Dictionaries, MedicalAflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.IndiaAnimal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Eriobotrya: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.TriterpenesSalmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (1/513)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. (2/513)

We have used homology modelling, based on the crystal structure of the human glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1, to obtain the three-dimensional structures of rat GSTA3 and rat GSTA5 subunits bound to S-aflatoxinyl-glutathione. The resulting models highlight two residues, at positions 208 and 108, that could be important for determining, either directly or indirectly, substrate specificity for aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide among the Alpha-class GSTs. Residues at these positions were mutated in human GSTA1-1 (Met-208, Leu-108), rat GSTA3-3 (Glu-208, His-108) and rat GSTA5-5 (Asp-208, Tyr-108): in the active rat GSTA5-5 to those in the inactive GSTA1-1; and in the inactive human GSTA1-1 and rat GSTA3-3 to those in the active rat GSTA5-5. These studies show clearly that, in all three GSTs, an aspartate residue at position 208 is a prerequisite for high activity in aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide conjugation, although this alone is not sufficient; other residues in the vicinity, particularly residues 103-112, are important, perhaps for the optimal orientation of the aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide in the active site for catalysis to occur.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/513)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Potency of dietary indole-3-carbinol as a promoter of aflatoxin B1-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis: results from a 9000 animal tumor study. (4/513)

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a metabolite of glucobrassicin found in cruciferous vegetables, is documented as acting as a modulator of carcinogenesis and, depending on timing and dose of administration, it may promote hepatocarcinogenesis in some animal models. In this study we demonstrate that, when given post-initiation, dietary I3C promotes aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rainbow trout model at levels as low as 500 p.p.m. Trout embryos (approximately 9000) were initiated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 175 or 250 p.p.b. AFB1 by a 30 min immersion. Experimental diets containing 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 p.p.m. I3C were administered starting at 3 months and fish were sampled for liver tumors at 11-13 months. Promotion at the level of tumor incidence was statistically significant for all dietary levels, except 250 p.p.m. Relative potency for promotion markedly increased at dietary levels >750 p.p.m. We propose that more than one mechanism could be involved in promotion and that both estrogenic and Ah receptor-mediated pathways could be active. The estrogenicity of I3C, measured as its ability to induce vitellogenin (an estrogen biomarker in oviparous vertebrates) was evident at the lowest dietary level (250 p.p.m.), whereas CYPIA (a P450 isozyme induced through the Ah receptor pathway) was not induced until dietary levels of 1000 p.p.m. Therefore, at lower dietary levels, promotion by I3C in this model could be explained by estrogenic activities of I3C acid derivatives, as it is known that estrogens promote hepatocarcinogenesis in trout. Much stronger promotion was observed at high dietary I3C levels (1000 and 1250 p.p.m.), at which levels both CYP1A and vitellogenin were induced.  (+info)

Downregulation of DNA excision repair by the hepatitis B virus-x protein occurs in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells. (5/513)

Synergism between exposure to chemical carcinogens and infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated in the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study we report that the HBV protein HBx, inhibits cellular DNA repair capacity in a p53-independent manner. Two alternative assays were used: the host cell reactivation assay, which measures the cell's capacity to repair DNA damage in a reporter plasmid, and unscheduled DNA synthesis, which measures the overall DNA repair capacity in damaged cells. Two p53-proficient cell lines, the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and liver epithelial cell line CCL13, were co-transfected with the pCMV-HBx reporter plasmid and the pCMV-CAT plasmid damaged with UVC radiation. Compared with cells transfected with control plasmid, the presence of HBx resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of the cell's capacity to reactivate CAT activity of UVC-damaged plasmid, and approximately 25% inhibition of unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells treated with either aflatoxin B1 epoxide or UVC radiation. Using the p53-deficient cell line Saos-2, we demonstrated that expression of HBx also resulted in diminished overall cellular DNA repair of damage induced by both aflatoxin B1 epoxide and UVC radiation, using both the host cell reactivation and unscheduled DNA synthesis assays. In summary, this study provides evidence for p53-independent regulation of DNA repair by HBx.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (6/513)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Expression of stably transfected murine glutathione S-transferase A3-3 protects against nucleic acid alkylation and cytotoxicity by aflatoxin B1 in hamster V79 cells expressing rat cytochrome P450-2B1. (7/513)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is activated to AFB1-8,9-oxide (AFBO), a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of AFB1. In the mouse, AFBO has been shown to be most efficiently detoxified by a specific isozyme of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), mGSTA3-3 (mGST-Yc). A hamster V79 cell line (V79MZr2B1, originally designated V79/SD1) previously transfected with the rat cytochrome P450-2B1 was stably transfected with an mGSTA3-3 expression vector, to study the chemopreventive role of GST in protecting against cytotoxicity or genotoxicity of AFBO. Immunoblotting demonstrated strong expression of an alpha-class GST in the mGSTA3-3 transfected cell line, whereas no detectable alpha-class GST protein was observed in the control (empty vector-transfected) cells. Previous studies with the V79MZr2B1 cell line indicated that it can activate AFB1 to a mutagenic metabolite via a transfected rat P450-2B1 stably expressed in the cells. We examined the ability of the expressed mGSTA3-3 to protect against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity or [3H]-covalent adduct formation in cellular nucleic acids. Exposure of empty vector-transfected control cells and mGSTA3-3 expressing cells to up to 600 nM [3H]-AFB1 indicated that a 70-80% reduction in DNA and RNA adducts was afforded by the expression of mGSTA3-3 in the transfected cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed that the mGSTA3-3 cell line was 4.6-fold resistant to AFB1 cytotoxicity as compared with the empty vector-transfected control SD1 cells, with IC50 values of 69 and 15 microM, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate that mGSTA3-3 confers substantial protection against nucleic acid covalent modification and cytotoxicity by AFB1 in this transgenic cell model system.  (+info)

XRCC1 polymorphisms: effects on aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and glycophorin A variant frequency. (8/513)

Hereditary genetic defects in DNA repair lead to increased risk of cancer. Polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes have been identified; however, the impact on repair phenotype has not been elucidated. We explored the relationship between polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme, XRCC1 (codons 194, 280, and 399), and genotoxic end points measured in two populations: (a) placental aflatoxin B1 DNA (AFB1-DNA) adducts in a group of Taiwanese maternity subjects (n = 120); and (b) somatic glycophorin A (GPA) variants in erythrocytes from a group of North Carolina smokers and nonsmokers (n = 59). AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and erythrocyte GPA variant frequency (NN and NO) was assessed in MN heterozygotes with a flow cytometric assay. XRCC1 genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLPs. The XRCC1 399Gln allele was significantly associated with higher levels of both AFB1-DNA adducts and GPA NN mutations. Individuals with the 399Gln allele were at risk for detectable adducts (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = 0.03). GPA NN variant frequency was significantly higher in 399Gln homozygotes (19.6 x 10(-6)) than in Gln/Arg heterozygotes (11.4 x 10(-6); P < 0.05) or Arg/Arg homozygotes (10.1 x 10(-6); P = 0.01). No significant effects were observed for other XRCC1 polymorphisms. These results suggest that the Arg399Gln amino acid change may alter the phenotype of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in deficient DNA repair.  (+info)

*Aflatoxin B1

... is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolitzed into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Then a final recyclization occurs to form aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 is a potent genotoxic hepatocarcinogen with its exposure ...

*Aflatoxin total synthesis

The synthesis of racemic aflatoxin B1 has been reported by Buechi et al. in 1967 and that of racemic aflatoxin B2 by Roberts et ... Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Aflatoxin B1 and B2a". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 3090-3100. doi:10.1021/ja020988s ... Aflatoxin total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of a group of organic compounds called aflatoxins. These compounds occur ... Aflatoxin B1 and B2a in 2003. In 2005 the group of E. J. Corey of Harvard University presented the enantioselective synthesis ...

*Cytochrome P450

Rawal S, Coulombe RA (August 2011). "Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in turkey liver microsomes: the relative roles of cytochromes ... Rawal S, Kim JE, Coulombe R (December 2010). "Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention". Research in ... in terms of their kinetic properties as well as in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1. CYPs have also been heavily studied in ...

*T. A. Venkitasubramanian

"Changes in liver polyamines due to aflatoxin B1". Toxicol Lett. 34 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(86)90138-4. PMID 3097877. ... He also worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer- ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Khan S. N.; Venkitasubramanian T. A. (February 1986). "Regulation of aflatoxin ... T. V. Reddy; L. Viswanathan; T. A. Venkitasubramanian (September 1971). "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined ...

*Cancer

Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminant, causes liver cancer. Betel nut chewing can cause oral cancer. National differences ...

*Aspergillus astellatus

... produces Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2 and sterigmatocystin. List of Aspergillus species www.mycobank.org " ... a new producer of aflatoxin B1, B2 and sterigmatocystin". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 38 (5): 440-445. doi:10.1111/j.1472- ...

*Polyketide

Aflatoxin B1 one of the most carcinogenic compounds known. Polyketides are usually biosynthesized through the decarboxylative ... The cholesterol lowering agent lovastatin Discodermolide Aflatoxin Usnic acid Anthracimycin Anthramycin Esterase Nonribosomal ...

*Neosaxitoxin

Gabliks J, Barter S (April-September 1987). "Comparative cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and saxitoxin in cell cultures". ...

*Ribosomal protein SA

i) RPSA binds aflatoxin B1 both in vivo and in vitro. (ii) RPSA is a receptor for epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), which is a ...

*CYP1A2

Other xenobiotic substrates for this enzyme include caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and acetaminophen. The transcript from this gene ...

*Aspergillus flavus

The four major aflatoxins produced are B1, B2, G1, and G2. The production of the major toxins are a result of particular ... Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2). Unique to the S strains is the production of ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compound characterized. A. flavus also produces other ... and peppers produces high concentrations of aflatoxins. A. flavus growth on spices produces low concentrations of aflatoxin as ...

*RNA-Seq

"RNA-seq reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in Aflatoxin B1 treated rats". PLoS ONE. 8: e61768. doi:10.1371/journal. ...

*Aspergillus rambellii

"Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, ... It accumulates very large amounts of sterigmatocystin, 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Frisvad JC, Skouboe P, ...

*Peanut

Hirano, S; Shima, T; Shimada, T (August 2001). "[Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in ... The United States Department of Agriculture tests every truckload of raw peanuts for aflatoxin; any containing aflatoxin levels ... The peanut industry has manufacturing steps in place to ensure all peanuts are inspected for aflatoxin. A warning sign for the ... Poor storage of the cake may sometimes results in its contamination by aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin that is ...

*Cellulosimicrobium funkei

"A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings". Microbial Biotechnology. 8 (3 ...

*Sterigmatocystin

The toxic effects of sterigmatocystin are much the same as those of aflatoxin B1. It is thus considered as a potent carcinogen ... Although it is a potent liver carcinogen similar to aflatoxin B1, current knowledge suggests that it is nowhere near as ... It has been suggested that sterigmatocystin is about 1/10 as potent a carcinogen as aflatoxin B1. Toxic effects of ... It appears to occur much less frequently than the aflatoxins, although analytical methods for its determination have not been ...

*GNMT

"Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect". Toxicology and Applied ... GNMT has been shown to detoxify some environmental carcinogens such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin. There is ...

*Sterigmatocystin 8-O-methyltransferase

"Identification of O-methylsterigmatocystin as an aflatoxin B1 and G1 precursor in Aspergillus parasiticus". Appl. Environ. ... Yabe K, Ando Y, Hashimoto J, Hamasaki T (1989). "Two distinct O-methyltransferases in aflatoxin biosynthesis". Appl. Environ. ...

*Rhizopus oligosporus

on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93: ...

*Finrozole

Huuskonen, P; Myllynen, P; Storvik, M; Pasanen, M (2013). "The effects of aflatoxin B1 on transporters and steroid metabolizing ...

*Aspergillus pseudonomius

... producing aflatoxins B1, chrysogine, and kojic acid. Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A. (2011). "Two new aflatoxin ... "Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius". Int. J. Food Microbiol ...

*C3orf62

Aflatoxin B1, Hydralazine, Valproic acid, and Decitabine. Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only a few ...

*EPHX1

"Susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with genetic variation in the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 ...

*Indole-3-carbinol

It promotes liver cancer in trout when it is combined with aflatoxin B1 and demotes metastasis. Indole-3-carbinol causes ... "Quantitative inter-relationships between aflatoxin B1 carcinogen dose, indole-3-carbinol anti-carcinogen dose, target organ DNA ... Results showed dose-related decreases in tumor susceptibility due to Indole-3-carbinol (inferred by decreases in aflatoxin-DNA ...

*Mycobacterium fluoranthenivorans

nov., a fluoranthene and aflatoxin B1 degrading bacterium from contaminated soil of a former coal gas plant. Syst. Appl. ...

*AKR1B1

"Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... "Entrez Gene: AKR1B1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase)". Lee H (August 1998). "The structure and ...
aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | order aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | How to use: aflatoxin b1 afb1
Poultry are the most susceptible food animal species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Feed contaminated with even small amounts of AFB1 results in significant adverse health effects in poultry. The purpose of this study was to explain the biochemical mechanism(s) for this extreme sensitivity. We measured microsomal activation of AFB1 to the AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), the putative toxic intermediate, as well as cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFBO, in addition to other hepatic phase I and phase II enzyme activities, in 3-week-old male Oorlop strain turkeys. Liver microsomes prepared from these turkeys activated AFB1in vitro with an apparent Km of 109 μM and a Vmax of 1.25 nmol/mg/min. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A2 and, to a lesser extent, 3A4 for AFB1 activation was assessed by the use of specific mammalian CYP inhibitors. The possible presence of avian orthologues of these CYPs was supported by
Abstract: Effects of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin, administered daily within 7 days at the doses of 0.7 mg/kg and 0.54 mg/kg, respectively, on metabolism of Ca and on the vitamin D hormonal system were studied in young rats kept on a ration containing normal (0.025 mg/kg) and high (0.25 mg/kg) amounts of vitamin D. Administration of the mycotoxins caused hypocalcemia, a decrease in absorption of Ca as well as in activity of alkaline phosphatase in small intestine mucose, while alterations in spongy bones (of the type of osteopetrosis) were most distinct in T-2 toxin treatment. Concentration of 25(OH)D3 in blood serum and activity of 25-hydroxylase D3 in liver tissue were decreased by 28% and 58%, respectively, after administration of T-2 toxin, and by 34% nd 33%, respectively, after treatment with aflatoxin B1. In kidney activity of I-hydroxylase 25(OH)D3 was unaltered and the activity of 24-hydroxylase tended to decrease. After treatment with the mycotoxins content of nuclear receptors of ...
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects ofthese agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is theevaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled waterat 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactintestosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower(P|0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. The antibody was affinity purified with an AFB1-Agarose column and competitively eluted by free AFB1. The antibody was conjugated to peroxidase (HRP) by reductive amination. This anti-AFB1 HRP conjugates could be utilized for detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin AFB1. ...
Gurtoo, H L.; Dahms, R; Motycka, L; and Taylor, B, "Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2582 ...
New Zealand White rabbits, divided into 4 groups were fed with feed containing aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) @ 0.5ppm (group I), ochratoxin A (OA) @ 1ppm (group II), AFB(1) and OA @ 0.5ppm and 1ppm, respectively (group III) and standard feed (group IV) for
Aflatoxin B1 dichloride | C17H12Cl2O6 | CID 107728 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Chronic hepatitis B and C infections, dietary aflatoxin B1 ingestion and chronic alcohol abuse are the most common etiological factors associated with HCC. Liver cirrhosis is the major clinical risk factor for the development of HCC independent of its original etiology. Indeed, in 70-90% of cases HCC develops in the setting of macronodular cirrhosis. ...
1AG5: Refined solution structure of 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 opposite CpA in the complementary strand of an oligodeoxynucleotide duplex as determined by 1H NMR.
REYNA-SANTAMARIA, L; BASILIO-NAVARRETE, A; MARTINEZ-ROJERO, RD e CASAUBON-HUGUENIN, MT. Productive performance and poisonous in broilers fed with aflatoxin Bp B2 and three adsorbents of mycotoxins. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2016, vol.48, n.2, pp.215-222. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2016000200012.. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1,200 μg/kg of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and three mycotoxins adsorbents on growth performance, antibody titers to Newcastle, blood chemistry and histopathological lesions in broilers. One hundred ninety two one-day old chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments and 3 replicates of 16 chickens, in a 42-day experiment. Treatments evaluated: T1 = basal diet; T2 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFbj and AFb2; T3 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (A); T4 = basal diet with 1200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (B). The results indicate that the chickens eating the adsorbent ...
Aflatoxin, a potent hepatotoxin, causes rapid inhibition of RNA polymerase activitiy in isolated rat liver nuclei. Its hepatotoxicity is accompanied by an injury of periportal parenchymal cells. Rats fed a diet marginally deficient in choline are protected against the acutely toxic action of aflatoxin B1. This diet does not prevent the rapid inhibition of RNA polymerase or the changes in nucleolar morphology following the administration of aflatoxin B1. The diet does however largely prevent the proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the necrosis of periportal parenchymal cells. The diet appears to offer the possibility of separating those changes in the liver associated with hepatotoxicity from those associated with hepatocarcinogenicity.. ...
Food can become contaminated with substances not intentionally added (contaminants). They can occur in plants through, for example, absorption from the (contaminated) soil or deposition from the air. Contaminants can also find their way in food during the production process and preparation of food. Contamination due to contaminants cannot always be prevented, but, in most cases, is of no public health concern. That is because the concentrations, on average, are low over time. RIVM has calculated that the intake of the majority of 28 contaminants investigated is within an acceptable range when people eat and drink according to the Wheel of Five. This is not the case for three contaminants: acrylamide, arsenic and lead. That does not mean that it is certain that negative health effects will occur. It is just that they cannot be ruled out. Due to uncertainties in the calculation, no conclusion could be drawn for cadmium, aflatoxin B1 and the sum of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. There are no ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: All Species. 100% Guaranteed.
Oltipraz (OPZ) is currently being considered for human use to protect against aflatoxin B1 (AFB)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis based on its proven protective effect in rats. The effectiveness of this treatment presumes that orthologous cytochrome P450 and gluathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes metabolize AFB in humans as they do in rats. In this study, alterations in the expression of multiple forms of cytochrome P450 and GST were evaluated after treatment with OPZ, as well as other known P450 inducers, including 3-methylcholanthrene, pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile, and ciprofibrate. Evidence is presented that the malespecific rat CYP 3A2, an orthologue of human CYP 3A4, may be primarily responsible for AFB activation in rat liver at both high and low AFB substrate concentrations. The CYP 1A2 enzyme does not appear to play a role in AFB activation in rat liver at any substrate concentration, whereas the major human P450 enzyme capable of activating AFB at a low substrate concentration has been ...
... : Effects of olive leaves (A) and olive oil mill waste (B) extracts on cell proliferation in Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-treated HepG2 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation in HepG2 cells. Samples were collected at 24 hours. The groups with "a" were significantly different vs. the corresponding control group. The groups with "b" were significantly different vs. the corresponding group without AFB1 ...
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has substantial activity toward aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide.
SciFlow time-course effect of Aflatoxin B on a metabolically competent hepatocyte model using the DNA-binding reagent CellTox™ Green.
You can http://www.afb.org/media/PDFs/AFB_Connects-You_8-14-16.pdf download a PDF of the AFB Connects You Brochure or view the accessible version below.
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Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
Aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a) antibody was used as a histochemical probe in the indirect immunoperoxidase localization of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) bound to rat liver. The efficacy of the indirect method was initially demonstrated by detecting AFB1 covalently boun
... - Kerry S. Lane MD, 11/13/00 10:19AM. MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF AFLATOXIN AND MYCOTOXIN LEVELS ON TOBACCO AS A HARM REDUCTION STRATEGY. August 30, 2000. Kerry Scott Lane MD Aflatoxin, the fungal carcinogen first identified in 1960, is now recognized as the prototypical laboratory carcinogen. It causes mutations in the p53 tumor-suppressor gene as well as ras mutations, which are involved in the majority of human cancers. Aflatoxin has been shown to contaminate tobacco products. Tobacco-related cancers, including those associated with ETS, often show the same p53 mutations associated with aflatoxin exposure. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate aflatoxin contamination of tobacco. Aflatoxin was first identified in 1960 as one of the most potent carcinogens known, and has been recognized as a teratogen, mutagen, carcinogen, immunosuppressant, and potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. Aflatoxin is likely ...
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination.
Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells,
Large species differences exist in sensitivity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver cancer. Mice are resistant to AFB1-induced liver cancer because they express an alpha-class GST (mGSTA3-3) that has high activity toward the reactive intermediate aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Rats constitutively express only small amounts of a GST with high AFBO activity (rGSTA5-5) and thus are sensitive to AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, although induction of rGSTA5-5 can confer resistance in rats. In contrast to rodents, constitutively expressed human hepatic alpha-class GSTs have little or no AFBO detoxifying activity. Recently, we found that the nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis (Mf), has significant constitutive hepatic GST activity toward AFBO and most of this activity belongs to mu-class GSTs. To determine if any alpha-class GSTs in Mf liver have AFBO activity, a cDNA library from a male Mf liver was constructed and screened using the human alpha-class GstA1 cDNA as a probe. Three different cDNA ...
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Hop on to get the meaning of hAFAR1 acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Undefined Acronym / Slang hAFAR1 means... AcronymsAndSlang. The hAFAR1 acronym/abbreviation definition. The hAFAR1 meaning is human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. The definition of hAFAR1 by AcronymAndSlang.com
Melvin Samuel. S (2013); Approaches in determining Aflatoxin B1 in food materials using a range of analytical methods Int. J. of Adv. Res. (6). 0] (ISSN 2320-5407). www.journalijar.com. ...
Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Alpha-class glutathione transferases (GSTs) found expressed in human tissues constitute a family of four homologous enzymes with contrasting enzyme activities. In particular, GST A3-3 has been shown to contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in human cells and is selectively expressed in steroidogenic tissues. The more ubiquitous GST A1-1, GST A2-2, and GST A4-4 appear to be primarily involved in detoxification processes and are expressed at higher levels than GST A3-3. We are interested in studying the cell and tissue expression of the GST A3-3 gene, yet the existence of highly expressed sequence-similar homologs and of several splice variants is a serious challenge for the specific detection of unique transcript species. We found that published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for GST A3-3 lack the specificity required for reliable quantitative analysis. Therefore, we designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers with greatly increased discrimination power for the human GSTA3 ...
Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. Initial findings associated with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain.. According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. Furthermore, 27 of the 35 feed samples that were analyzed contained more than one mycotoxin. This poses additional risk to animals since in many cases the combined effects of two mycotoxins are higher than the individual effects of each toxin alone.. ...
PRICE, R. L. and JORGENSEN, K. V. (1985), Effects of Processing on Aflatoxin Levels and on Mutagenic Potential of Tortillas made from Naturally Contaminated Corn. Journal of Food Science, 50: 347-349. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb13398.x ...
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a "safer" cigarette, "as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns." Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
The Serum MicroRNA Expression Modified the Genic Toxicity Caused by Aflatoxin B1. By Xiao-Ying Huang, Chun-Ying Luo, Xue-Ming Wu, Jin-Guang Yao, Chao Wang, Bing-Chen Huang, Jun Lu, Xing-Zhizi Wang, Tian-Qi Zhang, Qiang Xia and Xi-Dai Long. The serum microRNAs have been reported as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, their role in genic toxicity related to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), such as TP53 mutation and DNA damage, has not yet been evaluated. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study, including 558 patients with pathologically diagnosed HCC and positive AFB1 and healthy controls (n = 630) without any evidence of liver diseases. Genic toxicity related to AFB1 was evaluated using the hot-spot mutation at the codon 269 of TP53 gene (TP53M) and AFB1-DNA adducts. Through serum microRNA PCR microarray screening analysis, we observed 10 differentially expressed microRNAs (including miR-7-2-3p, miR-4651, miR-127-3p, miR-192-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-10b-5p, miR-532-3p, ...
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
Residents of Qidong, China, located at the mouth of the Yangtze River, are undergoing a rapid fluctuation in cancer incidence rates at many organ sites, reflecting a dynamic interplay of socio-behavioral, economic and environmental factors. As tracked by their cancer registry, there are extraordinary changes in the China age-standardized incidence rates for the two leading cancer killers in the Qidong region: one going down and the other one up, liver and lung cancer respectively. In endemic areas such as Qidong, liver cancer arises from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ingestion of aflatoxins. Agricultural and economic reforms in the 1980s promoted a switch from maize to rice as the dietary staple, with concomitant ,40-fold decreases in aflatoxin exposure over this period as measured by aflatoxin-albumin adducts in archived serum samples. Universal, subsidized vaccination against HBV was initiated in the early 2000s and likely does not account for the 45% drop in liver cancer ...
peanut meal, shipped from Brazil and contaminated with mold that produces a poison known as aflatoxin. At the time, little was known about aflatoxin, but some scientists suspected it could be linked to liver cancer in humans. Soon after the U.K. outbreak, a young MIT toxicologist named Gerald Wogan launched a thorough, decades-long investigation into the toxin, eventually exposing it as one of the most potent carcinogens humans can encounter. Throughout his career, Wogan not only made discoveries illuminating aflatoxins role in liver cancer, which kills about 600,000 people a year, but he also used his knowledge to shape food-safety regulations in the United States and Europe, and helped develop new measures that could fight liver cancer in developing countries, where aflatoxin exposure is still common. "A lot of people are content to do basic science, but he picked up that mantle of responsibility and went right into the regulatory arena," says John Essigmann, MIT professor of toxicology and ...
Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his Mississippi-based team are learning to combat the disease through corn breeding and molecular markers.
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
Towards the goal of establishing useful in vitro models of in vivo responses to toxicants, this work characterizes several advantages and disadvantages of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs) cultured for a short term vs those maintained for three weeks with 2.25% DMSO. PMHs examined 1 day (short term, ST) after isolation demonstrated a dramatic loss in ATP (~27 fold lower compared to in vivo) while those cultured for 3 weeks (3 wk) over-produced ATP. The important liver proteins albumin, Cyp1a1 and Gsta were found to be higher in the 3 wk cultures. Gene expression analysis revealed the ST cultures have unregulated numerous pathways involved in compensatory hyperplasia and oxidative injury.. Aflatoxin and acetaminphen (APAP) were used to investigate the metabolic capability of each system. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by S9 fractions harvested from ST and 3 wk cultures induced for 24 hours with 3-methylcholanthrene, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile, and dexamethasone indicated the ST cultures had higher ...
Twenty‐eight rats were examined in a 5‐week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB₁). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB₁(3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single ...
I worked on enzymatic-coupled with UV degradation of aflatoxin b1 in red chilli powder. The peroxidase and AFB1 reaction kinetics was optimized. The feasibility of FT-NIR spectroscopy in detection of AFB1 in spiked red chilli powder was also investigated. Currently my research area is on phytohormone signaling pathways ...
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal metabolite that contaminates the food supply in certain areas of the world. It is produced by Aspergillusflavus and related fungi that grow on improperly stored foods such as corn, rice, and ...
The ability of horse radish peroxidase enzyme to degrade several xenobiotics was employed to detoxify aflatoxin B1, a carcinogen. In this connection various kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the detoxification reaction were studied and the reaction was optimized. A statistical model was proposed to predict maximum possible degradation in a specified condition. The detoxified product was tested for its toxicity and mutagenicity on microbial systems and nutritive value of treated meal was tested on male wister rats. The effects of detoxification were also tested on seed and pollen germination, somatic embryogenesis and plant cell suspension culture. The experimental results showed that the detoxified product could safely be used by living organisms ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This enzyme hydroxylates testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulphate, which is involved in the formation of estriol during pregnancy. The enzyme also metabolizes some drugs such as aflatoxin B1. This gene is part of a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 7q21.1. Transcript variants have been described, but it is not known whether these transcripts are normally produced. This gene undergoes readthrough transcription with the downstream CYP3AP1 pseudogene, resulting in an isoform with a novel C-terminus, as represented in GeneID:100861540 ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are found in cigarette smoke. The enzymes endogenous substrate is unknown; however, it is able to metabolize some PAHs to carcinogenic intermediates. Other xenobiotic substrates for this enzyme include caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and acetaminophen. The transcript from this gene contains four Alu sequences flanked by direct repeats in the 3 untranslated region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Preston RS, Hayes JR, Campbell TC. 1976. The effect of protein deficiency on the in vivo binding of aflatoxin B1 to rat liver macromolecules.. Life sciences. 19(8):1191-7. ...
Use the standard graph to plot the area of the test (whose concentration is not known) and using the standard graph bring it down to the X-axis to find its concentration ...
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Introduction Aflatoxins are generally produced in animal feeds by toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Kamkar, et al 2011). They are both acutely and chronically toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic compounds for animal and human (Deshpande, 2002; Ghazani, 2009; Maktabi et al., 2011 and Mohamadi Sani et al., 2012). Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principle hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 which is transformed at the hepatic level by means of cytochrome p450 enzymes and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animal after ingestion by the animal of pellets and forage contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (Oveisi et al., 2007; Prandini et al., 2009; Hampikyan et al., 2010; Ayoub et al., 2011). It has been reported that there is a linear relationship between AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in the feed consumed by the animals with approximately 1% to 6% of the ingested AFB1 appearing as AFM1 in milk (Dragacci ...
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Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumours. We previously showed that they inhibited mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) bioactivated by Aroclor 1254-induced rat S9. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of OD and SB on the mutagenicity of AFB1 in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 using dexamethasone (DXM)-induced rat hepatic S9, on cytochrome P450-linked aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) activity in DXM-induced hepatic microsomes and on the metabolism of AFB1 by DXM-induced S9 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results showed that OD and SB consistently inhibited the mutagenicity of AFB1 bioactivated by either non-induced or DXM-induced S9. These effects correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P450-linked APND activity in DXM-induced microsomes and with an inhibition of DXM-induced S9 mediated
Strains of Aspergillus species may produce the mycotoxin called aflatoxin in hot humid weather. Aflatoxin is a carcinogen and its metabolite, aflatoxin M1, passes into the milk of cattle ingesting aflatoxin containing feed. Consequently the US Federal Food and Drug Administration has regulations for the amount of aflatoxin allowed in feed for food animals. Specifically, grain may not contain more than 20 ppb (ppb- not ppm) aflatoxin if intended for use in dairy cattle. Milk is checked for aflatoxin at a sensitivity of 0.5 ppb and cattle ingesting as little as 20 to 50 ppb in the total ration may have more than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 in the milk they produce. Aflatoxin in milk is an adulterant so milk containing greater than 0.5 ppb aflatoxin M1 is likely to be dumped with the costs associated with dumping that milk ...
|p|Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA gives a fast, and reliable method to detect Aflatoxin M1 in milk from Randox Food Diagnostics |/p|
In Vitro Efficacy of Myxococcus fulvus ANSM068 to Biotransform Aflatoxin B1. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds that have different structures and different biological effects. They are having high acute toxicity, which is often associated with malignant diseases. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins which synthesize a limited number of strains molds of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most important aflatoxins, related to milk and milk products, are: B1 and B2 (present in the feed of animals) and M1 and M2 (hydroderivates aflatoxin B1 and B2). They are excreted in milk, urine and stool. Fortunately, there is a large gap between the concentration of toxins in feed and the amount of residues in animal products. Ratio of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 in milk is about 300:1. For the determination of aflatoxin, today are commonly used imunoassays (ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) during routine analysis because they are very simple and quick. If the positive result of ELISA, confirmatory methods are conducted which are far more sensitive and ...
Forty percent of the food produced in Africa is lost, largely due to poor product handling, storage and processing practices, with aflatoxins often responsible for much of this loss in the post-harvest phase.. Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-causing chemical produced by certain moulds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay and grains.. At the 1st All Africa Post-Harvest Congress held in Nairobi from March 28 -31 to tackle the problem of post-harvest food losses in Africa, aflatoxin management, food safety and nutrition was one of the issues on the agenda, with experts calling for improved post-harvest handling of food.. Elizabeth Ogutu, strategy and operations senior officer with the African Unions Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA), noted that aflatoxins impact food safety, health, trade and agriculture, accounting for 30 percent of liver cancer infections in Africa, and are responsible for the loss of around 670 ...
We examined the relationship between various health parameters and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) albumin adduct levels in plasma. Design. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in four villages in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A survey on socio-demographic and health characteristics was administered to 162 volunteers and blood (20 ml) was donated by 140 participants. AFB1 albumin adduct levels, liver function, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and malaria infections were determined. AFB1 levels ranged from 0.12 to 2.995 pmolmg21 albumin (mean¡standard deviation50.89¡ 0.46) and was categorized based on the median as low (,0.80 pmolmg21) or high (,0.80 pmol mg21) and used in the analyses. By multivariate analysis, significantly higher levels of AFB1 were obtained for participants who reported symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis: history of yellow mouth (odds ratio55.5, confidence interval51.04-29.07, p50.04); history of sore swollen stomach (odds ratio54.54, confidence interval51.28-15.62, p50.01). A ...
Study was conducted on different cereals (wheat, rice, sorghum) and oil seeds (sunflowerseed, cottonseed, groundnut) to correlate bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) of the seeds under longwave (366 nm) ultraviolet light with aflatoxin presence. Correlation between BGYF, aflatoxin and kojic acid contents and peroxidase units indicated that samples showing BGYF were not always contaminated with aflatoxins but those which contained aflatoxins, always exhibited BGYF. It was further noticed that all the samples, that showed BGY fluorescence and aflatoxin presence were loaded with spores of Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin positive samples also had high moisture contents. Storage of the BGYF and aflatoxin positive samples showed that storage in the dark increased the aflatoxin content and in the light, the aflatoxin content was reduced. Some varieties of cereals and oil seeds were contaminated with toxic strain of A. flavus. Results showed positive relationship between BGYF and aflatoxin ...
Equipment that is to help Kenya reduce aflatoxin in maize is to be installed at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).. The equipment uses nixtamalization, a process where limewater is used in reducing the content of toxins and preserves the nutrients and healthy properties of maize.. "The equipment removes 30 - 60 percent of aflatoxins from maize leaving maize with acceptable consumption levels," Dr. Natalia Palacios, Maize Nutrition Quality Specialist for Global Consultative Group for the International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) program in Maize said during the launch of nixtamalization in Nairobi.. Palacios said that the process is an ancestral technique used throughout Mexico and Latin America and is used in nixtamalizing flour and dough to make tortillas and over 300 varieties of maize based dishes.. Palacios revealed that the two industrial this machinery that were delivered costs US Dollars 8,000.. In 2004, 124 people died of aflatoxin after consuming ...
Aflatoxin Risk Management. Tim Herrman Professor, State Chemist and Director. FDA Aflatoxin Action Levels. http://otscweb.tamu.edu/Risk/Aflatoxin/Blending.aspx. Boryan et al. 2008. State Climatologist: Global surface temperatures likely to set a new record this year. Slideshow 2976553 by nantai
WHEN: Harvest mesquite pods before the summer rains, and never wet or wash your pods-Harvest Early, Harvest Dry. This practice reduces the growth of molds/fungus on pods. There is a relationship between an invisible fungus (Aspergillus flavus) and a natural carcinogen known as aflatoxin B1. Recent research at the University of Arizona by Dr. Nick Garber, Dr. Sadhana Ravishankar, and the Mesquite Harvest Working Group showed a clear correlation between aflatoxin levels and rainfall. Many mature pods harvested after a single rainfall (a single event during which they got wet) were unsafe for human consumption due to high aflatoxin levels. These same studies found mesquite pods harvested before the rains had safe aflatoxin levels-well below the minimum levels allowed by aflatoxin sampling of food products. The Tucson mesquite pod harvest season is mid to late June. Ripe pods range in color from yellowish tan to reddish or purplish (not green), and are dry and brittle. They come off the tree ...
Normal rat liver expresses Ya (Mr 25,500), Yc (Mr 27,500) and Yk (Mr 25,000) Class Alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits. The Ya-type subunit can be resolved into two separate polypeptides, designated Ya1 and Ya2, by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. In rat livers that possess aflatoxin B1-induced pre-neoplastic nodules, a marked increase is observed in the expression of Ya1, Ya2, Yc and Yk; of these subunits, Ya2 exhibited the greatest increase in concentration. The Ya1 and Ya2 subunits isolated from nodule-bearing livers were cleaved with CNBr, and the purified peptides were subjected to automated amino-acid-sequence analysis. Differences in the primary structures of the two Ya GST subunits were found at positions 31, 34, 107 and 117. These data demonstrate that Ya1 and Ya2 are distinct polypeptides and are the products of separate genes. The amino acid sequences obtained from Ya1 and Ya2 were compared with the cloned cDNAs pGTB 38 [Pickett, Telakowski-Hopkins, Ding, Argenbright & Lu (1984) J. ...
When asked about taking groups to West Africa on culinary tours, I have been hesitant to undertake such a project due to issues of food safety and quality control. A serious problem surrounding peanut and maize production in Africa, for example, is the prevalence of mycotoxins, types of fungi that can contaminate food before, during or after it is harvested/processed. Since the 1960s there has been a new recognition of the health and other impacts of one group of mycotoxins known as aflatoxins (in particular, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus) in Africa. According to the most recent quarterly newsletter of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) (04, Oct. 2009-Jan 2010) "These toxins are potent causes of cancer and suppress the immune system causing greater susceptibility of humans and animals to diseases. . . High levels of aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products also affect international trade since agricultural products that have more than permissible levels of ...
Speakers: Andrew Emmott (Twin), Isaac B. Gokah (Malawi Partnership for Aflatoxin Control), Julian Smith (Food and Environment Research Agency, UK) Date: November 19, 2013 Time: 09:00 EST (Washington, DC); 14:00 GMT (UK); 16:00 CAT (Malawi)
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Journal of Food Quality is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles related to all aspects of food quality characteristics acceptable to consumers. The journal aims to provide a valuable resource for food scientists, nutritionists, food producers, the public health sector, and governmental and non-governmental agencies with an interest in food quality.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kiyoshi Okano, Tsuneyoshi Tomita, Yuji Ohzu, Mitsuhiro Takai, Ayaka Ose, Akiko Kotsuka, Naoko Ikeda, Junko Sakata, Yuko Kumeda, Nobuya Nakamura, Masakatsu Ichinoe].
The Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran (MJIRI), is a quarterly and an editorially independent publication owned by Iran University of Medical Sciences and aims to be a publication of international repute for reporting current regional and international adventures in all aspects of the medicine. MJIRI welcomes contributions in this field in the form of original research articles, case reports, letter to the editor, review articles, brief communications, debate articles, and study protocols.
There are a variety of aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2, M 1, M 2) produced by Apergillus flavus. Temperatures of 82° to 90° F, along with grain moisture levels of 22% to 26% provide ideal conditions for producing aflatoxin in a variety of grains, including corn, wheat, barley, and oats. The mold is abundant in the southeastern United States, but has occasionally become a problem in the Midwestern corn belt when drought conditions occur.. Aflatoxin is the only mycotoxin regulated by FDA because it has been shown to be carcinogenic, and therefore concerns about the mycotoxin entering the human food chain exist. No more than 20 ppb aflatoxin is allowed for interstate shipment of contaminated grain. Grains containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb cannot be used for human consumption and dairy feeds, and should not be fed to young animals. At low levels (20 - 200 ppb), aflatoxin decreases performance and well-being. Feed intake is commonly reduced, resulting in depressed growth rate, while ...
RASFF - aflatoxins (B1 = 81.2 µg/kg - ppb) in peanut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK RASFF-aflatoxins (B1 = 133 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnut kernels for birdfeed from India in the UK
Use of biocontrol products with atoxigenic active ingredients is a proven method for reducing the aflatoxin content of crops in the US. This method has made its way into sub-Saharan Africa; a region where aflatoxin contamination is still a problem.
Although the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly understood, hepatitis B virus and dietary aflatoxin exposures are established etiological factors for this disease. We conducted a pilot study of 28 patients with HCC and 110 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity to determine whether constitutional genetic instability, based on the quantification of mutagen-induced chromatid breaks in cultured lymphocytes, modifies an individuals risk of HCC development. The mean numbers of bleomycin-induced breaks per cell for cases and controls were 0.92 and 0.55, respectively (P , 0.0001). For benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) sensitivity, the values were 0.90 for cases and 0.46 for controls (P , 0.0001). Nearly 68% of the cases but only 27% of the controls exhibited bleomycin sensitivity (i.e., had , or = 0.68 breaks per cell). Eighty % of the case group but only 22% of the control group exhibited BPDE sensitivity (i.e., had , or = 0.58 breaks per cell). On ...
Pathogenicity: rat: colon carcinomas. Applications: produc-tion of versiconal acetate; production of 4,4-dihy-droxybiphenyl. Biotranformations: averufin into aflatoxins and C14 sterigmatocystin into aflatoxin B1; transformation of sesquiterpene lactone costunolide. Patents: US patent 3798323, challenge organisms for testing inhibition of mycotoxin production with dialkyl enol phosphate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1984)26:434-441. Mycopathologia (1986) 93:19-24.. ...
The biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been the subject of conflicting speculation and numerous reviews. The currently accepted scheme for the aflatoxin pathway is based on data obtained from feeding studies using ...
Several companies recalled dry dog foods in December 2011 after detection of aflatoxin concentrations above the acceptable
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum ...
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal metabolite that contaminates the food supply in certain areas of the world. It is produced by Aspergillusflavus and related fungi that grow on improperly stored foods such as corn, rice, and ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are found in cigarette smoke. The enzymes endogenous substrate is unknown; however, it is able to metabolize some PAHs to carcinogenic intermediates. Other xenobiotic substrates for this enzyme include caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and acetaminophen. The transcript from this gene contains four Alu sequences flanked by direct repeats in the 3 untranslated region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
CYP2A6 gehört zur größten Gruppe der CYP2-Familie und wird vorwiegend in der Leber exprimiert. Es metabolisiert Cumarin, Nikotin und verschiedene Medikamentenwirkstoffe wie Paracetamol, Letrozol und Valproinsäure (Nakajima et al., 2004), ist aber auch an der Aktivierung verschiedener Prokarzinogene wie Nitrosamine und Aflatoxin B1 beteiligt. Die CYP2A6-Aktivität kann durch eine Vielzahl von Verbindungen induziert werden, u. a. durch die Wirkstoffe Rifampicin und Phenobarbital (DALET-BELUCHE et al., 1992). Ebenso sind Substanzen bekannt, die die Aktivität von CYP2A6 hemmen, z. B. Methoxsalen (Mäenpää et al., 1994).. Die Aktivität des CYP2A6-Enzyms schwankt in der Bevölkerung um den Faktor 10 bis 100 (Pelkonen et al., 2000) und scheint sowohl vom Geschlecht, von Umwelt- wie auch genetischen Faktoren abzuhängen (Nakajima et al., 2006). Derzeit sind über 45 Allele beschrieben. Diese können zu einer fehlenden, verringerten oder erhöhten Enzymaktivität führen ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits cytokine activity (inferred); INVOLVED IN positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion; positive regulation of interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway; FOUND IN extracellular space; INTERACTS WITH aflatoxin B2; all-trans-retinoic acid; antirheumatic drug
After consuming foods that contain high amounts of aflatoxin, your liver metabolizes the chemical into a harmful and reactive ether. Initially, this substance has the ability to kill cells in the liver and the surrounding areas.. Eventually, after a large number of cells die off in the liver, a disease called cirrhosis often occurs. The aflatoxin fungus kills cells. Then when the liver tries to repair itself, a large number of nodules and scar tissue gets produced. In short, this process hinders the liver function and eventually causes a complete liver failure.. This food additive has also shown a direct correlation with the formation of cancerous material in the liver.. ...
MIT researchers have developed a way to determine, by sequencing DNA of liver cells, whether those cells have been exposed to aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen. This profile of mutations could be used to predict who has a high risk of developing liver cancer, potentially many years before tumors actually appear.
BioAssay record AID 55165 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested in vitro for inhibition of rat liver microsome-mediated AFB1-DNA at concentration of 10 uM.
This community-based study evaluated the role of aflatoxin exposure in advanced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-endemic townships. Preventive health examination was performed on 314 adults ≥ 40 years of age recruited from HCV-endemic townships in Tainan, Taiwan. Aflatoxin-albumin in serum was quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. After adjusting serum albumin levels and platelet counts, aflatoxin-Bi albumin adducts was still an independent risk factor for advanced liver disease among all 314 residents (> 8 versus ≤ 8 (AFBi)-albumin/albumin; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.23-4.27, P = 0.009) and particularly in anti-HCV-positive subjects (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.09-4.0, P = 0.026). Levels of AFB1-albumin/albumin were significantly related to ultrasonographic parenchyma scores (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA) in all and anti-HCV-positive subjects. The findings indicated aflatoxin exposure may be associated with advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in HCV-endemic
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes Immunosuppression in Animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed Meal, corn, and other Grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites Aflatoxin M1 and Q1 ...
Zea mays L. is one of the worlds most important and widely grown crops and is susceptible to a wide range of plant pathogens. One fungal pathogen of particular concern is Aspergillus flavus Link, which is capable of producing the secondary metabolite aflatoxin. Aflatoxin poses serious health concerns when consumed by humans and animals and when consumed in large doses can lead to abdominal pain, liver damage, and death. While regulated in the United States, many underdeveloped countries do not have the resources to monitor aflatoxin accumulation in maize and, thus, developing low aflatoxin accumulation commercial maize lines would be of great benefit. The objective of this project was to identify genotypic and phenotypic predictors of low aflatoxin accumulation that could help maize breeders develop a low aflatoxin accumulating line. The results of this work reveal the potential impact the maternal parental plant has on low aflatoxin accumulation through the movement of carbohydrates into ...
The effect of cycling temperatures on production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus (V3734-10) when grown upon various substrates was studied. The parameters of temperature and time were selected to simulate environmental conditions in Oregon during harvest of filberts and walnuts. The heat input required for aflatoxin synthesis in terms of degree hours per day were calculated and may be used as an index to predict potential danger of aflatoxin contamination. Conditions which generated less than 208 hours per day did not receive sufficient heat to induce growth and metabolism. When heat input ranged between 208 and 270 hours per day, growth and metabolism occurred with the development of a yellow pigment. There was not sufficient heat input, however, to induce the idiophase, sporulation and subsequent aflatoxin synthesis. Above 270 hours per day the culture entered the idiophase, sporulation occurred and aflatoxin was produced. The heat requirements for aflatoxin production was compared to the ...
Different classes of mycotoxins are distinguished on the basis of the structural similarity and originating mold species. For example, more than a dozen different aflatoxin compounds exist but only five of them are routinely tested (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1). Aflatoxin B1 is of particular interest because it is listed as a Group 1 Carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin M1 is a metabolic product that can be present in milk upon ingestion of aflatoxin B1 by an animal. Aflatoxins are ubiquitous in important agricultural commodities including maize and peanuts, and are among the most studied mycotoxins.. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by a different fungi species. It is prevalent in cereal crops grown under wet conditions and temperatures above 15o C (60o F). Chronic exposure of livestock to DON may result in slowed growth, impaired immune function and reduced rates of reproduction, particularly in non-ruminants.. Mycotoxins were discovered as the ...
Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day-1) or placebo (3 g day-1) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 ...
Considerable progress has been achieved in reducing aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products [47-52] since the discovery that aflatoxin is extremely toxic to humans and animals [2, 53]. Many inhibitors [9, 54] have been demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. flavus. Among them, plant-derived metabolites are of special interest. Non-host plant metabolites, such as onion, garlic extracts, eugenol [55-57], khellin, visnagin [58], caffeine, and piperlongumine [59] inhibit A. flavus growth and/or aflatoxin production. At the same time, host plant-derived metabolites including luteolin [60], eriodictyol [61], and tanning acids [62] also inhibit A. flavus development and/or aflatoxin production. However, most of these compounds can hardly be applied in practice because their biosynthesis pathway and the related biochemical steps are not well understood.. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, could protect plants from fungal infection and improve the defense ...
Looking for online definition of aflatoxicosis in the Medical Dictionary? aflatoxicosis explanation free. What is aflatoxicosis? Meaning of aflatoxicosis medical term. What does aflatoxicosis mean?
Hot and dry weather conditions are associated with increased aflatoxin and fumonisin production by the fungi from Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Weather is therefore the most important factor in determining whether aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination will be a problem or not.". Uncertain mycotoxin situation in 2015 led Nutriad to conduct several mycotoxin surveys in different European countries (UK and Ireland, Poland, Spain). Each survey was conducted on 60-70 samples of wheat or maize.. The Spanish Nutriad Mycotoxin Survey, executed in Q4 2015, covers 60 locally produced maize samples from across Spain. More than 400 analyses were conducted to test for the occurrence of the seven mycotoxins most frequently found in agricultural commodities that are intended for animal feed production.. The survey provided an insight into the incidences of aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin, fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) across all ...
Literature Cited. 1. Abbas, H. K., ed. 2003. Special issue: Aflatoxin and food safety Part 1. J. of Toxicol, Toxin Rev. 22:139- 459.. 2. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., and Locke, M. A. 2004. Spatial variability of Aspergillus flavus soil populations under different crops and corn grain colonization and aflatoxins. Can. J. Bot. 82:1768-1775. 3. Abbas, H. K., Cartwright, R. D., Xie, W., and Shier, W. T. 2006. Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of corn (maize, Zea mays) hybrids in Arkansas. Crop Prot. 25:1-9. 4. Abbas, H. K., Zablotowicz, R. M., Bruns, H. A., and Abel, C. A. 2006. Biocontrol of aflatoxin in corn by inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates. Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:437-449.. 5. Ahmad, M., Majerczak, D. R., Pile, S., Hoyas, M. E., Novacky, A., and Coplin, D. L. 2001. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1223-1234.. 6. Baker, C. J., Orlandi, E. W., and Mock, N. M. 1993. Harpin, an ...
Maize infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus may become contaminated with aflatoxins, and as a result, threaten human health, food security and farmers income in developing countries where maize is a staple. Environmental distribution and genetic diversity of A. flavus can influence the effectiveness of atoxigenic isolates in mitigating aflatoxin contamination. However, such information has not been used to facilitate selection and deployment of atoxigenic isolates. A total of 35 isolates of A. flavus isolated from maize samples collected from three agroecological zones of Nigeria were used in this study. Ecophysiological characteristics, distribution and genetic diversity of the isolates were determined to identify vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). The generated data were used to inform selection and deployment of native atoxigenic isolates to mitigate aflatoxin contamination in maize. In co-inoculation with toxigenic isolates, atoxigenic isolates reduced aflatoxin ...

Aflatoxin B1 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAflatoxin B1 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Aflatoxin B1. A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is ... The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/aflatoxin-b1.html

Genetic organization and function of the aflatoxin B1 biosynthetic genes.  - PubMed - NCBIGenetic organization and function of the aflatoxin B1 biosynthetic genes. - PubMed - NCBI

Genetic organization and function of the aflatoxin B1 biosynthetic genes.. Woloshuk CP1, Prieto R. ... Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Most of the genes involved in ... A pair of fatty acid synthase genes were identified that are involved uniquely in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Two genes were also ... Gene expression is coordinated during aflatoxin production and is under the control of a positive regulatory gene belonging to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9532734?dopt=Abstract

Aflatoxin B1 | definition of aflatoxin B1 by Medical dictionaryAflatoxin B1 | definition of aflatoxin B1 by Medical dictionary

... aflatoxin B1 explanation free. What is aflatoxin B1? Meaning of aflatoxin B1 medical term. What does aflatoxin B1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of aflatoxin B1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to aflatoxin B1: Ochratoxin A, Aspergillus flavus, Aflatoxin m1. aflatoxin B1. A fungal toxin derived from Aspergillus ... Aflatoxin B1 , definition of aflatoxin B1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aflatoxin+B1 ...
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Aflatoxin B1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems IndiaAflatoxin B1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems India

Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood ... Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Home / Food Safety Assays / Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Return to Previous Page ... The use of aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit to analyze aflatoxin B1 residue of samples is fast and accurate. Refer to the National ... Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. Aflatoxins ...
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Aflatoxin B1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems IndiaAflatoxin B1 ELISA - Krishgen Biosystems India

Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood ... Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Home / Food Safety Assays / Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Return to Previous Page ... The use of aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit to analyze aflatoxin B1 residue of samples is fast and accurate. Refer to the National ... Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. Aflatoxins ...
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AllAboutFeed - Lower Aflatoxin B1 risk for Croatia and SpainAllAboutFeed - Lower Aflatoxin B1 risk for Croatia and Spain

GMP+ International adjusted the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for maize. For Croatia and Spain this means that the risk is ... Aflatoxin B1: Changes for Brazil and Croatia As a result of the evaluation of the available analysis results of Aflatoxin B1 in ... Aflatoxin B1 risk for Canada reduced For Canada, the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 changes from Medium to Low. This means ... Aflatoxin B1: changes in risk profile Spain The risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for Spanish maize is changed from Low to ...
more infohttps://www.allaboutfeed.net/Mycotoxins/Articles/2017/2/Lower-Aflatoxin-B1-risk-for-Croatia-and-Spain-90236E/

Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Test Kit | Wholesale Sourcing : TopTenWholesale.comAflatoxin B1 ELISA Test Kit | Wholesale Sourcing : TopTenWholesale.com

Sample Type Detection Limit (ng/g or ppb) sMeat/fish/sereal/feed/seed/starch 0.5(Rapid Method); 2.5(Organic Solvent Method) sMeat/liver/kidney 0.5 sMi ...
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Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin] (NB600-443B): Novus BiologicalsAflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin] (NB600-443B): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... At least 13 different types of aflatoxin are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1 considered as the most toxic. Aflatoxin B1 ... Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin] Summary. Immunogen. Aflatoxin B1 DNA (against the midazole ring-opened persistent form of ... Check out the latest blog posts on Aflatoxin B1.. Using Aflatoxin B1 Antibody for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Studies. We at Novus ...
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Aflatoxin B1 - WikipediaAflatoxin B1 - Wikipedia

Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolitzed into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Then a final recyclization occurs to form aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 is a potent genotoxic hepatocarcinogen with its exposure ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aflatoxin_B1

Aflatoxin B1 organic compound molecule - Stock Image F016/9534 - Science Photo LibraryAflatoxin B1 organic compound molecule - Stock Image F016/9534 - Science Photo Library

Molecular model of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (C17.H12.O6), produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. This chemical is ... Caption: Aflatoxin B1. Molecular model of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (C17.H12.O6), produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. ... Keywords: aflatoxin b1, artwork, aspergillus flavus, ball and stick, ball-and-stick, chemical, chemical compound, chemistry, ...
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Ursolic acid inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in a Salmonella assay system.Ursolic acid inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in a Salmonella assay system.

... which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in the Salmonella assay system. The number of revertants per plate was ... Aflatoxin B1 / toxicity*. Animals. Antimutagenic Agents / pharmacology*. Male. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, ... An attempt was made to isolate the active component of Eriobotrya japonica, which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in ... 0/Antimutagenic Agents; 0/Plant Extracts; 0/Triterpenes; 1162-65-8/Aflatoxin B1; 77-52-1/ursolic acid ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ursolic-acid-inhibits-aflatoxin-B1/8000393.html

Toxins | Free Full-Text | Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic BeveragesToxins | Free Full-Text | Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural ... Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural ... Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages. Tomonori Inoue. ... The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/7/1219

Aflatoxin b1 | Article about Aflatoxin b1 by The Free DictionaryAflatoxin b1 | Article about Aflatoxin b1 by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Aflatoxin b1. Any of a group of secondary metabolites produced by the common molds Aspergillus ... flavus and A. parasiticus that cause a toxic response in vertebrates when... Explanation of Aflatoxin b1 ... aflatoxin. (redirected from Aflatoxin b1). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms.. Related to Aflatoxin b1: ... Aflatoxin b1 , Article about Aflatoxin b1 by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Aflatoxin+b1 ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Aflatoxin+b1

Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Kit, Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity Test - RapidTestAflatoxin B1 ELISA Kit, Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity Test - RapidTest

The Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Kit from RapidTest has a sensitivity of 5pg /mL and a total test time of 140 minutes. View materials ... Both chronical and acute intoxications are effected by aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 Food ELISA Test Principle. The Aflatoxin B1 ... Aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit description:. Diagnostic Automation Inc. offers an Aflatoxin B1 Food ELISA Kit that is an Enzyme ... Aflatoxin B1 ELISA is a quick, economical and sensitive method to detect aflatoxin B1 in food. After an appropriate sample ...
more infohttp://www.rapidtest.com/index.php?i=Food-ELISA-kits&id=640&cat=104

Toxins | Free Full-Text | Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1Toxins | Free Full-Text | Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

... pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human ... Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus ... Confirmation and Fine Mapping of a Major QTL for Aflatoxin Resistance in Maize Using a Combination of Linkage and Association ... RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/9/267

Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Feedstuffs without Clean-Up Step by High-Performance Liquid ChromatographyDetermination of Aflatoxin B1 in Feedstuffs without Clean-Up Step by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

M. Oplatowska-Stachowiak, N. Sajic, Y. Xu et al., "Fast and sensitive aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins ELISAs for analysis of ... and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India," Food Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27-31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google ... "Effect of naturally contaminated feed with aflatoxins on performance of laying hens and the carryover of aflatoxin B1 residues ... M. A. Anjum, S. H. Khan, A. W. Sahota, and R. Sardar, "Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in commercial poultry feed and feed ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2018/4650764/

Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavusEffects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

X. Ma, W. Wang, X. Chen et al., "Selection, identification, and application of Aflatoxin B1 aptamer," European Food Research ... A. Abdollahi and R. L. Buchanan, "Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: induction of aflatoxin production by various ... "Influence of lipids with and without other cottonseed reserve materials on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus," ... "Multifunctional column coupled with liquid chromatography for determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn, almonds, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7232858/ref/

Association between aflatoxin B1 occupational airway exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study |...Association between aflatoxin B1 occupational airway exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study |...

The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ... Co-contamination of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in food and human dietary exposure in three areas of China. Food Addit Contam ... Determination of exposure to aflatoxins among Danish workers in animal-feed production through the analysis of aflatoxin B1 ... Asim M, Sarma MP, Thayumanavan L, Kar P. Role of aflatoxin B1 as a risk for primary liver cancer in north Indian population. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13277-014-2231-3

Excretion of Aflatoxin B1 as a glutathione conjugate | Springer for Research & DevelopmentExcretion of Aflatoxin B1 as a glutathione conjugate | Springer for Research & Development

... treatment with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (2mg/kg) showed less than 40% of the radioactivity in the 24 h urine and... ... Aflatoxin B1 glutathione conjugation biliary and urinary excretion This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Bassir, O. and Osiyemi, F. (1967) Biliary excretion of aflatoxin in the rat after a single dose. Nature 215, 882.CrossRefPubMed ... Acute and chronic effects of aflatoxin on the liver of Domestic and laboratory animals. A. review.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03189524

Effect of Kombucha Tea on Aflatoxin B1 Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats-prophylactic and Curative Studies |...Effect of Kombucha Tea on Aflatoxin B1 Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats-prophylactic and Curative Studies |...

Jodynis-Liebert J, Matlawska I, Bylka W, and Murias M (2006) Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris L. on aflatoxin B1 induced ... Raney KD, Meyer DJ, Ketterer B, Harris TM, and Guengerich FP (1992) Glutathione conjugation of aflatoxin B1 exo- and endo- ... Stresser DM, Bailey GS, and Williams DE (1994) Indole-3-carbinol and a-naphthoflavone induction of aflatoxin B1 metabolism and ... Ip SP, Mak DH, Li PC, Poon MK, and Ko KM (1996) Effect of a lignan enriched extract of Schisandra chinensis on aflatoxin B1 and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3839/jksabc.2010.063

Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Poultary Feed
							| Nepal Agriculture Research Journal
			Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Poultary Feed | Nepal Agriculture Research Journal

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2, Feed, Mycotoxin, Poultry, Thin layer chromatography (TLC) ... A total of 65 poultry feed samples were examined for the detection of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2) using thin ... Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Poultary Feed * Sita R. Aryal Animal Health Research Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur ... samples were positive only with aflatoxin B1 and two (4.08%) samples were positive only with aflatoxin B2. Among them 13 (20%) ...
more infohttps://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NARJ/article/view/11648

Protective effect of sodium selenite against the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in human whole blood culturesProtective effect of sodium selenite against the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in human whole blood cultures

GEYIKOGLU, Fatime and TURKEZ, Hasan. Protective effect of sodium selenite against the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in human ... This study was designed to investigate the effects of selenium and aflatoxin on human whole blood cultures (WBC) in relation to ... Keywords : Aflatoxin B1; selenium; sister-chromatid exchanges; genotoxicity; whole blood cultures. ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1516-89132006000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

A simple fluorescent aptamer based assay coupled with fluorescence scanning capillary array for aflatoxin B1 - Analyst (RSC...A simple fluorescent aptamer based assay coupled with fluorescence scanning capillary array for aflatoxin B1 - Analyst (RSC...

We developed a simple aptamer fluorescence assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection by using an array of capillaries. The 34-nt ... A simple fluorescent aptamer based assay coupled with fluorescence scanning capillary array for aflatoxin B1 L. Sun and Q. Zhao ... We developed a simple aptamer fluorescence assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection by using an array of capillaries. The 34-nt ... A simple fluorescent aptamer based assay coupled with fluorescence scanning capillary array for aflatoxin B1 ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/AN/2018/C8AN01093E

Anticarcinogenic effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin-B1-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats - IDFAnticarcinogenic effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin-B1-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats - IDF

Anticarcinogenic effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin-B1-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats. ... as an antioxidant agent in male Wistar rats administered aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1). AFB1 was injected intraperitoneally at the rate ...
more infohttps://www.fil-idf.org/sciences/anticarcinogenic-effect-of-probiotic-fermented-milk-and-chlorophyllin-on-aflatoxin-b1-induced-liver-carcinogenesis-in-rats/

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Protective Effects of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin  B1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in...IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Protective Effects of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in...

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative ... Keywords: aflatoxin b1; sodium selenite; oxidative stress; apoptosis; spleen aflatoxin b1; sodium selenite; oxidative stress; ... The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative ... Protective Effects of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Broiler Spleen. Fengyuan ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/7/2834
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • While aflatoxin B1 contamination is common in many staple foods, its production is maximized in foods stored in hot, humid climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments were performed under simulated conditions at low-level aflatoxin contamination commonly found in natural feedstuff with sub-chronic ingestion. (lrrd.org)
  • Since A. flavus and A. parasiticus are nearly ubiquitous in the natural environment, numerous other grain, legume, nut, and spice crops, as well as coffee and cocoa, have been reported to contain aflatoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies directed toward understanding the molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis have led to a number of important discoveries. (nih.gov)
  • A pair of fatty acid synthase genes were identified that are involved uniquely in aflatoxin biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Invitro metabolic Conversion of aflatoxins and Benzo(a)pyrene to Nucleic acid binding metabolites. (springer.com)
  • GMP+ International adjusted the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for maize. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This means that maize from Croatia and Spain needs to be analysed less frequently, because the risk of the presence of Aflatoxin B1 is virtually non-existent. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In animals, aflatoxin B1 has also been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic, and to cause immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wogan, G.N., Edwards, G.S. Shank, R.C. (1967) Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Radioactivity from aflatoxin B 1 - 14 C in rats cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Wahhab MA and Ahy SE (2003) Antioxidants and radical scavenging properties of vegetable extracts in rats fed aflatoxin contaminated diet. (springer.com)
  • Ip SP, Mak DH, Li PC, Poon MK, and Ko KM (1996) Effect of a lignan enriched extract of Schisandra chinensis on aflatoxin B 1 and cadmium chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (springer.com)
  • Jodynis-Liebert J, Matlawska I, Bylka W, and Murias M (2006) Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris L. on aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic damage in rats. (springer.com)
  • The four major analogues-aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ), and G 2 (AFG 2 )-are the most important members because they all pose a potential risk to human and animal health if food and feedstuffs have been contaminated. (hindawi.com)
  • The microtiter wells are coated with aflatoxin antigen. (krishgen.com)
  • Some additional instrumentation and reagents are needed when running DAI Aflatoxin B1 quantitative test kit which include, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 uL-micropipets, Microtiter plate shaker, ELISA reader (450 nm), Mortar or mixer, Horizontal shaker or magnetic stirrer, Centrifuge, Methanol and Double-distilled water. (rapidtest.com)
  • 2016. "Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B 1 . (mdpi.com)
  • Kaaya A.N., Management of aflatoxins in cereals, legumes and tubers, In: AT Uganda Ltd., Final technical report CPP R8435 (ZA0653) and R8442 (ZA0666) appendix 12, 2009. (degruyter.com)
  • Aflatoxins in particular add another dimension because it is suspected that they have been mass-produced in the past from biological sources as part of a biological weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 is usually the most abundant naturally occurring member of the family, and most studies on the pharmacological activity of aflatoxin have been conducted with this congener. (thefreedictionary.com)