A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Poisoning caused by the ingestion of mycotoxins (toxins of fungal origin).
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Orotic acid, also known as pyrophosphoric acid dihydrate, is a organic compound that plays a role in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, and elevated levels of orotic acid in urine can indicate certain genetic disorders or liver dysfunction.
A written agreement for the transfer of patients and their medical records from one health care institution to another.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (1/513)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. (2/513)

We have used homology modelling, based on the crystal structure of the human glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1, to obtain the three-dimensional structures of rat GSTA3 and rat GSTA5 subunits bound to S-aflatoxinyl-glutathione. The resulting models highlight two residues, at positions 208 and 108, that could be important for determining, either directly or indirectly, substrate specificity for aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide among the Alpha-class GSTs. Residues at these positions were mutated in human GSTA1-1 (Met-208, Leu-108), rat GSTA3-3 (Glu-208, His-108) and rat GSTA5-5 (Asp-208, Tyr-108): in the active rat GSTA5-5 to those in the inactive GSTA1-1; and in the inactive human GSTA1-1 and rat GSTA3-3 to those in the active rat GSTA5-5. These studies show clearly that, in all three GSTs, an aspartate residue at position 208 is a prerequisite for high activity in aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide conjugation, although this alone is not sufficient; other residues in the vicinity, particularly residues 103-112, are important, perhaps for the optimal orientation of the aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide in the active site for catalysis to occur.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/513)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Potency of dietary indole-3-carbinol as a promoter of aflatoxin B1-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis: results from a 9000 animal tumor study. (4/513)

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a metabolite of glucobrassicin found in cruciferous vegetables, is documented as acting as a modulator of carcinogenesis and, depending on timing and dose of administration, it may promote hepatocarcinogenesis in some animal models. In this study we demonstrate that, when given post-initiation, dietary I3C promotes aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rainbow trout model at levels as low as 500 p.p.m. Trout embryos (approximately 9000) were initiated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 175 or 250 p.p.b. AFB1 by a 30 min immersion. Experimental diets containing 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 p.p.m. I3C were administered starting at 3 months and fish were sampled for liver tumors at 11-13 months. Promotion at the level of tumor incidence was statistically significant for all dietary levels, except 250 p.p.m. Relative potency for promotion markedly increased at dietary levels >750 p.p.m. We propose that more than one mechanism could be involved in promotion and that both estrogenic and Ah receptor-mediated pathways could be active. The estrogenicity of I3C, measured as its ability to induce vitellogenin (an estrogen biomarker in oviparous vertebrates) was evident at the lowest dietary level (250 p.p.m.), whereas CYPIA (a P450 isozyme induced through the Ah receptor pathway) was not induced until dietary levels of 1000 p.p.m. Therefore, at lower dietary levels, promotion by I3C in this model could be explained by estrogenic activities of I3C acid derivatives, as it is known that estrogens promote hepatocarcinogenesis in trout. Much stronger promotion was observed at high dietary I3C levels (1000 and 1250 p.p.m.), at which levels both CYP1A and vitellogenin were induced.  (+info)

Downregulation of DNA excision repair by the hepatitis B virus-x protein occurs in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells. (5/513)

Synergism between exposure to chemical carcinogens and infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated in the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study we report that the HBV protein HBx, inhibits cellular DNA repair capacity in a p53-independent manner. Two alternative assays were used: the host cell reactivation assay, which measures the cell's capacity to repair DNA damage in a reporter plasmid, and unscheduled DNA synthesis, which measures the overall DNA repair capacity in damaged cells. Two p53-proficient cell lines, the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and liver epithelial cell line CCL13, were co-transfected with the pCMV-HBx reporter plasmid and the pCMV-CAT plasmid damaged with UVC radiation. Compared with cells transfected with control plasmid, the presence of HBx resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of the cell's capacity to reactivate CAT activity of UVC-damaged plasmid, and approximately 25% inhibition of unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells treated with either aflatoxin B1 epoxide or UVC radiation. Using the p53-deficient cell line Saos-2, we demonstrated that expression of HBx also resulted in diminished overall cellular DNA repair of damage induced by both aflatoxin B1 epoxide and UVC radiation, using both the host cell reactivation and unscheduled DNA synthesis assays. In summary, this study provides evidence for p53-independent regulation of DNA repair by HBx.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (6/513)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Expression of stably transfected murine glutathione S-transferase A3-3 protects against nucleic acid alkylation and cytotoxicity by aflatoxin B1 in hamster V79 cells expressing rat cytochrome P450-2B1. (7/513)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is activated to AFB1-8,9-oxide (AFBO), a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of AFB1. In the mouse, AFBO has been shown to be most efficiently detoxified by a specific isozyme of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), mGSTA3-3 (mGST-Yc). A hamster V79 cell line (V79MZr2B1, originally designated V79/SD1) previously transfected with the rat cytochrome P450-2B1 was stably transfected with an mGSTA3-3 expression vector, to study the chemopreventive role of GST in protecting against cytotoxicity or genotoxicity of AFBO. Immunoblotting demonstrated strong expression of an alpha-class GST in the mGSTA3-3 transfected cell line, whereas no detectable alpha-class GST protein was observed in the control (empty vector-transfected) cells. Previous studies with the V79MZr2B1 cell line indicated that it can activate AFB1 to a mutagenic metabolite via a transfected rat P450-2B1 stably expressed in the cells. We examined the ability of the expressed mGSTA3-3 to protect against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity or [3H]-covalent adduct formation in cellular nucleic acids. Exposure of empty vector-transfected control cells and mGSTA3-3 expressing cells to up to 600 nM [3H]-AFB1 indicated that a 70-80% reduction in DNA and RNA adducts was afforded by the expression of mGSTA3-3 in the transfected cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed that the mGSTA3-3 cell line was 4.6-fold resistant to AFB1 cytotoxicity as compared with the empty vector-transfected control SD1 cells, with IC50 values of 69 and 15 microM, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate that mGSTA3-3 confers substantial protection against nucleic acid covalent modification and cytotoxicity by AFB1 in this transgenic cell model system.  (+info)

XRCC1 polymorphisms: effects on aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and glycophorin A variant frequency. (8/513)

Hereditary genetic defects in DNA repair lead to increased risk of cancer. Polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes have been identified; however, the impact on repair phenotype has not been elucidated. We explored the relationship between polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme, XRCC1 (codons 194, 280, and 399), and genotoxic end points measured in two populations: (a) placental aflatoxin B1 DNA (AFB1-DNA) adducts in a group of Taiwanese maternity subjects (n = 120); and (b) somatic glycophorin A (GPA) variants in erythrocytes from a group of North Carolina smokers and nonsmokers (n = 59). AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and erythrocyte GPA variant frequency (NN and NO) was assessed in MN heterozygotes with a flow cytometric assay. XRCC1 genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLPs. The XRCC1 399Gln allele was significantly associated with higher levels of both AFB1-DNA adducts and GPA NN mutations. Individuals with the 399Gln allele were at risk for detectable adducts (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = 0.03). GPA NN variant frequency was significantly higher in 399Gln homozygotes (19.6 x 10(-6)) than in Gln/Arg heterozygotes (11.4 x 10(-6); P < 0.05) or Arg/Arg homozygotes (10.1 x 10(-6); P = 0.01). No significant effects were observed for other XRCC1 polymorphisms. These results suggest that the Arg399Gln amino acid change may alter the phenotype of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in deficient DNA repair.  (+info)

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxic metabolite produced by certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is a potent carcinogen and is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin B1 contamination can occur in a variety of agricultural products, including grains, nuts, spices, and dried fruits, and is a particular concern in regions with hot and humid climates. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 can occur through the consumption of contaminated food and has been linked to various health effects, including liver cancer, immune suppression, and stunted growth in children.

Aflatoxins are toxic compounds produced by certain types of mold (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) that grow on crops such as grains, nuts, and spices. These toxins can contaminate food and animal feed, posing a serious health risk to both humans and animals. Aflatoxin exposure has been linked to various health problems, including liver damage, cancer, immune system suppression, and growth impairment in children. Regular monitoring and control measures are necessary to prevent aflatoxin contamination in food and feed supplies.

Aflatoxin M1 is a type of mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound that is produced by certain types of molds or fungi. Aflatoxin M1 is produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, and it can contaminate a variety of agricultural products, including grains, nuts, and milk.

Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. Aflatoxin M1 is formed in the liver of dairy animals after they consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and then passes into their milk. It can also be found in other tissues of dairy animals, such as meat and organs.

Exposure to aflatoxin M1 has been linked to various health effects, including liver damage, immune suppression, and increased risk of liver cancer. For this reason, regulatory agencies around the world have set limits on the amount of aflatoxin M1 that is allowed in milk and other dairy products.

'Aspergillus flavus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and other organic matter. This fungus is known for its ability to produce aflatoxins, which are highly toxic compounds that can contaminate food crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed.

Aflatoxins produced by A. flavus are among the most potent carcinogens known to humans and can cause liver damage and cancer with prolonged exposure. The fungus can also cause invasive aspergillosis, a serious infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.

In addition to its medical importance, A. flavus is also used in biotechnology for the production of industrial enzymes and other products.

"Aspergillus" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are widely distributed in the environment. These molds are commonly found in decaying organic matter such as leaf litter, compost piles, and rotting vegetation. They can also be found in indoor environments like air conditioning systems, dust, and building materials.

The medical relevance of Aspergillus comes from the fact that some species can cause a range of diseases in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. The most common disease caused by Aspergillus is called aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic reactions, lung infections (like pneumonia), and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

Aspergillus species produce small, airborne spores called conidia, which can be inhaled into the lungs and cause infection. The severity of aspergillosis depends on various factors, including the individual's immune status, the specific Aspergillus species involved, and the extent of fungal invasion in the body.

Common Aspergillus species that can cause human disease include A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Preventing exposure to Aspergillus spores and maintaining a healthy immune system are crucial steps in minimizing the risk of aspergillosis.

Sterigmatocystin is a mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi. It is a secondary metabolite produced by some species of Aspergillus, a genus of mold that is commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and other organic matter.

Sterigmatocystin has structural similarities to aflatoxins, which are another group of mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus that are known to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. Sterigmatocystin is considered to be less potent than aflatoxins, but it is still thought to have harmful effects on human health.

Exposure to sterigmatocystin can occur through the ingestion of contaminated food or feed, as well as through inhalation of contaminated air. It has been shown to have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects in various animal studies, and it is classified as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

It's important to note that sterigmatocystin contamination can occur in a variety of food products, including cereals, nuts, spices, and dried fruits. Proper storage and handling of these foods can help prevent contamination and reduce the risk of exposure.

Ethoxyquin is a synthetic antioxidant preservative, primarily used in the preservation of animal feed to prevent spoilage and maintain nutritional value. It functions by inhibiting the oxidation process that leads to rancidity in fats and oils. In addition to its use in animal feed, ethoxyquin has also been used as a preservative in some human foods, such as spices and certain fruits, to prevent spoilage and color change. However, due to health concerns, its use in human food is highly regulated and restricted to specific applications and concentrations.

Ethoxyquin is not commonly used in pharmaceutical or medical contexts, but it may be mentioned in the context of food safety, animal nutrition, or potential exposure through consumption of contaminated food products. It's essential to consult a reliable medical source for up-to-date and accurate information regarding specific substances and their potential health implications.

A poison is defined in the context of medicine as any substance that, when introduced into or absorbed by a living organism, causes injury, illness, or death. Poisons can be solids, liquids, or gases and can enter the body through various routes such as ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin. They work by disrupting normal physiological processes, damaging cells, or interfering with the functioning of enzymes or signaling molecules. Examples of poisons include heavy metals like lead and mercury, certain plants and mushrooms, some medications when taken in excessive amounts, and various chemicals found in household and industrial products.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Experimental liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the liver that are intentionally created or manipulated in a laboratory setting for the purpose of studying their development, progression, and potential treatment options. These experimental models can be established using various methods such as chemical induction, genetic modification, or transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues. The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of liver cancer biology and develop novel therapies for liver neoplasms in humans. It's important to note that these experiments are conducted under strict ethical guidelines and regulations to minimize harm and ensure the humane treatment of animals involved in such studies.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

'Arachis hypogaea' is the scientific name for the peanut plant. It is a legume crop that grows underground, which is why it is also known as a groundnut. The peanut plant produces flowers above ground, and when the flowers are pollinated, the ovary of the flower elongates and grows downwards into the soil where the peanut eventually forms and matures.

The peanut is not only an important food crop worldwide but also has various industrial uses, including the production of biodiesel, plastics, and animal feed. The plant is native to South America and was domesticated by indigenous peoples in what is now Brazil and Peru thousands of years ago. Today, peanuts are grown in many countries around the world, with China, India, and the United States being the largest producers.

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain types of fungi (molds) that can contaminate food and feed crops, both during growth and storage. These toxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans and animals, ranging from acute poisoning to long-term chronic exposure, which may lead to immune suppression, cancer, and other diseases. Mycotoxin-producing fungi mainly belong to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Alternaria. Common mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, patulin, and citrinin. The presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is a significant public health concern and requires stringent monitoring and control measures to ensure safety.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Mycotoxicosis is not a specific medical condition itself, but rather a term that refers to the toxic effects on livestock or human health due to the consumption of food or feed contaminated with mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by certain types of mold (fungi) that can grow on various agricultural products before and after harvest, during storage, or in contaminated animal feeds.

Mycotoxicosis can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the specific mycotoxin involved, the amount and duration of exposure, and the overall health of the individual. These symptoms may include acute gastrointestinal distress, immunosuppression, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and even cancer in severe cases.

Some common mycotoxins that can lead to mycotoxicosis include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, and patulin. Preventing mold growth and mycotoxin production in food and feed through proper agricultural practices, storage conditions, and monitoring is crucial to prevent mycotoxicosis.

Condiments are typically tangy or flavorful substances that are used to add taste and flavor to food. They can be in the form of sauces, pastes, spreads, or powders. Examples include ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, soy sauce, vinegar, hot sauce, salt, pepper, and herbs & spices. Some condiments can also provide additional benefits such as added nutrients or potential health properties. However, it's important to note that some condiments can also be high in sugar, sodium, or unhealthy fats, so they should be used in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Ochratoxins are a type of mycotoxin, which are toxic compounds produced by certain types of molds or fungi. Specifically, ochratoxins are produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium molds that can contaminate a variety of agricultural crops, such as grains, nuts, coffee beans, dried fruits, and wine.

Ochratoxin A is the most prevalent and studied member of this family of mycotoxins. It is known to have nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic effects in various animal species. In humans, exposure to ochratoxin A has been linked to kidney disease, developmental toxicity, and possibly cancer.

Ochratoxins can enter the human body through the consumption of contaminated food or drink. Once inside, they can accumulate in tissues, particularly in the kidneys, where they can cause damage over time. It is important to note that exposure to ochratoxins should be minimized to reduce the risk of health effects.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Zearalenone is a type of mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi. Specifically, zearalenone is produced by some strains of Fusarium fungi that can infect crops such as corn, wheat, and barley. It has estrogen-like properties and can cause reproductive problems in animals that consume contaminated feed. In humans, exposure to high levels of zearalenone may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, but the effects of long-term exposure are not well understood.

Medical Definition: Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by certain strains of Fusarium fungi that can infect crops such as corn, wheat, and barley. It has estrogen-like properties and can cause reproductive problems in animals that consume contaminated feed. In humans, exposure to high levels of zearalenone may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, but the effects of long-term exposure are not well understood.

Aldehyde reductase is an enzyme that belongs to the family of alcohol dehydrogenases. Its primary function is to catalyze the reduction of a wide variety of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. It is widely distributed in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, and brain. In addition to its detoxifying function, aldehyde reductase has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as neuroprotection, cancer, and diabetes.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a group of enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. They facilitate the conjugation of these compounds with glutathione, a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine, which results in more water-soluble products that can be easily excreted from the body.

GSTs play a crucial role in protecting cells against oxidative stress and chemical injury by neutralizing reactive electrophilic species and peroxides. They are found in various tissues, including the liver, kidneys, lungs, and intestines, and are classified into several families based on their structure and function.

Abnormalities in GST activity have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain diseases, such as cancer, neurological disorders, and respiratory diseases. Therefore, GSTs have become a subject of interest in toxicology, pharmacology, and clinical research.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Benzoflavones are a type of chemical compound that consist of a benzene ring (a basic unit of organic chemistry made up of six carbon atoms arranged in a flat, hexagonal shape) fused to a flavone structure. Flavones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments widely present in fruits and vegetables. Benzoflavones have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety profile in humans.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Citrinin is a mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi. It is commonly produced by Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus terreus. Citrinin has been found to contaminate various food and feed commodities, including cereals, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.

Clinically, citrinin exposure can cause a range of toxic effects in humans and animals, including nephrotoxicity (kidney damage), hepatotoxicity (liver damage), genotoxicity (damage to DNA), and immunotoxicity (suppression of the immune system). Symptoms of citrinin poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased urination, and kidney failure.

It is important to note that citrinin contamination in food and feed can be minimized through proper storage, handling, and processing practices. Additionally, regulatory limits have been established in many countries to control the levels of citrinin in food and feed.

Metabolic detoxification, in the context of drugs, refers to the series of biochemical processes that the body undergoes to transform drugs or other xenobiotics into water-soluble compounds so they can be excreted. This process typically involves two phases:

1. Phase I Detoxification: In this phase, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce functional groups into the drug molecule, making it more polar and reactive. This can result in the formation of metabolites that are less active than the parent compound or, in some cases, more toxic.

2. Phase II Detoxification: In this phase, enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and sulfotransferases conjugate these polar and reactive metabolites with endogenous molecules like glutathione, glucuronic acid, or sulfate. This further increases the water solubility of the compound, allowing it to be excreted by the kidneys or bile.

It's important to note that while these processes are essential for eliminating drugs and other harmful substances from the body, they can also produce reactive metabolites that may cause damage to cells and tissues if not properly regulated. Therefore, maintaining a balance in the activity of these detoxification enzymes is crucial for overall health and well-being.

Methylcholanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is used in research to induce skin tumors in mice. It is a potent carcinogen and mutagen, and exposure to it can increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is not typically found in medical treatments or therapies.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic antioxidant that is commonly used as a food additive to prevent or slow down the oxidation of fats, oils, and other lipids. This helps to maintain the quality, stability, and safety of food products by preventing rancidity and off-flavors. BHA is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds for similar purposes.

In medical terms, BHA is classified as a chemical preservative and antioxidant. It is a white or creamy white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol and ether but insoluble in water. BHA is often used in combination with other antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), to provide a synergistic effect and enhance the overall stability of food products.

While BHA is generally recognized as safe by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), some studies have suggested that high doses of BHA may have potential health risks, including possible carcinogenic effects. However, these findings are not conclusive, and further research is needed to fully understand the potential health impacts of BHA exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trout" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Trout is a common name that refers to several species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmonid family. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Orotic acid, also known as pyrmidine carboxylic acid, is a organic compound that plays a role in the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, which are nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Orotic acid is not considered to be a vitamin, but it is sometimes referred to as vitamin B13 or B15, although these designations are not widely recognized by the scientific community.

In the body, orotic acid is converted into orotidine monophosphate (OMP) by the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. OMP is then further metabolized to form uridine monophosphate (UMP), a pyrimidine nucleotide that is an important precursor for the synthesis of RNA and other molecules.

Elevated levels of orotic acid in the urine, known as orotic aciduria, can be a sign of certain genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of pyrimidines. These conditions can lead to an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidine precursors in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including developmental delays, neurological problems, and kidney stones. Treatment for these disorders typically involves dietary restrictions and supplementation with nucleotides or nucleosides to help support normal pyrimidine metabolism.

A "Transfer Agreement" in a medical context typically refers to an arrangement between healthcare facilities or systems that outlines the procedures and conditions for transferring a patient from one facility to another. This may include details such as the responsible parties for the transfer, the mode of transportation, and the specific clinical information related to the patient's condition and treatment needs.

Such agreements can be particularly important in situations where patients require specialized care that is not available at their current facility, or when they need to be transferred to a higher level of care, such as from a hospital to a long-term acute care facility. Transfer agreements help ensure continuity of care and can also establish clear expectations for all parties involved, which can be critical in emergency situations where timely and effective communication is essential.

A Biological Specimen Bank, also known as a biobank or tissue bank, is a type of medical facility that collects, stores, and distributes biological samples for research purposes. These samples can include tissues, cells, DNA, blood, and other bodily fluids, and are often collected during medical procedures or from donors who have given their informed consent. The samples are then cataloged and stored in specialized conditions to preserve their quality and integrity.

Biobanks play a critical role in advancing medical research by providing researchers with access to large numbers of well-characterized biological samples. This allows them to study the underlying causes of diseases, develop new diagnostic tests and treatments, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other therapies. Biobanks may be established for specific research projects or as part of larger, more comprehensive efforts to build biomedical research infrastructure.

It is important to note that the use of biological specimens in research is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, which are designed to protect the privacy and interests of donors and ensure that the samples are used responsibly and for legitimate scientific purposes.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of waste management since it is not a medical term per se. Waste management is a broader environmental and public health issue. However, I can offer a definition related to healthcare facilities:

Waste management in the context of healthcare facilities refers to the practices, processes, and systems used to collect, transport, treat, dispose, recycle, or reuse waste materials generated from healthcare activities. This includes various types of waste such as hazardous (e.g., infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical), non-hazardous, and radioactive waste. Proper management is crucial to prevent infection, protect the environment, conserve resources, and ensure occupational safety for healthcare workers and the public.

A Tissue Bank is a specialized facility that collects, stores, and distributes human tissues for medical research, transplantation, or therapeutic purposes. These tissues can include organs, bones, skin, heart valves, tendons, and other bodily tissues that can be used for various medical applications.

Tissue banks follow strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the tissues they handle. They implement rigorous screening and testing procedures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and maintain the integrity of the tissues. The tissues are stored under specific conditions, such as temperature and humidity, to preserve their function and viability until they are needed for use.

Tissue banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient outcomes by providing researchers and clinicians with access to high-quality human tissues for study and transplantation.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

... is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolized into its reactive electrophilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Media related to Aflatoxin B1 at Wikimedia Commons Aflatoxin B1 (Articles without InChI source, Articles without KEGG source, ...
... is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It's formed by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the ... In the liver, aflatoxin B1 is metabolized to aflatoxin B1 exo-8,9-epoxide by the cytochrome P450 enzymes. The resulting epoxide ... Aflatoxin B1 Cytochrome P450 Arinç, Emel; Schenkman, John B.; Hodgson, Ernest (2012). Molecular and Applied Aspects of ... Turner, Paul Craig (2013). "The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth". Scientifica. 2013: ...
The synthesis of racemic aflatoxin B1 has been reported by Buechi et al. in 1967 and that of racemic aflatoxin B2 by Roberts et ... Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Aflatoxin B1 and B2a". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 3090-3100. doi:10.1021/ja020988s ... Aflatoxin total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of a group of organic compounds called aflatoxins. These compounds occur ... Aflatoxin B1 and B2a in 2003. In 2005 the group of E. J. Corey of Harvard University presented the enantioselective synthesis ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for aflatoxin B1". ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-08-11. Voelz GL, Buican IG (2000). " ...
Dai Y, Huang K, Zhang B, Zhu L, Xu W (November 2017). "Aflatoxin B1-induced epigenetic alterations: An overview". Food and ... Aflatoxin exposure can lead to the development of HCC. The aflatoxins are a group of chemicals produced by the fungi ... The mechanism by which aflatoxins cause cancer is through mutations and epigenetic alterations. Aflatoxins induce a spectrum of ... Other causes include aflatoxin, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver flukes. The most common types are HCC, which makes ...
Aflatoxin B1, a polyketide from Aspergillus flavus. Ciclosporin, a non-ribosomal cyclic peptide from Tolypocladium inflatum. ...
It has been reported to produce aflatoxin B1. A. miraensis has been cultivated on both Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA) plates ...
Rawal S, Coulombe RA (August 2011). "Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in turkey liver microsomes: the relative roles of cytochromes ... Rawal S, Kim JE, Coulombe R (December 2010). "Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention". Research in ... in terms of their kinetic properties as well as in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1. CYPs have also been heavily studied in ...
"Changes in liver polyamines due to aflatoxin B1". Toxicol Lett. 34 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(86)90138-4. PMID 3097877.{{ ... He also worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer- ... T. V. Reddy; L. Viswanathan; T. A. Venkitasubramanian (September 1971). "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined ... "Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: effect of adenine nucleotides, cyclic AMP and N6-O2' -dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the ...
Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminant, causes liver cancer. Betel nut chewing can cause oral cancer. National differences ...
... produces Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2 and sterigmatocystin. A. astellatus has been cultivated on both ... a new producer of aflatoxin B1, B2 and sterigmatocystin". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 38 (5): 440-445. doi:10.1111/j.1472- ...
... but it and aflatoxin M2 are also produced when an infected liver metabolizes aflatoxin B1 and B2. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB), ... Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic and is produced by both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin M1 ... Aflatoxin poisoning most commonly results from ingestion, but the most toxic aflatoxin compound, B1, can permeate through the ... metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in humans and animals (exposure in ng levels may come from a mother's milk) Aflatoxin M2, metabolite ...
... is the 4-hydroxy derivative of aflatoxin B1 and is secreted in the milk of mammals that consume aflatoxin B1. ... Aflatoxin M1 is usually considered to be a detoxication by-product of aflatoxin B1. The main sources of aflatoxins in feeds are ... Aspergillus flavus produces only B-type aflatoxins. Aflatoxin M1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 and can be ... Aflatoxin M1 was found to be a DNA-damaging agent, with an activity about one-third that of aflatoxin B1. Many methods have ...
Gabliks J, Barter S (April-September 1987). "Comparative cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and saxitoxin in cell cultures". ...
It has been shown to produce aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin. In 2016, the genome of A. venezuelensis was sequenced as a part ... Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Systematic and ...
Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminate, is associated with liver cancer. Betel nut chewing has been shown to cause oral ...
i) RPSA binds aflatoxin B1 both in vivo and in vitro. (ii) RPSA is a receptor for epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), which is a ...
Adekunle, A. A.; Bassir, O. (1973). "The effects of aflatoxin B1 and palmotoxins B0 and G0 on the germination and leaf colour ... Bassir, O.; Adekunle, A. A. (1972). "Production of aflatoxin B1 from defined natural cultures of Aspergillus flavus (link)". ... 1970 - Oxidative metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by mammalian liver slices and microsomes. 1979 - The uncoupling effect of N-( ... Bassir, Olumbe; Emafo, Philip O. (1970). "Oxidative metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by mammalian liver slices and microsomes". ...
The four major aflatoxins produced are B1, B2, G1, and G2. The production of the major toxins is a result of particular strains ... Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2). Unique to the S strains is the production of ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compound characterized. A. flavus also produces other ... and peppers produces high concentrations of aflatoxins. A. flavus growth on spices produces low concentrations of aflatoxin as ...
Other xenobiotic substrates for this enzyme include caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and paracetamol (acetaminophen). The transcript ...
"Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, ... It accumulates very large amounts of sterigmatocystin, 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. A. rambellii has been ...
ISBN 978-1-84826-368-0. Hirano, S; Shima, T; Shimada, T (August 2001). "[Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and ... The United States Department of Agriculture tests every truckload of raw peanuts for aflatoxin; any containing aflatoxin levels ... Peanuts tested to have high aflatoxin are used to make peanut oil where the mold can be removed. The plant leaves can also be ... Poor storage of the cake may sometimes result in its contamination by aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin that is ...
"A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings". Microbial Biotechnology. 8 (3 ...
and inhibitory activity on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Aspergillus flavus Link. of one of its metabolites, ... anti-aflatoxin B1 agent suitable for use in the food industry. The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved ... aflatoxin_B1_AFB1_in_Aspergillus_flavus_Link_of_one_of_its_metabolites_antirrhinoside Abstract: Frezza, C., Venditti, A., ... which drastically reduced the production of aflatoxin B1 in Aspergillus flavus Link., making it a potential natural and 'green ...
"Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect". Toxicology and Applied ... GNMT has been shown to detoxify some environmental carcinogens such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin. There is ...
It is most related to Aspergillus nomius, producing aflatoxin B1, chrysogine, and kojic acid. A. pseudonomius has been ... "Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi". Studies in Mycology. 69 (1): 57-80. doi: ... "Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius". Int. J. Food Microbiol ...
"Identification of O-methylsterigmatocystin as an aflatoxin B1 and G1 precursor in Aspergillus parasiticus". Appl. Environ. ... Yabe K, Ando Y, Hashimoto J, Hamasaki T (1989). "Two distinct O-methyltransferases in aflatoxin biosynthesis". Appl. Environ. ...
It has been reported to produce aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, and aflatoxin G2. A. novoparasiticus has been ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93 (4 ... oncomensis and Rhizopus oligosporus reduce the aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus. However, aflatoxin-producing molds ( ...
Rushing, Blake R.; Selim, Mustafa I. (2019). "Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational ... If aflatoxin does not meet the strict safety regulations, the entire consignment may be reprocessed to eliminate the aflatoxin ... "Aflatoxins in food". European Food Safety Authority. 2010. "New EU Aflatoxin Levels and Sampling Plan" (PDF). USDA Foreign ... Almonds are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing molds. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic chemicals produced by molds such as ...
Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolized into its reactive electrophilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Media related to Aflatoxin B1 at Wikimedia Commons Aflatoxin B1 (Articles without InChI source, Articles without KEGG source, ...
Inhalation exposure to the carcinogen aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in certain occupations is considerable. Because circumstantial ... 1997) Aflatoxin B1 activation in human lung. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 144:88-95. ... Inhalation exposure to the carcinogen aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in certain occupations is considerable. Because circumstantial ...
Binding of aflatoxin B1, correlated with growth inhibition. Aflatoxin B1 also caused leakage of cell contents and decrease in ... Aflatoxin-B1 binding varied with toxin concentration, the presence of surfactants (Tween-80 or EDTA) as well as with the ... Summary The antibacterial properties of aflatoxin B1 have been evaluated against antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of ... Binding of aflatoxin B1, correlated with growth inhibition. Aflatoxin B1 also caused leakage of cell contents and decrease in ...
The analysis provides results for the Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 values as well as the total of all four. Low detection limit ... Quantitative laboratory analysis using validated HPLC methodology for the detection of Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 and Total ... Aflatoxin at a low detection limit of either 0.1 or 0.5 ppb. ... Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 (Total Aflatoxin) Low Detection Limit ... HPLC methodology for the detection of Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 and Total Aflatoxin at a low detection limit of either 0.1 or 0.5 ...
... of the available aflatoxin B-1. in comparative testing five ACs showed a greater ability to bind aflatoxin B-1 than hydrated ... of the available aflatoxin B-1. in comparative testing five ACs showed a greater ability to bind aflatoxin B-1 than hydrated ... Using 5 ml of a 4 mu g/ml aqueous solution of aflatoxin B-1 and 2 mg of an AC, adsorption abilities ranged from 44.47% to 99.82 ... Using 5 ml of a 4 mu g/ml aqueous solution of aflatoxin B-1 and 2 mg of an AC, adsorption abilities ranged from 44.47% to 99.82 ...
Aflatoxin antibody binding sites are competed for by free aflatoxin and aflatoxin enzyme conjugate. Simultaneously, the anti- ... Aflatoxin B1 levels measured in study subjects are shown in Table 2, and were shown to be significantly elevated in all patient ... Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin that originates from some mold species such as Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ... A Study of MicroRNA-24 Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Exposed Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cirrhosis. Afaf M Attia1* ...
Aflatoxin B1 with the InChIKey OQIQSTLJSLGHID-WNWIJWBNSA-N. ... Aflatoxin B1; LC-ESI-ITFT; MS2; CE: 20; R=17500; [M+H]+. Mass ... RECORD_TITLE: Aflatoxin B1; LC-ESI-ITFT; MS2; CE: 20; R=17500; [M+H]+. DATE: 2017.07.07. AUTHORS: Justin B. Renaud, Mark W. ... CH$NAME: Aflatoxin B1. CH$NAME: (6aR,9aS)-4-Methoxy-2,3,6a,9a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]furo[3,2:4,5]furo[2,3-h]chromene-1,11- ...
Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. In: Biochemical Journal. ... Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. Biochemical Journal. 1999 ... Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. / McDonagh, Paul D.; Judah ... Dive into the research topics of Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in Alpha-class glutathione S- ...
SSAFB - Aflatoxin B1-lysine result (ng/mL). Variable Name: SSAFB. SAS Label: Aflatoxin B1-lysine result (ng/mL). English Text: ... SSAFBLC - Aflatoxin B1-lysine result comment code. Variable Name: SSAFBLC. SAS Label: Aflatoxin B1-lysine result comment code. ... Peak area ratios (aflatoxin B1-lysine m/z: aflatoxin B1-lysine-d4 m/z) were linearly related to concentration. Instrument ... Measurement of concentrations (ng/mL) of aflatoxin B1-lysine, derived from aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts, in a 2,104 serum ...
Aflatoxin B1 in corn: direct verification of contamination through an automatic computerized system based on the fluorescence. ... Aflatoxin B1 in corn: direct verification of contamination through an automatic computerized system based on the fluorescence ... Aflatossina B1 nel mais: verifica diretta della contaminazione attraverso un sistema automatico computerizzato basato sulla ... Aflatossina B1 nel mais: verifica diretta della contaminazione attraverso un sistema automatico computerizzato basato sulla ...
Aflatoxin B1-lysine - Serum. Released: August, 2012. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Released: ...
... aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in plasma and excreta of broiler chickens and (b) to determine the efficacy of a ... of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine to evaluate the efficacy of an aflatoxin-adsorbing feed additive in pigs fed an aflatoxin B1- ... and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1), as well as aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a) after hydroxylation. Aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide (AFBO ... 1]. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most important aflatoxin with regards to potency and occurrence. Poultry are highly sensitive to ...
CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE ... Aflatoxin B1. aflatoxin M1. carry-over rate of aflatoxin. AFB1-contaminated feed}, abstract = {High occurrence of aflatoxin ... CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE. ... "CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE." ...
Aflatoxin B1; AuNPs−CNDs nanocomposite; Electrochemical aptasensor; Ferrocene@HKUST-1; Hemin@HKUST-1; Ochratoxin A ... An electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). ... Simultaneous measurement of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 using a duplexed-electrochemical aptasensor based on carbon nanodots ... Simultaneous measurement of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 using a duplexed-electrochemical ...
44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50&# ... whereas aflatoxin B1 occurred in lower proportion. Aflatoxin B1 values ranged between 1.2 and 17.5 ppb. Fumonisin B1 levels ... One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with fumonisins B1, but aflatoxin B1 and T2- toxin, in between other ... In both reports, the simultaneous occurrence of two carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1, was determined in ...
Pimenta dioica essential oil as a novel plant based antimicrobial against fungal and aflatoxin B1 contamination of stored maize ...
Shop BiopureTM 13C labelled Aflatoxins in acetonitrile now! Lets make the Worlds Food safer together. ... 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C Aflatoxin G1, 13C Aflatoxin G2. 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C Aflatoxin G1, ... 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C Aflatoxin G1, 13C Aflatoxin G2. Acetonitrile. 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C ... 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C Aflatoxin G1, 13C Aflatoxin G2. Acetonitrile. 13C Aflatoxin B1, 13C Aflatoxin B2, 13C ...
The mean aflatoxin-B1 ground corn. The limits of detection was about 9ng per gram for 0.1 gram samples. ... and measurement of aflatoxin (1402682) by either one or two dimensional TLC. The solvent for one dimensional TLC was chloroform ...
Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321- ...
Exploration of Cytochrome P450-Related Interactions between Aflatoxin B1 and Tiamulin in Broiler Chickens Pan Sun (UGent) , ... Dietary aflatoxins exposure, environmental enteropathy, and their relation with childhood stunting Markos Makiso Urugo, Tilahun ...
Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B1. Lett. Applied Microbiol., 32: 349-351.. CrossRef ... Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus species in soybean. Applied Microbiol., 24: 437-439.. ... The average aflatoxin concentration accepted by PAC (aflatoxin testing program) in the United States depends on the conditions ... the aflatoxin B and the total aflatoxins level in peanut products are regulated with Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) that cannot ...
Mycotoxin T-2 and aflatoxin B1 as immunosuppressors im mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii. J Comp Pathol 1996; ... Mycotoxin T-2 and aflatoxin B1 as immunosuppressors im mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii J Comp Pathol 1996; 115 ...
Effects of prolonged intoxication of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in laying Japanese... ...
Aflatoxin B1 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced CCL22 expression stimulates B cell infection.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024;121: ...
aflatoxins B & G &/or total & OTA £320.00 Aflatoxin B1, DON, ZON & OTA in Maize Flour Proficiency Test FCMM2-CCP32 04529 14/10/ ... aflatoxin B1, DON, ZON & OTA £415.00 Aflatoxins in Coconut Flour Proficiency Test FCMM4-CCP69 04539 22/01/2025 Proficiency Test ... aflatoxin B1 &/or total, DON, ZON & OTA £415.00 Mycotoxins in Oat Flour Proficiency Test FCMM11-CCP38 04545 24/03/2025 ... aflatoxins B & G &/or total & OTA £320.00 Aflatoxins in Hemp (CBD) Leaf Proficiency Test FCMA2-UMI52 04546 12/11/2024 ...
Elisakits Aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit * Elisakits Chloramphenicol ELIS... * Elisakits Fumonisin ELISA kit ...
2019), to identify aflatoxin B1 in soybean oil and to find the best determination model with THz spectra, included least- ... Liu, W., Zhao, P., Wu, C., Liu, C., Yang, J., & Zheng, L. (2019). Rapid determination of aflatoxin B1 concentration in soybean ... Zhao, R., Zhang, C., Xu, D., & Yang, Y. (2019). Detection of aflatoxin B1 and B2 using terahertz meta-biosensor. 2019 44th ...
Natural chlorophyll inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in the rat.. Carcinogenesis. 28(6):1294-302. ...
  • Inhalation exposure to the carcinogen aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in certain occupations is considerable. (usu.edu)
  • Over 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sufferers occur in developing countries as a result of exposure to hepatitis B or C viruses, through formation of cirrhosis or viral integration into host DNA on the part of HBV, or due to ingestion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) causing DNA damage in hepatic tissue with generation of mutations, particularly in p53 tumor suppressor gene. (longdom.org)
  • Over 80% of HCC sufferers occur in developing countries most commonly as a result of exposure to hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV or HCV) or ingestion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that contaminate various crops, such as corn and peanuts, in hot humid climates. (longdom.org)
  • AFB1 is the most common aflatoxin, originating from the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus mold species [ 4 ]. (longdom.org)
  • AFB1-contaminated feed}, abstract = {High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience ofaflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. (undip.ac.id)
  • A latin square 4X4 research design wasadopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred FriesianHolstein (PFH) as effects of inclusions of AFB1-naturally contaminated feed and bentonite in the diet.Results showed a rapid aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in the milk, detected in the first milking sampleor 10 hours after AFB1 ingestion. (undip.ac.id)
  • An electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (bvsalud.org)
  • The carcinogenic potency of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was severely reported. (who.int)
  • Serum aflatoxin B1 bound to albumin lysine (AFB1-lys) is a preferred exposure biomarker, but field sample collection, processing, transportation, and storage logistics are challenging. (cdc.gov)
  • AFB1-lys in human serum spiked with serum from aflatoxin-dosed rats was stable for 14 days at both ambient (22.5 C) and elevated (38 C) temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • We analysed a subsample of 985 serum specimens selected among HIV-negative participants from 10 survey-defined geographic regions for serum aflatoxin B1-lysine (AFB1-lys) by use of isotope dilution LC-MS/MS and calculated results normalised to serum albumin. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) appears in milk and dairy products, as a result results, improper follow-ups or even lack of further investigation on of ingestion of contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermal exposure to this aflatoxin in particular environmental conditions can lead to major health risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased aflatoxin B1 levels detected in patients with cirrhosis and HCC further support previous studies evaluating the level of exposure of the Egyptian population to this carcinogen and support the critical role of aflatoxin B1 in the appearance of HCC. (longdom.org)
  • Several studies have demonstrated excessively high levels of aflatoxin exposure to the Egyptian community. (longdom.org)
  • An isotope dilution mass spectrometry based method (LC-MS/MS triple quadrupole MS using electrospray ionization) was used for routine quantitation of AFB-lys as a measure of individual exposure to aflatoxin B1. (cdc.gov)
  • The side effects of aflatoxin exposure are multifaceted and may be severe in the case of overexposure, which have not been the case in neither Pick n Pay nor Woolworths recalls. (busrep.co.za)
  • Regulatory bodies worldwide have established permissible limits for aflatoxins in food and animal feed to mitigate exposure risks. (busrep.co.za)
  • The types of illnesses resulting from aflatoxin ingestion are categorised into acute aflatoxicosis and chronic exposure. (busrep.co.za)
  • Conversely, chronic exposure, characterised by prolonged ingestion of low levels of aflatoxins, heightens the risk of liver cancer, immune suppression, and growth stunting, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children and individuals with pre-existing health conditions. (busrep.co.za)
  • Effects of prenatal aflatoxin B1 exposure on behaviors of rat offspring. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aflatoxin exposure is endemic in developing countries with warm, humid climates that promote toxigenic mold growth on crops and foodstuffs. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimating human aflatoxin exposure is key to identifying and abating contamination sources. (cdc.gov)
  • We estimated aflatoxin exposure across Uganda by measuring a serum biomarker of aflatoxin exposure in a subsample from the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a nationally representative survey of HIV prevalence, and examined its association with geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variables. (cdc.gov)
  • 0001). When we used a multivariable censored regression model to assess confounding and interactions among variables we found that survey region, gender, age, occupation, distance to marketplace, and number of meals per day were statistically significant predictors of aflatoxin exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • While not nationally representative, our findings provide an improved understanding of the widespread burden of aflatoxin exposure throughout Uganda and identify key geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors that may modulate aflatoxin exposure risk. (cdc.gov)
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • While aflatoxin B1 contamination is common in many staple foods, its production is maximized in foods stored in hot, humid climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatossina B1 nel mais: verifica diretta della contaminazione attraverso un sistema automatico computerizzato basato sulla fluorescenza della granella=Aflatoxin B1 in corn: direct verification of contamination through an automatic computerized system based on the fluorescence / L. Vallone, A. Ciminaghi, G. Vinjahu, I. Dragoni. (unimi.it)
  • Pre-harvest infection by A. flavus and A . parasiticus and consequent aflatoxin contamination is a major problem in the semi-arid tropic environment. (scialert.net)
  • Aflatoxin M1 contamination in different types of milk: A risk for genotoxic effects is evaluated after considering ADME data. (cdc.gov)
  • The Committee evaluated the following eight mycotoxins that contaminate food: aflatoxin M1, fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, ochratoxin A, and the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 and HT-2 toxins. (who.int)
  • Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that contaminate a variety of crops worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • According to several authors mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, zearalenone, T2-toxin, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, and patulin can be considered the most common mycotoxins found in feed and food [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, based on studies about feed to food mycotoxin transfer limits for ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisins B1 and B2 in feed have been recommended [ 16 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In South Africa, adherence to Codex Alimentarius Commission standards sets the maximum allowable levels for aflatoxins in peanuts and other foodstuffs. (busrep.co.za)
  • A maximum of 10 micrograms/kg (ppb) of total aflatoxins, of which a maximum of 5 micrograms/kg of aflatoxin B1 for all foodstuffs, ready for human consumption. (busrep.co.za)
  • Simultaneous measurement of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 using a duplexed-electrochemical aptasensor based on carbon nanodots decorated with gold nanoparticles and two redox probes hemin@HKUST-1 and ferrocene@HKUST-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • The major mycotoxins found in Egyptian peanuts were aflatoxins ( El-Maghraby and El-Maraghy, 1987 ). (scialert.net)
  • Three ACs also showed high adsorption abilities (ca. 99%) at increasing aflatoxin B-1 concentrations (50 and 250 mu g/ml) whereas HSCAS adsorption ability greatly declined. (unict.it)
  • Measurement of concentrations (ng/mL) of aflatoxin B1-lysine, derived from aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts, in a 2,104 serum sample subset of NHANES 1999-2000. (cdc.gov)
  • In animal studies, pathological lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 intoxication include reduction in weight of liver, vacuolation of hepatocytes, and hepatic carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of prolonged intoxication of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in laying Japanese. (usp.br)
  • A maximum of 15 micrograms/kg (parts per billion or ppb) of total aflatoxins in peanuts intended for further processing (for example, to make peanut butter from). (busrep.co.za)
  • Sampling plans for aflatoxin analysis in peanuts and corn : report of an FAO technical consultation, Rome, 3-6 May 1993. (who.int)
  • Thin layer chromatographic determination of aflatoxin in corn dust. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean aflatoxin-B1 ground corn. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a division of the United Nations, the worldwide maximum tolerated levels of aflatoxin B1 was reported to be in the range of 1-20 μg/kg (or .001 ppm - 1 part-per-billion) in food, and 5-50 μg/kg (.005 ppm) in dietary cattle feed in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, factors such as age, health status, dietary habits, and genetic variability influence an individual's susceptibility to aflatoxin-related ailments, necessitating comprehensive risk assessments to gauge the potential impact accurately. (busrep.co.za)
  • The more typical form of hepatocellular carcinoma is often associated with active hepatic inflammation, hepatitis B or C viral infection, alcohol-related liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis from any other cause, or dietary aflatoxin B1. (medscape.com)
  • 2005) was used to assess aflatoxin-albumin adducts in serum. (cdc.gov)
  • In brief, the laboratory used a high throughput method in which 250µL serum was robotically aliquoted into 96-well plates and spiked with 100µL of tetradeuterated internal standard (aflatoxin B1-lysine-d 4 ) to account for recovery. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 adducts were hydrolyzed from serum albumin using enzymatic digestion with pronase which was incubated in a 40°C water bath for 4 hours or overnight at 37°C. Once digestion was complete, samples were transferred to an automated solid phase extraction (SPE) system. (cdc.gov)
  • The maximum content of aflatoxin B1 in poultry feed has been set in 0.02-0.05 ppm. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis included chloroform extraction of dust samples, purification of extracts on a silica gel column, and measurement of aflatoxin (1402682) by either one or two dimensional TLC. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological test for detection of the mycotoxins aflatoxin, B. and patulin using Bacillus thuringiensis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is an aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxins belong to a group of molds produced during food production by various fungi, notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. (busrep.co.za)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is considered the most toxic aflatoxin and it is highly implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver is the most susceptible organ to aflatoxin B1 toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on worst-case assumptions, the projected risk of liver cancer attributable to aflatoxin M1 would be very small if either of these maximum levels were implemented. (who.int)
  • While toxicity of its products, aflatoxins, are explored throughout this article, Aspergillus flavus itself also exerts pathogenic effects through aspergillosis, or infection with the mold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to the toxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxins contaminated commodities destined for human or animal consumption pose a serious health hazards and are therefore, closely monitored and regulated. (scialert.net)
  • HPLC methodology for the detection of Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 and Total Aflatoxin at a low detection limit of either 0.1 or 0.5 ppb. (trilogylab.com)
  • article{JITAA7437, author = {I. Sumantri and T.W. Murti and A.F.B. van der Poel and J. Boehm and A. Agus}, title = {CARRY-OVER OF AFLATOXIN B1-FEED INTO AFLATOXIN M1-MILK IN DAIRY COWS TREATED WITH NATURAL SOURCES OF AFLATOXIN AND BENTONITE}, journal = {Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture}, volume = {37}, number = {4}, year = {2012}, keywords = {Aflatoxin B1. (undip.ac.id)
  • A maximum of 0.05 micrograms/litre (ppb) of aflatoxin M1 in milk. (busrep.co.za)
  • Aflatoxin B1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and microRNA-24 was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). (longdom.org)
  • In the European Union, the aflatoxin B and the total aflatoxins level in peanut products are regulated with Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) that cannot be greater than 2 and 4 ng g -1 , respectively ( EU Commission Regulation, 2002 ). (scialert.net)
  • Woolworths and Pick n Pay recall products over high aflatoxin levels. (busrep.co.za)
  • The production of aflatoxins is heightened under warm and humid storage conditions, posing a significant risk if proper precautions aren't observed. (busrep.co.za)
  • Four ACs showed very high adsorption abilities, binding more than 99% of the available aflatoxin B-1. (unict.it)
  • The average aflatoxin concentration accepted by PAC (aflatoxin testing program) in the United States depends on the conditions of peanut crop after shelling (rejected lots with over 25 ppb and accepted lots with 25 ppb aflatoxin or less). (scialert.net)
  • The analysis provides results for the Aflatoxin B1/B2/G1/G2 values as well as the total of all four. (trilogylab.com)
  • The Committee allocated a group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg/kg of body weight to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3, alone or in combination. (who.int)
  • Aflatoxin B1 Activation in Human Lung" by Jack D. Kelly, David L. Eaton et al. (usu.edu)
  • Both aflatoxin B1 levels and microRNA-24 expression were found to be significantly increased in all patient groups in comparison to controls, more so in the HCC than cirrhotic group (p˂0.0001). (longdom.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb), 42 samples (86%) with ZEA (median 50 ppb), and 38 samples (78%) with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb). (hindawi.com)