
Riahi Zanjani, Bamdad and Rahmani, Raheleh and Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi and Aryan, Ehsan and Oskouei, Zahra and Sadeghi, Mahmood and Balali Mood, Mahdi (2015) A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk of Fariman City, Khorasan Province, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 10 (2). ISSN 1735-7780 Makvandi, Manoochehr and Neisi, Niloofar and Khalafkhany, Davod and Makvandi, Kamyar and Hajiani, Eskandar and Shayesteh, Ali Akbar and Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim and Sina, Amir Hosein and Hamidifard, Mojtaba and Rasti, Mojtaba and Aryan, Ehsan and Ahmadi, Kambiz and Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar (2014) Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 7 (8). pp. 1-5. ISSN 2008-4161 Alvandi, Amirhooshang and Aryan, Ehsan and Makvandi, Manoochehr and Gooya, Mohammad-Mehdi and Sorosh, Mahmood and Nabavi, Mahmood and Nikkho, Abdol-Rassol and Neisi, Niloofar and Tarahomi, Shahram and Nejati, Ahmad and Amiri, Homoyon and ...
Wilson M; Simpson PL; Butler TG; Richters J; Yap L; Donovan B, 2017, Youre a woman, a convenience, a cat, a poof, a thing, an idiot: Transgender women negotiating sexual experiences in mens prisons in Australia, Sexualities, vol. 20, pp. 380 - 402, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363460716652828. Yap L; Shu S; Zhang L; Liu W; Chen Y; Wu Z; Li J; Wand H; Donovan B; Butler T, 2017, Psychological distress among re-education through labour camp detainees in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China, Journal of Mental Health, vol. 26, pp. 57 - 65, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1276529. Lafferty L; Treloar C; Guthrie J; Chambers GM; Butler T, 2017, Social capital strategies to enhance hepatitis C treatment awareness and uptake among men in prison, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 24, pp. 111 - 116, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.12627. Lafferty L; Treloar C; Chambers GM; Butler T; Guthrie J, 2016, Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison, ...
ITRAQ/TMT reporter intensity boxplots of all PSMs for each channel and Raw file. The opacity (alpha value) of the bar correlates to the number of PSMs with non-zero abundance (1.0 = full labeling; 0.0 = no reporter ions; see heatmap scoring below).. There is a similar Experimental Group based metric/plot based on proteins.txt.. PTXQC uses isotope-corrected intensities (eliminating channel carry-over) to allow for detection of empty channels, e.g. due to mis-labeling. If MaxQuant did no isotope correction (i.e. corrected and uncorrected channels are equal), the plot title will show a warning. The scores are too optimistic in this case (since carry-over will be mistaken for actual signal).. Note: global labelling efficiency can only be judged indirectly with this metric, since isobaric reporters where set as fixed modification. Thus, MaxQuant. will only identify labeled peptides in the first place. Observing only very few peptides (see peptide count metric), is a good indicator. However, if only ...
Yes, cells should be washed to minimize extraneous DNA or growth media contaminants. We recommend washing in PBS (Ca|sup|2+|/sup|-Free, Mg|sup|2+|/sup|-Free, and BSA-Free) and limiting carry-over of wash buffer with each cell to less than 2.5 μl.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes Immunosuppression in Animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed Meal, corn, and other Grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites Aflatoxin M1 and Q1 ...
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to assess the risks associated with the consumption of food contaminated with specific mycotoxins. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles for evaluating mycotoxins in food, including those concerning analytical methods, sampling, data on food consumption and dietary intake, and prevention and control. The second part provides a summary of the Committees evaluations of toxicological data on specific mycotoxins, including aflatoxin M1, fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, ochratoxin A, deoxynivaleno1, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins ...
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day-1) or placebo (3 g day-1) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 ...
RATIONALE: Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) may help treat and prevent diarrhea caused by irinotecan. It is not yet known whether CASAD is more effective than a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients receiving irinotecan.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying CASAD to see how well it works compared with a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan. ...
RATIONALE: Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) may help treat and prevent diarrhea caused by irinotecan. It is not yet known whether CASAD is more effective than a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients receiving irinotecan.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying CASAD to see how well it works compared with a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan. ...
RATIONALE: Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) may help treat and prevent diarrhea caused by irinotecan. It is not yet known whether CASAD is
Schrockingerite, in addition to having a uranyl (UO2) group in its chemistry, has a sulfate ion. Schrockingerite could be classified as a sulfate, but is here classified as a carbonate due to the greater number and therefore greater significance of the carbonate ions. Other sulfate carbonates include susannite, leadhillite, hanksite, macphersonite ...
aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | order aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | How to use: aflatoxin b1 afb1
Blodite, which is also spelled bloedite, forms in marine and non-marine (lacustrine) evaporite deposits. Evaporite minerals are geologically important because they clearly are related to the environmental conditions that existed at the time of their deposition, namely arid. They also can be easily recrystallized in laboratories enabling sedimentologists to obtain their specific characteristics of formation, such as temperature, solution concentrations, etc. Blodite also forms as an efflorescence on cave and mine walls. An efflorescent mineral is one that forms literally out of thin air, as a "precipitate" of sorts from fumes concentrated with the minerals chemical makeup. Crystals of blodite are scarce, but well formed crystals can show an intricate, multi-facetted, monoclinic form. Specimens of blodite should be stored in a sealed container as they can dry out and crumble. ...
Use the standard graph to plot the area of the test (whose concentration is not known) and using the standard graph bring it down to the X-axis to find its concentration ...
The InnovationHub is joint initiative of the AFM and DNB and provides you with support on all queries you may have about supervision and regulations relating to innovative financial products and services. Our support is available to new and existing firms, regardless of whether they are subject to the supervision of the AFM or DNB.. ...
The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to
Aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a) antibody was used as a histochemical probe in the indirect immunoperoxidase localization of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) bound to rat liver. The efficacy of the indirect method was initially demonstrated by detecting AFB1 covalently boun
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin Risk Management. Tim Herrman Professor, State Chemist and Director. FDA Aflatoxin Action Levels. http://otscweb.tamu.edu/Risk/Aflatoxin/Blending.aspx. Boryan et al. 2008. State Climatologist: Global surface temperatures likely to set a new record this year. Slideshow 2976553 by nantai
The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. The antibody was affinity purified with an AFB1-Agarose column and competitively eluted by free AFB1. The antibody was conjugated to peroxidase (HRP) by reductive amination. This anti-AFB1 HRP conjugates could be utilized for detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin AFB1. ...
Gurtoo, H L.; Dahms, R; Motycka, L; and Taylor, B, "Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2582 ...
Melvin Samuel. S (2013); Approaches in determining Aflatoxin B1 in food materials using a range of analytical methods Int. J. of Adv. Res. (6). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com. ...
Use of biocontrol products with atoxigenic active ingredients is a proven method for reducing the aflatoxin content of crops in the US. This method has made its way into sub-Saharan Africa; a region where aflatoxin contamination is still a problem.
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for aflatoxin total (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanu .... ...
Define oxacillin: a semisynthetic penicillin administered in the form of its hydrated sodium salt C19H18N3NaO5S·H2O to treat infections caused by…
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Looking for online definition of aflatoxins in the Medical Dictionary? aflatoxins explanation free. What is aflatoxins? Meaning of aflatoxins medical term. What does aflatoxins mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) can help to control diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are receiving irinotecan. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
Chronic hepatitis B and C infections, dietary aflatoxin B1 ingestion and chronic alcohol abuse are the most common etiological factors associated with HCC. Liver cirrhosis is the major clinical risk factor for the development of HCC independent of its original etiology. Indeed, in 70-90% of cases HCC develops in the setting of macronodular cirrhosis. ...
|p|In comparison with borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate provides increased hardness, improved chemical durability, reduced electrical conductivity and a lower
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
Aflatoxin B1 dichloride | C17H12Cl2O6 | CID 107728 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
RASFF - aflatoxins (B1 = 81.2 µg/kg - ppb) in peanut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 133 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK
Based on the physicochemical properties the substance can be expected to have a low potential for adsorption. Furthermore, based on studies into the weathering of Zeolite A in natural waters by hydrolysis, forming natural alumosilicates (Cook et al., 1982; endpoint record 5.1.2_003) it can be anticipated that the substance reaching the aquatic and terrestrial compartments will ultimately turn into natural constituents of waters, sediments and soils. Therefore, it is not justified to conduct a short-term toxicity study to terrestrial plants ...
The α-helical coiled coil is the simplest of all protein-protein interaction motifs. Coiled coils consist of two or more α-helices that wrap around each other with a superhelical twist. They are characterized by a repeating sequence of seven amino acids, (abcdefg)n, in which the a- and d-position residues are predominantly hydrophobic and the e- and g-position residues are usually polar or charged. The regular sequence makes it possible to predict the occurrence of coiled coils in genomic sequence data. We estimate that ,5% of all proteins in S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, A. thaliana and D. melanogaster contain a coiled-coil region. It is likely that many of these coiled coils mediate protein-protein interactions or oligomerization. An important, unanswered question about coiled coils is how their interaction specificity is encoded in their sequences. We call this the "partnering problem" for coiled coils and are studying it using both computational and experimental approaches.. Our experimental ...
The BioSprint 96 instrument has a magnetic-particle collecting efficiency above 95%. However, to avoid particle carryover from the eluate plate to subsequent applications, you can use a plate magnet while pipetting.. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: All Species. 100% Guaranteed.
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In this paper we report results of tunable lighting in Ce3+/Eu2+,3+ doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glass. Optical spectroscopy experiments indicate that there is a red color compensation from Eu2+ and Eu3+ to the green emission from Ce3+, resulting in a broad and tunable emission spectra depending on the excitation wavelength. This result analysed in the CIE 1976 color diagram shows a close distance from the Plank emission and a correlated color temperature, varying from 5200 to 3500K. This indicates that our system can be easily excited by GaN based blue LEDs, being an interesting phosphor for white lighting devices.. ©2012 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Physiological challenges during part of the annual cycle (e.g. spring migration) can carry over and affect performance at subsequent phases (e.g. reproduction; Ebbinge and Spaans, 1995; Bauchinger et al., 2009; Legagneux et al., 2012), although the mechanisms that produce these carry-over effects are only rarely understood (Harrison et al., 2011). A particularly interesting but understudied potential mechanism for carry-over effects impacting reproductive performance concerns the antioxidant system and its ability to quench pro-oxidants. Generally, antioxidants provided to embryos are considered beneficial (Saino et al., 2003; McGraw et al., 2005; Berthouly et al., 2007, 2008; Marri and Richner, 2014; Jacob et al., 2015); however, if antioxidant supply is limited and requirements prior to reproduction are relatively high, then a females allocation of antioxidants to reproduction could be restricted and thus produce an important carry-over effect.. Birds rely on suites of antioxidant compounds, ...
The present invention provides a process for modifying a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having a Constraint Index of from about to about 12 which comprises: a) steaming the as synthesized crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite containing organic template material to decompose at least a portion of said template material and to extract zeolitic aluminum; and, b) contacting the zeolite resulting from step (a) in the ammonium, alkali metal or hydrogen form with a dealuminizing agent which forms a water-soluble complex with aluminum to remove a further quantity of zeolitic aluminum therefrom.
Zeolites are minerals that have a micro-porous structure.Commercially available natural zeolites are usually of the clinoptilolite (clino) variety which are known chemically as hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates. Zeolites are used in Animal Feed Supplements, Water Treatment, Radioactive Waste Treatment, Pollution Control, Pet Litter and Odor Control, Agriculture, Slow-Release Fertilization, Zeoponics, Soil Amendment, Miscellaneous Agricultural Applications, Horticulture, Aquaculture, Thermal Storage and Solar Refrigeration, Natural Gas Purification, Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds ...
Equipment that is to help Kenya reduce aflatoxin in maize is to be installed at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).. The equipment uses nixtamalization, a process where limewater is used in reducing the content of toxins and preserves the nutrients and healthy properties of maize.. "The equipment removes 30 - 60 percent of aflatoxins from maize leaving maize with acceptable consumption levels," Dr. Natalia Palacios, Maize Nutrition Quality Specialist for Global Consultative Group for the International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) program in Maize said during the launch of nixtamalization in Nairobi.. Palacios said that the process is an ancestral technique used throughout Mexico and Latin America and is used in nixtamalizing flour and dough to make tortillas and over 300 varieties of maize based dishes.. Palacios revealed that the two industrial this machinery that were delivered costs US Dollars 8,000.. In 2004, 124 people died of aflatoxin after consuming ...
New Zealand White rabbits, divided into 4 groups were fed with feed containing aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) @ 0.5ppm (group I), ochratoxin A (OA) @ 1ppm (group II), AFB(1) and OA @ 0.5ppm and 1ppm, respectively (group III) and standard feed (group IV) for
Hop on to get the meaning of hAFAR1 acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Undefined Acronym / Slang hAFAR1 means... AcronymsAndSlang. The hAFAR1 acronym/abbreviation definition. The hAFAR1 meaning is human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. The definition of hAFAR1 by AcronymAndSlang.com
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Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his Mississippi-based team are learning to combat the disease through corn breeding and molecular markers.
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
Several companies recalled dry dog foods in December 2011 after detection of aflatoxin concentrations above the acceptable
What is a maximum level of sodium that can be ingested without affecting calcium absorption? I am interested in perimenapausal estrogen replacement, calcium intake and osteoperosis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kiyoshi Okano, Tsuneyoshi Tomita, Yuji Ohzu, Mitsuhiro Takai, Ayaka Ose, Akiko Kotsuka, Naoko Ikeda, Junko Sakata, Yuko Kumeda, Nobuya Nakamura, Masakatsu Ichinoe].
The biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been the subject of conflicting speculation and numerous reviews. The currently accepted scheme for the aflatoxin pathway is based on data obtained from feeding studies using ...
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SciFlow time-course effect of Aflatoxin B on a metabolically competent hepatocyte model using the DNA-binding reagent CellTox™ Green.
The Terma Foundation is a non-sectarian NGO which has been working in the Tibet Autonomous Region and adjacent provinces of China since 1993.
... - Kerry S. Lane MD, 11/13/00 10:19AM. MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF AFLATOXIN AND MYCOTOXIN LEVELS ON TOBACCO AS A HARM REDUCTION STRATEGY. August 30, 2000. Kerry Scott Lane MD Aflatoxin, the fungal carcinogen first identified in 1960, is now recognized as the prototypical laboratory carcinogen. It causes mutations in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene as well as ras mutations, which are involved in the majority of human cancers. Aflatoxin has been shown to contaminate tobacco products. Tobacco-related cancers, including those associated with ETS, often show the same p53 mutations associated with aflatoxin exposure. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate aflatoxin contamination of tobacco. Aflatoxin was first identified in 1960 as one of the most potent carcinogens known, and has been recognized as a teratogen, mutagen, carcinogen, immunosuppressant, and potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. Aflatoxin is likely ...
One-pulse magic angle spinning (MAS) 29Si and 1H-29Si cross-polarization (CP) MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on minerals with OH groups and on hydrous aluminosilicate glass samples. The silanol-group samples used were krauskopfite, rosenhahnite, thaumasite, ussingite, and KHSi2O5 with known Si to H distances and ellenbergerite, the proton positions of which are not as well defined. The Si-H distances from the minerals can be compared with the cross-polarization time constants (τSiH) and the proton spin-relaxation times in the rotating frame [τ1ρ(H)], and a rough correspondence exists between a minerals shortest Si-H distance and its τSiH value. Also, fast [τ1ρ(H)] values correspond to large bulk H densities. The CP spectra of the hydrous aluminosilicate glass samples were fitted with two peaks, representing two different Si environments within the glass structure. The contact-time curves of the higher frequency peak imply τSiH similar to the mineral ...
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
To date, the fundamental details of the molecular structural changes and associated mechanisms, which take place during the formation of aluminosilicate geopolymer gels, have remained largely elusive. Here, density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo modeling, a multiscale simulation technique, is used to simulate the geopolymerization reaction and to determine the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Silica supplied by the alkaline solution plays a significant role in enhancing the dissolution of the solid aluminosilicate precursor (metakaolin, in this case) and the polymerization of the gel. In the reaction between NaOH and metakaolin, in the absence of initially dissolved silica, the solid precursor completely dissolves and the aluminosilicate gel forms via the percolation of small aluminosilicate clusters. On the other hand, in the presence of dissolved silicate, the metakaolin only partially dissolves, as the aluminosilicate gel precipitates on the surfaces of the ...
Abstract: Effects of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin, administered daily within 7 days at the doses of 0.7 mg/kg and 0.54 mg/kg, respectively, on metabolism of Ca and on the vitamin D hormonal system were studied in young rats kept on a ration containing normal (0.025 mg/kg) and high (0.25 mg/kg) amounts of vitamin D. Administration of the mycotoxins caused hypocalcemia, a decrease in absorption of Ca as well as in activity of alkaline phosphatase in small intestine mucose, while alterations in spongy bones (of the type of osteopetrosis) were most distinct in T-2 toxin treatment. Concentration of 25(OH)D3 in blood serum and activity of 25-hydroxylase D3 in liver tissue were decreased by 28% and 58%, respectively, after administration of T-2 toxin, and by 34% nd 33%, respectively, after treatment with aflatoxin B1. In kidney activity of I-hydroxylase 25(OH)D3 was unaltered and the activity of 24-hydroxylase tended to decrease. After treatment with the mycotoxins content of nuclear receptors of ...
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Abstract These days it is widely believed by experts that most cancers are caused by environmental factors. The epidemiology of most of these suspected factors is still equivocal. One such factor which has been widely studied is aflatoxin, a chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because of the widespread distribution of this agent, its known toxicity, and its frequent ingestion by humans, aflatoxin may well be a significant cause of cancer worldwide. This paper attempts to summarize some of the historical and epidemiological evidence regarding aflatoxins and disease.
Although the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly understood, hepatitis B virus and dietary aflatoxin exposures are established etiological factors for this disease. We conducted a pilot study of 28 patients with HCC and 110 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity to determine whether constitutional genetic instability, based on the quantification of mutagen-induced chromatid breaks in cultured lymphocytes, modifies an individuals risk of HCC development. The mean numbers of bleomycin-induced breaks per cell for cases and controls were 0.92 and 0.55, respectively (P , 0.0001). For benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) sensitivity, the values were 0.90 for cases and 0.46 for controls (P , 0.0001). Nearly 68% of the cases but only 27% of the controls exhibited bleomycin sensitivity (i.e., had , or = 0.68 breaks per cell). Eighty % of the case group but only 22% of the control group exhibited BPDE sensitivity (i.e., had , or = 0.58 breaks per cell). On ...
The synthesis and interactions of the d- and l-enantiomers of the amino acid amide derivatives [Formula: see text] (I) and lysyl dipeptides [Formula: see text] (II) with poly rI·poly rC, poly rA·poly rU and calf thymus DNA is reported. The following results were found. (1) The degree of stabilization of the helices as measured by the Tm (melting temperature) of the helix-coil transition was dependent on the nature of the amino acid. (2) For the poly rI·poly rC helix, the l-enantiomers of salts (I) and (II) stabilized more than the d-enantiomers. The same was true for calf thymus DNA in the presence of salts (II) and for poly rA·poly rU in the presence of salts (II) and the proline derivatives of salts (I). (3) As R increased in size and became more apolar, the amount of stabilization of the poly rI·poly rC helix in the presence of salts (I) decreased. On the other hand, the amount of stabilization increased with more polar substituents. An attempt was then made to determine whether the ...
There are a variety of aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2, M 1, M 2) produced by Apergillus flavus. Temperatures of 82° to 90° F, along with grain moisture levels of 22% to 26% provide ideal conditions for producing aflatoxin in a variety of grains, including corn, wheat, barley, and oats. The mold is abundant in the southeastern United States, but has occasionally become a problem in the Midwestern corn belt when drought conditions occur.. Aflatoxin is the only mycotoxin regulated by FDA because it has been shown to be carcinogenic, and therefore concerns about the mycotoxin entering the human food chain exist. No more than 20 ppb aflatoxin is allowed for interstate shipment of contaminated grain. Grains containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb cannot be used for human consumption and dairy feeds, and should not be fed to young animals. At low levels (20 - 200 ppb), aflatoxin decreases performance and well-being. Feed intake is commonly reduced, resulting in depressed growth rate, while ...
Sodium calcium carbonate -- an equimolar double salt (Na2CO3 CaCO3) never described in the literature -- forms by a novel solid state reaction when intimately mixed Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders are heated. The thermal synthesis and the properties of this compound are evaluated by thermal analysis using an instrument yielding simultaneous DTA, TG, and EGA data. The compound forms slowly at temperatures
The presence of aflatoxin in airborne grain dusts collected from the Superior/Duluth region of the United States was investigated. Dusts were collected with an industrial vacuum cleaner during transportation of grains over conveyer belts. Samples were extracted in chloroform, chloroform/water, and methylene- chloride/water mixtures. Extracts were spotted along with reference standards of aflatoxin
REYNA-SANTAMARIA, L; BASILIO-NAVARRETE, A; MARTINEZ-ROJERO, RD e CASAUBON-HUGUENIN, MT. Productive performance and poisonous in broilers fed with aflatoxin Bp B2 and three adsorbents of mycotoxins. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2016, vol.48, n.2, pp.215-222. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2016000200012.. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1,200 μg/kg of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and three mycotoxins adsorbents on growth performance, antibody titers to Newcastle, blood chemistry and histopathological lesions in broilers. One hundred ninety two one-day old chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments and 3 replicates of 16 chickens, in a 42-day experiment. Treatments evaluated: T1 = basal diet; T2 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFbj and AFb2; T3 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (A); T4 = basal diet with 1200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (B). The results indicate that the chickens eating the adsorbent ...
Citation: Zeiger E, Anderson B, Haworth S, Lawlor T, Mortelmans K, Speck W. Salmonella mutagenicity tests: III. Results from the testing of 255 chemicals. Environ Mutagen. 1987;9 Suppl 9:1-109 ...
Cordierite Ceramics have excellent thermal shock properties. Our Cordierite products are low cost materials having good mechanical strength, good electrical insulation properties, good wear resistance and can function at safe operating temperatures up to 1000 C. Typical applications include, but are not limited to, electric heating elements, igniters, resistors, stand offs, band heaters, thermocouple cores, load banks, ovens, furnaces, connectors, spacers, fuses, gas grill radiants, sensors, stiffening rods, welding backers, welding ferrules.. Mechanical, Electrical, Thermal and Physical Properties. ...
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals typically used as commercial absorbents. There are over 50 natural species of zeolites and over 100...
zeolite: Any member of a family of hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkali and alkaline-earth metals. The zeolites are noted for their lability toward ion-exchange and reversible...
A list of minerals organized by the Dana classification for Debao Cu-Sn deposit (Qinjia Cu-Sn deposit), Debao Co., Baise Prefecture, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China
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Duolun, town, southeast-central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China. It is situated close to the border of Hebei province. Until 1950 the town was in the former Chahar province. Historically, Duolun was an important town. It was the site of Shangdu (the Xanadu of Samuel Taylor
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Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects ofthese agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is theevaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled waterat 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactintestosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower(P|0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a "safer" cigarette, "as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns." Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
Sodalite is treated with acid to transform the surface to provide a highly macroporous material that demonstrates water swing capacities exceeding those of high performance, low temperature desiccants under high latent load at relatively high ambient temperature and humidities.
Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
1. Introduction. Mycotoxins are natural contaminants in food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs) are classified as mycotoxins, which refer to a variety of seriously toxic components and the group of difuranocoumarins and classified in two broad groups according to their chemical structures; the difurocoumarocyclopentenone series (AFB, AFM and aflatoxicol) and the difurocoumarolactone series (AFG and AFB3). The aflatoxins fluoresce strongly in ultraviolet light (ca. 365 nm); B1 and B2 produce a blue fluorescence where as G1 and G2 produce green fluorescence. The toxins are generated by moulds of genera Aspergillus (specifically by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus), Penicillium and Fusarium [1] .. The agent is mainly found in warm and wet climates [2] . They are threat to agricultural products and cereal grain in particular. The products might be contaminated during pre-harvest, harvest, processing and handling stages [3] [4] . In this regard, season, humidity, daily variation, and storage ...

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Association between Aflatoxin M1 and Liver Disease in HBV/HCV Infected Persons in GhanaIJERPH | Free Full-Text | Association between Aflatoxin M1 and Liver Disease in HBV/HCV Infected Persons in Ghana

Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted ... The reasons for lower aflatoxin levels among Akans need to be determined, and the findings used to design interventions that ... These findings indicate that educational interventions that stress the harmful health effects of aflatoxin in food, with an ... This shows that there is awareness of aflatoxin contamination without proper understanding of the serious potential adverse ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/4/377

IBIMA Publishing Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian Domaiti CheeseIBIMA Publishing Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian Domaiti Cheese

Elevated levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and milk products is considered to pose certain hygienic risks for human health ... Cite this Article as: M. M. Motawee (2013), "Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian ... Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian Domaiti Cheese. International Journal of ... Table (2) - Concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Domiati cheese made from 4 kg milk spiked with 1.00 µg AFM1 per kg prior to ...
more infohttp://ibimapublishing.com/articles/IJVMR/2013/207299/

Aflatoxin M1 FASTAflatoxin M1 FAST

... ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics ,/p, ... Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and ... M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the ... The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to detect the presence of ...
more infohttp://randoxfooddiagnostics.com/aflatoxin-m1-fast-milk

An Empirical Study on Aflatoxin Occurrence in Nuts Consumed in Tehran, Iran 2013An Empirical Study on Aflatoxin Occurrence in Nuts Consumed in Tehran, Iran 2013

2009) Levels of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk, Cheese Consumed in Kuwait and Occurrence of Total Aflatoxin in Local and Imported Animal ... El Khoury, A., A. Atoui, and J. Yaghi (2011) Analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Yogurt and AFM1 Reduction by Lactic Acid ... Kangethe, E. and K. Langa (2010) Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Contamination of Animal Feeds and Milk from Urban Centers in Kenya. ... Elzupir, A.O. and A.M. Elhussein (2010) Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Cattle Milk in Khartoum State, Sudan. Food ...
more infohttp://file.scirp.org/Html/1-8202824_43699.htm

Potential Problems for Livestock Producers to Consider in 2007 | The Pig SitePotential Problems for Livestock Producers to Consider in 2007 | The Pig Site

Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed ... The use of such binding agents in dairy rations does not guarantee that aflatoxin M1 will not occur in the milk of lactating ... Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs ... Aflatoxin is more prevalent in cottonseed in drought years. Consider testing your cottonseed for aflatoxin this year. Forages. ...
more infohttps://thepigsite.com/articles/potential-problems-for-livestock-producers-to-consider-in-2007

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxin Exposure and Hepatitis C Virus in Advanced Liver Disease in a...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxin Exposure and Hepatitis C Virus in Advanced Liver Disease in a...

The findings indicated aflatoxin exposure may be associated with advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in HCV- ... Aflatoxin-albumin in serum was quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. After adjusting serum albumin ... levels and platelet counts, aflatoxin-Bi albumin adducts was still an independent risk factor for advanced liver disease among ... This community-based study evaluated the role of aflatoxin exposure in advanced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)- ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.747

Aflatoxin - definition of aflatoxin by The Free DictionaryAflatoxin - definition of aflatoxin by The Free Dictionary

aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a ... Many countries have set maximum allowable levels of aflatoxin M1 in dairy products.. Neogen introduces Veratox[R] for Aflatoxin ... aflatoxin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to aflatoxin: Aflatoxin b1 af·la·tox·in. (ăf′lə ... Periods Description Binder I Aflatoxin ppb 0 Nil 80.. Evaluation of different mycotoxin binders on aflatoxin B1 {Aspergillus ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/aflatoxin

PoultryWorld - EFSA reports on veterinary drug residues in animalsPoultryWorld - EFSA reports on veterinary drug residues in animals

... and five for aflatoxin M1 in milk were reported.. Dyes (B3e) were reported in aquaculture (1.6 %). Substances found were ... For mycotoxins (B3d), nine non-compliant samples for ochratoxin A in pigs, one for aflatoxin B1 in sheep and goats, ...
more infohttp://www.poultryworld.net/Breeders/Nutrition/2011/6/EFSA-reports-on-veterinary-drug-residues-in-animals-WP008948W/

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy, Maternal Anemia, and Adverse Birth...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy, Maternal Anemia, and Adverse Birth...

Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin ... The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal ... Potential pathways for intervention to reduce aflatoxin exposure are urgently needed, and this might reduce the global burden ... We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to ...
more infohttp://ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0730

Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct<...Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct<...

Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. / Lin, Ying Chih; Li, ... Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35(7 ... Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. In: Carcinogenesis. 2014 ... Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/molecular-basis-of-aflatoxin-induced-mutagenesis-role-of-the-afla-2

aflatoxin-m1-milk | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrichaflatoxin-m1-milk | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich

Suitability Analysis of Tolerance Limit for Aflatoxin M1 in Foods and Chinese Population Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 From ... Anfossi, L.; Baggiani, C.; Giovannoli, C.; Giraudi, G. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products, Aflatoxins - Detection, ... The most biologically active aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)4. A recent risk assessment determined that aflatoxins may be ... Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins, 2013, 5, 73-83. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/analytical/food-beverage/aflatoxin-m1-milk.html

Charm Sciences ROSA Quantitative Aflatoxin M1 Test Validated by ILVO-T&V BelgiumCharm Sciences ROSA Quantitative Aflatoxin M1 Test Validated by ILVO-T&V Belgium

A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a class 2 rated carcinogen closely controlled and monitored by dairies to prevent detrimental human and ... A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ML) of 50 ... Reference laboratory validates Charm Sciences ROSA Quantitative Aflatoxin M1 Test in raw, commingled, bovine milk to detect 50 ...
more infohttps://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/10/prweb11203797.htm

Aflatoxin M1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems IndiaAflatoxin M1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems India

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. ( Aflatoxin M1 ) ... Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Home / Food Safety Assays / Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Return to Previous Page ... Free aflatoxin M1 in sample solutions and the immobilized antigen compete for aflatoxin enzyme conjugate. While AF M1 antibody ... Aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. Aflatoxins ...
more infohttp://www.krishgen.com/product/aflatoxin-m1-elisa/?add_to_wishlist=1271

Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit Moorestown - WorldBid B2B MarketReagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit Moorestown - WorldBid B2B Market

Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit, Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative ... Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the. quantitative analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in cereals, meat ... Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit - USA. price: contact company for price. Reagen Aflatoxin Elisa Photos Catalog. ... Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit. For any questions and needs please contact us below ...
more infohttp://www.worldbid.com/chemical/chemicals-reagents/reagen-aflatoxin-m1-elisa-test-kit-i47375.html

Determination of Aflatoxin M1 and Chloramphenicol in Milk Based on Background Fluorescence Quenching Immunochromatographic AssayDetermination of Aflatoxin M1 and Chloramphenicol in Milk Based on Background Fluorescence Quenching Immunochromatographic Assay

For example, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is a carcinogenic substance detected in milk and ... W. Jiang, Z. Wang, G. Nölke, J. Zhang, L. Niu, and J. Shen, "Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in ... A. Prandini, G. Tansini, S. Sigolo, L. Filippi, M. Laporta, and G. Piva, "On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy ... M. Q. Lana, I. M. Toaldo, and M. T. Bordignon-Luiz, "Influence of climate conditions on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/8649314/

Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products. | Sigma...Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products. | Sigma...

Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.. [Sabran Mohd ... Aflatoxin M1 solution, 0.5 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard C17H12O7 ... Aflatoxin M1, from Aspergillus flavus C17H12O7 ... Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was ... This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/23052590

Detection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cows milk in Istanbul, Turkey. - Semantic ScholarDetection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. - Semantic Scholar

This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cows milk ... Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2.. *Giuseppe Bianco, ... Assessment of aflatoxin M1 in maternal breast milk in Eastern Turkey.. *M Aydemir Atasever, Yeliz Yildirim, Mustafa Atasever, ... Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Breast Milk Samples in Tabriz-Iran. *Reza Mahdavi, Leila Nikniaz, Seyyed Rafie Arefhosseini, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Detection-of-aflatoxin-M1-in-human-breast-milk-and-Keskin-Ba%C5%9Fkaya/f3b5ecc516fbb292195e6ad2b73d3a7b30d1730b

Lateral Flow - Aflatoxin M1 in milk | Prognosis BiotechLateral Flow - Aflatoxin M1 in milk | Prognosis Biotech

Elisa - Aflatoxin M1 in milk *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Extra Sensitive. *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Fast ... Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Baby Food. *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Ultra Fast Milk & Yogurt ...
more infohttp://www.prognosis-biotech.com/products/lateral-flow-aflatoxin-m1-milk/

Polystyrene-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite as a New Adsorbent of Aflatoxin M1Polystyrene-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite as a New Adsorbent of Aflatoxin M1

The aim of this project was to study the aflatoxin M1 adsorption ability of polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite. Methods: ... Subsequently, serial concentrations of the nanocomposite were prepared and separately incubated with aflatoxin M1 solution at ... it was shown for the first time that polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite can adsorb aflatoxin M1. This study also ... First, the probability of aflatoxin M1 adsorption by the nanocomposite was evaluated using the HyperChem simulation software. ...
more infohttp://jkmu.kmu.ac.ir/article_16128.html

Research - Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in fluid milk commercialised in Monterrey, Mexico | FoodWorldResearch - Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in fluid milk commercialised in Monterrey, Mexico | FoodWorld

Wiley Online Abstract The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples commercialized in the Metropolitan area of ... Research - Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in fluid milk commercialised in Monterrey, Mexico. Posted on November 10, 2018 , Leave a ... The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples commercialized in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey (Mexico) was ... The practical application of this document is to serve as a first approach to know the presence of aflatoxins in milk in ...
more infohttps://kswfoodmicro.com/2018/11/10/research-aflatoxin-m1-occurrence-in-fluid-milk-commercialised-in-monterrey-mexico/

Health Scope - Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products Marketed in IranHealth Scope - Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products Marketed in Iran

Distribution of Aflatoxin M1 Content in Cheese Samples a. Aflatoxin range, ng/kg. Number of Traditional Samples (n = 43). ... Aflatoxin B1, M1 and G1 all cause cancer in animals. However, only aflatoxin B1 has been classified as a human carcinogen. The ... Thus, aflatoxins M1 and M2 that are the hydroxylated metabolites of aflatoxin B1 and B2 may be found in milk and products ... Background: There are different types of aflatoxins, including aflatoxin M1, M2, G1, G2, B1 and B2 produced in the food chain, ...
more infohttp://jhealthscope.com/en/articles/20093.html

RIDASCREEN®FAST Aflatoxin M1 [R5802]  Equl offers Enzyme Assay Kits, Reagent Mixtures, Enzymes, Glycobiology, Amylase Test,...RIDASCREEN®FAST Aflatoxin M1 [R5802] Equl offers Enzyme Assay Kits, Reagent Mixtures, Enzymes, Glycobiology, Amylase Test,...

FAST Aflatoxin M1 is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk powder. ... The test was validated with the matrices milk and milk powder.General information: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, highly toxic ... RIDASCREEN®FAST Aflatoxin M1 [R5802] - Intended use: RIDASCREEN® ... Aflatoxin M1 is produced as a metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is secreted with the milk after the feeding of aflatoxin B1 ...
more infohttp://www.equl.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=70_1083_240_242_270_275&products_id=5450

M1 Aflatoxin test | Bio-Shiled M1 Extra Sensitive (ES) | Elisa TestM1 Aflatoxin test | Bio-Shiled M1 Extra Sensitive (ES) | Elisa Test

ELISA test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk in compliance with ISO 14675:2003 ... Bio-Shield M1 aflatoxin is an easy to use, ... Elisa - Aflatoxin M1 in milk *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Extra ... Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 is an easy to use, ELISA test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk in compliance with ISO 14675: ... Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of major concern to the dairy industry, generally produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. ...
more infohttps://www.prognosis-biotech.com/products/elisa-aflatoxin-m1-in-milk/bio-shield-m1-aflatoxin-extra-sensitive/

Seasonally Feed-Related Aflatoxins B1 and M1 Spread in Semiarid Industrial Dairy Herd and Its Deteriorating Impacts on Food and...Seasonally Feed-Related Aflatoxins B1 and M1 Spread in Semiarid Industrial Dairy Herd and Its Deteriorating Impacts on Food and...

Middle, aflatoxin B1 levels in different types of cattle feed (. feedstuffs), and lower, aflatoxin M1 levels in bulk milk (. ) ... Table 1: Cluster random sampling and widespread contamination of aflatoxin B1 in feedstuffs and aflatoxin M1 in bulk milk ... Lower panel (a), chemical structure of aflatoxins (AFs) B1 (C17H12O6) and M1 (C17H12O7) routinely found in animal feed and milk ... Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly carcinogenic and immunotoxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus (A) flavus and A ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/2017/4067989/
  • Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. (thepigsite.com)
  • With over 30 years of experience in this field, Romer Labs offers the most comprehensive portfolio of mycotoxin test kits for the detection of regulated mycotoxins ( aflatoxin , ochratoxin , fumonisin , deoxynivalenol , zerealenone , t-2 and ht-2 ) in agricultural commodities such as raw grains and nuts, grain by-products and feed formulations. (romerlabs.com)
  • Aflatoxins form one of the major groupings of mycotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background & Aims: Aflatoxin M1 is one of the most important toxins present in milk and the product of aflatoxin B1 metabolism in liver microsomes. (ac.ir)
  • The use of this AF M1 ELISA kit to analyze Aflatoxin M1 residue of samples is fast and accurate. (krishgen.com)
  • While AF M1 antibody and HRP secondary antibody (HRP material) combined, via the TMB substrate show color, sample absorbance values of aflatoxin M1 has a negative correlation with its content, compared with the standard curve and then multiplied by the corresponding the dilution factor, can draw aflatoxin M1 content in samples. (krishgen.com)
  • In this cross-sectional and analytical study, 43 samples of traditional cheese and 59 samples of pasteurized cheese in three cities and 59 samples of pasteurized milk were randomly selected and their M1 aflatoxin was measured by means of the ELISA method. (jhealthscope.com)
  • For example, contaminated poultry feed is suspected in the findings of high percentages of samples of aflatoxin-contaminated chicken meat and eggs in Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out breaks of aflatoxicosis (poisoning by aflatoxin) were first noted in the 1960s in England after more than 100 000 turkeys on poultry farms died after consuming contaminated feed. (jhealthscope.com)
  • European Commission (EC) regulations ( 10 ) established a maximum level of 0.05 µg /kg for aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk. (jhealthscope.com)
  • The main goal of the present study was to measure M1 aflatoxin in distributed traditional and pasteurized cheese in South Khorasan. (jhealthscope.com)
  • When infected, such commodities may become contaminated with aflatoxins and may subsequently be introduced into products routinely used in human and animal nutrition 2,3 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When contaminated food is processed, aflatoxins enter the general food supply where they have been found in both pet and human foods, as well as in feedstocks for agricultural animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, preventive measures that stop the entrance of the precursor of this poison (aflatoxin B1) into the food of lactating cattle are necessary. (jhealthscope.com)
  • A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. (mdpi.com)
  • After entering the body, aflatoxins may be metabolized by the liver to a reactive epoxide intermediate or hydroxylated to become the less harmful aflatoxin M1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: First, the probability of aflatoxin M1 adsorption by the nanocomposite was evaluated using the HyperChem simulation software. (ac.ir)
  • Animals fed contaminated food can pass aflatoxin transformation products into eggs, milk products, and meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin transformation products are sometimes found in eggs, milk products, and meat when animals are fed contaminated grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that educational interventions that stress the harmful health effects of aflatoxin in food, with an emphasis on the higher risk for males, are urgently needed. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of those molds does not always indicate that harmful levels of aflatoxin are present, but does indicate a significant risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action levels for aflatoxin present in food or feed is 20 to 300 ppb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The practical application of this document is to serve as a first approach to know the presence of aflatoxins in milk in northern Mexico, both in domestic and imported products, and under different heat treatments applied and from this, take different measures by authorities and producers with a view to reducing their presence in milk and other dairy products. (kswfoodmicro.com)
  • As aflatoxin M1 is relatively stable towards the pasteurizing process, not only a comprehensive routine check of the raw materials to be processed is required, but also of the final products. (equl.com)
  • The aim of this project was to study the aflatoxin M1 adsorption ability of polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion: In the present study, it was shown for the first time that polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite can adsorb aflatoxin M1. (ac.ir)
  • Aflatoxin is a natural toxin produced by molds that can grow in drought stressed crops and poorly stored or dried feeds and grains. (prweb.com)