I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Afghanistan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in South-Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer those!
Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.
An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is a country located in the Middle East and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Former members of the armed services.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structure
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
'Aviation accidents' are unexpected and unplanned events that occur during the operation of an aircraft, resulting in damage to the aircraft or injury to its occupants or people on the ground, which may also include incidents caused by human error, mechanical failure, or adverse weather conditions.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).

Effect of type and transfer of conventional weapons on civilian injuries: retrospective analysis of prospective data from Red Cross hospitals. (1/280)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the link between different weapons used in modern wars and their potential to injury civilians. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data about hospital admissions. SETTING: Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. SUBJECTS: 18 877 people wounded by bullets, fragmentation munitions, or mines. Of these, 2012 had been admitted to the hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and sex of wounded people according to cause of injury and whether they were civilians (women and girls, boys under 16 years old, or men of 50 or more). RESULTS: 18.7% of those injured by bullets, 34.1% of those injured by fragments, and 30.8% of those injured by mines were civilians. Of those admitted to the Red Cross hospital in Kabul within six hours of injury, 39.1% of those injured by bullets, 60.6% of those injured by fragments, and 55.0% of those injured by mines were civilians. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of civilians injured differs between weapon systems. The higher proportion injured by fragments and mines is explicable in terms of the military efficiency of weapons, the distance between user and victim, and the effect that the kind of weapon has on the psychology of the user.  (+info)

Incidence of weapon injuries not related to interfactional combat in Afghanistan in 1996: prospective cohort study. (2/280)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the descriptive epidemiology of weapon injuries not directly attributable to combat during armed conflict. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nangarhar region of Afghanistan, which experienced effective peace, intense fighting, and then peace over six months in 1996. SUBJECTS: 608 people admitted to Jalalabad hospital because of weapon injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated incidence of injuries from combat or otherwise (non-combat injury) before, during, and after the fall of Kabul. RESULTS: Incidence of non-combat injury was initially 65 per 100 000. During the intense military campaign for Kabul the incidence declined dramatically, and then differentially increased dependent on injury subcategory-that is, whether injuries were accidental or intentional and whether they were inflicted by firearms or fragmenting munitions. Non-combat injuries accounted for 51% of weapon injuries observed over the study period. Civilians were more likely to have non-combat injuries than combat injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Weapon injuries that are not attributable to combat are common. Social changes accompanying conflict and widespread availability of weapons may be predictive of use of weapons that persists independently of conflict.  (+info)

Outbreak of poliomyelitis--Kunduz, Afghanistan, 1999. (3/280)

Since May 10, 1999, 26 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), including five cases with isolation of wild poliovirus type 1 and one with type 3, have been reported from Kunduz province in northern Afghanistan. Fifteen (54%) case-patients resided in Kunduz city, and the remaining patients resided in the districts surrounding Kunduz. Although the exact causes for the outbreak are not known, the discontinuation of polio vaccination activities in mid-1997 in northern Afghanistan because of ongoing civil conflict may have facilitated the outbreak.  (+info)

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan, 1994-1999. (4/280)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000. During the same year, the Regional Committee, Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio from the region by 2000. Substantial progress in reaching this goal has been made globally and in countries of EMR. This report describes the current status of polio eradication in Afghanistan, a country in EMR with ongoing civil conflict where eradication efforts began in late 1994.  (+info)

Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict. (5/280)

The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.  (+info)

Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects. (6/280)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given. METHODS: It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase. RESULTS: It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.  (+info)

Heterogeneous geographic patterns of nucleotide sequence diversity between two alcohol dehydrogenase genes in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subspecies spontaneum). (7/280)

Patterns of nucleotide sequence diversity in the predominantly self-fertilizing species Hordeum vulgare subspecies spontaneum (wild barley) are compared between the putative alcohol dehydrogenase 3 locus (denoted "adh3") and alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (adh1), two related but unlinked loci. The data consist of a sequence sample of 1,873 bp of "adh3" drawn from 25 accessions that span the species range. There were 104 polymorphic sites in the sequenced region of "adh3." The data reveal a strong geographic pattern of diversity at "adh3" despite geographic uniformity at adh1. Moreover, levels of nucleotide sequence diversity differ by nearly an order of magnitude between the two loci. Genealogical analysis resolved two distinct clusters of "adh3" alleles (dimorphic sequence types) that coalesce roughly 3 million years ago. One type consists of accessions from the Middle East, and the other consists of accessions predominantly from the Near East. The two "adh3" sequence types are characterized by a high level of differentiation between clusters ( approximately 2.2%), which induces an overall excess of intermediate frequency variants in the pooled sample. Finally, there is evidence of intralocus recombination in the "adh3" data, despite the high level of self-fertilization characteristic of wild barley.  (+info)

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan, 1999-2000. (8/280)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000. During the same year, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of WHO passed a resolution to join the global initiative. Since then, substantial progress has been made worldwide and in EMR member countries. Afghanistan, with ongoing civil conflict, initiated polio eradication activities in 1994. Since then, a countrywide surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was established and National Immunization Days (NIDs) were implemented. This report summarizes the achievements toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during 1999-2000.  (+info)

'Afghanistan' is a country and not a medical term or condition. It is located in Central Asia and is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, and the Arabian Sea. The country has a complex history with ongoing political and security challenges. If you are looking for information related to medical tourism or healthcare in Afghanistan, I can provide some general insights. However, please note that the medical facilities and services in Afghanistan may not be comparable to those in developed countries due to various factors such as infrastructure, resources, and expertise.

The "Afghan Campaign" is a term commonly used to refer to the military intervention and ongoing efforts in Afghanistan, led by the United States and NATO forces, which began in October 2001. The campaign was launched in response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, with the primary objective of defeating al-Qaeda and removing the Taliban regime that had provided them safe haven.

The military intervention, known as Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), started with airstrikes against al-Qaeda and Taliban targets in Afghanistan. The ground invasion followed, led by the United States and supported by coalition forces from various countries, including NATO members. The initial success of the campaign resulted in the overthrow of the Taliban regime and the establishment of a new government in Afghanistan.

However, despite the initial victory, the situation in Afghanistan has remained volatile due to the ongoing insurgency led by the resurgent Taliban and other militant groups. The mission in Afghanistan has evolved over time, with the focus shifting from combat operations to training and advising Afghan security forces, counterinsurgency, and counterterrorism efforts.

The "Afghan Campaign" is also referred to as the "War in Afghanistan," and it represents one of the longest military conflicts in United States history. The campaign has involved various phases, including Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS), and NATO's Resolute Support Mission (RSM).

The medical aspects of the Afghan Campaign have been significant, with thousands of coalition forces injured or killed during the conflict. Additionally, the campaign has had a substantial impact on the healthcare system in Afghanistan, as well as the overall health and well-being of its population. The ongoing efforts to improve healthcare infrastructure, train medical personnel, and provide essential services to the Afghan people remain an important part of the broader mission in the region.

The Iraq War (2003-2011) is not a medical term or concept. It refers to a military intervention and subsequent occupation of Iraq by the United States and its allies, which began on March 20, 2003, with the invasion of Iraq by U.S.-led forces. The stated reasons for the invasion included the presence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, which were never found, and the alleged links between the government of Saddam Hussein and terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda, which were also not substantiated.

However, it is worth noting that the Iraq War had significant medical and public health consequences for both the Iraqi population and U.S. military personnel. The conflict resulted in widespread destruction of infrastructure, displacement of civilians, and a breakdown of healthcare services, leading to increased rates of infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mental health disorders among Iraqis. Additionally, U.S. soldiers were exposed to various health hazards during their deployment, including traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and exposure to toxic substances such as burn pits.

Therefore, while the term "Iraq War, 2003-2011" is not a medical definition, it does have important implications for medical research, practice, and policy related to military conflicts and their health impacts.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

Blast injuries are traumas that result from the exposure to blast overpressure waves, typically generated by explosions. These injuries can be categorized into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries.

1. Primary Blast Injuries: These occur due to the direct effect of the blast wave on the body, which can cause barotrauma to organs with air-filled spaces such as the lungs, middle ear, and gastrointestinal tract. This can lead to conditions like pulmonary contusion, traumatic rupture of the eardrums, or bowel perforation.

2. Secondary Blast Injuries: These result from flying debris or objects that become projectiles due to the blast, which can cause penetrating trauma or blunt force injuries.

3. Tertiary Blast Injuries: These occur when individuals are thrown by the blast wind against solid structures or the ground, resulting in blunt force trauma, fractures, and head injuries.

4. Quaternary Blast Injuries: This category includes all other injuries or illnesses that are not classified under primary, secondary, or tertiary blast injuries. These may include burns, crush injuries, inhalation of toxic fumes, or psychological trauma.

It is important to note that blast injuries can be complex and often involve a combination of these categories, requiring comprehensive medical evaluation and management.

"Military medicine" is a specific branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries in military populations. It encompasses the provision of healthcare services to military personnel, both in peacetime and during times of conflict or emergency situations. This may include providing care in combat zones, managing mass casualties, delivering preventive medicine programs, conducting medical research, and providing medical support during peacekeeping missions and humanitarian assistance efforts. Military medicine also places a strong emphasis on the development and use of specialized equipment, techniques, and protocols to ensure the best possible medical care for military personnel in challenging environments.

"Military hospitals" are healthcare facilities that are operated by the military or armed forces of a country. They provide medical care and treatment for active duty military personnel, veterans, and at times, their families. These hospitals can be located within military bases or installations, or they may be deployed in field settings during military operations or humanitarian missions. Military hospitals are staffed with healthcare professionals who have received additional training in military medicine and are responsible for providing a range of medical services, including emergency care, surgery, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also often conduct research in military medicine and trauma care.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the body through the mouth, usually from contaminated water or food. The virus multiplies in the intestine and can invade the nervous system, causing paralysis.

The medical definition of Poliomyelitis includes:

1. An acute viral infection caused by the poliovirus.
2. Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis), leading to muscle weakness, and in some cases, paralysis.
3. The disease primarily affects children under 5 years of age.
4. Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by respiratory droplets.
5. The virus enters the body via the mouth, multiplies in the intestines, and can invade the nervous system.
6. There are three types of poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3), each capable of causing paralytic polio.
7. Infection with one type does not provide immunity to the other two types.
8. The disease has no cure, but vaccination can prevent it.
9. Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
10. Rare complications of OPV include vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs).

A "Veteran" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe individuals who have served in the military. Specifically, in the United States, a veteran is defined as a person who has served in the armed forces of the country and was discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable. This definition can include those who served in war time or peace time. The term "veteran" does not imply any specific medical condition or diagnosis. However, veterans may have unique health needs and challenges related to their military service, such as exposure to hazardous materials, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other physical and mental health conditions.

Explosive agents are substances or materials that can undergo rapid chemical reactions, leading to a sudden release of gas and heat, resulting in a large increase in pressure and volume. This rapid expansion creates an explosion, which can cause significant damage to surrounding structures and pose serious risks to human health and safety.

Explosive agents are typically classified into two main categories: low explosives and high explosives. Low explosives burn more slowly than high explosives and rely on the confinement of the material to build up pressure and cause an explosion. Examples of low explosives include black powder, smokeless powder, and certain types of pyrotechnics.

High explosives, on the other hand, decompose rapidly and can detonate with great speed and force. They are often used in military applications such as bombs, artillery shells, and demolitions. Examples of high explosives include TNT (trinitrotoluene), RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine), and PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate).

It is important to note that the handling, storage, and use of explosive agents require specialized training and strict safety protocols, as they can pose significant risks if not managed properly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral (OPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It contains live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses, which stimulate an immune response in the body and provide protection against all three types of wild, infectious polioviruses. OPV is given by mouth, usually in drops, and it replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, where it induces a strong immune response. This response not only protects the individual who receives the vaccine but also helps to stop the spread of poliovirus in the community, providing indirect protection (herd immunity) to those who are not vaccinated. OPV is safe, effective, and easy to administer, making it an important tool for global polio eradication efforts. However, due to the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for routine immunization in some countries.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Veterans Health, also known as Veterans Medical Care, refers to the healthcare services and benefits provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in the United States. The VA operates one of the largest healthcare systems in the country, providing comprehensive medical care to eligible veterans. This includes hospital care, outpatient care, and long-term care, as well as mental health services, home health care, and geriatric and extended care services. Eligibility for VA healthcare is based on a variety of factors, including military service history, discharge status, income, and other criteria. The mission of Veterans Health is to provide high-quality, compassionate care to veterans in recognition of their service to the nation.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "bombs." The term is most commonly used in non-medical contexts to refer to explosive devices or, metaphorically, to something that has a sudden and major impact. If you are looking for information about a specific medical concept or condition, please provide more context or try rephrasing your question. I'm here to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personnel delegation" is not a medical term. It is a general management or organizational concept that refers to the assignment of authority and responsibility to make decisions or take actions to specific individuals or teams within an organization. This allows for more efficient use of resources, clearer accountability, and increased autonomy for those to whom responsibilities are delegated.

In a medical setting, you might find this concept applied in various ways, such as when hospital administrators delegate certain decision-making authorities related to patient care or resource allocation to specific clinical departments or individual healthcare providers. However, the term "personnel delegation" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Poliovirus vaccines are preparations used for active immunization against poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. The two types of poliovirus vaccines available are:

1. Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV): This vaccine contains inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. IPV is typically administered through an injection, usually in combination with other vaccines. It provides a strong immune response and does not carry the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), which is a rare but serious adverse event associated with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

2. Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV): This vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. OPV is administered orally and induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, which helps prevent the spread of the virus in a community. However, there is a small risk of VAPP associated with this vaccine, especially after multiple doses. In rare cases, the weakened virus can revert to its virulent form and cause paralytic polio in the vaccinated individual or their close contacts.

Both IPV and OPV have been instrumental in global efforts to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using IPV in routine immunization programs, while using OPV during supplementary immunization activities in areas with a high risk of poliovirus transmission.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizations" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you are referring to "organs" in the body, here is a definition:

Organs: In human anatomy, a part of the body that performs a specialized function. Organs are composed of several types of tissues, which are groups of cells that perform a similar function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Each organ's tissue has a specific structure that allows it to carry out its function in a highly efficient manner.

If you were asking about organizations in the context of medical institutions or healthcare systems, here is a definition:

Healthcare Organization: An entity that provides healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, physician practices, and long-term care facilities. These organizations can be public, private, or nonprofit and are responsible for delivering medical care to patients, managing health information, conducting research, and promoting public health. They may also provide education and training to healthcare professionals. Healthcare organizations must comply with various regulations and accreditation standards to ensure the quality and safety of patient care.

Muscle hypotonia, also known as decreased muscle tone, refers to a condition where the muscles appear to be flaccid or lacking in tension and stiffness. This results in reduced resistance to passive movements, making the limbs feel "floppy" or "like a rag doll." It can affect any muscle group in the body and can be caused by various medical conditions, including neurological disorders, genetic diseases, and injuries to the nervous system. Hypotonia should not be confused with muscle weakness, which refers to the inability to generate normal muscle strength.

Poliovirus is a human enterovirus, specifically a type of picornavirus, that is the causative agent of poliomyelitis (polio). It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. There are three serotypes of Poliovirus (types 1, 2 and 3) which can cause different degrees of severity in the disease. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route and infects the gastrointestinal tract, from where it can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis.

The Poliovirus has an icosahedral symmetry, with a diameter of about 30 nanometers. It contains a single stranded RNA genome which is encapsidated in a protein shell called capsid. The capsid is made up of 60 units of four different proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4).

Poliovirus has been eradicated from most countries of the world through widespread vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, it still remains endemic in a few countries and is considered a major public health concern.

Aviation accidents are events in which an aircraft is involved in a sudden or unexpected occurrence that results in damage to the aircraft, injury to its occupants or other persons, or death. These accidents can be caused by a variety of factors, including pilot error, mechanical failure, adverse weather conditions, and air traffic control errors. Aviation accidents are typically investigated by government agencies such as the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the United States to determine their causes and to develop recommendations for preventing similar occurrences in the future.

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government agency that provides medical care and benefits to veterans of the US armed forces. Here's the official definition from the VA's website:

"The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is an independent federal establishment charged with providing federal benefits, services, and healthcare to eligible United States veterans, their dependents, and certain other specified individuals."

The VA operates a vast network of medical centers, clinics, and benefits offices throughout the country, providing a range of services including medical treatment, long-term care, disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loan guarantees, and life insurance.

Disease eradication is the complete and permanent elimination of a specific disease from all humans or animals worldwide. This is achieved through various methods, including vaccination programs, improved sanitation, and public health measures. The disease is no longer present in any form, and there is no risk of it re-emerging. Smallpox is the only human disease to have been successfully eradicated so far. Efforts are currently underway to eradicate polio, with significant progress made but still ongoing.

... portal Asia portal Outline of Afghanistan The last census in Afghanistan was conducted in 1979, and was itself ... "Rebuilding Afghanistan: The U.S. Role". Stanford University. Fossler, Julie. "USAID Afghanistan". Afghanistan.usaid.gov. ... He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan on 9 June 1926, when the Emirate of Afghanistan became the Kingdom of Afghanistan. ... "UNESCO UIS: Afghanistan". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 August 2020. "Afghanistan Education , Afghanistan's Web Site". www.afghanistans. ...
"Monthly climate in Nili, Afghanistan". Retrieved 18 September 2022. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nili, Afghanistan. ... Provincial capitals in Afghanistan, Cities in Central Asia, Cities in Afghanistan). ... Nili is an urban village in central Afghanistan in which the majority of the land (98%) is not built-up. Barren land is the ... Nili (Dari: نیلی) is the capital city of Nili District in Daykundi Province of Afghanistan. The town of Nili is at 2,022 m ...
The Afghanistan Memorial is installed in Toronto's Queen's Park, in Ontario, Canada. Unveiled in 2020, the monument ... commemorates Canadians who served in Afghanistan. It has a bronze component and a stone from an Inukshuk that had been erected ...
Angat is a village in Afghanistan, at the foot of the Ishkashem Pass. At the turn of the 20th century, there were six houses ... 1972). Historical and Political Gazetteer of Afghanistan. Vol. 1. Graz, Austria: Akadamische Druck-u. Verlangsanstalt. p. 18. v ...
The Afghanistan Papers are a set of interviews relating to the war in Afghanistan undertaken by the United States military ... "US spending in Afghanistan fueled rampant corruption, reports say". The World. December 11, 2019. "The War in Afghanistan Was ... The papers were later published by Whitlock in a book called The Afghanistan Papers: A Secret History of the War, by Simon & ... Afghanistan portal History portal Politics portal Afghan Files (Australia) Iraq War documents leak Pentagon Papers Whitlock, ...
Elevation of Tizak,Afghanistan Elevation Map. تيزاك at citipedia.info. تيزاك at getamap. "ADF says Diggers inflicted ' ... Tizak, is a location in Shah Wali Kot District, Afghanistan located at 34° 18' 0" North, 68° 14' 0"East. The village is 1416m ... Tizak is 45 km north of Kandahar, on the Kandahar Highway, between Bum, Afghanistan and Jaldak. The area is arid with ...
... may refer to: Zohra Daoud (born 1954), the first official Miss Afghanistan - Miss Afghanistan 1972 Vida ... Miss Afghanistan 2014 Afghan, Wazikim. "Miss Afghanistan". CNN iReport. CNN. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. ... Samadzai (born 1978), candidate in Miss Earth 2003 Zallascht Sadat (born 1986), Miss Afghanistan 2009 Bahari Ibaadat (born 1993 ...
Kushk or Koshk is a town in Afghanistan that shares its name with the Kushk River which flows by the town. It is the center of ...
Kalow or Kalu is a village in Bamyan Province in central Afghanistan. It is located close to the border with Maidan Wardak ...
Afghanistan geography stubs, Populated places in Herat Province, Villages in Afghanistan). ... Yakhak (Dari: یخک) is a village in Herat Province in northwestern Afghanistan. Herat Province National Geospatial-Intelligence ...
Asmar (Pashto: اسمار) is one of the major cities in northeastern of Kunar province of Afghanistan and is the district center of ... 80 He refused to evacuate Asmar because he considered it as the gateway to his territory." "Population of Asmār, Afghanistan". ... اسمار, Afghanistan - Geographical Names, map, geographic coordinates Ganga Prasad Tripathi Indo-Afghan relations, 1882-1907 - ... 1973- Page 71 "Abdur Rahman, on his part regarded Asmar as part of Kunar, forming the frontier of Afghanistan in the direction ...
... can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3373109" ... Daman is a village and the center of Daman District, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. It is located at 1037 m altitude close to ...
Pana (Panah) is the district center of Giro District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. It is located on 33°06′01″N 68°18′42″E /  ... Afghanistan. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Coordinates on Wikidata, ... Commons category link is on Wikidata, Populated places in Ghazni Province, All stub articles, Afghanistan geography stubs). ...
Takaka (Persian: تکاکا) is a dene in northeastern Afghanistan. It is located in Khwahan District, Badakhshan Province. ...
Music of Afghanistan Media of Afghanistan Radio Television Afghanistan List of radio stations in Afghanistan Radio Shariat John ... Radio Afghanistan, also known as Radio Kabul or Voice of Sharia, is the public radio station of Afghanistan, owned by Radio ... and again in 1960 to Radio Afghanistan. During times of relative peace in the 1960s and 70s, Radio Afghanistan hosted a whole ... Mass media in Afghanistan, Radio stations in Afghanistan, Mass media in Kabul). ...
Zin is a village in Badakhshan Province in northeastern Afghanistan. Badakhshan Province "NGA GeoName Database". National ...
Dupree, Louis (1997). Afghanistan (2nd ed.). Oxford Pakistan Paperbacks. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-577634-8. "Chakari, Afghanistan" ... Chakari (Cakaray, Chakaray) was a village in Khaki Jabbar District, Kabul Province, Afghanistan. In the 1990s during the Afghan ... 229-239 Dorneich, Christof M. (1999) Minar-i Chakari: Afghanistan's lost and unsolved architectural riddle of great antiquity ( ... Programme Management Information System Office of the UN Coordinator for Afghanistan, via Food and Agriculture Organization of ...
Tazraq is a village in Balkh Province, in northern Afghanistan. It is located near the border with Tajikistan, located on the ...
Munji is a village in Kuran wa Munjan District, Badakhshan Province in north-eastern Afghanistan, where Munji people originate ...
Aruj is a village in Kohistanat District in Sar-e Pol Province, in northern Afghanistan. It was formerly in Jowzjan Province. ... Sar-e Pol Province "Afghanistan Settlements Index" (accessed externally by google in PDF/Adobe Acrobat). United Nations Office ...
Hamāyūn (Homāyūn, Khamayun, همایون,) is a village in Kapisa Province of Afghanistan. Hamayun lies on the eastern slope of Mt. ... Afghanistan, Series 1501C, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Gulbahar (Persian: گلبهار) is located 76 km north the Afghanistan capital Kabul. Gulbahar is a green, lush area with the best ... Afghanistan"". Archived from the original on 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2008-07-05. Terrorism is "rebounding" Archived 2008-06-12 at ...
Khaneqah is a village in Balkh Province in northern Afghanistan. It is located near the border with Turkmenistan. Balkh ...
The village of Dishu (also Deshu, Deh Šu) is the center of Dishu District in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. Like other ...
Mazar is a village in Badakhshan Province in north-eastern Afghanistan. Badakhshan Province "NGA GeoName Database". National ...
Balkh Province Shurab, Afghanistan at GEOnet Names Server 36°34′37″N 67°13′31″E / 36.57694°N 67.22528°E / 36.57694; 67.22528 ... Shurab (Persian: شوراب, also Romanized as Shūrāb, Showrab, and Shorab; Russian: Шораб) is a town in Balkh Province, Afghanistan ...
Azad is a town of Farah Province in western Afghanistan near to the border with Iran. It is located at 32°38'5N 61°32'28E with ...
... may refer to Aybak, Helmand Province, Afghanistan Aybak, Herat Province, Afghanistan Haibak, Samangan ... Province, Afghanistan This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Aybak, Afghanistan. If an internal link ...
Hayata is a village in Balkh Province in northern Afghanistan. Balkh Province "NGA GeoName Database". National Geospatial- ...
... is a charity registered in the UK which works in Afghanistan carrying out community development, education ... Serve Afghanistan is primarily funded by grants from other international charities. SERVE Afghanistan, Charity Commission, ... It was founded in 1972 to help victims of a famine in Ghor in Afghanistan and it was formally registered in 1980 as SERVE. In ... charity number 1105086 Serve Afghanistan (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Organizations ...
Afghanistan diaries. Fighting drought in Afghanistan: commitment and tears by Jawid Sultany - 05/02/2022. An FAO officer, Jawid ... Afghanistan diaries. A road mission to one of Afghanistans most war-affected districts 04/05/2022. Faridullah Sherzad, FAO ... Afghanistan diaries. Poverty hits rural Afghanistan: skinny, barefoot children, underweight animals and pending debts by ... Afghanistan diaries. A mission to Uruzgan, one of the most affected provinces by drought and conflict by Mumtaz Baryal - 20/02/ ...
Afghanistan: ICC justice should match victims demands News. Global: UN Doha meeting on Afghanistan must mark an end to ... Ekil Hakimi, Afghanistans Finance Minister, told parliament: "If Afghanistan does not cooperate with EU countries on the ... Remittances from Afghanistan account for as much as six per cent of Afghanistans total GDP. ... Norway and her two siblings weredeported to Afghanistan - a country she has never known. Taibehs family fled Afghanistan at ...
The United States and NATO officially began withdrawing their last troops from Afghanistan on May 1, leaving the war-torn ... Afghanistan/Pakistan Trending 1 From Offshoot To Spearhead: The Rise Of IS-K, Islamic States Afghanistan Branch 2 Taliban ... Afghanistans ruling Taliban deny this.. At around 3 a.m., Pakistani aircraft bombarded civilian homes in Afghanistans ... Afghan refugees rest at a camp near the Torkham Pakistan-Afghanistan border crossing in Afghanistan on November 3, 2023. More ...
Afghanistan, and the other "war on terror" conflicts, have drifted on for years in a lower-level stalemate. Together, military ... Twenty years of war, after the 9/11 attacks hatched by al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, have killed an estimated 241,000 people there. ... Canada has proposed taking in 20,000 refugees from Afghanistan.. The main lessons here are sadly familiar ones: the expensive ... One by one, from Kunduz to Kandahar, cities have fallen to the fundamentalist insurgents, who ruled Afghanistan with a strict ...
... and September 2002 Anssi Kullberg Since there are very few birdwatchers visiting Afghanistan for obvious reasons, I try to sum ... up some of my observations there during four separate journeys to Afghanistan in... ... We should remember that even though there are lots of troubles in Afghanistan still today, the country is still calmer and more ... Since there are very few birdwatchers visiting Afghanistan for obvious reasons, I try to sum up some of my observations there ...
Share this Welsh-language prayer for Afghanistan with your church. ...
FILED UNDER: Afghanistan War, National Security, Terrorism, World Politics, Afghanistan, Andrew Exum, Barack Obama, ... While I agree with CNAS scholar Andrew Exum that me must consider the costs of withdrawing from Afghanistan along with the ... Obama Lowering Afghanistan Ambitions?. James Joyner · Wednesday, September 23, 2009 · 2 comments ... Given that the American public will not put up with heavy casualties in Afghanistan for decades on end, especially given a ...
Amendment of 20.11.2011 extended the geographical scope of the MoU to include Afghanistan as a Range State ...
Afghanistan portal Asia portal Outline of Afghanistan The last census in Afghanistan was conducted in 1979, and was itself ... "Rebuilding Afghanistan: The U.S. Role". Stanford University. Fossler, Julie. "USAID Afghanistan". Afghanistan.usaid.gov. ... He proclaimed himself King of Afghanistan on 9 June 1926, when the Emirate of Afghanistan became the Kingdom of Afghanistan. ... "UNESCO UIS: Afghanistan". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 August 2020. "Afghanistan Education , Afghanistans Web Site". www.afghanistans. ...
The Taliban asked for help in keeping Afghanistans airports running in weekend talks with EU officials that also raised ... Taliban asks EU for help with Afghanistans airports /node/1977231/world Taliban asks EU for help with Afghanistans airports. ... The EU side was headed by the EU special envoy for Afghanistan Tomas Niklasson, with officials from the EEAS and the European ... It also suggested that, if the Taliban met EU conditions, that could unlock extra financing for Afghanistans cash-strapped new ...
Rand, Reducing the Cultivation of Opium Poppies in Southern Afghanistan, 2015. World Bank, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: ... Does Afghanistan grow more opium poppies than before 2001? President Donald Trumps budget puts a number of foreign assistance ... Yoho said Afghanistan has more land producing poppies than before the U.S. war began. U.N. surveys back that up. In 2002, the ... Afghanistan remains the worlds top opium poppy producer, despite the billions of dollars America has put into the country. ...
This graph shows the market share of tablet vendors in Afghanistan based on over 5 billion monthly page views. ...
The United States and Australia are sending hundreds more troops to Afghanistan in the run-up to Septembers parliamentary ... REEVES: `Afghanistans warlords have too much power and money, he complains. `Thats all they need to win a seat in Parliament ... The elections are seen as one of the last steps towards the creation of a permanent democratic government in Afghanistan. ... The United States and Australia are sending hundreds more troops to Afghanistan in the run-up to Septembers parliamentary ...
"Monthly climate in Nili, Afghanistan". Retrieved 18 September 2022. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nili, Afghanistan. ... Provincial capitals in Afghanistan, Cities in Central Asia, Cities in Afghanistan). ... Nili is an urban village in central Afghanistan in which the majority of the land (98%) is not built-up. Barren land is the ... Nili (Dari: نیلی) is the capital city of Nili District in Daykundi Province of Afghanistan. The town of Nili is at 2,022 m ...
"Kabul Pilot Workshop-Create an Social Media Account" by Impassion Afghanistan is licensed under CC BY 2.0 ... In July 2021, an Al Jazeera article detailed the impact of ongoing fighting on Afghanistans IT infrastructure and noted that ... Social media and other internet tools for collaboration and activism have made the groups opponents in Afghanistan both ... its programs out in Afghanistan to erase records, social media posts so that Afghans who worked with them wont be targeted by ...
Capital Region East Afghanistan North Afghanistan South Afghanistan Southwest Afghanistan Southeast Afghanistan West ...
Afghanistan-Russia defense cooperation From Russia with Bullets: Moscow Gifts Kabul 10,000 AK-47s. By Catherine Putz. Russia ... Russia to Sell Modern Attack Helicopters to Afghanistan By Franz-Stefan Gady. A contract for the delivery of Mi-35 attack ... gives Afghanistan 10,000 assault rifles, but abstains from joining American efforts at peace talks. ...
In the far northeast of Afghanistan lie the mountains of the Wakhan Corridor. This rugged area, tucked between the giants of ... The northern ranges, Pamirs and Afghanistans Wakhan Corridor. £22.95. Guidebook to trekking in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. ... It is 10 September, the end of Ramadan, and in the rest of Afghanistan Eid is strictly observed. Here there is no sign of the ... The Wakhan Corridor is a strip of land in the far northeast of Afghanistan. It was created as a buffer zone during The Great ...
Afghanistan Prayer Times and Qiblah, distance from Makkah and Madina, Fajr, Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha, Ramadan, 104732 أوقات ... Prayer Times (Tupak, Afghanistan) أوقات صلاة. Apr 2024. Ramadan 1445. Fajr. Sun rise. Dhuhr. Asr. Maghrib. Isha. ...
Find another project in Afghanistan or in Physical Health that needs your help. ...
Afghanistan, Kabul, 15 September/ Trend , corr A. Hakimi/ The bodies of three officers of USPI security company of US, ... Bodies of Three USPI Security Officers Found in Afghanistan. Politics Materials 15 September 2008 13:49 (UTC +04:00) ... Mudflow claims life in Afghanistan. 18 April 20:34 (UTC+04) Other News Materials ... kidnapped by the Talibs on 12 September near city of Balaboyuk of Farah province of Afghanistan have been found on 14 September ...
Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Central Asia China Georgia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia South Caucasus Tajikistan Turkey ... Afghanistans experience over the past four decades, the Talibans brutal and bloody record, the U.S.s own history of washing ... The Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan, signed by the U.S. and the Taliban on February 29, is a major milestone in the ... BACKGROUND: On February 29, the U.S. and the Taliban signed the Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan in Doha, the ...
Afghanistan And The UAE; "They Are Happy to Help Us More". "The UAE could even help us extract Afghanistans rich mines," said ... Afghanistan: One Year On. The UK wants to continue to work pragmatically to support a positive future for Afghanistan. ... Afghanistan Among Worlds Most Dangerous Countries for Journalists: RSF. According to the RSF, Vietnam, Russia and Afghanistan ... 1 Afghanistan Strives for Self-Sufficiency in Cement Production * 2 Mawlawi Kabir Calls for Kabuls Participation in Moscow ...
On 7 October 2001, the US-led invasion of Afghanistan began. Barely a month later, Kabul fell to the Northern Alliance. It was ... Meanwhile, Afghanistan is experiencing some of the most frightening insecurity it has known. A new generation of young men have ... On 7 October 2001, the US-led invasion of Afghanistan began. Barely a month later, Kabul fell to the Northern Alliance. It was ... Today, that first autumn after 9/11 has long faded into memory for the people of Afghanistan. At best, it conjures up the same ...
Afghanistans Taliban government slams lack of invite to COP28. Rupee registers marginal decline against US dollar. Another ... Afghanistans Taliban government slams lack of invite to COP28. AFP Published November 30, 2023 ... KABUL: Afghanistans Taliban authorities on Thursday condemned a decision not to invite its representatives to the UN climate ... "Afghanistan is experiencing a rise in extreme weather conditions, notably floods, drought, and sand and dust storms, resulting ...
Afghanistan: Down the Memory Hole. / Politics / By Gwynne Dyer Its only one year since the fall of Kabul last August 15 and ... Western armies got chased out of Afghanistan a year ago because they forgot all the lessons they had learned from a dozen lost ... Their successors had to start learning it again the hard way in Afghanistan and Iraq. Maybe by now they have, but theyll be ... The second lesson is: whatever the provocation, never invade Afghanistan. Its very easy to conquer it, but almost impossible ...
Afghanistans US-installed democracy collapsed after 20 years of US-led modernization and reform attempts. ... Afghanistan leaders ruled selfishly, siphoned foreign aid, corruption buying power or money, state left powerless.. ... Afghanistans US-installed democracy collapsed after 20 years of US-led modernization and reform attempts. ... Civil wars shaped Afghanistan, communists inspired by Amanullah, tried socialism, failed to impose order.. ...
We also hope that the experience of the invasion of the Soviet army to Afghanistan will also be considered. The result of the ... Another result was that Afghanistan became the arena of the civil war that has not ended yet. Talibs rule in Kabul is nothing ... It is also possible that the operation will bring peace to Afghanistan. But it is unable to finish radically the international ... Probably, the campaign in Afghanistan will lead to the destruction of terrorists and their accomplices in this country. ...
2024 **sririce.org -- System of Rice Intensification filtered by Afghanistan ... In Afghanistan, weeds are the major problem in wheat cultivation. To improve the productivity of wheat, the FAO-MAIL IPM ... A version of this video in Afghanistans Dari language is also available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGJZoj_iWkE ...
  • The Islamic fundamentalist Taliban controlled most of the country by 1996, but their Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan received little international recognition before its overthrow in the 2001 US invasion of Afghanistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Taliban returned to power in 2021 after capturing Kabul and overthrowing the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, thus bringing an end to the 2001-2021 war. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2021 the Taliban re-established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan with an interim government made up entirely of Taliban members. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decision came as President Obama sent 20,000 additional U.S. troops to Afghanistan to go after the Taliban in an expanding war. (forbes.com)
  • But both the drug gangs and Taliban are united in their desire to keep Afghan and foreign troops out of southern Afghanistan, and often collaborate in that effort. (strategypage.com)
  • At the same time, the troops in Afghanistan now are trying out new tactics for taking down the Taliban and drug gangs. (strategypage.com)
  • For eight years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the subsequent overthrow of the Taliban, American and NATO soldiers in Afghanistan were too few and spread too thin to hold territory, deny insurgents freedom of movement, and convince the local population that they were stronger than the Taliban. (macleans.ca)
  • The two sides' interests were much the same then as they are now: the Taliban needed economic aid and help to fend off U.N. sanctions, while China wanted to prevent Afghanistan from becoming a base of support for the independence movement in its Xinjiang region. (latimes.com)
  • Now, with Afghanistan becoming destabilized, all these billions of dollars of investments are at risk because they are extremely close in proximity to the Taliban," Yau said. (latimes.com)
  • China is now pressuring the Taliban to withhold support from Uyghur militants, some of whom were trained in Afghanistan in the past. (latimes.com)
  • After years of active conflict, the Afghanistan government was replaced by Taliban authorities in August 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • The conflict began in 1978 when a communist revolution established a socialist state, and subsequent infighting prompted the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan in 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the subsequent civil war severely disrupted the country's economic development. (britannica.com)
  • In December 1979, Soviet troops first entered Afghanistan in an attempt to bolster the communist, pro-Soviet government threatened by internal rebellion. (history.com)
  • Shortly after the Soviet invasion in 1979, the World Bank suspended its operations in Afghanistan. (worldbank.org)
  • Afghanistan would be reunited in the 19th century after seven decades of civil war from 1793 to 1863, with wars of unification led by Dost Mohammad Khan from 1823 to 1863, where he conquered the independent principalities of Afghanistan under the Emirate of Kabul. (wikipedia.org)
  • It operates with its headquarters in Kabul, with eight regional and three provincial offices throughout Afghanistan. (ohchr.org)
  • In this dispatch from the field, Ahmad Feroz Aryan, FAO's Regional Coordinator for the Southern Region in Afghanistan, tells his story of being relocated to Kabul and then going back home to resume his work in a changed Afghanistan. (fao.org)
  • According to the World Population review, as of 2021[update], Afghanistan's population is 40.2 million The National Statistics Information Authority of Afghanistan estimated the population to be 32.9 million as of 2020[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naval Air Station Sigonella Command Master Chief Anna Wood assists an Afghanistan evacuee deplaning a U.S. Air Force KC-10 Extender at Naval Air Station Sigonella, Aug. 22, 2021. (defense.gov)
  • Afghanistan reported 56 WPV1 cases during 2020 and four during 2021 ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • As part of a United Nations appeal for Afghanistan launched on 5 September 2021, WHO and health sector partners are requesting US$ 66 million to deliver essential and life sustaining health care services for 3.4 million people until the end of the year. (who.int)
  • Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nili, Afghanistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afghanistan reported two WPV1 cases during 2022 and five during 2023 through June 30. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2022-June 2023. (cdc.gov)
  • Nili (Dari: نیلی) is the capital city of Nili District in Daykundi Province of Afghanistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hussain Ebrahimi, Meshe Payan village, Daykundi Province and a beneficiary of Afghanistan Rural Access Project (ARAP). (worldbank.org)
  • The forced returns from Europe, Pakistan and Iran add to instability in Afghanistan, according to Chaloka Beyani, the UN special rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons. (amnesty.org)
  • A spokesman for a Kazakh provincial court says the questioning of some of the 22 suspects being held on terrorism charges has revealed that they received funding from Afghanistan and Pakistan. (rferl.org)
  • Boranbai Galiev, the press secretary for the Atyrau Provincial Court, said one of the suspects had been in constant contact with Afghanistan and Pakistan through the Internet. (rferl.org)
  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) remains endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. (cdc.gov)
  • Interruption of WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan is attainable and requires regular and unrestricted supplementary immunization activities (mass campaigns), improved surveillance, and strong coordination of vaccination activities with neighboring Pakistan. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 2017, Afghanistan and Pakistan remain the only countries with uninterrupted endemic WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of population movement, the risk for transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan will remain if WPV1 circulation continues in either country. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite operational improvements in vaccination activities, interruption of WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan will require committed, uninterrupted efforts, including ongoing coordination with Pakistan on polio eradication activities, to address vaccination coverage gaps that sustain WPV1 circulation. (cdc.gov)
  • However, endemic transmission of indigenous WPV type 1 (WPV1) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan and Pakistan. (cdc.gov)
  • Title : Modeling scenarios for ending poliovirus transmission in Pakistan and Afghanistan Personal Author(s) : Kalkowska, Dominika A.;Badizadegan, Kamran;Thompson, Kimberly M. (cdc.gov)
  • The modern state of Afghanistan began with the Durrani dynasty in the 18th century, with the Durrani Afghan Empire being formed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. (wikipedia.org)
  • From India, the British attempted to subjugate Afghanistan but were repelled in the First Anglo-Afghan War. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the Second Anglo-Afghan War saw a British victory and the successful establishment of British political influence over Afghanistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, Afghanistan became free of foreign political hegemony, and emerged as the independent Kingdom of Afghanistan in June 1926 under Amanullah Khan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet as NATO leaders prepare to gather in Chicago, where the war in Afghanistan will be Topic A, there is a growing presumption that, shortly after NATO finishes building up the Afghan security forces, we should start dismantling them. (brookings.edu)
  • DynCorp International , the Falls Church, Va., provider of mission critical services to the U.S. military, got good news Thursday from Houston rival KBR , which said it would not be protesting the recent loss of work supporting American troops in Afghanistan to DynCorp and Fluor Group. (forbes.com)
  • It is now likely that within six months DynCorp will begin working on a five-year, $5.9 billion deal awarded in July to logistically support U.S. troops in southern Afghanistan. (forbes.com)
  • Although many were repatriated during the 1990s, the numbers of those internally and externally displaced rose again after 2000 as a result of continued civil strife , economic hardship, an extended and severe drought, the Afghanistan War , and the security transition following the 2014 withdrawal of foreign troops. (britannica.com)
  • More than eight years after they intervened in Afghanistan to support the procommunist government, Soviet troops begin their withdrawal. (history.com)
  • In a short period of time, thousands of Russian troops and support materials poured into Afghanistan. (history.com)
  • While the Soviets never released official casualty figures for the war in Afghanistan, U.S. intelligence sources estimated that as many as 15,000 Russian troops died in Afghanistan, and the economic cost to the already struggling Soviet economy ran into billions of dollars. (history.com)
  • U.S. troops have been operating in Afghanistan for eight years now, and have established special training courses back in the United States to prepare troops for the unique combat situations they will encounter. (strategypage.com)
  • Most of these troops have also served in Iraq, and they know they must warn Iraq veterans to forget about some skills and tactics that worked in Iraq, but won't in Afghanistan. (strategypage.com)
  • And then, in December 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama announced he would send an additional 30,000 troops to Afghanistan. (macleans.ca)
  • The establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978, the Soviet invasion of the country the following year, and the continuing conflict following the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 severely disrupted the country's population patterns. (britannica.com)
  • For Afghanistan, the Soviet withdrawal did not mean an end to the fighting, however. (history.com)
  • Wang criticized the "hasty U.S. withdrawal" and warned that China did not want to see Afghanistan "relapse into a hotbed and shelter for terrorism. (latimes.com)
  • On October 7th, 2023, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck near Herat in Afghanistan. (justgiving.com)
  • When Afghanistan began to plan the development of its economy with Soviet assistance in the mid-1950s, it lacked not only the necessary social organization and institutions for modern economic activities but also the managerial and technical skills. (britannica.com)
  • The event marked the beginning of the end to a long, bloody, and fruitless Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. (history.com)
  • Taibeh's family fled Afghanistan at the time of the Soviet invasion, and first settled in Iran, where Taibeh was born and the family suffered discrimination. (amnesty.org)
  • We partner with families and community leaders to understand their needs and motivations, identify their strengths, and remove barriers to positive change," says Ibrahim Elsheikh who heads UNICEF's Social and Behaviour Change Programme in Afghanistan. (unicef.org)
  • The Human Rights Service (HRS) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1401 (2002) as an entity integrated within the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA). (ohchr.org)
  • Due to Nili's geographical inaccessibility and acute security problems, it was not until April 2007 that the United Nations opened an office in Nili of UNAMA (United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan). (wikipedia.org)
  • Across Afghanistan, UNICEF works with community leaders, faith-based organisations, youth networks and grandmother groups to change attitudes and behaviours that affect children's wellbeing. (unicef.org)
  • Data and SIA information were provided by the Afghanistan National Emergency Operations Centre, which includes officials from UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other GPEI partners. (cdc.gov)
  • DynCorp has emerged as one of the big winners of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which now generate 53% of DynCorp's $3.1 billion of annual revenue. (forbes.com)
  • to identify significant factors to the development of PTSD in 52 Puerto Rico National Guard's veterans back from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. (bvsalud.org)
  • Afghanistan still has one of the world's highest maternal mortality rates. (pravda.ru)
  • In a report published in June 2019, the Institute for Peace and Economics said that Afghanistan is the world's "least peaceful" country , replacing Syria. (amnesty.org)
  • The United Nations will hold a high-level ministerial meeting of member states on the humanitarian situation in Afghanistan on 13 September. (who.int)
  • During the next eight years, the two sides battled for control in Afghanistan, with neither the Soviets nor the rebels ever able to gain a decisive victory. (history.com)
  • There are also some Pushtun in eastern Iran, but the Iranians are trying for force all these refugees from the 1980s war with Russia, to move back to Afghanistan. (strategypage.com)
  • There are currently more than 2.6 million registered refugees in the world from Afghanistan - more than one in ten of all refugees, and the second highest number after Syria. (amnesty.org)
  • This article briefly summarizes the health care needs of service members returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, describes VA's approaches to addressing their needs, and outlines VA's evolving vision for how to apply principles of population health management to ensure prompt and effective response to the postdeployment needs of veterans returning from future conflicts. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2018, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan documented the highest ever recorded civilian deaths , including the highest ever recorded number of children killed in the conflict. (amnesty.org)
  • Nazifa Natiq, FAO Regional Resilience Officer in Mazar-e-Sharif, tells us how the cooking demonstrations she conducts in northern Afghanistan help rural women produce nutritious food and improve their family's nutrition, while they generate a new or additional income. (fao.org)
  • During this time, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the Great Game between the British Empire (in British-ruled India) and the Russian Empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison condemned the attacks in Afghanistan in a tweet Friday local time, adding that all Australian Defence Force (ADF) members and personnel are safe. (cnn.com)
  • Fatima, a 47-year-old community volunteer in western Afghanistan, recalls a time when it was common to give birth at home. (unicef.org)
  • The ruling Communist Party was quick to excoriate decades of American interference: "Whether in Iraq, Syria or Afghanistan, we have seen that wherever the American military goes, it leaves behind turmoil and fragmentation, death and destruction, a mess riddled with holes," said Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Hua Chunying at a press briefing on Tuesday. (latimes.com)
  • Afghanistan 's unique geostrategic position in Eurasia has historically attracted commerce , conflict and conquest to the region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Over 100,000 U.S. soldiers and marines have served in Afghanistan, and these are usually the instructors for these preparation courses. (strategypage.com)
  • He describes a near-impossible task, and yet this is what NATO forces in Afghanistan, including Canada's final combat battle group to deploy in the country, believe they are finally beginning to accomplish. (macleans.ca)
  • On the other hand, according to a Government Accountability Office report, there are now 221 such pits in Afghanistan and "more coming. (motherjones.com)
  • As Nick Turse suggests in his most recent TomDispatch report , in Afghanistan we seem to be heading down the Iraq path on bases with a special ardor. (motherjones.com)
  • Aisha, a member of a grandmother group in western Afghanistan, was forced into marriage when she was just 11 years old. (unicef.org)
  • More than 30 Canadians died in Afghanistan in 2006, compared to fewer than 10 who perished in the previous four years combined. (macleans.ca)
  • China has expanded its influence in Central Asia with massive investments in recent years through President Xi Jinping's Belt and Road Initiative - in part because an American security presence in the region freed China from having to deal with Afghanistan, said Niva Yau, a researcher focused on China and Central Asia at the OSCE Academy in Kyrgyzstan. (latimes.com)
  • 2 years in the south region of Afghanistan, where restrictions prohibiting house-to-house vaccination limit the effectiveness of immunization campaigns. (cdc.gov)
  • Vice President Kamala Harris called the 13 American service members killed in Afghanistan today "heroes" who died saving countless lives, in a statement released Thursday night. (cnn.com)
  • Donald Rumsfeld's trip to Afghanistan barely produced a yawn from a disinterested American media. (counterpunch.org)
  • Sarah Gregory] During the recent war in Afghanistan, invasive fungal wound infections, or IFIs, among U.S. combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Today I'm talking with Dr. David Tribble about his article on fungal wounds after combat trauma in Afghanistan. (cdc.gov)
  • In the military, the IFIs have been primarily reported due to combat related blast trauma, where a soldier on foot patrol or a marine is--and we've seen this commonly in Southern Afghanistan, which is as you reported. (cdc.gov)
  • With the expected closure of health facilities, only 3% of the 1,318 COVID-19 isolation beds in Afghanistan will remain functional. (who.int)
  • Just days before International Refugee Day 2019, Taibeh Abbasi, a student who lives in Trondheim, Norway and her two siblings were deported to Afghanistan - a country she has never known. (amnesty.org)
  • Taibeh has never been to Afghanistan, and it's not a safe country. (amnesty.org)
  • The Taliban's stunning victory in Afghanistan has left China facing the troubling prospect that the newly emboldened Islamic fundamentalist regime on its border could upset security and economic interests across the region. (latimes.com)
  • The fear of Afghanistan harboring extremists, particularly militant groups seeking independence for China's far western Xinjiang region, has long been central to China's policy in Afghanistan. (latimes.com)
  • The authors compared the environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in Eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. (cdc.gov)
  • We believe these are key fundementals for ensuring economic growth and prosperity in Afghanistan. (worldbank.org)
  • China is using the leverage it has to attain specific goals, he said: protecting its economic interests and ensuring Afghanistan does not become a hub for militant extremists that might attack China. (latimes.com)
  • There are also special courses for commanders, who must be prepared to deal with tribal politics in Afghanistan, which is somewhat different than it is in Iraq. (strategypage.com)
  • It would be a false economy in the extreme to risk losing a war - and risk needing to keep more U.S. forces in Afghanistan from 2015 on than might otherwise be required - just to reach an artificially defined goal on an arbitrary timetable for Afghanistan's own security forces. (brookings.edu)
  • The Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) is a partnership between the international community and Government of Afghanistan to improve effectiveness of the development efforts. (worldbank.org)
  • ARTF's support for National Priority Programs (NPPs), operating costs of government operations, and the policy reform agenda is contributing to the achievement of the Afghanistan National Peace and Development Framework goals. (worldbank.org)
  • Dost Mohammad died in 1863, days after his last campaign to unite Afghanistan, and Afghanistan was consequently thrown back into civil war with fighting amongst his successors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aisha, a grandmother from western Afghanistan engages parents and local leaders based on her own experience at home and in her community- as a mother and a grandmother. (unicef.org)
  • In the heart of Afghanistan, a devastating earthquake has left a trail of destruction. (justgiving.com)
  • a plan that now involves the annexing of sacred shrines by pounding the townspeople into submission) Afghanistan is left to languish in a state of virtual anarchy. (counterpunch.org)
  • The World Bank supported Emergency Customs Modernization and Trade Facilitation Project helped Afghanistan to improve and modernize Customs Departments by installing the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA). (worldbank.org)
  • China is now more vigorous on the world stage and is openly seeking a regional leadership role to show Beijing is a more responsible and stable ally than the U.S. But Afghanistan is not where the Chinese wanted to prove that. (latimes.com)
  • Fluor won the work that will be required in northern Afghanistan. (forbes.com)
  • In July the Pentagon announced that it planned on having DynCorp and Fluor take over KBR's work in Afghanistan under Logcap, doing everything from providing laundry to food and fuel. (forbes.com)
  • KBR has now accepted the military's contracting switch in Afghanistan and will focus on trying to retain its Logcap work in Iraq, which should be up for bid by the end of this year. (forbes.com)
  • Hashim Azizi, FAO National Graphic Designer, went on a field mission to eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan to speak to the farmers who benefitted from FAO's wheat assistance during the winter wheat campaign. (fao.org)
  • Modaser Islami, FAO National Communications Officer, has recently been on a humanitarian mission to the northern Balkh province of Afghanistan to talk to local people about the situation and FAO's response to the humanitarian crisis. (fao.org)