A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.

Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. (1/28)

Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dosimetry of urinary aflatoxin-DNA adducts in people living in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. (2/28)

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the five leading human cancers causing at least 250,000 deaths each year. One of the major risk factors for this disease is exposure to dietary aflatoxins, and the development of appropriate molecular dosimetry biomarkers would facilitate the identification of individuals at risk. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between dietary intake of aflatoxins and the excretion of the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct and other metabolites into the urine of chronically exposed people. The following protocol was developed for this investigation in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, where the diets of 30 males and 12 females (ages, 25-64 years) were monitored for 1 week and aflatoxin intake levels determined each day. Starting on the fourth day, total urine volumes were obtained in consecutive 12-h fractions for 3 or 4 days. High performance liquid chromatography and competitive radioimmunoassay analyses were done on each of the urine samples, and the relationships between excretion of total aflatoxin metabolites, aflatoxin-N7-guanine, aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin P1, and aflatoxin B1, and aflatoxin B1 intake values were determined. The average intake of aflatoxin B1 by men was 48.4 micrograms/day, giving a total mean exposure during the study period of 276.8 micrograms. The average daily intake by women was 77.4 micrograms/day, resulting in a total average exposure during the 7-day period of 542.6 micrograms aflatoxin B1. Initial efforts to characterize aflatoxin metabolites in urine samples were with an analysis by competitive radioimmunoassay. The analysis by linear regression of the association between aflatoxin B1 intake/day and total aflatoxin metabolite excretion/day showed a correlation coefficient of only 0.26. These findings stimulated the immunoaffinity/analytical high performance liquid chromatography analysis for individual metabolites. When the data were analyzed by linear regression analysis, the aflatoxin N7-guanine excretion and aflatoxin B1 intake from the previous day showed a correlation coefficient of 0.65 and P less than 0.000001. Similar analysis for aflatoxin M1 resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.55 and P less than 0.00001, whereas there was no positive statistical association between exposure in the diet and aflatoxin P1 excretion, despite aflatoxin P1 being quantitatively a major metabolite. Analysis of the total aflatoxin-N7-guanine excretion in the urine during the complete collection period plotted against the total aflatoxin B1 exposure in the diet for each of the individuals, smoothing the day to day variations, revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.80 and P less than 0.0000001.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

Measurement of aflatoxin and aflatoxin metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (3/28)

Automated immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemical analogue internal standardization is employed to detect and quantify the aflatoxins AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2), and the metabolites AFM(1) and AFP(1) in urine. The dynamic range of the method is nearly three orders of magnitude with limits of detection in the low femtogram on column range. The method was validated over a 12-day period by eight analysts. This method is suitable for agricultural, forensic, and public health laboratories during an accidental outbreak or a chemical terrorism event where a rapid and accurate diagnosis of aflatoxicosis is needed.  (+info)

Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan. (4/28)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.  (+info)

Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain). (5/28)


Effects of mycotoxins on chemiluminescent response and cytokine mRNA expression of bovine neutrophils. (6/28)

The effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on the viability, chemiluminescent (CL) response and expression of cytokine mRNA of bovine neutrophils (PMNs) were evaluated. The opsonized zymosan (OPZ)-stimulated CL response of PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) ( > 50 pg/ml), AFM(1) ( > 50 pg/ml) and ZEA (>50 pg/ml). The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL response PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) (> 0.5 pg/ml), AFM(1) (> 50 pg/ml), ZEA (> 500 pg/ml) and DON ( > 5 pg/ml). Treatment with AFB(1) resulted in reduction in the mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha of PMNs stimulated with OPZ and PMA. These results suggest that these four mycotoxins have inhibitory effects on the function of bovine PMNs.  (+info)

Biological reactive intermediates of bisfuranoid mycotoxins. (7/28)

Based on the mode of action of AFB1 and the activities of its biologically active intermediates, one may conclude that: 1. The mode of toxic action of the bisfuranoid mycotoxin is through epoxidation of the vinyl ether double bond of their dihydrobisfuran functionality. 2. The DNA and plasma albumin adducts formed in vivo may be useful in the molecular dosimetry of these environmental carcinogens. 3. Monitoring of these adducts of AFB1 in biological samples so far indicates that aflatoxin is likely involved in the etiology of human liver cancer.  (+info)

Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from urban centers in Kenya. (8/28)

BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated AFB1 metabolite present in milk of cows fed with a diet contaminated with AFB1and excreted within 12 hours of administration of contaminated feeds. OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. METHODS: This work was carried out in the Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, between February 2006 and March 2007. RESULTS: A total of 830 animal feed and 613 milk samples from four urban centers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 and M1 respectively using competitive enzyme immunoassay. Eighty six percent (353/412) of the feed samples from farmers were positive for aflatoxin B1 and 67% (235/353) of these exceeded the FAO/WHO level of 5micro gKg-1. Eighty one percent (197/243) of the feed samples from feed millers and 87% (153/175) from agrochemical shops were positive, while 58% (115/197) and 66% (92/153) of the positive samples exceeded the FAO/WHO limits respectively. Seventy two percent (315/439) of the milk from dairy farmers, 84% (71/85) from large and medium scale farmers and 99% (88/89) of the pasteurized marketed milk were positive for aflatoxin M1, and 20%, 35% an 31% of positive milk from dairy farmers, medium and large scale farmers and market outlets respectively, exceeded the WHO/FAO levels of 0.05micro g/Kg-1. Sixty seven percent of the urban smallholder dairy farmers had no knowledge that milk could be contaminated with aflatoxin M1 and neither knew how they could mitigate against this exposure. Feed millers knew about aflatoxin B1 in grains and excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk, but were not alleviating exposure to animals. CONCLUSION: There is need to create awareness and establish routine monitoring of animal feeds and milk to reduce animal and consequently human response.  (+info)

The chemical structure of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 is the 4-hydroxy derivative of aflatoxin B1 and is secreted in the milk of ... Aflatoxin M1 has a relative molecular mass of 328 Da and has the molecular formula C17H12O7. Aflatoxin M1 may be found in milk ... Aflatoxin M1 is usually considered to be a detoxication by-product of aflatoxin B1. The main sources of aflatoxins in feeds are ... Aflatoxin M1 has toxic and carcinogenic properties. The toxicity of aflatoxin M1 in ducklings and rats seems to be slightly ...
Contaminants found included Aflatoxin M1 (in 5.7% of samples) and antibiotics (1.2%). Adulterants - hydrogen peroxide, urea, ...
... M1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticus, but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an ... parasiticus Aflatoxin G1 and G2 (AFG), produced by some Group II A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), ... ISBN 978-0-8493-4904-1. Neal GE, Eaton DL, Judah DJ, Verma A (July 1998). "Metabolism and toxicity of aflatoxins M1 and B1 in ... In dogs, aflatoxin has potential to lead to liver disease. Low levels of aflatoxin exposure require continuous consumption for ...
Ligand binding increases when in the presence of CYP3A4 ligands, such as in the presence of aflatoxin B1, M1, and G1. Indeed, ... Ratajewski M, Walczak-Drzewiecka A, Sałkowska A, Dastych J (August 2011). "Aflatoxins upregulate CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a ...
... ultra-rapid detection of aflatoxin M1. Food Control 29: 208-12 Varelas, V., Sanvicens N, Marco MP, Kintzios S (2010) ...
The laboratory can determine the concentrations of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin ...
... aflatoxins MeSH D03.438.150.119.075 - aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.438.150.119.100 - aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.438.150.240 - chromans MeSH ... aflatoxins MeSH D03.830.219.119.075 - aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.830.219.119.100 - aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.830.219.240 - chromans MeSH ...
In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver ... For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin- ... "Aflatoxins". Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in ...
Aflatoxin M1 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone para-Aminoazobenzene ortho-Aminoazotoluene 2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4- ...
For example, in China in December 2011, high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be ... Aflatoxin is an example of a mycotoxin. It is a cancer-causing poison produced by certain fungi in or on foods and feeds, ... Brinkman M (December 20, 2005). "Diamond Pet Food Recalled Due to Aflatoxin". FDA.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2014. FDA, Center for ... Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ...
The molecular formula C17H12O7 may refer to: Aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide, a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxin M1, a ... chemical compound of the aflatoxin class This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same ...
... aflatoxins MeSH D23.946.587.142.075 - aflatoxin b1 MeSH D23.946.587.142.100 - aflatoxin m1 MeSH D23.946.587.175 - amanitins ...
Moreover, the baby feeds aflatoxin M1 from its mom, as aflatoxin M1 is the detoxification product of aflatoxin B1. It is a ... The babies have homozygous deficiency of glutathione S transferase (GST) M1. The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct ... abnormally high levels of aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 was found in liver tissue and blood of all neonates ... Some cases of biliary atresia may result from exposure to aflatoxin B1, and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 during late ...
Dhand NK, Joshi DB, Jand SK (1998). "Aflatoxins in dairy feeds/ingredients". Ind. J. Anim. Nutr. 15: 285-286. Vasanthi S, Bhat ... neosolaniol and T-2 toxin of Fusarium solani M-1-1". Japanese J. Exp. Med. 42 (3): 187-203. PMID 4538152. Lou XY (1988). " ... Hesseltine CW, Shotwell OL, Smith M, Ellis JJ, Vandegraft E, Shannon G (1970). "Production of various aflatoxins by strains of ... Skrinjar M, Danev M, Dimic G (1995). "Investigation on the presence of toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins in raw milk". Acta ...
Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin that is produced from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasititcus. A type of Aflatoxin, AFB1 is ... Examples include the mycoviruses ScV-M1, ScV-M2, and ScV-M28 in the Totiviridae family that contain "killer toxin" genes K1, K2 ... Recently, researchers discovered that it is only the yeasts infected with either ScV-M1, ScV-M2, or ScV-M28 mycoviruses that ...
"Genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, interactions with smoking ... "Susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with genetic variation in the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 ...
9 Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/1028) A40 Trunk Road (Sandhills) Detrunking Order 1992 (S.I. 1992/1029) M1 Motorway (Junction 1 ... Aflatoxins in Nuts, Nut Products, Dried Figs and Dried Fig Products Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/3236) Education (Grants) ( ... 2 and Transitional Provision) Order 1992 (S.I. 1992/532) M1 London-Yorkshire Motorway (Widening Junction 9 to 10 Northbound) ... M1 Motorway (Junction 13) to South Bedford) Order 1992 (S.I. 1992/1135) Harwich Parkeston Quay Harbour Revision Order 1992 (S.I ...
... and alumina silicate beads for the reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in vitro. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on ... and alumina silicate beads for the reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in vitro. ... and alumina silicate beads for the reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in vitro. ... and alumina silicate beads for the reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in vitro. ...
Aflatoxin B1 (1). * Aflatoxin M1 (1). * Aldosterone (1). * Alpha 1 Acid Glycoprotein/AGP (1). ...
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Aflatoxin b1 occurrence in children under the age of fives food products and aflatoxin m1 exposure assessment and risk ... The carcinogenic potency of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was severely reported. The aims of this study were (1) ...
Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk using spectroscopy and multivariate analyses. P Jaiswal, SN Jha, J Kaur, A Borah, HG Ramya ...
Aflatoxin B1 D3.830.219.119.75 D3.383.663.283.119.75 Aflatoxin M1 D3.830.219.119.100 D3.383.663.283.119.100 Aflatoxins D3.830. ...
Aflatoxin M1 was the only mycotoxin to have levels above the European Union (EU) cutoffs for infant milk replacement formula ( ... This study found widespread Aflatoxin M1 contamination of breastmilk in western Kenya. There were no significant associations ... This study quantifies infant exposure to mycotoxins (aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and deoxynivalenol) through ... specifically aflatoxin M1, in the etiology of child malnutrition and maternal mastitis and anemia in western Kenya. ...
Aflatoxin M1 Immunoaffinity Column. Order No.: QC0068,QC0069,QC0131,QC0071Column Capacity:100 ngVolumn: 3mLPackage: 25/50T ... Aflatoxins B1 ELISA Test Kit for Feed. The Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive ELISA for the qualitative or ... Immunoaffinity Column for Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1,G2. The immunoaffinity column can selectively adsorb aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) ... Aflatoxin B1 Quantitative Rapid Lateral Flow Test Kit. The kit is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay that determines a ...
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Detection of aflatoxin M1 by fiber cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy. January 25, 2021. January 25, 2021. akiraz ...
Aflatoxin M1: biological decontamination methods in milk and cheese (2022). Gonçalves, Bruna Leonel; Uliana, Rômulo Dutra ; ... Aflatoxin M1: biological decontamination methods in milk and cheese. Food Science and Technology, v. 42, p. 1-8, 2022Tradução ... Aflatoxin M1: biological decontamination methods in milk and cheese [Internet]. Food Science and Technology. 2022 ; 42 1-8.[ ... Aflatoxin M1: biological decontamination methods in milk and cheese [Internet]. Food Science and Technology. 2022 ; 42 1-8.[ ...
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  • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1. (srainstruments.com)
  • The aim was to evaluate the changes in aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in human breast milk (HBM) during the first five postpartum months according to the sampling season in a cohort study from Sanliurfa. (bvsalud.org)
  • It has recently been observed that addition of oltipraz to rat liver microsomes or to cultured human hepatocytes blocks the oxidative metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to its 8,9-oxide and the hydroxylated derivative aflatoxin Ml (AFM1). (nih.gov)
  • The carcinogenic potency of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was severely reported. (who.int)
  • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) appears in milk and dairy products, as a result results, improper follow-ups or even lack of further investigation on of ingestion of contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (cdc.gov)
  • Influence of season and lactational stage on aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in human milk in a cohort study from southeastern region of Turkey. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparison of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determining aflatoxin M1 in milk. (nih.gov)
  • Using a highly specific antibody against aflatoxin M1, a radioimmunoassay (RIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed for the quantitation of M1 in milk. (nih.gov)
  • Extraction and cleanup were therefore necessary for the detection of M1 in milk at 0.5 ng/mL. (nih.gov)
  • As low as 0.25 ng M1/mL in artificially contaminated milk (raw, whole, skim) could be detected by ELISA in 3 h without extraction or cleanup. (nih.gov)
  • Because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity, ELISA is the preferred method for monitoring aflatoxin M1 in milk. (nih.gov)
  • In practice, however, the technology used to produce milk and cheese is unable to guarantee the total absence of aflatoxins, as demonstrated by research performed in several countries. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Aflatoxin M1 was the only mycotoxin to have levels above the European Union (EU) cutoffs for infant milk replacement formula (0.025 ng/mL). (emory.edu)
  • The Helica Aflatoxin M1 Low Matrix (High Sensitivity) ELISA is a solid phase competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative detection of Aflatoxin M1 in milk, milk powder, and cheese. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Aflatoxin M1 Ultra ELISA assay is a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for the quantitative detection of Aflatoxin M1 in milk, skim milk powder, and yogurt. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Aflatoxin M1 Quantitative ELISA is a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay intended for the quantitative detection of Aflatoxin M1 in milk, milk powder, and cheese. (smtraders.net)
  • EuroProxima PLUS Aflatoxin M1 fast is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and butter. (r-biopharm.com)
  • EuroProxima PLUS Aflatoxin M1 sensitive is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese, butter and infant formula. (r-biopharm.com)
  • RIDASCREEN®FAST Aflatoxin M1 is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk powder. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Aflatoxin M1 contamination in different types of milk: A risk for genotoxic effects is evaluated after considering ADME data. (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of this review, the monograph concludes that naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and that aflatoxin M1 occurring in milk is possible carcinogenic. (who.int)
  • 5. Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Traditional Turkish Cereal-Based Fermented Food by Multi-Affinity Column Cleanup and LC Fluorescence Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (nih.gov)
  • This study quantifies infant exposure to mycotoxins (aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and deoxynivalenol) through breastmilk and explores the role of mycotoxins, specifically aflatoxin M1, in the etiology of child malnutrition and maternal mastitis and anemia in western Kenya. (emory.edu)
  • This new solution includes strip test versions for Total Aflatoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON), Fumonisin, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone and T-2/HT-2. (kwinbonbio.com)
  • AOF MS-PREP® immunoaffinity columns contain highly specific monoclonal antibodies directed against aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and fumonisin. (r-biopharm.com)
  • HBV demonstrates the ability to integrate and bind to p53 protein in the host DNA and propagate hepatocyte vulnerability through carcinogenic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) damage. (who.int)
  • A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1 , one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in male hepatitis B surface antigen carriers with chronic hepatitis who have detectable urinary aflatoxin metabolite M1. (nih.gov)
  • This type of aflatoxins is produced as a metabolite of aflatoxin B1, when lactating cows eat contaminated feed. (r-biopharm.com)
  • 1. Determination of mould and aflatoxin contamination in tarhana, a Turkish fermented food. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Surveys of aflatoxin B1 contamination of retail Turkish foods and of products intended for export between 2007 and 2009. (nih.gov)
  • 7. The aflatoxin contamination of ground red pepper and pistachio nuts sold in Turkey. (nih.gov)
  • 11. [Aflatoxin contamination of corn samples collected from six regions of China]. (nih.gov)
  • 12. [Aflatoxins B and g contamination and aflatoxigenic fungi in nutmeg]. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Mold flora and aflatoxin contamination of stored and cooked samples of pearl millet in the Paharia tribal belt of Santhal paragana, Bihar, India. (nih.gov)
  • 20. The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is a Food-contaminant, regulated in most countries from Fermentek_Ltd is used by dedicated laboratories as a reference material, necessary to detect contamination in food and feed stuffs. (fermentek.com)
  • This study found widespread Aflatoxin M1 contamination of breastmilk in western Kenya. (emory.edu)
  • 9. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column derivatization for the detection of aflatoxins in cereals and grains. (nih.gov)
  • Rapid results: The assay can be completed within 2-3 hours, allowing for quick detection of aflatoxins in food products. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Total Aflatoxin Hydro ELISA is a water-based competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay intended for the quantitative detection of aflatoxins in corn. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Mycotox Total Aflatoxin ELISA is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay intended for the quantitative detection of total aflatoxins in corn including dent or field corn, cornmeal, corn flour, cracked corn, corn grits or polenta, and corn screenings. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Aflatoxin B1 (Rapid) ELISA is a solid phase competitive enzyme immunoassay, for the quantitative detection of Aflatoxin B1 in grains, nuts, cottonseeds, cereals, and other commodities including animal feeds. (smtraders.net)
  • Description: This kit is detection for Aflatoxin M1 in human serum or plase. (taq-polymerase-dna.com)
  • A qualitative screening card for the detection of different aflatoxin total levels in food and feed samples. (r-biopharm.com)
  • A qualitative screening card for detection of aflatoxin B1 at various levels in food and feed commodities. (r-biopharm.com)
  • This kit has also been validated to detect total aflatoxins in cannabis flowers to ensure safety to consumers. (smtraders.net)
  • This ELISA assay utilise the principle of competitive binding to measure the concentration of Total Aflatoxins in analyzed samples. (agrisera.com)
  • The Total Aflatoxins were pre-coated on the surface of the reaction wells. (agrisera.com)
  • Samples, containing an unknown amount of Total Aflatoxins, or standards are added to the appropriate plate wells together with anti-Total Aflatoxins antibody and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugated anti-antibody. (agrisera.com)
  • During incubation the competitive inhibition reaction occrus between pre-coated Total Aflatoxins and Total Alatoxins in standards and samples with specific antibody against Total Aflatoxins. (agrisera.com)
  • Substrate solution is added to the wells and the color develops in opposite to the amount of Total Aflatoxins in the sample or standards. (agrisera.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin. (fermentek.com)
  • 14. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan. (nih.gov)
  • its carcinogenic potency is estimated to be approximately 10 times lower than aflatoxin B1. (srainstruments.com)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma and polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing and DNA repair enzymes in a population with aflatoxin exposure and hepatitis B virus endemicity. (cdc.gov)
  • N-Acetyltransferase-2, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study. (cdc.gov)
  • Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms are not related to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a study in the Spanish population. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. (who.int)
  • The kit is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay that determines a quantitative level for the presence of aflatoxin B1 and is intended for use in nuts, grain and feed. (mzfoodtest.com)
  • The Helica Total Aflatoxin Low Matrix Quantitative ELISA is a competitive assay capable of measuring total aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in a variety of food and beverages. (smtraders.net)
  • The Helica Aflatoxin M1 (Urine) assay in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative determination of aflatoxin in urine at levels which should be helpful in monitoring populations at risk for acute or chronic aflatoxicosis. (smtraders.net)
  • EuroProxima Aflatoxin B1 is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1 in cereals, rice, egg, nuts, honey, mashed fruits, edible oils and feed. (r-biopharm.com)
  • EuroProxima Aflatoxin B1 sensitive is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin B1 in cereals, nuts, feed, infant food, liver, red pepper and serum. (r-biopharm.com)
  • EuroProxima Total Aflatoxin is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for quantitative analysis of aflatoxin total in cereals (unprocessed), cereals (processed), nuts, feed, infant food, liver, red pepper, serum and brown rice. (r-biopharm.com)
  • RIDASCREEN®FAST Aflatoxin SC is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of aflatoxin in cereals and feed with a single control standard curve. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Strictly speaking, cheese should be completely free of aflatoxins, a class of toxic compounds that are produced by certain molds found in food, and can cause liver damage and cancer. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Gonçalves BL, Uliana RD, Lee SHI, Coppa CFSC, Oliveira CAF de, Kamimura ES, Corassin CH. Use of scanning electron microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography to assess the ability of microorganisms to bind aflatoxin M1 in Minas Frescal cheese [Internet]. (usp.br)
  • One way to test for aflatoxins is through the use of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits, such as Helica™ Aflatoxin ELISA's. (smtraders.net)
  • There were statistically significant associations found between chronic aflatoxin exposure and infant WAZ and WHZ, and maternal subclinical mastitis at the 4-month follow-up. (emory.edu)
  • Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 associated with susceptibility to aflatoxin-related hepatocarcinogenesis among chronic hepatitis B carriers: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 in patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and normal carriers. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. Aflatoxin levels and exposure assessment of Spanish infant cereals. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Survey of breakfast and infant cereals for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in foods and feed materials. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Aflatoxins in pozol, a nixtamalized, maize-based food. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Distribution of aflatoxins in product and by-products during glucose production from contaminated corn. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxins are a group of toxic chemicals produced by certain types of fungi that can contaminate food crops such as peanuts, corn, and cottonseed. (smtraders.net)
  • Production of aflatoxin by the culture of strains of Aspergillus flavus-oryzae on sterilized peanuts. (fermentek.com)
  • Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the fungi species Aspergillus flavus , parasiticus and nomius . (r-biopharm.com)
  • The innovative RIDA®SMART APP is a completely new way to quantify aflatoxins - simply with your smartphone. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Aflatoxins are highly toxic even in low concentrations. (r-biopharm.com)
  • This is the most prevalent and most toxic type of aflatoxins. (r-biopharm.com)
  • Competitive assays revealed that this system was relatively more sensitive for M1 than for B1, and had a much lower degree of cross-reactivity for aflatoxins B2, G1, G2, B2a, and aflatoxicol. (nih.gov)
  • Regression modeling revealed no statistically significant relationship between elevated aflatoxin levels and child stunting, wasting, underweight, or anemia at 4 or 9 months. (emory.edu)
  • There were also no statistically significant associations detected between breastmilk aflatoxin levels and maternal mastitis or anemia. (emory.edu)
  • Associations of plasma aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct level with plasma selenium level and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1. (cdc.gov)
  • Helica™ Aflatoxin ELISA's allow users a cost-effective & user-friendly way to rapidly test for Aflatoxins in a wide range of validated commodities. (smtraders.net)
  • The presence of aflatoxin M1 in all of the samples shows that each stage of the production chain needs to be improved, from the milking of cows to product finishing. (technologynetworks.com)
  • If this study had been conducted three decades ago, it would probably have found aflatoxins in less than half of the samples. (technologynetworks.com)
  • According to regulation no. 1881/2006, the limit value in the EU is 4 µg/kg (total aflatoxin content). (r-biopharm.com)
  • It appears nearly in all cases together with Aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2. (r-biopharm.com)
  • In order to protect consumers against the harmful effects of aflatoxins, many countries specified limit values. (r-biopharm.com)
  • It is a very informative article in respect of aflatoxin. (engormix.com)