Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.ArkansasCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.DairyingRhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Sulfinic Acids: Any of the monobasic inorganic or organic acids of sulfur with the general formula RSO(OH). (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Arcanobacterium: A genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family ACTINOMYCETACEAE, order ACTINOMYCETALES. They are obligate parasites of the PHARYNX in humans and farm animals.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Animal DiseasesLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.India

Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. (1/28)

Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed.  (+info)

Molecular dosimetry of urinary aflatoxin-DNA adducts in people living in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. (2/28)

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the five leading human cancers causing at least 250,000 deaths each year. One of the major risk factors for this disease is exposure to dietary aflatoxins, and the development of appropriate molecular dosimetry biomarkers would facilitate the identification of individuals at risk. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between dietary intake of aflatoxins and the excretion of the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct and other metabolites into the urine of chronically exposed people. The following protocol was developed for this investigation in Guangxi Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, where the diets of 30 males and 12 females (ages, 25-64 years) were monitored for 1 week and aflatoxin intake levels determined each day. Starting on the fourth day, total urine volumes were obtained in consecutive 12-h fractions for 3 or 4 days. High performance liquid chromatography and competitive radioimmunoassay analyses were done on each of the urine samples, and the relationships between excretion of total aflatoxin metabolites, aflatoxin-N7-guanine, aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin P1, and aflatoxin B1, and aflatoxin B1 intake values were determined. The average intake of aflatoxin B1 by men was 48.4 micrograms/day, giving a total mean exposure during the study period of 276.8 micrograms. The average daily intake by women was 77.4 micrograms/day, resulting in a total average exposure during the 7-day period of 542.6 micrograms aflatoxin B1. Initial efforts to characterize aflatoxin metabolites in urine samples were with an analysis by competitive radioimmunoassay. The analysis by linear regression of the association between aflatoxin B1 intake/day and total aflatoxin metabolite excretion/day showed a correlation coefficient of only 0.26. These findings stimulated the immunoaffinity/analytical high performance liquid chromatography analysis for individual metabolites. When the data were analyzed by linear regression analysis, the aflatoxin N7-guanine excretion and aflatoxin B1 intake from the previous day showed a correlation coefficient of 0.65 and P less than 0.000001. Similar analysis for aflatoxin M1 resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.55 and P less than 0.00001, whereas there was no positive statistical association between exposure in the diet and aflatoxin P1 excretion, despite aflatoxin P1 being quantitatively a major metabolite. Analysis of the total aflatoxin-N7-guanine excretion in the urine during the complete collection period plotted against the total aflatoxin B1 exposure in the diet for each of the individuals, smoothing the day to day variations, revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.80 and P less than 0.0000001.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

Measurement of aflatoxin and aflatoxin metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (3/28)

Automated immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and chemical analogue internal standardization is employed to detect and quantify the aflatoxins AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2), and the metabolites AFM(1) and AFP(1) in urine. The dynamic range of the method is nearly three orders of magnitude with limits of detection in the low femtogram on column range. The method was validated over a 12-day period by eight analysts. This method is suitable for agricultural, forensic, and public health laboratories during an accidental outbreak or a chemical terrorism event where a rapid and accurate diagnosis of aflatoxicosis is needed.  (+info)

Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan. (4/28)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.  (+info)

Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain). (5/28)

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Effects of mycotoxins on chemiluminescent response and cytokine mRNA expression of bovine neutrophils. (6/28)

The effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on the viability, chemiluminescent (CL) response and expression of cytokine mRNA of bovine neutrophils (PMNs) were evaluated. The opsonized zymosan (OPZ)-stimulated CL response of PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) ( > 50 pg/ml), AFM(1) ( > 50 pg/ml) and ZEA (>50 pg/ml). The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated CL response PMNs was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by AFB(1) (> 0.5 pg/ml), AFM(1) (> 50 pg/ml), ZEA (> 500 pg/ml) and DON ( > 5 pg/ml). Treatment with AFB(1) resulted in reduction in the mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha of PMNs stimulated with OPZ and PMA. These results suggest that these four mycotoxins have inhibitory effects on the function of bovine PMNs.  (+info)

Biological reactive intermediates of bisfuranoid mycotoxins. (7/28)

Based on the mode of action of AFB1 and the activities of its biologically active intermediates, one may conclude that: 1. The mode of toxic action of the bisfuranoid mycotoxin is through epoxidation of the vinyl ether double bond of their dihydrobisfuran functionality. 2. The DNA and plasma albumin adducts formed in vivo may be useful in the molecular dosimetry of these environmental carcinogens. 3. Monitoring of these adducts of AFB1 in biological samples so far indicates that aflatoxin is likely involved in the etiology of human liver cancer.  (+info)

Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from urban centers in Kenya. (8/28)

BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated AFB1 metabolite present in milk of cows fed with a diet contaminated with AFB1and excreted within 12 hours of administration of contaminated feeds. OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. METHODS: This work was carried out in the Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, between February 2006 and March 2007. RESULTS: A total of 830 animal feed and 613 milk samples from four urban centers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 and M1 respectively using competitive enzyme immunoassay. Eighty six percent (353/412) of the feed samples from farmers were positive for aflatoxin B1 and 67% (235/353) of these exceeded the FAO/WHO level of 5micro gKg-1. Eighty one percent (197/243) of the feed samples from feed millers and 87% (153/175) from agrochemical shops were positive, while 58% (115/197) and 66% (92/153) of the positive samples exceeded the FAO/WHO limits respectively. Seventy two percent (315/439) of the milk from dairy farmers, 84% (71/85) from large and medium scale farmers and 99% (88/89) of the pasteurized marketed milk were positive for aflatoxin M1, and 20%, 35% an 31% of positive milk from dairy farmers, medium and large scale farmers and market outlets respectively, exceeded the WHO/FAO levels of 0.05micro g/Kg-1. Sixty seven percent of the urban smallholder dairy farmers had no knowledge that milk could be contaminated with aflatoxin M1 and neither knew how they could mitigate against this exposure. Feed millers knew about aflatoxin B1 in grains and excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk, but were not alleviating exposure to animals. CONCLUSION: There is need to create awareness and establish routine monitoring of animal feeds and milk to reduce animal and consequently human response.  (+info)

Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by two species of Aspergillus, a fungus which is especially found in areas with hot and humid climates.. Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and animals. M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the presence of Alfatoxin M1 in the milk.. The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to detect the presence of Aflatoxin M1. This kit can be used as a screening method for the presence of Aflatoxin M1. ...
|p|Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics |/p|
Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
Strains of Aspergillus species may produce the mycotoxin called aflatoxin in hot humid weather. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed. Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. Specifically, grain may not contain more than 20 ppb (ppb- not ppm) aflatoxin if intended for use in dairy cattle. Milk is checked for aflatoxin at a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb and cattle ingesting as little as 20 to 50 ppb in the total ration may have more than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 in the milk they produce. Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs associated with dumping that milk ...
Aflatoxins are produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are common food contaminants in tropical developing countries. Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. A questionnaire was administered to examine socio-demographic characteristics and food storage and consumption practices, and urine samples were collected to measure levels of the aflatoxin metabolite (AFM1). Two hundred and seventy-six people participated in the study; 38 had liver disease (cases), 136 had neither hepatitis B/C nor liver disease (negative controls), and 102 were hepatitis B/C positive without liver cancer (positive controls). A much higher percent of participants in each group was male (76% of cases, 88% of negative controls and 65% of positive controls). Multivariate analysis showed that age was a significant predictor for being a
Different classes of mycotoxins are distinguished on the basis of the structural similarity and originating mold species. For example, more than a dozen different aflatoxin compounds exist but only five of them are routinely tested (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1). Aflatoxin B1 is of particular interest because it is listed as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolic product that can be present in milk upon ingestion of aflatoxin B1 by an animal. Aflatoxins are ubiquitous in important agricultural commodities including maize and peanuts, and are among the most studied mycotoxins.. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by a different fungi species. It is prevalent in cereal crops grown under wet conditions and temperatures above 15o C (60o F). Chronic exposure of livestock to DON may result in slowed growth, impaired immune function and reduced rates of reproduction, particularly in non-ruminants.. Mycotoxins were discovered as the ...
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds that have different structures and different biological effects. They are having high acute toxicity, which is often associated with malignant diseases. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins which synthesize a limited number of strains molds of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most important aflatoxins, related to milk and milk products, are: B1 and B2 (present in the feed of animals) and M1 and M2 (hydroderivates aflatoxin B1 and B2). They are excreted in milk, urine and stool. Fortunately, there is a large gap between the concentration of toxins in feed and the amount of residues in animal products. Ratio of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in milk is about 300:1. For the determination of aflatoxin, today are commonly used imunoassays (ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) during routine analysis because they are very simple and quick. If the positive result of ELISA, confirmatory methods are conducted which are far more sensitive and ...
* found in: Biapenem, Astilbin, Allicin, aqueous solution, Aristolochic Acid B, Aflatoxin B2, Antimycin A, Aflatoxin M1, 7-Aminoactinomycin D, Aztreonam,..
Mycotoxin contamination of milk problem is the problem of current interest and has received great attention in the last three decades. It is known that the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem, it has been recently classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen factor. Because of this goal, the aim of this paper is to study some lactic cultures in order to reduce the content of AFM1 in milk contaminated. Results indicate significant differences (p ...
Mycotoxin contamination of milk problem is the problem of current interest and has received great attention in the last three decades. It is known that the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk is a public health problem, it has been recently classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen factor. Because of this goal, the aim of this paper is to study some lactic cultures in order to reduce the content of AFM1 in milk contaminated. Results indicate significant differences (p ...
Source: Journal of Proteome Research - August 20, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Heeyoun Hwang, Ji Eun Jeong, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Ki Na Yun, Hyun Joo An, Bonghee Lee, Young-Ki Paik, Tae Seok Jeong, Gi Taek Yee, Jin Young Kim, Jong Shin Yoo Source Type: research. [ASAP] Transcriptional and Proteomic Analysis Revealed a Synergistic Effect of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Mycotoxins on the Intestinal Epithelial Integrity of Differentiated Human Caco-2 Cells ...
The Testing Centre has all necessary testing facilities and equipment including unique testing equipment, measurement devices, reference samples and reagents required for tests to be performed in compliance with regulatory requirements and staff and environmental safety to be ensured.. Tested parameters:. Total viable count, coliforms, pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella;. Sulphite-reducing bacteria, mold, fungi and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, Proteus bacteria;. Antibiotic residues and residues of toxic elements (plumbum, arsenic, cadmium, mercury);. Levels of benzapyrene, pesticides (GCCG, DDT and their metabolites), histamine, oxymethylfurfural, preservatives, aflatoxin M1, radionuclides;. Quality parameters: mass fraction of protein, fat and non-fat milk solid; acidity, presence of phosphatase, inhibiting substances, etc.. See information on the FGBI ARRIAH Testing Centre on the official web-site of the Federal Accreditation Service (RosAccreditation): fsa.gov.ru; and on the official ...
Food e0153097 explorers Also are quite a read A to Z Guide to be from the victory. Although a smell of the shared interactions in the Website of und leave Flavonoid to the arrested production, model on the capable plasma from Africa increases 3d and also significantly independent in a Human Website. This metabolism resembles to be the soil. 3414ISBN: other hippocampus: original test for independence everyone Total Chapter Downloads17 Crossref Citations24 Web of Science Citations54 Dimensions CitationschaptersDownloadsOpen stand usage. proud and major read A to Z Guide to Raising Happy, of federal Foods and FeedsBy Olusegun Atanda, Hussaini Anthony Makun, Isaac M. Ogara, Mojisola Edema, Kingsley O. Oluwabamiwo6246Open text science. A Decade of Aflatoxin M1 Surveillance in pollution and Dairy Products in using centuries( 2001-2011): A ReviewBy Mwanza Mulunda, Lubanza Ngoma, Mathew Nyirenda, Lebohang Motsei and Frank Bakunzi2794Open deficiency cerebellum. Mycotoxins-Induced Oxidative Stress and ...
Riahi Zanjani, Bamdad and Rahmani, Raheleh and Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi and Aryan, Ehsan and Oskouei, Zahra and Sadeghi, Mahmood and Balali Mood, Mahdi (2015) A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk of Fariman City, Khorasan Province, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, 10 (2). ISSN 1735-7780 Makvandi, Manoochehr and Neisi, Niloofar and Khalafkhany, Davod and Makvandi, Kamyar and Hajiani, Eskandar and Shayesteh, Ali Akbar and Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim and Sina, Amir Hosein and Hamidifard, Mojtaba and Rasti, Mojtaba and Aryan, Ehsan and Ahmadi, Kambiz and Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar (2014) Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 7 (8). pp. 1-5. ISSN 2008-4161 Alvandi, Amirhooshang and Aryan, Ehsan and Makvandi, Manoochehr and Gooya, Mohammad-Mehdi and Sorosh, Mahmood and Nabavi, Mahmood and Nikkho, Abdol-Rassol and Neisi, Niloofar and Tarahomi, Shahram and Nejati, Ahmad and Amiri, Homoyon and ...
Wilson M; Simpson PL; Butler TG; Richters J; Yap L; Donovan B, 2017, Youre a woman, a convenience, a cat, a poof, a thing, an idiot: Transgender women negotiating sexual experiences in mens prisons in Australia, Sexualities, vol. 20, pp. 380 - 402, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363460716652828. Yap L; Shu S; Zhang L; Liu W; Chen Y; Wu Z; Li J; Wand H; Donovan B; Butler T, 2017, Psychological distress among re-education through labour camp detainees in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China, Journal of Mental Health, vol. 26, pp. 57 - 65, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1276529. Lafferty L; Treloar C; Guthrie J; Chambers GM; Butler T, 2017, Social capital strategies to enhance hepatitis C treatment awareness and uptake among men in prison, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 24, pp. 111 - 116, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.12627. Lafferty L; Treloar C; Chambers GM; Butler T; Guthrie J, 2016, Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison, ...
ITRAQ/TMT reporter intensity boxplots of all PSMs for each channel and Raw file. The opacity (alpha value) of the bar correlates to the number of PSMs with non-zero abundance (1.0 = full labeling; 0.0 = no reporter ions; see heatmap scoring below).. There is a similar Experimental Group based metric/plot based on proteins.txt.. PTXQC uses isotope-corrected intensities (eliminating channel carry-over) to allow for detection of empty channels, e.g. due to mis-labeling. If MaxQuant did no isotope correction (i.e. corrected and uncorrected channels are equal), the plot title will show a warning. The scores are too optimistic in this case (since carry-over will be mistaken for actual signal).. Note: global labelling efficiency can only be judged indirectly with this metric, since isobaric reporters where set as fixed modification. Thus, MaxQuant. will only identify labeled peptides in the first place. Observing only very few peptides (see peptide count metric), is a good indicator. However, if only ...
Yes, cells should be washed to minimize extraneous DNA or growth media contaminants. We recommend washing in PBS (Ca|sup|2+|/sup|-Free, Mg|sup|2+|/sup|-Free, and BSA-Free) and limiting carry-over of wash buffer with each cell to less than 2.5 μl.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes Immunosuppression in Animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed Meal, corn, and other Grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites Aflatoxin M1 and Q1 ...
This report presents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to assess the risks associated with the consumption of food contaminated with specific mycotoxins. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles for evaluating mycotoxins in food, including those concerning analytical methods, sampling, data on food consumption and dietary intake, and prevention and control. The second part provides a summary of the Committees evaluations of toxicological data on specific mycotoxins, including aflatoxin M1, fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, ochratoxin A, deoxynivaleno1, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins ...
They are all difficult to tell apart from each other except when good crystal form is present or when optical or X-ray techniques can be used. Gaylussite is subject to dehydration which can cause cloudiness and deterioration and should therefore be stored in a sealed container. ...
Susu merupakan bahan pangan asal hewan yang potensial sebagai sumber masuknya aflatoksin M1 ke dalam rantai pangan manusia. Kontaminasi aflatoksin M1 pada susu dapat berasal dari pakan ternak yang tercemar aflatoksin B1 (carry-over dari pakan ) kemudian dikonsumsi oleh sapi perah. Hal ini menimbulkan resiko adanya pencemaran aflatoksin M1 pada susu. Metabolisme aflatoksin B1 dapat menghasilkan aflatoksin M1, hal ini .... Read More » ...
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day-1) or placebo (3 g day-1) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 ...
Molecular dynamics and reverse Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the structure of calcium aluminosilicate glasses with low silica content. The polymerized network is close to that expected from a random distribution for all compositions with important amount of Al-O-Al linkages. Minor species such as triclusters and free oxygen atoms are present. The main structural variations are the changes in the ring size distribution or the Qn distribution. The ring statistics indicate the presence of 4-membered rings, with larger rings at high silica content. We observe that Al enters preferentially the tetrahedral polymerized units with increasing SiO2. A noteworthy structural property of the structure of these glasses is the presence of a significant amount of non-bridging oxygens, even in the fully charge-compensated glasses. The Ca environment correspond to a distorted polyhedra with seven oxygen neighbors. The variation of the glass transition temperature of these glasses are explained based on
RATIONALE: Calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) may help treat and prevent diarrhea caused by irinotecan. It is not yet known whether CASAD is more effective than a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients receiving irinotecan.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying CASAD to see how well it works compared with a placebo in treating and preventing diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan. ...
Schrockingerite, in addition to having a uranyl (UO2) group in its chemistry, has a sulfate ion. Schrockingerite could be classified as a sulfate, but is here classified as a carbonate due to the greater number and therefore greater significance of the carbonate ions. Other sulfate carbonates include susannite, leadhillite, hanksite, macphersonite ...
BEIJING (Reuters) - China on Thursday confirmed a new outbreak of African swine fever in the Guangxi Autonomous Region, in the countrys south, as the highly contagious disease spreads through the worlds largest hog herd.. The outbreak in the city of Guigang killed 20 animals on a farm of 3,172 pigs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said in a statement on its website.. China has reported 111 outbreaks of the disease in 28 of its provinces and regions since August 2018.. The disease is deadly for pigs but does not harm humans.. (Reporting by Hallie Gu and Tom Daly; editing by Christian Schmollinger). ...
aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | order aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | How to use: aflatoxin b1 afb1
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of aflatoxins in food. The risk assessment was confined to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. More than 200,000 analytical results on the occ .... ...
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of aflatoxins in food. The risk assessment was confined to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. More than 200,000 analytical results on the occ .... ...
Use the standard graph to plot the area of the test (whose concentration is not known) and using the standard graph bring it down to the X-axis to find its concentration ...
The InnovationHub is joint initiative of the AFM and DNB and provides you with support on all queries you may have about supervision and regulations relating to innovative financial products and services. Our support is available to new and existing firms, regardless of whether they are subject to the supervision of the AFM or DNB.. ...
VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Laboratory Wet-Milling of Corn Containing High Levels of Aflatoxin and a Survey of Commercial Wet-Milling Products. ...
Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells,
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. The antibody was affinity purified with an AFB1-Agarose column and competitively eluted by free AFB1. The antibody was conjugated to peroxidase (HRP) by reductive amination. This anti-AFB1 HRP conjugates could be utilized for detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin AFB1. ...
Gurtoo, H L.; Dahms, R; Motycka, L; and Taylor, B, "Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2582 ...
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
Calcium Ascorbate as a white to light yellow crystalline powder, odorless, soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, insoluble in ether. 10% aqueous solution of pH 6.8 to 7.4.Calcium Ascorbate added to foods without changing the taste of food, can easily be added to food in the absorption of calcium, multi-use as antioxidants.As a professional supplier and manufacturer of food additives ...
B.M. Prasanna, Director of CIMMYTs Global Maize Program, speaks on CIMMYTs work to help farmers in the context of the aflatoxin crisis in Kenya.. ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Looking for online definition of aflatoxins in the Medical Dictionary? aflatoxins explanation free. What is aflatoxins? Meaning of aflatoxins medical term. What does aflatoxins mean?
Aflatoxins are important because some are extremely toxic to many kinds of animals; 10 ppb AFB1 consumed regularly by rats may eventually result in fatal liver cancer and in somewhat larger amounts-a few hundred ppb-aflatoxin cause a great variety of ill effects in wild and domestic animals. An aflatoxin contamination level of 20 ppb is permitted in feed grains and in feeds in the U.S.A. but in foods intended for human consumption the tolerance is zero. However, these guidelines were then revised. North Carolina agricultural officials reported that maize containing up to 200 ppb could be fed to heifers (older than 6 months), calves and bulls and to non-lactating brood cows. Maize containing aflatoxin higher than 20 ppb should not be fed to lactating animals, used as any starter ration or feed to poultry. All other animals could be fed with maize containing aflatoxin levels up to 100 ppb. For human consumption, a level, below 20 ppb is enforced (Mirocha and Christensen 1982 and Pitt, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if calcium aluminosilicate anti-diarrheal (CASAD) can help to control diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are receiving irinotecan. The safety of this drug will also be studied.
Chronic hepatitis B and C infections, dietary aflatoxin B1 ingestion and chronic alcohol abuse are the most common etiological factors associated with HCC. Liver cirrhosis is the major clinical risk factor for the development of HCC independent of its original etiology. Indeed, in 70-90% of cases HCC develops in the setting of macronodular cirrhosis. ...
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microsome-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in Bacillus megaterium SJ-6 his-. AU - Buch, J. K.. AU - Buch, Shilpa. AU - Dave, P. J.. PY - 1982/4. Y1 - 1982/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020028778. VL - 13. SP - 349. EP - 352. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 4. ER - ...
Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Ligand binding increases when in the presence of CYP3A4 ligands, such as in the presence of aflatoxin B1, M1, and G1. Indeed, ... Ratajewski M, Walczak-Drzewiecka A, Sałkowska A, Dastych J (August 2011). "Aflatoxins upregulate CYP3A4 mRNA expression in a ...
... methods to eliminate aflatoxin M1 from milk and fate of aflatoxin M1 in cottage cheese". Some research has been published in ... methods to eliminate aflatoxin M1 from milk and fate of aflatoxin M1 in cottage cheese". WorldCat. p. 279. Retrieved 23 August ... Her PhD was in food microbiology and her thesis was entitled, "Responses of dairy cows to dietary aflatoxin, ... Applebaum, Rhona S. (1981). "Responses of dairy cows to dietary aflatoxin, ...
... ultra-rapid detection of aflatoxin M1. Food Control 29: 208-212 Varelas, V., Sanvicens N, Marco MP, Kintzios S (2010) ...
The laboratory can determine the concentrations of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin ...
... aflatoxins MeSH D03.438.150.119.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.438.150.119.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.438.150.240 --- ... aflatoxins MeSH D03.830.219.119.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D03.830.219.119.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D03.830.219.240 --- ...
In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which ... The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver ... For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin- ... "Aflatoxins". Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in ...
For example, in China in December 2011, high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be ... Aflatoxin is an example of a mycotoxin. It is a cancer-causing poison produced by certain fungi in or on foods and feeds, ... Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... Mark Brinkman (December 20, 2005). "Diamond Pet Food Recalled Due to Aflatoxin". FDA.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2014. FDA, Center ...
... aflatoxins MeSH D23.946.587.142.075 --- aflatoxin b1 MeSH D23.946.587.142.100 --- aflatoxin m1 MeSH D23.946.587.175 --- ...
... M1 is present in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus parasiticus, but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an ... parasiticus Aflatoxin G1 and G2, produced by some Group II A. flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxin M1, metabolite of ... Aflatoxin M2, metabolite of aflatoxin B2 in milk of cattle fed on contaminated foods Aflatoxicol Aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1), major ... Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested. However the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin. The United ...
Moreover, the baby feeds aflatoxin M1 from its mom, as aflatoxin M1 is the detoxification product of aflatoxin B1. It is a ... The babies have homozygous deficiency of glutathione S transferase (GST) M1. The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct ... In an Egyptian study, abnormally high levels of aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 was found in liver tissue and ... Some cases of biliary atresia may result from exposure to aflatoxin B1, and to a lesser extent aflatoxin B2 during late ...
... high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be associated with the consumption of mold- ... Aflatoxin is an example of a mycotoxin. It is a cancer-causing poison produced by certain fungi in or on foods and feeds, ... Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... experienced a significant rise in the number of corn shipments containing elevated levels of aflatoxin. This mold toxin ...
"Genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, interactions with smoking ... "Susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with genetic variation in the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 ...
Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and ... Aflatoxin M1 ELISA. The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to ... M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the ... detect the presence of Aflatoxin M1. This kit can be used as a screening method for the presence of Aflatoxin M1. ...
A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a class 2 rated carcinogen closely controlled and monitored by dairies to prevent detrimental human and ... A report validating the Charm MRLAFMQ test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at the European Maximum Limit (EU ML) of 50 ... Reference laboratory validates Charm Sciences ROSA Quantitative Aflatoxin M1 Test in raw, commingled, bovine milk to detect 50 ...
Suitability Analysis of Tolerance Limit for Aflatoxin M1 in Foods and Chinese Population Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 From ... Anfossi, L.; Baggiani, C.; Giovannoli, C.; Giraudi, G. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products, Aflatoxins - Detection, ... The most biologically active aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)4. A recent risk assessment determined that aflatoxins may be ... Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins, 2013, 5, 73-83. ...
For example, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is a carcinogenic substance detected in milk and ... W. Jiang, Z. Wang, G. Nölke, J. Zhang, L. Niu, and J. Shen, "Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in ... A. Prandini, G. Tansini, S. Sigolo, L. Filippi, M. Laporta, and G. Piva, "On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy ... M. Q. Lana, I. M. Toaldo, and M. T. Bordignon-Luiz, "Influence of climate conditions on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk ...
Van der Fels-Klerx HJ, Vermeulen LC, Gavai AK, Liu C (2019) Climate change impacts on aflatoxin B1 in maize and aflatoxin M1 in ... Mahosotanand B (2002) Relationship between aflatoxin M1 in milk and aflatoxin B1 in feedstuffs. In: Proceedings of evaluation ... Levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese consumed in Kuwait and occurrence of total aflatoxin in local and imported animal feed. ... Two-year survey on the seasonal incidence of aflatoxin M1 in traditional dairy products in Egypt. *Ahmed A. Ismaiel. ORCID: ...
Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted ... The reasons for lower aflatoxin levels among Akans need to be determined, and the findings used to design interventions that ... These findings indicate that educational interventions that stress the harmful health effects of aflatoxin in food, with an ... This shows that there is awareness of aflatoxin contamination without proper understanding of the serious potential adverse ...
Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit, Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative ... Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit is a competitive enzyme immunoassay for the. quantitative analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in cereals, meat ... Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit - USA. price: contact company for price. Reagen Aflatoxin Elisa Photos Catalog. ... Reagen Aflatoxin M1 Elisa Test Kit. For any questions and needs please contact us below ...
Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.. [Sabran Mohd ... Aflatoxin M1 solution, 0.5 μg/mL in acetonitrile, analytical standard C17H12O7 ... Aflatoxin M1, from Aspergillus flavus C17H12O7 ... Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was ... This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. ...
Middle, aflatoxin B1 levels in different types of cattle feed (. feedstuffs), and lower, aflatoxin M1 levels in bulk milk (. ) ... Table 1: Cluster random sampling and widespread contamination of aflatoxin B1 in feedstuffs and aflatoxin M1 in bulk milk ... Lower panel (a), chemical structure of aflatoxins (AFs) B1 (C17H12O6) and M1 (C17H12O7) routinely found in animal feed and milk ... Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly carcinogenic and immunotoxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus (A) flavus and A ...
The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical properties, microbial counts and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels of ... Effect of thermoultrasound on aflatoxin M1 levels, physicochemical and microbiological properties of milk during storage. ... Effect of thermoultrasound on aflatoxin M1 levels, physicochemical and microbiological properties of milk during storage, ...
Aflatoxin M1 is a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin that can be potentially present in milk and its derivatives; therefore ... The automation of the MaxSignal® Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit using the Crocodile 5-in-one ELISA miniWorkstation reduces labour ... Automation of the Bioo MaxSignal Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit. The Crocodile ELISA miniWorkstation provides a convenient and ... Automation of the Bioo MaxSignal Aflatoxin M1 ELISA Test Kit. The Crocodile ELISA miniWorkstation reduces labour and provides ...
Elevated levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and milk products is considered to pose certain hygienic risks for human health ... Cite this Article as: M. M. Motawee (2013), "Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian ... Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Content during Manufacture and Storage of Egyptian Domaiti Cheese. International Journal of ... Table (2) - Concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Domiati cheese made from 4 kg milk spiked with 1.00 µg AFM1 per kg prior to ...
This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cows milk ... Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2.. *Giuseppe Bianco, ... Assessment of aflatoxin M1 in maternal breast milk in Eastern Turkey.. *M Aydemir Atasever, Yeliz Yildirim, Mustafa Atasever, ... Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Breast Milk Samples in Tabriz-Iran. *Reza Mahdavi, Leila Nikniaz, Seyyed Rafie Arefhosseini, ...
... ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics ,/p, ... Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and ... M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the ... The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to detect the presence of ...
Elisa - Aflatoxin M1 in milk *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Extra Sensitive. *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Fast ... Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Baby Food. *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Ultra Fast Milk & Yogurt ...
... that are fed with the forage infected with aflatoxins ... Aflatoxin M1 is formed as the metabolite of other aflatoxins in ... Aflatoxin M1 Aspergillus fungi mycotoxin Rapid detection Kit.. Aflatoxin M1 is formed as the metabolite of other aflatoxins in ... Aflatoxin M1 is a chromatographic immunoassay kit for rapid detection of aflatoxin M1. The method is based on immunocompetence ... Aflatoxin M1 is formed as the metabolite of other aflatoxins in animals organisms., including cattle, that are fed with the ...
The aim of this project was to study the aflatoxin M1 adsorption ability of polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite. Methods: ... Subsequently, serial concentrations of the nanocomposite were prepared and separately incubated with aflatoxin M1 solution at ... it was shown for the first time that polystyrene-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite can adsorb aflatoxin M1. This study also ... First, the probability of aflatoxin M1 adsorption by the nanocomposite was evaluated using the HyperChem simulation software. ...
ELISA test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk in compliance with ISO 14675:2003 ... Bio-Shield M1 aflatoxin is an easy to use, ... Elisa - Aflatoxin M1 in milk *Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 Extra ... Bio-Shield Aflatoxin M1 is an easy to use, ELISA test for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk in compliance with ISO 14675: ... Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of major concern to the dairy industry, generally produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. ...
Animals , Aflatoxin M1/chemistry , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/chemistry , Aflatoxin M1/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Aflatoxin M1 / Lactobacillus rhamnosus Limits: Animals Language: ... A comparative study of procedures for binding of aflatoxin M1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus G ... A comparative study of procedures for binding of aflatoxin M1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ...
Distribution of Aflatoxin M1 Content in Cheese Samples a. Aflatoxin range, ng/kg. Number of Traditional Samples (n = 43). ... Aflatoxin B1, M1 and G1 all cause cancer in animals. However, only aflatoxin B1 has been classified as a human carcinogen. The ... Thus, aflatoxins M1 and M2 that are the hydroxylated metabolites of aflatoxin B1 and B2 may be found in milk and products ... Background: There are different types of aflatoxins, including aflatoxin M1, M2, G1, G2, B1 and B2 produced in the food chain, ...
Wiley Online Abstract The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples commercialized in the Metropolitan area of ... Research - Aflatoxin M1 occurrence in fluid milk commercialised in Monterrey, Mexico. Posted on November 10, 2018 , Leave a ... The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples commercialized in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey (Mexico) was ... The practical application of this document is to serve as a first approach to know the presence of aflatoxins in milk in ...
Milk Safety Analyze for Aflatoxin M1 Min. Order: 54 Bags *Type: Biochemical Analyzer ...
0.5 (aflatoxin M1). CPG 527.400. Peanuts and Peanut products. 20. CPG 570.375. ... Aflatoxin. Aldrin & Dieldrin. Benzene Hexachloride. Cadmium. Chlordane. Chlordecone (Kepone). Dicofol (Kelthane). DDT, DDE, TDE ...
Determination of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk as a biomarker of maternal and infant exposure in Colombia.. ... Determination of Aflatoxin M1 and Heavy Metals in Infant Formula Milk Brands Available in Pakistani Markets. ... Determination of Aflatoxin M1 and Heavy Metals in Infant Formula Milk Brands Available in Pakistani Markets.. ... Determination of aflatoxin m1 levels in produced pasteurized milk in ahvaz city by using HPLC. ...
Aflatoxin M1 in cheese. Milk and dairy products are commonly consumed by people of all age groups. They are recognised as ...
  • Background & Aims: Aflatoxin M1 is one of the most important toxins present in milk and the product of aflatoxin B1 metabolism in liver microsomes. (ac.ir)
  • Dairy food-borne diseases affecting human health are associated with certain strains of bacteria belonging to the genera of Clostridium, Bacillus, Escherichia, Staphylococcus and Listeria, which are capable of producing toxins, plus moulds that can produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, sterigmatocytin and ochratoxin. (wiley.com)
  • The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. (cdc.gov)
  • This raises the suspicion that Iraq declared an excessive amount of aflatoxin in order to disguise the fact that other, more destructive agents had been produced in greater quantities. (mold-help.org)
  • Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. (thepigsite.com)
  • The Committee urged that the intake of dietary aflatoxin be reduced to the lowest practicable levels so as to reduce, as far as possible, the potential risk. (inchem.org)
  • This research is an attempt to assess aflatoxin contamination in nuts (Fig, Almond, Hazelnut, Walnut, Pistachio and Sunflower) available in Tehran city market in 2013. (scirp.org)
  • Assaf JC, Nahle S, Chokr A, Louka N, Atoui A, El Khoury A (2019) Assorted methods for decontamination of aflatoxin M1 in milk using microbial adsorbents. (springer.com)
  • Procedure Overview REAGEN™ AflaPure M1 immunoaffinity columns use a simple procedure to enrich. (frbiz.com)
  • Subsequently, serial concentrations of the nanocomposite were prepared and separately incubated with aflatoxin M1 solution at different temperatures and pH. (ac.ir)
  • Two standard mixes in acetonitrile were purchased from Supelco: aflatoxin M1 ~10.0 parts per million (ppm) (46319- U), and B1 and G1 ~1.0 ppm with B2 and G2 ~0.3 ppm (46304- U). Actual certification values were used to compute concentrations. (waters.com)
  • Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). (mdpi.com)
  • 3) Significantly higher OTA frequencies and concentrations in both food and human samples (urine and blood) were found in endemic nephropathy (EN) areas in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Serbia as well as in Tunisia, where a nephropathy of unknown aetiology occurred. (mdpi.com)
  • To address this issue, 19 human serum samples that had been previously analyzed for the aflatoxin B 1 -lysine adduct by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence in 1989 were re-analyzed by isotope dilution mass spectrometry after storage at −80°C. The adduct concentrations measured by these two techniques were identical within 4% over the range 5 to 100 pg of aflatoxin B 1 -lysine/mg albumin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aflatoxin-albumin adduct concentrations measured by ELISA are well correlated with AFB 1 -lys concentrations measured by HPLC-fluorescence and IDMS, albeit the levels obtained in a recent study found that values using an ELISA were 2.6-fold higher than those measured in the same samples by IDMS ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. (ilri.org)
  • Elzupir AO, Abas ARA, Fadul MH et al (2012) Aflatoxin M1 in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers. (springer.com)
  • Assessment of aflatoxin M1 in maternal breast milk in Eastern Turkey. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This monograph reviews the experimental evidence concerning the carcinogenicity of the aflatoxins, evaluates the potencies of these contaminants, links these potencies to intake estimates, and discusses the impact of hypothetical standards on sample populations and their overall risks. (inchem.org)
  • When animals are fed grain or feed contaminated with the toxin, aflatoxin B1 is converted by hydroxylation to aflatoxin M1, which is subsequently secreted in the milk of lactating cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In warm agricultural areas across the globe, maize, groundnut, and other crops become frequently contaminated with aflatoxins produced primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. (usda.gov)