Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Sterigmatocystin: A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Rats, Inbred F344Mycotoxicosis: Poisoning caused by the ingestion of mycotoxins (toxins of fungal origin).Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Citrinin: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.GuanineFood Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Orotic AcidDictionaries, MedicalCottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (1/513)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. (2/513)

We have used homology modelling, based on the crystal structure of the human glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1, to obtain the three-dimensional structures of rat GSTA3 and rat GSTA5 subunits bound to S-aflatoxinyl-glutathione. The resulting models highlight two residues, at positions 208 and 108, that could be important for determining, either directly or indirectly, substrate specificity for aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide among the Alpha-class GSTs. Residues at these positions were mutated in human GSTA1-1 (Met-208, Leu-108), rat GSTA3-3 (Glu-208, His-108) and rat GSTA5-5 (Asp-208, Tyr-108): in the active rat GSTA5-5 to those in the inactive GSTA1-1; and in the inactive human GSTA1-1 and rat GSTA3-3 to those in the active rat GSTA5-5. These studies show clearly that, in all three GSTs, an aspartate residue at position 208 is a prerequisite for high activity in aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide conjugation, although this alone is not sufficient; other residues in the vicinity, particularly residues 103-112, are important, perhaps for the optimal orientation of the aflatoxin-exo-8,9-epoxide in the active site for catalysis to occur.  (+info)

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States. (3/513)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are <400 micrometer in diameter. The S-strain isolates generally produced high levels of aflatoxin B1, whereas the L-strain isolates were more variable in aflatoxin production; variation in cyclopiazonic acid production also was greater in the L strain than in the S strain. There was a positive correlation between aflatoxin B1 production and cyclopiazonic acid production in both strains, although 12% of the L-strain isolates produced only cyclopiazonic acid. Significant differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by the L-strain isolates were detected among regions. In the western half of Texas and the peanut-growing region of Georgia and Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect.  (+info)

Potency of dietary indole-3-carbinol as a promoter of aflatoxin B1-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis: results from a 9000 animal tumor study. (4/513)

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a metabolite of glucobrassicin found in cruciferous vegetables, is documented as acting as a modulator of carcinogenesis and, depending on timing and dose of administration, it may promote hepatocarcinogenesis in some animal models. In this study we demonstrate that, when given post-initiation, dietary I3C promotes aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rainbow trout model at levels as low as 500 p.p.m. Trout embryos (approximately 9000) were initiated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 175 or 250 p.p.b. AFB1 by a 30 min immersion. Experimental diets containing 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 p.p.m. I3C were administered starting at 3 months and fish were sampled for liver tumors at 11-13 months. Promotion at the level of tumor incidence was statistically significant for all dietary levels, except 250 p.p.m. Relative potency for promotion markedly increased at dietary levels >750 p.p.m. We propose that more than one mechanism could be involved in promotion and that both estrogenic and Ah receptor-mediated pathways could be active. The estrogenicity of I3C, measured as its ability to induce vitellogenin (an estrogen biomarker in oviparous vertebrates) was evident at the lowest dietary level (250 p.p.m.), whereas CYPIA (a P450 isozyme induced through the Ah receptor pathway) was not induced until dietary levels of 1000 p.p.m. Therefore, at lower dietary levels, promotion by I3C in this model could be explained by estrogenic activities of I3C acid derivatives, as it is known that estrogens promote hepatocarcinogenesis in trout. Much stronger promotion was observed at high dietary I3C levels (1000 and 1250 p.p.m.), at which levels both CYP1A and vitellogenin were induced.  (+info)

Downregulation of DNA excision repair by the hepatitis B virus-x protein occurs in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells. (5/513)

Synergism between exposure to chemical carcinogens and infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated in the high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study we report that the HBV protein HBx, inhibits cellular DNA repair capacity in a p53-independent manner. Two alternative assays were used: the host cell reactivation assay, which measures the cell's capacity to repair DNA damage in a reporter plasmid, and unscheduled DNA synthesis, which measures the overall DNA repair capacity in damaged cells. Two p53-proficient cell lines, the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and liver epithelial cell line CCL13, were co-transfected with the pCMV-HBx reporter plasmid and the pCMV-CAT plasmid damaged with UVC radiation. Compared with cells transfected with control plasmid, the presence of HBx resulted in approximately 50% inhibition of the cell's capacity to reactivate CAT activity of UVC-damaged plasmid, and approximately 25% inhibition of unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells treated with either aflatoxin B1 epoxide or UVC radiation. Using the p53-deficient cell line Saos-2, we demonstrated that expression of HBx also resulted in diminished overall cellular DNA repair of damage induced by both aflatoxin B1 epoxide and UVC radiation, using both the host cell reactivation and unscheduled DNA synthesis assays. In summary, this study provides evidence for p53-independent regulation of DNA repair by HBx.  (+info)

Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi. (6/513)

West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management.  (+info)

Expression of stably transfected murine glutathione S-transferase A3-3 protects against nucleic acid alkylation and cytotoxicity by aflatoxin B1 in hamster V79 cells expressing rat cytochrome P450-2B1. (7/513)

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is activated to AFB1-8,9-oxide (AFBO), a potent mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of AFB1. In the mouse, AFBO has been shown to be most efficiently detoxified by a specific isozyme of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), mGSTA3-3 (mGST-Yc). A hamster V79 cell line (V79MZr2B1, originally designated V79/SD1) previously transfected with the rat cytochrome P450-2B1 was stably transfected with an mGSTA3-3 expression vector, to study the chemopreventive role of GST in protecting against cytotoxicity or genotoxicity of AFBO. Immunoblotting demonstrated strong expression of an alpha-class GST in the mGSTA3-3 transfected cell line, whereas no detectable alpha-class GST protein was observed in the control (empty vector-transfected) cells. Previous studies with the V79MZr2B1 cell line indicated that it can activate AFB1 to a mutagenic metabolite via a transfected rat P450-2B1 stably expressed in the cells. We examined the ability of the expressed mGSTA3-3 to protect against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity or [3H]-covalent adduct formation in cellular nucleic acids. Exposure of empty vector-transfected control cells and mGSTA3-3 expressing cells to up to 600 nM [3H]-AFB1 indicated that a 70-80% reduction in DNA and RNA adducts was afforded by the expression of mGSTA3-3 in the transfected cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed that the mGSTA3-3 cell line was 4.6-fold resistant to AFB1 cytotoxicity as compared with the empty vector-transfected control SD1 cells, with IC50 values of 69 and 15 microM, respectively. The results of these studies demonstrate that mGSTA3-3 confers substantial protection against nucleic acid covalent modification and cytotoxicity by AFB1 in this transgenic cell model system.  (+info)

XRCC1 polymorphisms: effects on aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts and glycophorin A variant frequency. (8/513)

Hereditary genetic defects in DNA repair lead to increased risk of cancer. Polymorphisms in several DNA repair genes have been identified; however, the impact on repair phenotype has not been elucidated. We explored the relationship between polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme, XRCC1 (codons 194, 280, and 399), and genotoxic end points measured in two populations: (a) placental aflatoxin B1 DNA (AFB1-DNA) adducts in a group of Taiwanese maternity subjects (n = 120); and (b) somatic glycophorin A (GPA) variants in erythrocytes from a group of North Carolina smokers and nonsmokers (n = 59). AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and erythrocyte GPA variant frequency (NN and NO) was assessed in MN heterozygotes with a flow cytometric assay. XRCC1 genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLPs. The XRCC1 399Gln allele was significantly associated with higher levels of both AFB1-DNA adducts and GPA NN mutations. Individuals with the 399Gln allele were at risk for detectable adducts (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = 0.03). GPA NN variant frequency was significantly higher in 399Gln homozygotes (19.6 x 10(-6)) than in Gln/Arg heterozygotes (11.4 x 10(-6); P < 0.05) or Arg/Arg homozygotes (10.1 x 10(-6); P = 0.01). No significant effects were observed for other XRCC1 polymorphisms. These results suggest that the Arg399Gln amino acid change may alter the phenotype of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in deficient DNA repair.  (+info)

aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | order aflatoxin b1 afb1 aflatoxin b1 afb1 mouse monoclonal antibody | How to use: aflatoxin b1 afb1
Using duplex-consensus sequencing technology, we recently identified the characteristic high-resolution mutational spectrum of the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B₁ in a mouse model, many months before aflatoxin-induced tumors are detectable. The diagnostic power of this spectrum is then demonstrated by accurately identifying, among the sequenced human liver tumors, the subset of cancers associated with aflatoxin B₁ exposure. Keywords: Duplex sequencing; HCC; hepatocellular carcinoma; mutagenesis; mutational signature; ...
The method of spectroscopic ellipsometry in total internal reflection mode (TIRE) was utilised for detection of Aflatoxin B1. The method of TIRE with the improved data analysis was capable of detection of aflatoxin molecules in low concentrations (down to 0.04 ng/ml) using a label-free and cost-effective direct immunoassay format. TIRE study of the binding kinetics yielded a large value of the association constant in the range of 106 l mol−1 which is typical for highly specific immune reactions. The comparison of the experimental data for three mycotoxins studied (e.g. aflatoxin B1, T-2 mycotoxin, and zearalenone) confirmed a common mechanism of the sensitivity boost due to the aggregation of hydrophobic molecules of mycotoxins in aqueous solutions.. ...
Poultry are the most susceptible food animal species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Feed contaminated with even small amounts of AFB1 results in significant adverse health effects in poultry. The purpose of this study was to explain the biochemical mechanism(s) for this extreme sensitivity. We measured microsomal activation of AFB1 to the AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO), the putative toxic intermediate, as well as cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFBO, in addition to other hepatic phase I and phase II enzyme activities, in 3-week-old male Oorlop strain turkeys. Liver microsomes prepared from these turkeys activated AFB1in vitro with an apparent Km of 109 μM and a Vmax of 1.25 nmol/mg/min. Preliminary evidence for the involvement of cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A2 and, to a lesser extent, 3A4 for AFB1 activation was assessed by the use of specific mammalian CYP inhibitors. The possible presence of avian orthologues of these CYPs was supported by
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B1 - Aflatoxin $B_1$;Apoptosis;Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates;Macrophages;
Aflatoxins (AFs) are natural contaminants of feed and feedstuffs, thus the study of the noxious effects ofthese agents on the male reproductive system is of outstanding importance. Our aim for this study is theevaluation of the effects of oral administration of aflatoxin B1 on the reproductive hormonal changes in adult male rat. Twenty eight Wistar strain male rats were selected for this study. The rats were divided into 4groups, viz, control (C), test groups (T1, T2, and T3). The toxin doses were prepared in sterile distilled waterat 0.8 ppm, 1.6 ppm, 3.2 ppm, and administered through oral gavages, 1 ml/animal/day to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively for 48 days and each animal of group C was gavaged with 1 ml/day sterile distilled water. The hormonal assays were carried out using ELISA biochemical kits for serum FSH, LH, prolactintestosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results showed that, the levels of serum LH and testosterone were lower(P|0.001), but conversely the levels of FSH and prolactin were
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood & animal feed. (Aflatoxin B1)
The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. The antibody was affinity purified with an AFB1-Agarose column and competitively eluted by free AFB1. The antibody was conjugated to peroxidase (HRP) by reductive amination. This anti-AFB1 HRP conjugates could be utilized for detection and quantization of the food-borne mycotoxin AFB1. ...
Gurtoo, H L.; Dahms, R; Motycka, L; and Taylor, B, "Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. Abstr." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2582 ...
Aflatoxin B1 is a contaminant of agricultural and dairy products that can berelated to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In this report we explore the capacity of ?-mannan (Man) to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. Forthis purpose we applied the comet assay to groups of animals which were firstadministered Man (100, 400 and 700 mg/kg, respectively) and 20 min later 1.0 mg/kg ofAFB1. Liver cells were obtained at 4, 10, and 16 h after the chemical administration andexamined. The results showed no protection of the damage induced by AFB1 with thelow dose of the polysaccharide, but they did reveal antigenotoxic activity exerted by thetwo high doses. In addition, we induced a co-crystallization between both compounds,determined their fusion points and analyzed the molecules by UV spectroscopy. Theobtained data suggested the formation of a supramolecular complex between AFB1and Man ...
Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic semialdehyde to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. May have an important role in producin
Chronic hepatitis B and C infections, dietary aflatoxin B1 ingestion and chronic alcohol abuse are the most common etiological factors associated with HCC. Liver cirrhosis is the major clinical risk factor for the development of HCC independent of its original etiology. Indeed, in 70-90% of cases HCC develops in the setting of macronodular cirrhosis. ...
REYNA-SANTAMARIA, L; BASILIO-NAVARRETE, A; MARTINEZ-ROJERO, RD e CASAUBON-HUGUENIN, MT. Productive performance and poisonous in broilers fed with aflatoxin Bp B2 and three adsorbents of mycotoxins. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2016, vol.48, n.2, pp.215-222. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2016000200012.. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 1,200 μg/kg of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and three mycotoxins adsorbents on growth performance, antibody titers to Newcastle, blood chemistry and histopathological lesions in broilers. One hundred ninety two one-day old chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments and 3 replicates of 16 chickens, in a 42-day experiment. Treatments evaluated: T1 = basal diet; T2 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFbj and AFb2; T3 = basal diet with 1,200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (A); T4 = basal diet with 1200 μg/kg of AFb1 and AFb2 plus adsorbent (B). The results indicate that the chickens eating the adsorbent ...
RESULTS: The levels of caspase-3 activities in AFB1 group were significantly higher than control group. The apoptosis was associated with degenerative and necrotic changes in the hepatocytes. Concomitantly, the levels of MDA and NO in liver tissues were significantly increased while the levels of GSH, Zn and enzyme activities of GSPx and GR in liver tissues were significantly decreased in AFB1 group compared to their levels in controls. Caspase-3 activity was positively correlated with MDA while negatively correlated with GSH, GSPx and GR in rat livers treated with AFB1. The apoptotic rate was significantly reduced when MEL co-administrated with AFB1. In rats which received MEL with AFB1, the levels of MDA and NO in liver tissues were significantly reduced while GSH and Zn levels and GSPx, GR and GST activities were significantly increased compared to AFB1 group. When MEL-MC co-administrated with AFB1 appeared more effective in reduction of apoptotic rate as detected by decline of caspase-3 ...
Aflatoxin, a potent hepatotoxin, causes rapid inhibition of RNA polymerase activitiy in isolated rat liver nuclei. Its hepatotoxicity is accompanied by an injury of periportal parenchymal cells. Rats fed a diet marginally deficient in choline are protected against the acutely toxic action of aflatoxin B1. This diet does not prevent the rapid inhibition of RNA polymerase or the changes in nucleolar morphology following the administration of aflatoxin B1. The diet does however largely prevent the proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the necrosis of periportal parenchymal cells. The diet appears to offer the possibility of separating those changes in the liver associated with hepatotoxicity from those associated with hepatocarcinogenicity.. ...
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding corns naturally contaminated with AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, liver histopathological changes and percentage of hepatocyte apoptosis of Cherry Valley Ducks. Sixty, 1 day old ducks randomly divide into groups and were fed corn-soybean meal uncontaminated or contaminated AFB1. AFB1-contaminated diet significantly decreased the Body Weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate (p,0.05). The concentration of serum protein and the activity antioxidant enzyme were significantly decreased (p,0.05), the activity of serum biochemical enzyme and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly increased (p,0.05) in AFB1-contaminated group. From histological study, liver tissue of ducks receiving AFB1-contaminated diets had markedly bile duct hyperplasia and vacuolar degeneration. ...
Food can become contaminated with substances not intentionally added (contaminants). They can occur in plants through, for example, absorption from the (contaminated) soil or deposition from the air. Contaminants can also find their way in food during the production process and preparation of food. Contamination due to contaminants cannot always be prevented, but, in most cases, is of no public health concern. That is because the concentrations, on average, are low over time. RIVM has calculated that the intake of the majority of 28 contaminants investigated is within an acceptable range when people eat and drink according to the Wheel of Five. This is not the case for three contaminants: acrylamide, arsenic and lead. That does not mean that it is certain that negative health effects will occur. It is just that they cannot be ruled out. Due to uncertainties in the calculation, no conclusion could be drawn for cadmium, aflatoxin B1 and the sum of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. There are no ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: All Species. 100% Guaranteed.
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of aflatoxins in food. The risk assessment was confined to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. More than 200,000 analytical results on the occ .... ...
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of aflatoxins in food. The risk assessment was confined to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. More than 200,000 analytical results on the occ .... ...
... : Effects of olive leaves (A) and olive oil mill waste (B) extracts on cell proliferation in Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-treated HepG2 cells. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU incorporation in HepG2 cells. Samples were collected at 24 hours. The groups with "a" were significantly different vs. the corresponding control group. The groups with "b" were significantly different vs. the corresponding group without AFB1 ...
INVOLVED IN neurogenesis (ortholog); neuron differentiation (ortholog); FOUND IN nucleus (ortholog); plasma membrane (ortholog); INTERACTS WITH 17beta-estradiol; aflatoxin B1; antirheumatic drug
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Abstract Pregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular basis of aflatoxin-induced mutagenesis-role of the aflatoxin B1-formamidopyrimidine adduct. AU - Lin, Ying Chih. AU - Li, Liang. AU - Makarova, Alena V.. AU - Burgers, Peter M.. AU - Stone, Michael P.. AU - Lloyd, Robert (Stephen). PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known carcinogen associated with early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is thought to contribute to over half a million new HCCs per year. Although some of the fundamental risk factors are established, the molecular basis of AFB1-induced mutagenesis in primate cells has not been rigorously investigated. To gain insights into genome instability that is produced as a result of replicating DNAs containing AFB1 adducts, site-specific mutagenesis assays were used to establish the mutagenic potential of the persistent ring-opened AFB1 adduct, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY). This lesion was highly mutagenic, yielding replication error frequencies of 97%, with the predominant base ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of aflatoxin B1 contamination in pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, Food products, Poultry and livestock feeds in Tamil Nadu, India. AU - Vijayasamundeeswari, Ayyathurai. AU - Mohankumar, Munusamy. AU - Karthikeyan, Muthusamy. AU - Vijayanandraj, Selvaraj. AU - Paranidharan, Vaikuntavasen. AU - Velazhahan, Rethinasamy. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, have adverse health effects on humans and livestock that ingest aflatoxin- contaminated food products and feeds. To secure the safety of food and feed, regular monitoring of aflatoxin levels is necessary. In order to understand the magnitude of aflatoxin contamination, a survey was conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India and 242 samples consisting of pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, food products, poultry and livestock feeds were collected from farmers fields, poultry farms, retail shops and ...
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination.
Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells,
Large species differences exist in sensitivity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver cancer. Mice are resistant to AFB1-induced liver cancer because they express an alpha-class GST (mGSTA3-3) that has high activity toward the reactive intermediate aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Rats constitutively express only small amounts of a GST with high AFBO activity (rGSTA5-5) and thus are sensitive to AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, although induction of rGSTA5-5 can confer resistance in rats. In contrast to rodents, constitutively expressed human hepatic alpha-class GSTs have little or no AFBO detoxifying activity. Recently, we found that the nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis (Mf), has significant constitutive hepatic GST activity toward AFBO and most of this activity belongs to mu-class GSTs. To determine if any alpha-class GSTs in Mf liver have AFBO activity, a cDNA library from a male Mf liver was constructed and screened using the human alpha-class GstA1 cDNA as a probe. Three different cDNA ...
Define aflatoxin. aflatoxin synonyms, aflatoxin pronunciation, aflatoxin translation, English dictionary definition of aflatoxin. n. Any of a group of toxic compounds produced by certain molds, especially Aspergillus flavus, that contaminate stored food supplies such as animal feed and...
Hop on to get the meaning of hAFAR1 acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Undefined Acronym / Slang hAFAR1 means... AcronymsAndSlang. The hAFAR1 acronym/abbreviation definition. The hAFAR1 meaning is human aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase 1. The definition of hAFAR1 by AcronymAndSlang.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microsome-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in Bacillus megaterium SJ-6 his-. AU - Buch, J. K.. AU - Buch, Shilpa. AU - Dave, P. J.. PY - 1982/4. Y1 - 1982/4. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020028778&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020028778. VL - 13. SP - 349. EP - 352. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. IS - 4. ER - ...
Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Alpha-class glutathione transferases (GSTs) found expressed in human tissues constitute a family of four homologous enzymes with contrasting enzyme activities. In particular, GST A3-3 has been shown to contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in human cells and is selectively expressed in steroidogenic tissues. The more ubiquitous GST A1-1, GST A2-2, and GST A4-4 appear to be primarily involved in detoxification processes and are expressed at higher levels than GST A3-3. We are interested in studying the cell and tissue expression of the GST A3-3 gene, yet the existence of highly expressed sequence-similar homologs and of several splice variants is a serious challenge for the specific detection of unique transcript species. We found that published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for GST A3-3 lack the specificity required for reliable quantitative analysis. Therefore, we designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers with greatly increased discrimination power for the human GSTA3 ...
Aflatoxins, a type of mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi, can colonize many potential aquaculture feedstuffs such as corn, peanuts, rice, fish meal, shrimp and meat meals. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogenic agents in animals. Initial findings associated with aflatoxicosis in fish include pale gills, impaired blood clotting, anemia, poor growth rates or lack of weight gain.. According to the annual BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey in 2014, a look at aqua feeds for fish and shrimp showed that, out of 35 feed samples analyzed, 63% of the aqua feed samples were contaminated with aflatoxins at a high average concentration of 49 parts per billion (ppb), with some samples reaching up to 221 ppb. Furthermore, 27 of the 35 feed samples that were analyzed contained more than one mycotoxin. This poses additional risk to animals since in many cases the combined effects of two mycotoxins are higher than the individual effects of each toxin alone.. ...
Aflatoxins are important because some are extremely toxic to many kinds of animals; 10 ppb AFB1 consumed regularly by rats may eventually result in fatal liver cancer and in somewhat larger amounts-a few hundred ppb-aflatoxin cause a great variety of ill effects in wild and domestic animals. An aflatoxin contamination level of 20 ppb is permitted in feed grains and in feeds in the U.S.A. but in foods intended for human consumption the tolerance is zero. However, these guidelines were then revised. North Carolina agricultural officials reported that maize containing up to 200 ppb could be fed to heifers (older than 6 months), calves and bulls and to non-lactating brood cows. Maize containing aflatoxin higher than 20 ppb should not be fed to lactating animals, used as any starter ration or feed to poultry. All other animals could be fed with maize containing aflatoxin levels up to 100 ppb. For human consumption, a level, below 20 ppb is enforced (Mirocha and Christensen 1982 and Pitt, ...
Id. at 1636. The final judgment and remedial order have been stayed pending appeal. No. 065267 (D.C. Cir., Oct. 31, 2006).. While Defendants were producing the misinformation described above, Defendants legal counsel were advising against producing a "safer" cigarette, "as that would create. 1. **-------------------. substantial legal concerns." Op. at 1413. This brief contains evidence that Defendants knew, or should have known, of one particular method of making a safer cigarette but suppressed this information. Indeed, but for documents uncovered in this and related litigation, the information would likely have remained suppressed.. This Brief shows that Defendants knew, or should have known, that aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, was a contaminant of tobacco products; that aflatoxin was a substantial source of the harm caused by tobacco products; and, that methods of neutralizing aflatoxin would have made tobacco products safer. While other issues before this Court are now under appellate ...
The Serum MicroRNA Expression Modified the Genic Toxicity Caused by Aflatoxin B1. By Xiao-Ying Huang, Chun-Ying Luo, Xue-Ming Wu, Jin-Guang Yao, Chao Wang, Bing-Chen Huang, Jun Lu, Xing-Zhizi Wang, Tian-Qi Zhang, Qiang Xia and Xi-Dai Long. The serum microRNAs have been reported as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, their role in genic toxicity related to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), such as TP53 mutation and DNA damage, has not yet been evaluated. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study, including 558 patients with pathologically diagnosed HCC and positive AFB1 and healthy controls (n = 630) without any evidence of liver diseases. Genic toxicity related to AFB1 was evaluated using the hot-spot mutation at the codon 269 of TP53 gene (TP53M) and AFB1-DNA adducts. Through serum microRNA PCR microarray screening analysis, we observed 10 differentially expressed microRNAs (including miR-7-2-3p, miR-4651, miR-127-3p, miR-192-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-10b-5p, miR-532-3p, ...
Departments of 1Environmental Health Sciences, 2Epidemiology, and 3Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, New York, New York; 4Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Statistics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; and 6Departments of Health Studies, Medicine, and Human Genetics and Cancer Research Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, ...
This is the third puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge, with the aflatoxin ligand now in a different orientation in the enzyme binding pocket. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. To encourage interactions with the ligand, all ligand scores are doubled. Previous Aflatoxin Challenge designs are incompatible with this puzzle, so players will not be able to load work from previous puzzles ...
Residents of Qidong, China, located at the mouth of the Yangtze River, are undergoing a rapid fluctuation in cancer incidence rates at many organ sites, reflecting a dynamic interplay of socio-behavioral, economic and environmental factors. As tracked by their cancer registry, there are extraordinary changes in the China age-standardized incidence rates for the two leading cancer killers in the Qidong region: one going down and the other one up, liver and lung cancer respectively. In endemic areas such as Qidong, liver cancer arises from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ingestion of aflatoxins. Agricultural and economic reforms in the 1980s promoted a switch from maize to rice as the dietary staple, with concomitant ,40-fold decreases in aflatoxin exposure over this period as measured by aflatoxin-albumin adducts in archived serum samples. Universal, subsidized vaccination against HBV was initiated in the early 2000s and likely does not account for the 45% drop in liver cancer ...
peanut meal, shipped from Brazil and contaminated with mold that produces a poison known as aflatoxin. At the time, little was known about aflatoxin, but some scientists suspected it could be linked to liver cancer in humans. Soon after the U.K. outbreak, a young MIT toxicologist named Gerald Wogan launched a thorough, decades-long investigation into the toxin, eventually exposing it as one of the most potent carcinogens humans can encounter. Throughout his career, Wogan not only made discoveries illuminating aflatoxins role in liver cancer, which kills about 600,000 people a year, but he also used his knowledge to shape food-safety regulations in the United States and Europe, and helped develop new measures that could fight liver cancer in developing countries, where aflatoxin exposure is still common. "A lot of people are content to do basic science, but he picked up that mantle of responsibility and went right into the regulatory arena," says John Essigmann, MIT professor of toxicology and ...
Yun Yun Gong of Queens University Belfast in the United Kingdom and colleagues will identify mechanistic biomarkers of child stunting caused by the dietary contaminant aflatoxin, which is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. They will determine the mechanism by which aflatoxin inhibits growth in early life using blood samples and growth charts from 300 children in Gambia and analyzing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and changes in insulin-like growth factor signaling, epigenetic marks, and gene expression. Candidate biomarkers will be validated in an in vitro cell model of human liver, which is the primary target of aflatoxin, and used to drive future intervention strategies, such as hand-sorting food to reduce contamination, for ultimately improving child health.. ...
Annual losses to aflatoxin are estimated at some $190 million. Paul Williams, USDA-ARS researcher/geneticist, and his Mississippi-based team are learning to combat the disease through corn breeding and molecular markers.
This is the fourth puzzle of our Aflatoxin Challenge; now players may insert and delete residues in solutions from the previous Round 3 puzzle. Aflatoxins are a class of poisonous compounds that contaminate a significant portion of the global food supply. In this puzzle, players are challenged to redesign an enzyme that could break down aflatoxin molecules. The majority of the protein is frozen, with the aflatoxin ligand fixed in a binding pocket. Surrounding the binding pocket are a number of loops that might be redesigned without affecting the folding stability of the protein. In these loops, players may manipulate the protein backbone and mutate the residue sidechains. Players may add up to 20 additional residues within these loops, at a cost of 16 points per residue. Players may load in solutions from Puzzle 1450 ...
Towards the goal of establishing useful in vitro models of in vivo responses to toxicants, this work characterizes several advantages and disadvantages of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs) cultured for a short term vs those maintained for three weeks with 2.25% DMSO. PMHs examined 1 day (short term, ST) after isolation demonstrated a dramatic loss in ATP (~27 fold lower compared to in vivo) while those cultured for 3 weeks (3 wk) over-produced ATP. The important liver proteins albumin, Cyp1a1 and Gsta were found to be higher in the 3 wk cultures. Gene expression analysis revealed the ST cultures have unregulated numerous pathways involved in compensatory hyperplasia and oxidative injury.. Aflatoxin and acetaminphen (APAP) were used to investigate the metabolic capability of each system. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by S9 fractions harvested from ST and 3 wk cultures induced for 24 hours with 3-methylcholanthrene, pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile, and dexamethasone indicated the ST cultures had higher ...
Twenty‐eight rats were examined in a 5‐week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB₁). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB₁(3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single ...
Rawal S, Coulombe RA (August 2011). "Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in turkey liver microsomes: the relative roles of cytochromes ... Rawal S, Kim JE, Coulombe R (December 2010). "Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention". Research in ... in terms of their kinetic properties as well as in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1. CYPs have also been heavily studied in ...
"Changes in liver polyamines due to aflatoxin B1". Toxicol Lett. 34 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(86)90138-4. PMID 3097877. ... He also worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer- ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Khan S. N.; Venkitasubramanian T. A. (February 1986). "Regulation of aflatoxin ... T. V. Reddy; L. Viswanathan; T. A. Venkitasubramanian (September 1971). "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined ...
Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminant, causes liver cancer. Betel nut chewing can cause oral cancer. National differences ...
... produces Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2 and sterigmatocystin. List of Aspergillus species www.mycobank.org " ... a new producer of aflatoxin B1, B2 and sterigmatocystin". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 38 (5): 440-445. doi:10.1111/j.1472- ...
Aflatoxin B1 one of the most carcinogenic compounds known. Polyketides are usually biosynthesized through the decarboxylative ... The cholesterol lowering agent lovastatin Discodermolide Aflatoxin Usnic acid Anthracimycin Anthramycin Esterase Nonribosomal ...
Gabliks J, Barter S (April-September 1987). "Comparative cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and saxitoxin in cell cultures". ...
i) RPSA binds aflatoxin B1 both in vivo and in vitro. (ii) RPSA is a receptor for epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), which is a ...
Other xenobiotic substrates for this enzyme include caffeine, aflatoxin B1, and acetaminophen. The transcript from this gene ...
The four major aflatoxins produced are B1, B2, G1, and G2. The production of the major toxins are a result of particular ... Both L and S strains can produce the two most common aflatoxins (B1 and B2). Unique to the S strains is the production of ... Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compound characterized. A. flavus also produces other ... and peppers produces high concentrations of aflatoxins. A. flavus growth on spices produces low concentrations of aflatoxin as ...
"RNA-seq reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in Aflatoxin B1 treated rats". PLoS ONE. 8: e61768. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
"Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, ... It accumulates very large amounts of sterigmatocystin, 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Frisvad JC, Skouboe P, ...
Hirano, S; Shima, T; Shimada, T (August 2001). "[Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in ... The United States Department of Agriculture tests every truckload of raw peanuts for aflatoxin; any containing aflatoxin levels ... The peanut industry has manufacturing steps in place to ensure all peanuts are inspected for aflatoxin. A warning sign for the ... Poor storage of the cake may sometimes results in its contamination by aflatoxin, a naturally occurring mycotoxin that is ...
"A novel strain of Cellulosimicrobium funkei can biologically detoxify aflatoxin B1 in ducklings". Microbial Biotechnology. 8 (3 ...
The toxic effects of sterigmatocystin are much the same as those of aflatoxin B1. It is thus considered as a potent carcinogen ... Although it is a potent liver carcinogen similar to aflatoxin B1, current knowledge suggests that it is nowhere near as ... It has been suggested that sterigmatocystin is about 1/10 as potent a carcinogen as aflatoxin B1. Toxic effects of ... It appears to occur much less frequently than the aflatoxins, although analytical methods for its determination have not been ...
"Glycine N-methyltransferase affects the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and blocks its carcinogenic effect". Toxicology and Applied ... GNMT has been shown to detoxify some environmental carcinogens such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin. There is ...
"Identification of O-methylsterigmatocystin as an aflatoxin B1 and G1 precursor in Aspergillus parasiticus". Appl. Environ. ... Yabe K, Ando Y, Hashimoto J, Hamasaki T (1989). "Two distinct O-methyltransferases in aflatoxin biosynthesis". Appl. Environ. ...
on growth of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in groundnut". Mycological Research. 93: ...
Huuskonen, P; Myllynen, P; Storvik, M; Pasanen, M (2013). "The effects of aflatoxin B1 on transporters and steroid metabolizing ...
Aflatoxin B1, Hydralazine, Valproic acid, and Decitabine. Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only a few ...
"Susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with genetic variation in the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 ...
It promotes liver cancer in trout when it is combined with aflatoxin B1 and demotes metastasis. Indole-3-carbinol causes ... "Quantitative inter-relationships between aflatoxin B1 carcinogen dose, indole-3-carbinol anti-carcinogen dose, target organ DNA ... Results showed dose-related decreases in tumor susceptibility due to Indole-3-carbinol (inferred by decreases in aflatoxin-DNA ...
nov., a fluoranthene and aflatoxin B1 degrading bacterium from contaminated soil of a former coal gas plant. Syst. Appl. ...
... and an inhibitory effect on aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenesis. Allixin may therefore be responsible, at least in part, for the ... DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1". Cancer Letters. 59 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/0304-3835(91)90171-D. PMID 1909211. ...
Mycotoxins, such as nidulotoxins and aflatoxin B1, are typically produced in relatively low concentrations by A. versicolor. ...
DNA-binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1". Cancer Lett. 59 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/0304-3835(91)90171-D. PMID 1909211. "The ... inhibition of aflatoxin B2 DNA binding, and neurotrophic effects. Allixin showed an anti-tumor promoting effect in vivo, ...
Dietary exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, commonly produced by growth of the fungus Aspergillus flavus on improperly ... Aflatoxin is an example of a mycotoxin. It is a cancer-causing poison produced by certain fungi in or on foods and feeds, ... high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be associated with the consumption of mold- ... experienced a significant rise in the number of corn shipments containing elevated levels of aflatoxin. This mold toxin ...
Dietary aflatoxin B1. Differentiating Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Other Diseases. *Fibrolamellar hepatocellular ... and dietary aflatoxin B1. The majority of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma remain asymptomatic for years. ...
Aflatoxin M1 and Aflatoxin M2 are major metabolites, being hydroxylated forms, of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in humans and ... M aflatoxins may be present in milk from animals fed on contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 feed, leading to the ... Aflatoxin M1 ELISA. The Randox Food Diagnostics Aflatoxin M1 FAST ELISA aims to give a fast, reliable, analytical method to ... Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by two species of Aspergillus, a fungus which is especially found in areas with hot and ...
Aflatoxin B1 is mostly found in contaminated food and humans are exposed to aflatoxin B1 almost entirely through their diet. ... Aflatoxin B1 must first be metabolitzed into its reactive electriphilic form, aflatoxin B1-8,9-exo-epoxide by cytochrome p450. ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Then a final recyclization occurs to form aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 is a potent genotoxic hepatocarcinogen with its exposure ...
Genetic organization and function of the aflatoxin B1 biosynthetic genes.. Woloshuk CP1, Prieto R. ... Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Most of the genes involved in ... A pair of fatty acid synthase genes were identified that are involved uniquely in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Two genes were also ... Gene expression is coordinated during aflatoxin production and is under the control of a positive regulatory gene belonging to ...
SSAFB - Aflatoxin B1-lysine result (ng/mL). Variable Name: SSAFB. SAS Label: Aflatoxin B1-lysine result (ng/mL). English Text: ... SSAFBLC - Aflatoxin B1-lysine result comment code. Variable Name: SSAFBLC. SAS Label: Aflatoxin B1-lysine result comment code. ... Peak area ratios (aflatoxin B1-lysine m/z: aflatoxin B1-lysine-d4 m/z) were linearly related to concentration. Instrument ... Measurement of concentrations (ng/mL) of aflatoxin B1-lysine, derived from aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts, in a 2,104 serum ...
Aflatoxin B1. A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of Fungi. It is ... The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to Aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal Monooxygenases biotransform the toxin ...
... aflatoxin B1 explanation free. What is aflatoxin B1? Meaning of aflatoxin B1 medical term. What does aflatoxin B1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of aflatoxin B1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to aflatoxin B1: Ochratoxin A, Aspergillus flavus, Aflatoxin m1. aflatoxin B1. A fungal toxin derived from Aspergillus ... Aflatoxin B1 , definition of aflatoxin B1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aflatoxin+B1 ...
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural ... Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural ... Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages. Tomonori Inoue. ... The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status ...
... Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 May 21;25(5):1132-44. doi: 10.1021/ ... and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used ...
The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ... Co-contamination of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in food and human dietary exposure in three areas of China. Food Addit Contam ... Determination of exposure to aflatoxins among Danish workers in animal-feed production through the analysis of aflatoxin B1 ... Asim M, Sarma MP, Thayumanavan L, Kar P. Role of aflatoxin B1 as a risk for primary liver cancer in north Indian population. ...
M. Oplatowska-Stachowiak, N. Sajic, Y. Xu et al., "Fast and sensitive aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins ELISAs for analysis of ... and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India," Food Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27-31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google ... "Effect of naturally contaminated feed with aflatoxins on performance of laying hens and the carryover of aflatoxin B1 residues ... M. A. Anjum, S. H. Khan, A. W. Sahota, and R. Sardar, "Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in commercial poultry feed and feed ...
... pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human ... Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus ... Confirmation and Fine Mapping of a Major QTL for Aflatoxin Resistance in Maize Using a Combination of Linkage and Association ... RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and ...
X. Ma, W. Wang, X. Chen et al., "Selection, identification, and application of Aflatoxin B1 aptamer," European Food Research ... A. Abdollahi and R. L. Buchanan, "Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: induction of aflatoxin production by various ... "Influence of lipids with and without other cottonseed reserve materials on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus," ... "Multifunctional column coupled with liquid chromatography for determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in corn, almonds, ...
Jodynis-Liebert J, Matlawska I, Bylka W, and Murias M (2006) Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris L. on aflatoxin B1 induced ... Raney KD, Meyer DJ, Ketterer B, Harris TM, and Guengerich FP (1992) Glutathione conjugation of aflatoxin B1 exo- and endo- ... Stresser DM, Bailey GS, and Williams DE (1994) Indole-3-carbinol and a-naphthoflavone induction of aflatoxin B1 metabolism and ... Ip SP, Mak DH, Li PC, Poon MK, and Ko KM (1996) Effect of a lignan enriched extract of Schisandra chinensis on aflatoxin B1 and ...
A new technique for the extraction of grain dust aflatoxin-B1 (1162658) using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was ... SFE detected aflatoxin-B1 in 14 samples, while the classical method did so for seven. Optimization for temperature, pressure, ... Development and optimization of a supercritical fluid extraction method for the analysis of aflatoxin b1 in grain dust.. ... A new technique for the extraction of grain dust aflatoxin-B1 (1162658) using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: ... At least 13 different types of aflatoxin are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1 considered as the most toxic. Aflatoxin B1 ... Aflatoxin B1 Antibody (6A10) [Biotin] Summary. Immunogen. Aflatoxin B1 DNA (against the midazole ring-opened persistent form of ... Check out the latest blog posts on Aflatoxin B1.. Using Aflatoxin B1 Antibody for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Studies. We at Novus ...
GMP+ International adjusted the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for maize. For Croatia and Spain this means that the risk is ... Aflatoxin B1: Changes for Brazil and Croatia As a result of the evaluation of the available analysis results of Aflatoxin B1 in ... Aflatoxin B1 risk for Canada reduced For Canada, the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 changes from Medium to Low. This means ... Aflatoxin B1: changes in risk profile Spain The risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for Spanish maize is changed from Low to ...
Sample Type Detection Limit (ng/g or ppb) sMeat/fish/sereal/feed/seed/starch 0.5(Rapid Method); 2.5(Organic Solvent Method) sMeat/liver/kidney 0.5 sMi ...
... which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in the Salmonella assay system. The number of revertants per plate was ... Aflatoxin B1 / toxicity*. Animals. Antimutagenic Agents / pharmacology*. Male. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, ... An attempt was made to isolate the active component of Eriobotrya japonica, which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in ... 0/Antimutagenic Agents; 0/Plant Extracts; 0/Triterpenes; 1162-65-8/Aflatoxin B1; 77-52-1/ursolic acid ...
Molecular model of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (C17.H12.O6), produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. This chemical is ... Caption: Aflatoxin B1. Molecular model of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (C17.H12.O6), produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. ... Keywords: aflatoxin b1, artwork, aspergillus flavus, ball and stick, ball-and-stick, chemical, chemical compound, chemistry, ...
Aflatoxin B1 Exposure, Hepatitis B Virus Infection, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan ... Aflatoxin B1 Exposure, Hepatitis B Virus Infection, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan. Hui-Chen Wu, Qiao Wang, Hwai-I Yang ... Aflatoxin B1 Exposure, Hepatitis B Virus Infection, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan ... Aflatoxin B1 Exposure, Hepatitis B Virus Infection, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan ...
An analysis of hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct (HADA) concentrations in rats and trout demonstrated that the hepatic cancer ... Molecular dosimetry of hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts: linear correlation with hepatic cancer risk Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. ... An analysis of hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct (HADA) concentrations in rats and trout demonstrated that the hepatic cancer ... The minimum human virtual safe dose for aflatoxin was estimated to be 0.264 ng/kg/day on the basis of this approach. ...
Aflatoxin belong to the strongest natural occurring carcinogenic substances, found in corn, peanuts, cotton seed, human blood ... Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Home / Food Safety Assays / Aflatoxin B1 ELISA Return to Previous Page ... The use of aflatoxin B1 ELISA kit to analyze aflatoxin B1 residue of samples is fast and accurate. Refer to the National ... Aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungi species Aspergillus flavus, parasiticus and nomius. Aflatoxins ...
Aflatoxin B1 Rapid Home / Food Safety Assays / Aflatoxin B1 Rapid Return to Previous Page ... Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) is one of the strongest carcinogenic chemicals currently known, the State AQSIQ stipulate that AFB1 is one ...
... treatment with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (2mg/kg) showed less than 40% of the radioactivity in the 24 h urine and... ... Aflatoxin B1 glutathione conjugation biliary and urinary excretion This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Bassir, O. and Osiyemi, F. (1967) Biliary excretion of aflatoxin in the rat after a single dose. Nature 215, 882.CrossRefPubMed ... Acute and chronic effects of aflatoxin on the liver of Domestic and laboratory animals. A. review.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived from microarray data and associated with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and to explore the potential association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a case-control study. (springer.com)
  • Aflatoxin B1 DNA (against the midazole ring-opened persistent form of the major N-7 guanine adduct of AFB1). (novusbio.com)
  • Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) is one of the strongest carcinogenic chemicals currently known, the State AQSIQ stipulate that AFB1 is one of the must inspection material for most food. (krishgen.com)
  • A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was explored for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) simultaneous determination. (rsc.org)
  • To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. (mdpi.com)
  • A study of liver apoptosis after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and the effect of melatonin (MEL) was investigated in male rats. (nel.edu)
  • We developed a simple aptamer fluorescence assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection by using an array of capillaries. (rsc.org)
  • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic and common of the major types of aflatoxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of probiotic fermented milk (FM) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, alone as well as in combination with chlorophyllin (CHL) as an antioxidant agent in male Wistar rats administered aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1). (fil-idf.org)
  • This paper presents the synthesis, optimization and application of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sorbent for the selective extraction and pre-concentration of the potent toxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), from the child weaning food, Tsabana (manufactured in Serowe, Botswana). (degruyter.com)
  • As a food safety regulatory measure, Tsabana must be cleared of hazardous aflatoxins, especially AFB1, before consumption. (degruyter.com)
  • This is because AFB1 is the most common and potent of the aflatoxins commonly found in cereals. (degruyter.com)
  • The adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) concentrations on duck laying performance regarding egg productivity, serum-hematological profiles and residue were investigated. (lrrd.org)
  • There are four major aflatoxin analogues including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) of which AFB1 is the most toxic and detected worldwide (Monson et al 2015). (lrrd.org)
  • Residues of AFB1 and the carry-over rate of aflatoxin into tissues and eggs were reported by Oliveira et al (2000) and Bintvihok et al (2002). (lrrd.org)
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding corns naturally contaminated with AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) on performance, serum biochemistry, liver histopathological changes and percentage of hepatocyte apoptosis of Cherry Valley Ducks. (scialert.net)
  • Poultry are highly susceptible to the immunotoxic effects of the food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (hku.hk)
  • High concentrations of the carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are commonly found in respirable, airborne grain dusts, and inhaled AFB1 has been shown to be a risk factor for occupational pulmonary carcinogenesis. (usu.edu)
  • Occupational exposures to respirable dusts contaminated with the mycotoxin aflatoxin b1 (AFB1) have been associated with an increased incidence of upper airway tumors. (usu.edu)
  • A Fe3O4/GO based platform for aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) detection and a [email protected] based platform for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection were fabricated. (bvsalud.org)
  • In current study, different stabilizers were applied to stabilize a newly prepared conjugated molecule, Horseradish peroxidase-Bovine serum albumin- Aflatoxin B1 (HRP-BSA-AFB1). (ac.ir)
  • In this present work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was successfully developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (myjournals.org)
  • Competition occurred between aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) and free AFB1 (in peanut sample and standard) for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. (myjournals.org)
  • Can reduce the dialdehyde protein-binding form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to the non-binding AFB1 dialcohol. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • In extremely toxic compounds include aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). (engormix.com)
  • The degradation of AFB1 was examined using High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Electron spray ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). The optimal temperature, time, and pH of the medium for the maximum degradation of Aflatoxin B1 were found to be 37 °C, 24 h and 7, respectively. (cftri.com)
  • We examined the cellular immune status of 64 Ghanaians in relation to levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-albumin adducts in plasma. (edu.gh)
  • In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. (heilpflanzen-welt.de)
  • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus , A. flavus , A. nomius , A. tamari , and A. pseudotamarii . (ac.ir)
  • This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in samples of spices collected from Qaemshahr in Mazandaran province, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFB1 in the study samples was less than the maximum limit approved by the EU, the 100% Aflatoxin contamination of the samples could be a potential hazard for public health. (ac.ir)
  • Abstract Aflatoxin B1 AFB1 is commonly found in cereals and animal feeds and causes a significant threat to the food industry and animal production. (duhnnae.com)
  • Prolonged dietary exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the major risk factors for the development of primary liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (edu.gh)
  • The immunogen is Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-BSA conjugates. (immunechem.com)
  • This study assessed the binding of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from contaminated solution by 20 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. (hku.hk)
  • In this study, a rapid and sensitive gold nanoparticle (AuNP) immunochromatographic strip is produced for detecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in suspicious fungi-contaminated food samples. (tudublin.ie)
  • Early life exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and low protein diet through complementary foods during weaning is common in parts of Africa and Asia. (toxicolres.org)
  • This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractDietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 AFB1 is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. (duhnnae.com)
  • Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains o" by H L. Gurtoo, R Dahms et al. (jax.org)
  • Genetics of aflatoxin b1 (afb1) metabolism in various inbred strains of mice, offsprings of selected matings and in recombinant inbred sublines. (jax.org)
  • Measurement of concentrations (ng/mL) of aflatoxin B1-lysine, derived from aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts, in a 2,104 serum sample subset of NHANES 1999-2000. (cdc.gov)
  • 2005) was used to assess aflatoxin-albumin adducts in serum. (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B1 adducts were hydrolyzed from serum albumin using enzymatic digestion with pronase which was incubated in a 40°C water bath for 4 hours or overnight at 37°C. Once digestion was complete, samples were transferred to an automated solid phase extraction (SPE) system. (cdc.gov)
  • AFB-lys eluted 0.02±0.01 min after the internal standard in the QC pools which were known to contain aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts and similarly, 0.02±0.02 min after the internal standard in the unknown NHANES samples. (cdc.gov)
  • The structures of the macromolecular adducts of AFB 1 -Cl 2 formed in vitro , the carcinogenicity of this electrophile, and the lack of carcinogenicity of its hydrolysis products indicate that alkylation of nucleic acids is a critical reaction in tumor induction with this carcinogen and aflatoxin B 1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aflatoxin is metabolized to a reactive epoxide that forms adducts with DNA and protein lysine groups. (toxbank.net)
  • The liver is the most susceptible organ to aflatoxin B1 toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of reactive electrophilic metabolites in chemical carcino-genesis: Recent results with aromatic amines, safrole and as aflatoxin B 1 In Biological Reactive intermediates: formation, toxicity and interactions Edited by Jollow, D.J. Kocsis, J.J. Synder, R. and Vainio, T.J., 6-24 Plenum press, N. York, London. (springer.com)
  • The four main aflatoxins show a different toxicity. (rapidtest.com)
  • Christopher McKean, Lili Tang, Madhavi Billam, Meng Tang, Christopher W. Theodorakis, Ronald J. Kendall and Jia-Sheng Wang, "Comparative acute and combinative toxicity of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin in animals and immortalized human cell lines", J. Appl. (toxbank.net)
  • An analysis of hepatic aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct (HADA) concentrations in rats and trout demonstrated that the hepatic cancer risk was linearly and quantitatively related in both species. (nih.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB(1)-N7-dG). (rcsb.org)
  • We have previously reported that glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) interacts with aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and reduces both AFB 1 -DNA adduct formation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • When animals are fed grain or feed contaminated with the toxin, aflatoxin B1 is converted by hydroxylation to aflatoxin M1, which is subsequently secreted in the milk of lactating cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. (mdpi.com)
  • This Aflatoxin B1 Food ELISA Kit is a quick, economical, and sensitive Food Toxin ELISA Kit which is designed to detect Aflatoxin B1 in food. (rapidtest.com)
  • Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) was the predominant toxin detected abundantly and frequently at a level up to 68.51 microg/kg in 41 of 50 peanut butter samples and 20.45 microg/kg in 37 of 100 sesame paste samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC). (nih.gov)
  • Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin are contained within a single cluster in the genome of these filamentous fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression is coordinated during aflatoxin production and is under the control of a positive regulatory gene belonging to a family of fungal transcriptional activators associated with various metabolic pathways in fungi. (nih.gov)
  • Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. (mdpi.com)
  • This study investigated the occurrence of aflatoxins in maize, millet and sorghum from five counties in Kenya (Kwale, Isiolo, Tharaka-Nithi, Kisii and Bungoma) representing four agro-ecological zones (AEZs). (cgiar.org)
  • Due to the high occurrence of aflatoxins in crops worldwide fast and cost-effective analytical methods are required for the identification of contaminated agricultural commodities before they are processed into final products and placed on the market. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste. (nih.gov)
  • A study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste samples was conducted. (nih.gov)
  • The Effect of Different Stabilizers on Stability of Horseradish Peroxidase- Bovine Serum Albumin-Aflatoxin B1, a Conjugated Tracer for Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Immunoassay-Based Methods', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , Volume 6(Number 3), pp. 179-184. (ac.ir)
  • Farzamfar, B., Bayanolhagh, S., Mahboudi, F., Zahrai, M. The Effect of Different Stabilizers on Stability of Horseradish Peroxidase- Bovine Serum Albumin-Aflatoxin B1, a Conjugated Tracer for Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Immunoassay-Based Methods. (ac.ir)
  • In order to provide new tools for aflatoxin screening two prototype fast ELISA methods: one for the detection of aflatoxin B1 and the other for total aflatoxins were developed. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The method of spectroscopic ellipsometry in total internal reflection mode (TIRE) was utilised for detection of Aflatoxin B1. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Ursolic acid inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in a Salmonella assay system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An attempt was made to isolate the active component of Eriobotrya japonica, which inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenicity in the Salmonella assay system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Aflatoxin B1 Food ELISA Kit is a quantitative test based on the principle of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (rapidtest.com)
  • Tavakoli HR, Kamkar A, Riazipour M, Mozaffari Nejad S, Rafati Shaldehi H. Assessment of Aflatoxin M 1 Levels by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay in Yoghurt Consumed in Tehran, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • The tissue concentrations of aflatoxins for the microcrystalline group were significantly greater at 3 hr in all tissues examined except for the trachea and lung in which those for the dust-adsorbed group were greater. (usu.edu)
  • This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The method of TIRE with the improved data analysis was capable of detection of aflatoxin molecules in low concentrations (down to 0.04 ng/ml) using a label-free and cost-effective direct immunoassay format. (shu.ac.uk)
  • It appears to occur much less frequently than the aflatoxins, although analytical methods for its determination have not been as sensitive until recently, and so it is possible that small concentrations in food commodities may not always have been detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerole G.O., Neskovic, N. and Dixon, R.L. (1979) The detoxication of aflatoxin B 1 with glutathione. (springer.com)
  • Whole-body autoradiography of 3 H-labeled aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in adult C57BL mice pretreated with the glutathione (GSH)-depleting agent phorone showed accumulation of tissue-bound radioactivity in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa, the mucosa of the nasopharyngeal duct, and the tracheal and esophageal mucosa, which was not seen in unpretreated adult mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATP-dependent transport of aflatoxin B1 and its glutathione conjugates by the product of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Kevin D. Raney, David J. Meyer, Brian Ketterer, Thomas M. Harris, and F. Peter Guengerich, "Glutathione Conjugation of Aflatoxin B1 exo- and endo-Epoxides by Rat and Human Glutathione S-Transferases", Chem. (toxbank.net)
  • The method is implemented as follows: aflatoxin B1, prepared by conjugation with a carrier protein and the creation of an emulsion through the addition of conjugation. (all.biz)
  • Abdel-Wahhab MA and Ahy SE (2003) Antioxidants and radical scavenging properties of vegetable extracts in rats fed aflatoxin contaminated diet. (springer.com)
  • Ip SP, Mak DH, Li PC, Poon MK, and Ko KM (1996) Effect of a lignan enriched extract of Schisandra chinensis on aflatoxin B 1 and cadmium chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. (springer.com)
  • Jodynis-Liebert J, Matlawska I, Bylka W, and Murias M (2006) Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris L. on aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic damage in rats. (springer.com)
  • Wogan, G.N., Edwards, G.S. Shank, R.C. (1967) Excretion and Tissue Distribution of Radioactivity from aflatoxin B 1 - 14 C in rats cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • AFB 1 -Cl 2 was much more active than aflatoxin B 1 in inducing sarcomas at the s.c. injection site in rats, in the initiation of papillomas on the skin of mice, and in the induction of lung tumors in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GMP+ International adjusted the risk profile for Aflatoxin B1 for maize. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • When uploading this information, please make sure that the origin of the maize is entered correctly and that the levels of Aflatoxin detected are entered with the correct unit (mg/kg). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Overall, 76% of maize, 64% of millet and 60% of sorghum samples were positive for aflatoxin B1. (cgiar.org)
  • Of these, the proportion of samples with aflatoxin B1 levels above the Kenya Bureau of Standards limit of five parts per billion was 26% for maize, 10% for millet and 11% for sorghum. (cgiar.org)
  • Total aflatoxins ELISA was further applied to analyse naturally contaminated maize porridge and distiller's dried grain with solubles samples and the results were correlated with these obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS method. (qub.ac.uk)
  • In animals, aflatoxin B1 has also been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic, and to cause immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite on aflatoxin B 1 -induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen of broilers. (mdpi.com)
  • Kaaya A.N., Management of aflatoxins in cereals, legumes and tubers, In: AT Uganda Ltd., Final technical report CPP R8435 (ZA0653) and R8442 (ZA0666) appendix 12, 2009. (degruyter.com)
  • Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparative Activation of Aflatoxin B1 by Mammlian Pulmonary Tissues" by R. Wayne Ball, J. Michael Huie et al. (usu.edu)
  • Development and optimization of a supercritical fluid extraction method for the analysis of aflatoxin b1 in grain dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Intervention approaches at the individual level use either sorbent materials to prevent aflatoxin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract (enterosorption) or compounds that alter activation or detoxification of AFB 1 (chemoprotection) ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Aflatoxin total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of a group of organic compounds called aflatoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background & Aims: Aflatoxins are a group of toxic compounds found in most plant products such as pistachio, corn, spices, wheat, and rice. (ac.ir)
  • Studies directed toward understanding the molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis have led to a number of important discoveries. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of aflatoxin in positive samples ranged from trace to 366 ppb (366 μg/kg). (nepjol.info)
  • Results: Aflatoxin B1 was found in all samples, and the concentration of aflatoxin ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg. (ac.ir)
  • 2016. "Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B 1 . (mdpi.com)
  • Since A. flavus and A. parasiticus are nearly ubiquitous in the natural environment, numerous other grain, legume, nut, and spice crops, as well as coffee and cocoa, have been reported to contain aflatoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations regarding the amount of aflatoxins allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. (prognosis-biotech.com)