Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.
Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are INTERLEUKIN-2-activated NK cells that have no MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY in cancer patients.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The signal transmission is ensured by high affinity between cell surface interleukin-3 receptor and IL-3. This high affinity ... Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, Shirabe T, Konishi Y (1998). "Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain". Ann. N. Y. ... Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, Hood WF, Paik K, McKearn JP (1997). "The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined ... Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease ...
"A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific alpha chain and a beta chain shared with the ... "Reconstitution of the functional receptors for murine and human interleukin 5". J. Exp. Med. 177 (6): 1523-1529. doi:10.1084/ ... is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin ... Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by ...
... family with high affinity for the CRF2 receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (13): 7570-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.121165198. ... "The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... Interleukin 10 receptor, beta subunit is a subunit for the interleukin-10 receptor. IL10RB is its human gene. IL10RB has also ... 1998). "The orphan receptor CRF2-4 is an essential subunit of the interleukin 10 receptor". J. Exp. Med. 187 (4): 571-8. doi: ...
Both monomeric forms of IL-5Rα are low affinity receptors, while dimerization with the β-chain produces a high affinity ... Sato N, Sakamaki K, Terada N, Arai K, Miyajima A (November 1993). "Signal transduction by the high-affinity GM-CSF receptor: ... Receptors,+Interleukin-5 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific alpha chain and a beta chain shared with the ...
1998). "Analysis of the multiple interactions between IL-12 and the high affinity IL-12 receptor complex". J. Immunol. 160 (5 ... Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor. IL12RB2 is its human gene. IL12RB2 ... 1997). "A functional interleukin 12 receptor complex is composed of two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits". Proc. Natl. Acad ... 2002). "The interleukin-12 and interleukin-12 receptor system in normal and transformed human B lymphocytes". Haematologica. 87 ...
... receptor binds and blocks processing of IL-1 beta precursor and loses affinity for IL-1 receptor antagonist". Proceedings of ... Interleukin 1 receptor, type II (IL-1R2) also known as CD121b (Cluster of Differentiation 121b) is an interleukin receptor. ... This protein binds interleukin-1α (IL1A), interleukin-1β (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra), preventing them ... "Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist binds to the type II interleukin-1 receptor on B cells and neutrophils". The Journal of ...
Tavernier J, Devos R, Cornelis S, Tuypens T, Van der Heyden J, Fiers W, Plaetinck G (1991). "A human high affinity interleukin- ... The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for ... Interleukin 5 receptor, alpha (IL5RA) also known as CD125 (Cluster of Differentiation 125) is a subunit of the Interleukin-5 ... receptor. IL5RA also denotes its human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a ...
This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G- ... Interleukin Interleukin 8 Interleukin 8 receptor, beta Interleukin receptor Interleukin-8 receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Assignment of the genes encoding human interleukin-8 receptor types 1 and 2 and an interleukin-8 receptor pseudogene to ... Mollereau C, Muscatelli F, Mattei MG, Vassart G, Parmentier M (1993). "The high-affinity interleukin 8 receptor gene (IL8RA) ...
IL-37 has two similar amino acid residues with IL-18, thus can interact with IL-18 receptor (IL-18R). The affinity of IL-37b to ... Interleukin-1 family Interleukin 18 Interleukin 18 receptor Interleukin 18 binding protein GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes". Genomics. 19 (2): 382-4. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1076. PMID ... April 2002). "Interleukin-1F7B (IL-1H4/IL-1F7) is processed by caspase-1 and mature IL-1F7B binds to the IL-18 receptor but ...
This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G- ... Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha Interleukin 8 Interleukin Interleukin receptor Cluster of differentiation G protein-coupled ... "Assignment of the genes encoding human interleukin-8 receptor types 1 and 2 and an interleukin-8 receptor pseudogene to ... "Assignment of the genes encoding human interleukin-8 receptor types 1 and 2 and an interleukin-8 receptor pseudogene to ...
"Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... is a cytokine receptor sub-unit that is common to the receptor complexes for at least six different interleukin receptors: IL-2 ... "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-4 receptor" (Submitted manuscript). Science. 262 ... "Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-7 receptor" (Submitted manuscript). Science. 262 ...
Snyers L, De Wit L, Content J (1990). "Glucocorticoid up-regulation of high-affinity interleukin 6 receptors on human ... Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) also known as CD126 (Cluster of Differentiation 126) is a type I cytokine receptor. Interleukin 6 ... The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for CTNF". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9528-35. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The IL6 receptor is a protein complex consisting of an IL-6 receptor subunit (IL6R) and interleukin 6 signal transducer ...
"Entrez Gene: IL3RA interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity)". Stomski FC, Sun Q, Bagley CJ, Woodcock J, Goodall G, Andrews ... Interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity) (IL3RA), also known as CD123 (Cluster of Differentiation 123), is a human gene. ... The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 3 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is ... Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, Hood WF, Paik K, McKearn JP (1997). "The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined ...
Later studies determined GDNF uses a receptor tyrosine kinase and a high-affinity ligand-binding co-receptor GFRα. GDNF has an ... interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-8 (IL-8), macrophage colony ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) uses the high-affinity receptor TrkA to promote myelination and the differentiation of neurons. ... The ephrins are a family of neurotrophic factors that signal through eph receptors, a class of receptor tyrosine kinases; the ...
Expression and affinity for IL-8 differs between the two receptors (CXCR1 > CXCR2). Through a chain of biochemical reactions, ... Gately MK, Renzetti LM, Magram J, Stern AS, Adorini L, Gubler U, Presky DH (1998). "The interleukin-12/interleukin-12-receptor ... Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in ... Brat DJ, Bellail AC, Van Meir EG (2005). "The role of interleukin-8 and its receptors in gliomagenesis and tumoral angiogenesis ...
TIR domain present on receptor creates a heterodimer with TIR domain on accessory protein. This high affinity receptor complex ... "The interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor superfamily: signal generators for pro-inflammatory interleukins and microbial ... The term interleukin-1 includes IL-1α, IL-1β and Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). IL-1Rs are involved in immune host ... There are four main groups of TIR domain-containing proteins in animals; Toll-like receptors, Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), ...
... and high affinity IL-2 receptors. The α chain binds IL-2 with low affinity, the combination of β and γ together form a complex ... The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as ... Once IL-2 binds to the high affinity receptor, the complex is rapidly internalized and has only a short time to signal. IL-2, ... The intermediate and high affinity receptor forms are functional and cause changes in the cell when IL-2 binds to them. The ...
The N-terminus of both receptors A and B are rich in acidic residues, which correlate to their high binding affinities for IL-8 ... interleukin-8 receptor A (IL-8RA) and interleukin-8 receptor B (IL-8RB). These receptors are generally found on human ... "Structure and Functional Expression of a Human Interleukin-8 Receptor". Science - via ProQuest. Receptors,+Interleukin-8 at the ... The interleukin-8 receptors (IL-8R) are two 7-transmembrane proteins in the G-protein coupled-receptor family: ...
The receptor for IL-31 is a heterodimer of the interleukin 31 receptor alpha (IL-31RA) and OSMR. IL-31RA was originally ... OSMR does not normally bind to IL-31 but it does increase the IL-31 binding affinity to IL-31RA. IL-31RA has an intracellular ... IL-31 signals via a receptor complex that is composed of IL-31 receptor A (IL31RA) and oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) subunits. ... Hermanns HM (2015). "Oncostatin M and interleukin-31: Cytokines, receptors, signal transduction and physiology". Cytokine & ...
... and low-affinity binding of GRO alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 to interleukin 8 receptors on human neutrophils". ... CXCL1 has a potentially similar role as interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8). After binding to its receptor CXCR2, CXCL1 activates ... CXCR2 receptor for CXCL1 is expressed in the brain and spinal cord by neurons and oligodendrocytes and during CNS pathologies ... CXCL1 exists as both monomer and dimer and both forms are able to bind chemokine receptor CXCR2. However, CXCL1 chemokine is ...
... demonstrated that this receptor was incapable of binding to interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta with high affinity. This ... interleukin 1 receptor, type II (IL1R2), interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), and interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL18R1), form a ... interleukin-1, Type I, activating receptor activity. • interleukin-1 receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral ... gene and four other interleukin 1 receptor family genes, including interleukin 1 receptor, type I (IL1R1), ...
This may be due to effects of the respective alpha chains, which are unique to each receptor, the kinetics and affinity of ... Interleukin 15 receptor, alpha subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 15 receptor that in humans is encoded by the IL15RA gene ... "Identification of an interleukin-15alpha receptor-binding site on human interleukin-15". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (23): 24313-22. doi ... Two of these subunits, CD122 and CD132, are shared with the receptor for IL-2, but IL-2 receptor has an additional subunit ( ...
G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) D2 dopamine receptor IL1RAPL1 (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 protein) ... NCS-1 is a calcium sensor, not a calcium buffer (chelator); thus it is a high-affinity, low-capacity, calcium-binding protein. ... In addition NCS-1 is significant in intelligence in creating curiosity by its function on dopamine D2 receptors in the dentate ... PI4KIIIβ (type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the ...
The IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit binds IL-2 with low affinity (Kd~ 10−8 M). Interaction of IL-2 and CD25 alone does not lead ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a 15.5-16 kDa protein ... Friedmann MC, Migone TS, Russell SM, Leonard WJ (March 1996). "Different interleukin 2 receptor beta-chain tyrosines couple to ... Malek TR, Castro I (August 2010). "Interleukin-2 receptor signaling: at the interface between tolerance and immunity". Immunity ...
Affinity roughly translates as attraction from Latin. See also: Definition of Affinity from Online Etymology Dictionary and ... For more details on Toll-like receptors, see Pattern recognition receptors.. Macrophages and related cells employ a different ... The B cell gets stimulated, apart from the direct costimulation, by certain growth factors, viz., interleukins 2, 4, 5, and 6 ... Such repeating motifs are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by ...
Tabira T, Chui DH, Fan JP, et al., Interleukin-3 and interleukin-3 receptors in the brain., in Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 840 ... which is required for receptor activation but not high-affinity binding., in Mol. Cell. Biol., vol. 16, nº 6, 1996, pp. 3035-46 ... Stomski FC, Sun Q, Bagley CJ, et al., Human interleukin-3 (IL-3) induces disulfide-linked IL-3 receptor alpha- and beta-chain ... Klein BK, Feng Y, McWherter CA, et al., The receptor binding site of human interleukin-3 defined by mutagenesis and molecular ...
Another set comprises pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, which induce the production of interferons and ... This affinity depends on the type and orientation of the antigen/MHC complex, and is what keeps the CTL and infected cell bound ... Th2 also produce Interleukin 4, which facilitates B cell isotype switching. In general, Th2 responses are more effective ... and the receptors that recognize antigens must be produced in a huge variety of configurations, in essence one receptor (at ...
... is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor ... Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A (2001). "Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor". Annual Review of ... October 2000). "Interleukin (IL)-22, a novel human cytokine that signals through the interferon receptor-related proteins CRF2- ... Pestka S, Krause CD, Sarkar D, Walter MR, Shi Y, Fisher PB (2004). "Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors". Annual ...
D5 receptors show higher affinity for agonists and lower affinity for antagonists than D1 receptors. Dihydrexidine Rotigotine ... these receptors play a role in polarization of CD4+ T-cells into the T helper 17 cells by modulating secretion of interleukin ... It belongs to the D1-like receptor family along with the D1 receptor subtype. D5 receptor is a subtype of the dopamine receptor ... D5 receptor is highly homologous to the D1 receptor. Their amino acid sequences are 49% to 80% identical. D5 receptor has a ...
... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... Some B cells will undergo a process known as affinity maturation.[2] This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind ... antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the ... After the process of affinity maturation in germinal centers, plasma cells have an indeterminate lifespan, ranging from days to ...
... receptor superfamily member TACI is a high affinity receptor for TNF family members APRIL and BLyS". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (45): ... vezivanje za receptor faktora nekroze tumora. Celularna komponenta. • ekstracelularni prostor. • rastvorna frakcija. • ... 2000). "TACI and BCMA are receptors for a TNF homologue implicated in B-cell autoimmune disease.". Nature 404 (6781): 995-9. ... Bossen C, Schneider P (2007). "BAFF, APRIL and their receptors: structure, function and signaling.". Semin. Immunol. 18 (5): ...
... for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, also known as p75).[26] It may also modulate the activity of various ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ...
Upon activation, "low-affinity" IL-2 receptors are replaced by "high-affinity" IL-2 receptors consisting of α, β, and γ chains ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ... Interleukin 6 ACRONYM (IL-6) is a cytokine that is important for many aspects of cellular biology including immune responses, ... The cell then releases IL-2, which binds to its own new IL-2 receptors, causing self-stimulation and ultimately a monoclonal ...
The most necessary are interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon γ (IFN-γ).[1] Moreover, additional stimulation ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... The most commonly released isotype of antibodies in this type of immune reaction is low affinity IgM.[1] ... The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to ...
The different ligand isoforms have variable affinities for the receptor isoforms, and the receptor isoforms may variably form ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... Like many other growth factors that have been linked to disease, PDGF and its receptors have provided a market for receptor ...
... or with a decoy circulating receptor fusion protein such as etanercept (Enbrel) which binds to TNFα with greater affinity than ... positive regulation of interleukin-6 production. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process. • I-kappaB kinase ... TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ... cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins ... medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side ... 220 (10): 1341-5. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200100053011. PMID 4553966.. *^ a b c d e f Tone, Andrea and Elizabeth Watkins, ...
"Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor and to the short isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A or exon 11-).[ ... 8] IGF2 may also bind to the IGF-2 receptor (also called the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), which acts as a ...
... and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. The low-affinity receptor (FcεRII) is always expressed on B cells ... FcεRII (type II Fcε receptor), also known as CD23, the low-affinity IgE receptor ... FcεRI (type I Fcε receptor), the high-affinity IgE receptor ... "low-affinity" receptor FcεRII, or CD23.[23] CD23 may also allow ... Receptors[edit]. IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells ...
Figure 4. IL-15 bind to IL-15Rα receptor alone with affinity (Ka = 1.1011/M). It can also bind to IL-15Rβγc signaling complex ... Together with Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin-7 (IL-7), Interleukin-9 (IL-9), granulocyte colony- ... A hematopoietin receptor, the IL-15 receptor, that binds IL-15 propagates its function. Some subunits of the IL-15 receptor are ... Schluns KS, Stoklasek T, Lefrançois L (August 2005). "The roles of interleukin-15 receptor alpha: trans-presentation, receptor ...
Co-adehsion: There is a natural affinity for oral microorganisms to adhere to one another which is termed "co‐adhesion". Co- ... The different species of bacteria bind together and require specific receptors to interact with the pellicle.[20] ... This is due to the increased production of certain immune cells and interleukins, which decrease the defensive mechanisms ... Irreversible interaction: Bacterial adhesins recognise specific host receptors such as pili and outer membrane proteins. ...
... identified as the HGF receptor (HGFR).[6][32][33] Both overexpression of the Met/HGFR receptor protein and autocrine activation ... negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • platelet degranulation. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor binds with high affinity to dermatan sulfate". J Biol Chem. 273 (1): 271-8. doi:10.1074 ... regulation of receptor activity. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein ...
Basophils have receptors that can bind to IgE, IgG, complement, and histamine. The cytoplasm of basophils contains a varied ... A polypeptide called interleukin-5 interacts with eosinophils and causes them to grow and differentiate; this polypeptide is ... receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task.[18] These cells also have a limited ability to participate in ... Affinity maturation *Somatic hypermutation. *Clonal selection. *V(D)J recombination. *Junctional diversity ...
These ligands include B cell receptor (for antigen), IgG Fc receptors, CD21, which binds complement C3d, Toll-like receptors 9 ... and Interleukin-2 production. Thus Stefanova et al. (2002) demonstrated that self-MHC recognition (which, if too strong may ... A receptor, Peanut agglutinin receptor(PNAR)). This fact gave rise to the idea that spontaneous autoimmunity may result when ... Aberrant B cell receptor-mediated feedback - A feature of human autoimmune disease is that it is largely restricted to a small ...
Beukers MW, Meurs I, Ijzerman AP (September 2006). "Structure-affinity relationships of adenosine A2B receptor ligands". ... protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor-mediated interleukin-8 ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... Adenozinski A2B receptor (ADORA2B) je G-protein spregnuti adenozinski receptor. Ovaj protein je kodiran humanim ADORA2B genom.[ ...
These include interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α).[167] The ... Crowe S (2003). "Suppression of chemokine receptor expression by RNA interference allows for inhibition of HIV-1 replication, ... which increases the binding affinity to siRNA by 10-fold. Association with TAF11 would convert the R2-D2-Initiator (RDI) ... These receptors help in labeling which pathogens are viruses, fungi, or bacteria.[167] Moreover, the importance of siRNA and ...
Another set comprises pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors, which induce the production of interferons and ... This affinity depends on the type and orientation of the antigen/MHC complex, and is what keeps the CTL and infected cell bound ... The Th2 response is characterized by the release of Interleukin 5, which induces eosinophils in the clearance of parasites.[7] ... and the receptors that recognize antigens must be produced in a huge variety of configurations, in essence one receptor (at ...
The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation ... Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ... Krueger G, Langley R, Leonardi C, Yeilding N, Guzzo C, Wang Y, Dooley L, Lebwohl M (2007). "A human interleukin-12/23 ... Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation[edit]. Further information: Somatic hypermutation and Affinity maturation ...
Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. „Annu Rev Immunol". 19, s. 683-765, 2001. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.683 ... Affinity-based selection of regulatory T cells occurs independent of agonist-mediated induction of Foxp3 expression. „J Immunol ... Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment. „Immunity". 3 (4), s ... Tumor rejection by in vivo administration of anti-CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor alpha) monoclonal antibody. „Cancer Res". 59 (13 ...
EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface. This stimulates ligand- ... Interleukin-1 Monocytes, Leukocytes Stimulate synthesis of IL-2 10 Interleukin-2 Lymphocytes Stimulate growth and maturation of ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity. • epidermal growth factor receptor binding. • Wnt-protein ... positive regulation of receptor internalization. • positive regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. ...
negative regulation of interleukin-2 biosynthetic process. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of ... LAG3's main ligand is MHC class II, to which it binds with higher affinity than CD4.[14] The protein negatively regulates ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • external side of ... It is an immune checkpoint receptor and as such is the target of various drug development programs by pharmaceutical companies ...
NGF is released from the target cells, binds to and activates its high affinity receptor TrkA on the neuron, and is ... Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead). *Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) ... Receptors[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor receptor. There are two classes of receptors for neurotrophins: p75 and the ... 5 (246): pt8. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2003387. PMID 23074265.. *^ a b c d e f g h i Sanes, Dan H.; Reh, Thomas A.; Harris, ...
The cytokines B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLys), interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interleukin 18, type I interferons, and tumor ... Candidate gene loci implicated with SLE include multiple alleles from the HLA region, Fc-gamma receptor, and complement ... immune cells that would normally be deactivated due to their affinity for self-tissues can be abnormally activated by signaling ... 15 (5): 308-318. doi:10.1191/0961203306lu2305xx. PMID 16761508.. *^ a b The Cleveland Clinic Intensive Review of Internal ...
Djeluje uglavnom kao antigenski receptor na B stanicama koje nisu bile izložene antigenom.[16] Pokazalo se je da aktiviraju ... "A human interleukin-12/23 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of psoriasis". The New England Journal of Medicine 356 (6): ... "Immunoglobulin purification by affinity chromatography using protein A mimetic ligands prepared by combinatorial chemical ... 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 Immunobiology 5 : the immune system in health and disease (5th ed ed.). New York: Garland Pub. 2001. ISBN ...
... specifically the high affinity receptor IFNAR2, which determines the affinity of each ligand for the receptor.[11] ... Interleukin receptors *IL2R / IL2RA/IL2RB / IL15R. *IL4R / IL13R / IL13RA1 / IL13RA2. *IL7R / IL7RA ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... IFNAR is a heteromeric cell surface receptor composed of two subunits, referred to as the low affinity subunit, IFNAR1, and the ...
Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and ... Interleukin. Type I. (grouped by. receptor. subunit). γ chain. *IL2/IL15. *IL4/IL13 ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ...
In one study, CPPs TP and TP10 were coupled to NFкB decoy DNA, which blocked the effect of interleukin-1-induced NFкB ... SPIO nanoparticles confer high sensitivity in MRI but they have lower affinity for cells; they work at high concentrations. ... antisense activity within cells that blocked expression of the galanin receptor was observed when a 21-mer PNA was coupled to ... "Cell Internalization of the Third Helix of the Antennapedia Homeodomain is Receptor-independent". Journal of Biological ...
... family with high affinity for the CRF2 receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (13): 7570-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.121165198. ... "The T-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor ... Interleukin 10 receptor, beta subunit is a subunit for the interleukin-10 receptor. IL10RB is its human gene. IL10RB has also ... 1998). "The orphan receptor CRF2-4 is an essential subunit of the interleukin 10 receptor". J. Exp. Med. 187 (4): 571-8. doi: ...
High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ... Interleukin 3 receptor, beta antibody. *Interleukin 3 receptor/granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor 3 receptor beta ... Colony stimulating factor 2 receptor beta antibody. *Colony stimulating factor 2 receptor beta low affinity (granulocyte ... Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 4 subfamily.. Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. ...
Interleukin-21 signaling (Homo sapiens) * IL21 receptor STAT binding (Homo sapiens) * IL21:IL21R:p-Y-JAK1:IL2RG:p-Y-JAK3:STAT1, ... High affinity binding complex dimers of cytokine receptors using Bc. activated JAK2:STAT5 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... Signaling by Interleukins (Homo sapiens) * Interleukin-2 family signaling (Homo sapiens) * Interleukin-15 signaling (Homo ... High affinity GM-CSF receptor complex dimer, activated JAK2:STAT5 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * STAT5A,STAT5B [cytosol] ( ...
Find clinical trials studying intermediate-affinity interleukin-2 receptor agonist alks 4230. ... The clinical trials on this list are studying Intermediate-affinity Interleukin-2 Receptor Agonist ALKS 4230. All trials on the ...
Signaling by Interleukins (Homo sapiens) * Interleukin-2 family signaling (Homo sapiens) * Interleukin receptor SHC signaling ( ... Interleukin receptor compexes with activated Shc:GRB2:GAB2 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * High affinity binding complex ... Interleukin receptor compexes with activated Shc:GRB2:GAB2 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * High affinity binding complex ... Interleukin receptor compexes with activated Shc:GRB2:GAB2 [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * High affinity binding complex ...
Molecular basis of a high affinity murine interleukin-5 receptor René Devos, Geert Plaetinck, José Van der Heyden, Sigrid ... Recombinant tumor necrosis factor can induce interleukin 2 receptor expression and cytolytic activity in a rat × mouse T cell ... A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific α chain and a β chain shared with the ... Interleukin-5 Colin J Sanderson, Stephane Karlen, Sigrid Cornelis, Geert Plaetinck, Jan Tavernier UGent and René Devos (1998) ...
IL3RB_HUMAN] High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. [ ... Conformational Changes in the GM-CSF Receptor Suggest a Molecular Mechanism for Affinity Conversion and Receptor Signaling., ... Conformational Changes in the GM-CSF Receptor Suggest a Molecular Mechanism for Affinity Conversion and Receptor Signaling. ... CSF2R_HUMAN] Low affinity receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Transduces a signal that results in ...
Involved in cytokine receptor activity. Specific Function. High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and ... reconstitution of a high-affinity GM-CSF receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Dec;87(24):9655-9. [PubMed:1702217 ] ... interleukin-3 and interleukin-5. J Mol Biol. 2000 Apr 7;297(4):989-1001. [PubMed:10736232 ] ... Showing Protein Cytokine receptor common subunit beta (HMDBP01696). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ...
1998). "Analysis of the multiple interactions between IL-12 and the high affinity IL-12 receptor complex". J. Immunol. 160 (5 ... Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor. IL12RB2 is its human gene. IL12RB2 ... 1997). "A functional interleukin 12 receptor complex is composed of two beta-type cytokine receptor subunits". Proc. Natl. Acad ... 2002). "The interleukin-12 and interleukin-12 receptor system in normal and transformed human B lymphocytes". Haematologica. 87 ...
To Evaluate the Efficacy of NY-ESO-1-specific T Cell Receptor (TCR) Affinity Enhancing Specific T Cell in Solid Tumors. *Bone ... T Cell Receptor Immunotherapy Targeting MAGE-A3 for Patients With Metastatic Cancer Who Are HLA-A*01 Positive. *Breast Cancer ... T Cell Receptor Immunotherapy Targeting MAGE-A3 for Patients With Metastatic Cancer Who Are HLA-DP0401 Positive. *Cervical ... M-Vax + Low Dose Interleukin-2 Versus Placebo Vaccine in Metastatic Melanoma in Patients With Stage IV Melanoma. *Melanoma ...
Decidual CD-16 CD56 Bright NK cells possess a high affinity receptor for IL-2. These NK cells have both interleukin-2 receptors ... The effect of interleukin-2 and transforming growth factor B2 (TG-F-B2) on the proliferation and natural killing activity of ... within the endometrium which maintain their progesterone receptors in the presence of progesterone. In vitro elevated ... These cells have high affinity for IL- 2 (5). Therefore there needs to be suppression if IL-2 cytokine at the feto-maternal ...
A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific α chain and a β chain shared with the ... LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects bone accrual and eye development. YQ GONG, RB SLEE, N FUKAI, G RAWADI, S ROMAN- ... Identification of oxidative stress and toll-like receptor 4 signaling as a key pathway of acute lung injury Yumiko Imai, Keiji ... receptor for GM-CSF Jan Tavernier (UGent) , René Devos, Sigrid Cornelis, Tania Tuypens, José Van der Heyden, Walter Fiers ( ...
High-affinity receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of interleukin 2 in human T cells.. M Fujii, K Sugamura, K Sano ... expressed mainly low-affinity receptors. Greater than 50% of the IL-2 bound to high-affinity receptors was internalized within ... High-affinity receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of interleukin 2 in human T cells. ... The HTLV-I-carrying cell lines ILT-Yan and TL-Mor, and the PBL expressed both high- and low-affinity IL-2-R. However, another ...
... which are capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. Also included are monoclonal antibodies which ... and can be purified by an affinity chromatography, for example, an affinity chromatography on an IL-6 receptor-immobillized ... 1. An isolated antibody to human interleukin-6 receptor, wherein said antibody specifically binds to said human interleukin-6 ... human interleukin-6 receptor antigen and recovering a polyclonal antibody capable of recognizing a human interleukin-6 receptor ...
... and GM-CSF receptor, to form the high-affinity IL-3 receptor. The IL-3 receptor is involved in cell signaling for cell growth ... receptor α-chain and is the primary low-affinity subunit of the IL-3 receptor. CD123 associates with CD131, the common β-chain ... Additional information: Clone REA918 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA ... Chen, J. et al. (2009) A new isoform of interleukin-3 receptor {alpha} with novel differentiation activity and high affinity ...
The high affinity receptor for IL-5 (IL-5R) is composed of an alpha subunit (IL-5R alpha) expressed by the eosinophil lineage, ... Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a T cell and mast cell-derived cytokine with actions restricted to the eosinophil and closely related ... The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-regulated member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The cyclin D1 gene product, which ... The androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays a central role in male sexual differentiation ...
Crystal structure of the complex of the PDZ tandem of syntenin with an interleukin 5 receptor alpha peptide. ... Three distinct binding sites (S(0), S(-1), and S(-2)), with affinities for hydrophobic side chains, function in a combinatorial ... Crystal structure of the complex of the PDZ tandem of syntenin with an interleukin 5 receptor alpha peptide.. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... both unbound and in complexes with peptides derived from C termini of IL5 receptor (alpha chain) and syndecan, reveal the ...
... interleukin 5 receptor, alpha) for WB. Anti-IL5 Receptor alpha pAb (GTX103418) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Purified by antigen-affinity chromatography.. *. Specifications: IL5 Receptor alpha antibody [N1C2]. Full Name. interleukin 5 ... The receptor is comprised of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for ... Storage Conditions: IL5 Receptor alpha antibody [N1C2]. Storage Buffer. 0.1M Tris, 0.1M Glycine, 20% Glycerol (pH7). 0.01% ...
... interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein; interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein beta; interleukin-1 receptor accessory ... When present with soluble IL-1 RII, soluble IL-1 RAcP increases the IL-1 binding affinity of IL-1 RII more than 100-fold, thus ... IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (also IL-1 R3) is a ubiquitous 70-90 kDa member of the interleukin-1 receptor family of ... C3orf13IL-1RAcPIL1R3Interleukin-1 receptor 3; FLJ37788; IL-1 R3; IL-1 RAcP; IL-1 receptor accessory protein; IL-1R3; IL-1R-3; ...
The naturally occurring endogenous IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) binds to IL1 receptors with an affinity similar to that of ... Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist binds to the 80-kDa IL-1 receptor but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction. J ... Arend WP, Malyak M, Guthridge CJ, Gabay C. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: role in biology. Annu Rev Immunol1998;16:27-55. ... Seitz M , Loetscher P, Dewald B, Towbin H, Rordorf C, Gallati H, et al. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, soluble tumor ...
... high and low affinity IgE Fc receptors (FcεRI and FcεRII), gp 39, CD40L, CD40, CD5, CD5a, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD18, IL-2 ... various interleukins and their receptors such as IL-5, IL-4, IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-11, complement receptor 1 (CR1), ICAM-R ... PDGF receptor, CD4, CD7, CD8 (α and β), CD28, CTLA-4, T cell receptor (TCR/CD3 complex), (CD40 ligand), IL-2 receptor, LFA-1 ( ... PDGF receptor, CD4, CD7, CD8 (α and β), CD28, CTLA-4, T cell receptor (TCR/CD3 complex), (CD40 ligand), IL-2 receptor, LFA-1 ( ...
Signaling by Interleukins (Rattus norvegicus) * Interleukin-2 family signaling (Rattus norvegicus) * Interleukin receptor SHC ... Interleukin receptor compexes with activated Shc:GRB2:GAB2 [plasma membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) * High affinity binding ... Interleukin receptor compexes with activated Shc:GRB2:GAB2 [plasma membrane] (Rattus norvegicus) * High affinity binding ... Interleukin receptor SHC signaling (Rattus norvegicus) * SHC1 mediates cytokine-induced phosphorylation of GAB2 (Rattus ...
... protein complexes bind enhancers present in the promoters of early response genes such as the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor ... gene (Fc gamma RI). Treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes or basophils with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5, IL-10, or ...
High baseline serum VEGF was associated with non-response to IL-2. Z, a high-affinity soluble decoy VEGF receptor, may deplete ... NCI 8628 - A randomized phase II study of Ziv-aflibercept (Z) and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-2 alone for inoperable ... Abstract 3827: NCI 8628 - A randomized phase II study of Ziv-aflibercept (Z) and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-2 alone ... Abstract 3827: NCI 8628 - A randomized phase II study of Ziv-aflibercept (Z) and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-2 alone ...
1993) High affinity and intermediate affinity forms of the human interleukin 2 receptor expressed in an IL-9-dependent murine T ... Although the receptors for IL-2 and IL-4 have several features in common, including their use of the γ chain as a receptor ... This receptor is composed of two chains that are members of the type I cytokine receptor superfamily (10), a ligand-binding ... Cells and cultures.TS1αβ is a murine T-cell line stably transfected with the human IL-2 receptor α and β chains (33). This cell ...
A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF ... High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with ... Receptors, Interleukin-3 [D12.776.543.750.705.852.420.340]. *Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit [D12.776.543.750.705.852. ... Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit [D12.776.543.750.705.852.150.310.500]. *Receptors, Interleukin [D12.776.543.750.705.852. ...
... and IL-6 receptors in B cells, as well as cross-linking of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRII) in mast cells ( ... 1995) Association and activation of Btk and Tec tyrosine kinases by gp130, a signal transducer of the interleukin-6 family of ... 1995) Altered T cell receptor signaling and disrupted T cell development in mice lacking Itk. Immunity 3:757-769. ... 1998) T cell receptor-initiated calcium release is uncoupled from capacitative calcium entry in Itk-deficient T cells. J. Exp. ...
With antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) chemically modified to provide increased hybridization affinity for RNA but that do not ... Expression of the interleukin-5 receptor-α (IL-5Rα) chain is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma ... Deletion of Individual Exons and Induction of Soluble Murine Interleukin-5 Receptor-α Chain Expression through Antisense ... Deletion of Individual Exons and Induction of Soluble Murine Interleukin-5 Receptor-α Chain Expression through Antisense ...
Borish LC, Nelson HS, Lanz MJ, et al. Interleukin‐4 receptor in moderate atopic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1816 ... Tavernier J, Devos R, Cornelis S, et al. A human high affinity interleukin5 receptor (IL‐5R) is composed of an IL‐5‐specific α ... Tony HP, Shen BJ, Reusch P, Sebald W. Design ofhuman interleukin‐4 antagonists inhibiting interleukin‐4 and interleukin-13 ... Borish LC, Nelson HS, Corren J, et al. Phase I/II study of recombinant interleukin‐4 receptor (IL‐4R) in adult patients with ...
1996) The full-length leptin receptor has signaling capabilities of interleukin 6-type cytokine receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... generating the receptor mutant D(41-322). The ligand binding affinity and receptor activation mediated by D(41-322) were ... growth hormone receptor. JAK. Janus kinase. OB-R. leptin receptor. OB-Ra. the most common short form of leptin receptor. min-BD ... interleukin-6 receptor, and GCSF-R. The extracellular region of these receptors are characterized by the presence of multiple ...
  • High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (abcam.com)
  • IL3RB_HUMAN ] High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (proteopedia.org)
  • CSF2R_HUMAN ] Low affinity receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (proteopedia.org)
  • Treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes or basophils with interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5, IL-10, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activated DNA binding proteins that recognized the IFN-gamma response region (GRR) located in the promoter of the Fc gamma RI gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • CSF2RB is a high affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 as well as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (prospecbio.com)
  • It also inhibits transcription for genes that encode interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), all of which are involved in the early stages of T-cell activation. (medscape.com)
  • Sargramostim binds to the Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSF-R-alpha or CSF2R) which stimulates a JAK2 STAT1/STAT3 signal transduction pathway. (drugbank.com)
  • Alpha-subunit is ligand-specific and beta subunit is shared with the receptors for Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Binding studies with eosinophils and HL-60 cells grown under alkaline conditions demonstrated similar high-affinity binding sites for hIL-5 on both cell types with kd values of approximately 400 pmol/L. The binding observed was specific in that it was not inhibited by hIL-3, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or hIL-2. (edu.au)
  • The importance of IL‐5 on eosinophil biology has clearly been established. (ersjournals.com)
  • Conversely, in man, the biological effects of IL‐5 are largely limited to eosinophil function. (ersjournals.com)
  • Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an essential cofactor for IgE synthesis, and there is strong evidence that IL-5 plays a major role in eosinophil accumulation in asthmatic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • The administration of anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5 receptor (IL-5R) antibodies has been shown to reduce eosinophil counts and ameliorate asthmatic symptoms in studies on animal models of allergy as well as in human clinical trials. (deepdyve.com)
  • Interleukin 5 (colony-stimulating factor, eosinophil) ( IL-5 ) is produced by Th2 cells and mast cells after activation by mitogens or antigens [ 1 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the growth and differentiation of human eosinophils and may regulate the selective eosinophilia and eosinophil activation seen in certain diseases. (edu.au)
  • Eosinophils were the only cells in slides prepared from peripheral blood that had detectable levels of IL-5 receptors in agreement with the specific action of IL-5 on the human eosinophil lineage. (edu.au)
  • Interleukin 5 (IL-5) enhances eosinophil survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and increased IL-5 expression is reported in eosinophilic inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • 3 We sought to address the ability of the 'enhanced-affinity' FF, alongside dexamethasone (DEX) and FP, to modulate eosinophil apoptosis and their potential to over-ride IL-5 prosurvival signals. (bmj.com)
  • Induction of eosinophil apoptosis in the absence and presence of interleukin 5 (IL-5) by dexamethasone (DEX), fluticasone propionate (FP) and fluticasone furoate (FF). (bmj.com)
  • Eosinophil adhesion to the Costar 96-well plates 4 was assessed in the presence or absence of IL-5 over 24 h according to Oliver et al . (bmj.com)
  • the reduction in the efficacy of IL-5 at 1 ng/ml reflects the capacity of this higher concentration to induce eosinophil adhesion ( figure 1C ). (bmj.com)
  • Since 10-fold greater numbers of IL-2 receptor molecules were found by using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody reactive with IL-2 receptors (anti-Tac) compared with binding of IL-2, the functional relationship of the binding sites recognized by both of these ligands was assessed. (pnas.org)
  • On the contrary, when cells took up antibody to Unc119 in similar experiments, Il-5-induced survival was reduced. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry: The Interleukin-5 antibody stained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human colon/rectum adenocarcinoma. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Sandwich ELISA using Interleukin-5 / IL5 Antibody Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of IL-5 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyzes of IL-5 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • hIL-3 15-125 -presenting phage were affinity-selected with either a hIL-3-reactive polyclonal antibody or with cells expressing the heterodimeric hIL-3 receptor. (springer.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha (IL5Ra) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • We first generated chimeric monoclonal antibodies against the mouse IL-5 receptor α chain (IL-5Rα), which comprised an Fc region from human IgG1 and a Fab region from a previously established anti-mouse IL-5Rα monoclonal antibody. (deepdyve.com)
  • Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-17A, in a double-blind phase III trial enrolling patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). (bmj.com)
  • This antibody has been reported to block the binding of 125I-IL-3 to high and low affinity IL-3 receptors. (zeta-corp.com)
  • A potential merit of aptamers is that they can be generated against native cellular antigens, such as those with unique post-translational modifications or receptor-ligand complexes, for which antibody generation can be difficult. (aacrjournals.org)
  • High affinity antibody antagonists of human interleukin-13 receptor alpha 1 are disclosed. (allindianpatents.com)
  • We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. (asm.org)
  • These receptors allow NK cells to kill antibody-coated target cells, thus providing another form of immune defense ( 12 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The soluble receptor isoforms appear to be inhibitory to IL-1 signaling. (rndsystems.com)
  • When present with soluble IL-1 RII, soluble IL-1 RAcP increases the IL-1 binding affinity of IL-1 RII more than 100-fold, thus neutralizing the effects of IL-1 (14). (rndsystems.com)
  • Z, a high-affinity soluble decoy VEGF receptor, may deplete VEGF prior to IL-2 to reverse the immunosuppressive impact of VEGF and enhance antitumor T cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Membrane isoform IL-5Rα inhibition was coupled with an increase in expression of mRNA for the alternatively spliced soluble isoform, which binds IL-5 extracellularly and may block its function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Complementary DNA from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts treated with IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) was used to probe a cytokine microarray. (docme.ru)
  • Expression of IL-13Rα2 transcripts are restricted to spleen and brain and in contrast to IL-13Rα1, a soluble form of this receptor has been detected in mouse serum ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Soluble cytokine receptors (sCRs) modulate the in vivo activity of cytokines. (bmj.com)
  • Levels of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI), soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFRII), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), soluble IL-1 receptor I (sIL-1RI), soluble IL-1 receptor II (sIL-1RII), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and sgp130 were measured using ELISA. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Soluble forms of these receptors are generated in vivo, either by proteolytic cleavage of their membrane forms or by alternative splicing, 2 and act as cytokine scavengers. (bmj.com)
  • Most soluble cytokine receptors (sCRs) prevent cytokines from binding to their cognate membrane receptors and thereby inhibit cytokine signalling. (bmj.com)
  • An important exception to this rule is trans -signalling where a soluble receptor promotes cytokine signalling. (bmj.com)
  • Low concentration of a soluble form of IL6 receptor acts as an agonist of IL6 activity. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor is comprised of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). (genetex.com)
  • It serves as a non-ligand-binding accessory component of the receptors for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-33 (6, 7). (rndsystems.com)
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of the extracellular region of the cloned leptin receptor differs from that of many other cytokine receptors in that it contains two homologous segments representing potential ligand binding sites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In fact, activation of the Src family member Lck by the receptors CD28 or CD2 appears to be mediated by binding of an SH3 ligand in the receptor to the SH3 domain of the kinase. (sciencemag.org)
  • This receptor also binds to chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and has shown a major role in serum-dependent melanoma cell growth. (reportlinker.com)
  • [5] Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8 , leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-kit is a receptor for the ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), an important growth factor for MC. (bioscirep.org)
  • Here, we report the use of a cell-based systematic enrichment approach (SELEX) to develop a novel Treg-binding RNA aptamer specific to IL2Rα-IL2 receptor-ligand complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results indicated that Tr-1 bound to IL2Rα and showed ~3-fold higher binding to IL2Rα when IL2 was added indicating that Tr-1 recognizes either the receptor-ligand complex or a conformational change in IL2-bound IL2Rα. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ongoing studies are further exploring its use in Treg inhibition and in targeting receptor-ligand complexes in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While aptamers recognizing cellular receptors exist, to our knowledge, this is the first report of an aptamer recognizing a receptor-ligand complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our approach to generating aptamers against receptor-ligand complexes could have huge scientific impact. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Should the Mouse Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha (IL5Ra) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (noveoninc.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha (IL5Ra) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • This gene and the gene encoding the colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha chain (CSF2RA) form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a X-Y pseudoautosomal region on chromosomes X or Y. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • To assess the efficacy and safety of 100 mg daily anakinra (Kineret), a recombinant form of the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, plus methotrexate (MTX) in reducing the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
  • In this local control system some mechanisms, such as secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist ( 12 ), shedding of membrane molecules ( 2 ) and cytokine receptors ( 17 ), secretion of IL-10 ( 11 ), and downregulation of adhesion molecules ( 2 ), seem to be anti-inflammatory. (physiology.org)
  • Two such candidate genes are interleukin-1beta (IL-1 β ) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). (hindawi.com)
  • The GC receptor antagonist RU38486 blocked the effect of these compounds (data not shown). (bmj.com)
  • Leonard WJ, Depper JM, Robb RJ, Waldmann TA, Greene WC (1983) Characterization of the human receptor for T-cell growth factor. (springer.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. (rupress.org)
  • These granules contain a number of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and mast cell protease 1 (MCPT-1), which can be detected as free MCPT-1 in the serum or tissues as an indicator for the presence of MC in vivo [ 12 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • In this report, we studied whether tumor cells that are cytostatic drug resistant because of overexpression of one of the above mentioned proteins are sensitive to a new anticancer agent, interleukin-4 toxin (IL-4 toxin). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Also, tumor cells transfected with cDNA for MRP2-5 showed no resistance, or marginal resistance, only to the toxin as compared with the parent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of TLR pathways leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α ) and interleukin 6 (IL6), type I interferons (IFNs), and chemokines, which in turn control the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the infected tissues [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ALKS 4230 is an engineered fusion protein designed to preferentially bind and signal through the intermediate affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor complex, thereby selectively activating and increasing the number of immunostimulatory tumor-killing immune cells while avoiding the expansion of immunosuppressive cells that interfere with anti-tumor response. (corporate-ir.net)
  • This gene and three other interferon receptor genes, IFAR2, IFNAR1, and IFNGR2, form a class II cytokine receptor gene cluster located in a small region on chromosome 21. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure And Expression Of cDNA And Genes For Human Interferon-beta-2, A Distinct Species Inducible By Growth-Stimulatory", Journal, 5:2529-2537 Jul. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Interferon-activated protein complexes bind enhancers present in the promoters of early response genes such as the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor gene (Fc gamma RI). (sciencemag.org)
  • The gene for Human IL-4 is found on the long arm of chromsome 5 in close association with genes for IL-13, IL-5 GM-CSF and IL-3. (biovendor.com)
  • one of the most important genes is interleukin 2 receptor α (IL2RA) gene which was found to be associated with T1DM in several countries. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Mapracorat, a novel nonsteroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, has been proposed for the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders as it binds with high affinity and selectivity to the human glucocorticoid receptor and displays a potent anti-inflammatory activity, but seems to be less effective in transactivation of a number of genes, resulting in a lower potential for side effects. (nih.gov)
  • High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit. (umassmed.edu)
  • The receptors of IL15 and IL2 share two subunits, IL2R beta and IL2R gamma. (mybiosource.com)
  • Unlike IL2RA, IL15RA is capable of binding IL15 with high affinity independent of other subunits, which suggests distinct roles between IL15 and IL2. (mybiosource.com)
  • IL-5 receptor is composed of two polypeptide chains: alpha and beta subunits. (bio-rad.com)
  • Interleukin 10 receptor, beta subunit is a subunit for the interleukin-10 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit is a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • With antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) chemically modified to provide increased hybridization affinity for RNA but that do not support RNase H-mediated cleavage (2′- O -methoxyethyl-modified ASOs), we show that constitutive splicing of murine IL-5Rα mRNA can be modulated in cells such that individual exons may be selectively deleted from mature transcripts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CD123 associates with CD131, the common β-chain of the IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF receptor, to form the high-affinity IL-3 receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The cell surface density of high-affinity membrane receptors for the T-lymphocytotrophic hormone interleukin 2 (IL-2) determines the rate of T-cell-cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • The co-expression of this and IL12Rβ1 proteins was shown to lead to the formation of high-affinity IL12 binding sites and reconstitution of IL12 dependent signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994). "Expression cloning of a human IL-12 receptor component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning and Expression of the Human Interleukin-6 (BSF-2/IFN.beta.2) Receptor", Science, 241:825-828 1988, Aug. 12). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We have analyzed the interleukin-4 (IL-4)-triggered mechanisms implicated in cell survival and show here that IL-4 deprivation induces apoptotic cell death but does not modulate Bcl-2 or Bcl-x expression. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the interleukin-5 receptor-α (IL-5Rα) chain is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other eosinophilic diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These observations suggest the potential general therapeutic use of an antisense approach to increase expression of variant RNA transcripts and to thereby produce proteins devoid of specific functional domains that may impact disease processes, as well as its specific utility for modulating expression of a key cytokine receptor implicated in allergic inflammation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Addition of homogeneous immunoaffinity-purified IL-2 to cell populations that expressed equivalent IL-2 and anti-Tac binding sites resulted in a time- and temperature-dependent 8- to 10-fold enhancement of Tac epitope expression and, simultaneously, a 20-30% diminishment of detectable high-affinity IL-2 binding sites. (pnas.org)
  • To determine whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling directs the expression of pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) in vitro and in vivo. (docme.ru)
  • Interleukins are a diverse, multifunctional group of proteins that carry out communication between various immune cells and control their gene expression. (intechopen.com)
  • Regulation of IgE-receptor expression, IgE occupancy and secretory capacity of mast cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Their responsiveness is determined by three important factors: the expression of IgE receptors on the cell surface, the IgE occupancy of these receptors, and the intrinsic secretory capacity of the cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • T cells appear to play an important role in regulating the IgE-receptor expression and also, independently, the intrinsic secretory capacity of mast cells via an unidentified route, possibly involving the secretory signal transduction chain directly. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • IgE itself appears to have an important role in the regulation of IgE-receptor expression, as indicated by the upregulation of receptors in vitro in the presence of IgE, and the absence of IgE-binding capacity of mast cells in IL-4 gene knockout mice, lacking IgE production. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Additionally, tacrolimus may inhibit release of preformed mediators from skin mast cells and basophils and may down-regulate expression of high-affinity IgE receptor (FCeRI) on Langerhans cells. (medscape.com)
  • Expression of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, and inflammation are strongly associated with parasitic infections and asthma ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mast cell development and survival are dependent on the surface expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit, present in the W-locus (chromosome 5) in mice. (bioscirep.org)
  • For these reasons we compared the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein product using a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in bronchial biopsies from symptomatic atopic and nonatopic asthmatic subjects and atopic and nonatopic controls. (nih.gov)
  • This receptor is reported to enhance cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL2-XL and BCL2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Stern JB, Smith KA (1986) Interleukin-2 induction of T-cell Gl progression and c-myb expression. (springer.com)
  • Expression of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells was upregulated by butyric acid under alkaline conditions, downregulated by hIL-3, virtually eliminated by dimethyl sulfoxide and hIL-5, while hIL-2 had no detectable effect. (edu.au)
  • Mechanisms that may explain these deficits in cord lymphocytes include a decreased ability to translate IL-2 from mRNA ( 46 ) and reduced levels of expression of the γ chain of the IL-2 receptor on the cell membrane ( 30 , 37 , 43 , 44 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • Known also as Interleukin 5 Receptor Alpha elisa. (noveoninc.com)
  • MBS075418 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha (IL2Ralpha) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The higher sensitivity of ELISPOT in comparison to that of ELISA 1 or intracellular staining 2 is due to the plate-bound antibodies directly capturing the cytokine released by the cell before it is diluted in the supernatant, trapped by high-affinity receptors or degraded by proteases. (aniara.com)
  • ASO targeting with these strategies resulted in inhibition of mRNA and protein levels of the membrane IL-5Rα isoform capable of signaling IL-5-mediated growth and antiapoptotic signals to eosinophils. (aspetjournals.org)
  • IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein in bronchial biopsies from patients with atopic and nonatopic asthma: evidence against "intrinsic" asthma being a di. (nih.gov)
  • IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein in bronchial biopsies from patients with atopic and nonatopic asthma: evidence against "intrinsic" asthma being a distinct immunopathologic entity. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that as compared with controls, biopsies from both groups of asthmatic subjects had increased numbers of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA copies relative to beta-actin mRNA as detected by RT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased numbers of cells expressing IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein in asthmatic subjects, irrespective of their atopic status. (nih.gov)
  • The initiation of signal transduction through antigen receptors in lymphocytes is associated with the rapid sequential activation of a number of tyrosine kinases, including well-studied members of the Src and the ZAP-70/Syk families ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • A large number of factors influence dominance and crypticity of peptide epitopes, basically availability for MHC binding, MHC binding itself, and the recognition of the MHC:peptide complex by T cells via their antigen receptors (1). (who.int)
  • In contrast to IL-13Rα1, IL-13Rα2 selectively binds IL-13 with high affinity and its contribution to IL-13 signaling is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • The receptor specific for IL-13, !L-13Ra2/ binds IL-13 with high affinity, but apparently does not transduce signals. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In humans, IL-5 primarily affects cells of the eosinophilic lineage, and promotes their differentiation, maturation, activation, migration and survival, while in mice IL-5 also enhances Ig class switching and release from B1 cells (1-3, 9, 10, 15). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Radiolabeled recombinant human IL-5 (hIL-5) was used to characterize the IL-5 receptor present on normal human eosinophils and on the myeloid leukemia line HL-60, which can be induced to differentiate into eosinophilic cells. (edu.au)
  • The number of hIL-5 receptors on HL-60 cells could be correlated with its propensity to differentiate towards an eosinophilic cell type. (edu.au)
  • Within the range of cytokines produced by Th2 cells, interleukin‐4 (IL‐4) and interleukin‐5 (IL‐5) have received considerable interest to date. (ersjournals.com)
  • High-affinity receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of interleukin 2 in human T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Receptor-mediated internalization and degradation of IL-2 were investigated in cell lines carrying human T cell leukemia/lymphoma (lymphotrophic) virus type I (HTLV-I) and PHA-treated normal PBL. (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies, polyclonal and monoclonal, which are capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Also included are monoclonal antibodies which competitively and non-competitively inhibit human interleukin-6, and a method of producing hybridomas of the said monoclonal antibodies capable of specifically binding to a human interleukin-6 receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Translation of Summary document of Proceedings of the Japanese Society for Immunology, B2-66 Attempt to Prepare Monoclonal Antibodies to human BSF2/IL-6 Receptor (Dec. 6, 1988). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Complementary DNA For A Novel Human Interleukin (BSF-2) That Induces B Lymphocytes To Produce Immunoglobulin", Nature, 324:73-76, Nov., 1986. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Clone REA918 recognizes the human CD123 antigen, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, which is also known as interleukin 3 (IL-3) receptor α-chain and is the primary low-affinity subunit of the IL-3 receptor. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human IL5 Receptor alpha. (genetex.com)
  • 5. The immunoglobulin of claim 4 which is a human immunoglobulin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The IgG-FcRn binding affinity and specificity of human mAbs in nonhuman primates are very similar to those in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unc119 interacts with the interleukin 5 (IL-5) receptor in a two hybrid screen and in vivo in human eosinophils. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cDNA for human IL-5 encodes a signal peptide and a 115 amino acid (aa) mature protein. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In recent years, significant progress was made in improving their pharmacological performance - pharmacokinetics (longer half-life) and pharmacodynamics properties (better efficacy because of stronger affinity to human receptor), and safety profile (less antigenic and immunogenic reactions). (intechopen.com)
  • A deletion derivative of the cytokine human interleukin-3 (hIL-3 15-125 , comprising amino acids 15-125 of the native protein) was produced as a fusion to the filamentous phage surface protein pIII. (springer.com)
  • Studies in mice, non-human primates, and humans provide evidence that effective prophylactic vaccines against chronic (low level and high level) replicating viruses [i.e., herpesviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV)] should engage strong cellular T cell immunity ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human CD123, the 70 kd IL-3 receptor α chain (IL-3Rα), is associated with the 120-140 kd β subunit. (zeta-corp.com)
  • At the Fifth HLDA Workshop, the human IL-3 receptor was designated CD123. (zeta-corp.com)
  • Kasahara T, Hooks JJ, Dougherty SF, Oppenheim JJ (1983) Interleukin-2 mediated immune interferon (IFN-gamma) production by human T-cells in T-cell subsets. (springer.com)
  • Kornfeld H, Berman JS, Beer DJ, Center DM (1985) Induction of human T lymphocyte motility by interleukin-2. (springer.com)
  • Lotze MT, Frana LW, Sharrow SO, Robb RJ, Rosenberg SA (1985) In vivo administration of purified human interleukin-2. (springer.com)
  • Binding studies with a number of other human cell lines, including a B-lymphoma line, and with lymphocyte and neutrophil preparations were also performed, but IL-5 receptors were not detectable on these cells. (edu.au)
  • We have developed the first assays that measure the protein kinase activities of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and IRAK4 reliably in human cell extracts, by employing Pellino1 as a substrate in conjunction with specific pharmacological inhibitors of IRAK1 and IRAK4. (portlandpress.com)
  • We exploited these assays to show that IRAK4 was constitutively active and that its intrinsic activity towards Pellino1 was not increased significantly by stimulation with interleukin-1 (IL-1) in IL-1R-expressing HEK293 cells, Pam 3 CSK 4 -stimulated human THP1 monocytes or primary human macrophages. (portlandpress.com)
  • IL-1, together with interferon (IFN)-γ, has been shown to inhibit the function of rodent and human pancreatic islets in vitro ( 5 ) as well as induce DNA damage and β-cell death ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, the recent demonstration of increased numbers of cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor in bronchial biopsies from atopic and nonatopic asthmatic subjects, together with epidemiologic evidence indicating that serum IgE concentrations relate closely to asthma prevalence regardless of atopic status, suggests that IgE-mediated mechanisms may participate in the pathogenesis of both atopic and nonatopic asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Granulocytes were re-suspended in RPMI 1640, 50 U/ml streptomycin and penicillin G, and 10% autologous serum before incubation (5% CO 2 , 37°C). A total of 25±1.5% of the eosinophils were apoptotic (assessed by fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC)-Annexin V) by 24 h (data not shown). (bmj.com)
  • IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (also IL-1 R3) is a ubiquitous 70-90 kDa member of the interleukin-1 receptor family of proteins (1-5). (rndsystems.com)
  • Following IL-5 -induced hetero-dimerization, IL-5 receptor binds to multiple signal-transducing proteins, which include Janus kinase 1 ( JAK1 ) and 2 ( JAK2 ), v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog ( Lyn ), spleen tyrosine kinase ( Syk ) and SHC transforming protein 1 ( Shc ). (bio-rad.com)
  • The interaction of interleukin-1 (IL-1) with its receptor (IL-1R) or pathogen-associated molecular patterns with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces the recruitment of the adaptor protein MyD88 to the receptors, which is followed by the recruitment of interleukin receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) to MyD88 via interactions between the N-terminal death domains of these proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding. (abcam.com)
  • Both cytokines share common elements in their receptor and intracellular signalling pathway. (ersjournals.com)
  • 1 Interleukin 12 (IL-12) and Interferon-y (INF-y) stimulate Th1, which is responsible for intracellular pathogen clearance and an inflammatory response. (jddonline.com)
  • We also show that the type II receptor heterodimer signals with different potencies in response to IL-4 versus IL-13 and suggest that the extracellular cytokine-receptor interactions are modulating intracellular membrane-proximal signaling events. (nih.gov)
  • This indicates that the combination of nerve firing at 5-10 Hz and physiological cortisol conditions inhibits spontaneous IL-6 secretion. (physiology.org)
  • This agent selectively inhibits production and release of inflammatory cytokines from activated T cells by binding to cytosolic immunophilin receptor macrophilin-12. (medscape.com)
  • However, the sequence that is bound is actually not an optimal SH3-binding motif, so other higher affinity SH3-binding targets can potentially compete for binding and relieve this inhibition. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antiproliferative properties include induction of 2'-5' A synthetase, inhibition of growth factors, enhancement of p53, and down-regulation of c-myc, c-fos, and certain c-ras. (medscape.com)
  • It was demonstrated that the TIR domain of TcpC was directly associated with MyD88 and TLR4 [ 7 ] and TcpB targeted the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) dependent pathway by mimicking TIRAP's affinity towards phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) resulting in inhibition of TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • IL-5 preincubation before the addition of each GC caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the proapoptotic effects of these compounds ( figure 1D-F ). This occurred without any significant shift in the GC concentration-response curves, suggesting non-competitive antagonism. (bmj.com)
  • Based on Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain structure homology, we detected a previously uncharacterized gene encoding for a TIR domain containing protein (Tcp) in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis . (hindawi.com)
  • It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. (edu.au)
  • After the analysis of various deletion and substitution mutants of the leptin receptor, we found that the first potential binding motif is not required for leptin binding and receptor activation, whereas modification of the second potential binding motif can lead to inactive receptor mutants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by the HGNC approved name C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 and the approved symbol CXCR1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine, acting through the A 3 adenosine receptor, as well as other agonists of G αi -coupled receptors, transiently increased PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 exclusively via PI3Kγ. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 or CD182 or CXCR2) pipeline Target constitutes close to 16 molecules. (reportlinker.com)
  • The latest report C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 - Pipeline Review, H2 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 or CD182 or CXCR2) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (reportlinker.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 2 (CDw128b or GRO/MGSA Receptor or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor B or IL8 Receptor Type 2 or CD182 or CXCR2) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportlinker.com)
  • Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha is a chemokine receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding affinities, obtained by isothermal fluorescence titration, of size-defined heparin and HS oligosaccharides to the chemokine were found to depend on the oligomerization state of IL-8: high affinity was detected for monomeric and low affinity was detected for dimeric IL-8, referring to a self-regulatory mechanism for its chemoattractant effect. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Conformational changes of the dimeric chemokine, determined using CD spectroscopy, were detected only for the IL-8/HS complexes and not for heparin, pointing to an HS-induced activation of the chemokine with respect to receptor binding. (hud.ac.uk)
  • C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (CDw128a or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor A or IL8 Receptor Type 1 or CD181 or CXCR1) pipeline Target constitutes close to 8 molecules. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (CDw128a or High Affinity Interleukin 8 Receptor A or IL8 Receptor Type 1 or CD181 or CXCR1) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the a ß T cell receptor (TCR). (who.int)
  • The discovery and subsequent studies of this interleukin have aided in the understanding of the immune system, and its potential therapeutic blockage provokes optimism for the treatment of these distressing conditions. (jddonline.com)
  • Therefore, interleukin network represents an interesting pharmacological target, modulation of which using either biological or small chemical agents could contribute to suppression of excessive activated immune system and successfully treat the diseases that they are involved in. (intechopen.com)
  • The authors showed that mast cells play a role in the modulation of Th2 immune response characterized by a unique IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokine profile, as well as subsequent robust worm expulsion during H. diminuta infection. (bioscirep.org)
  • As Tregs constitutively express high-affinity receptors for IL-2, low-dose IL-2, in theory, should preferentially boost Tregs without causing global immune activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The allergic response is distinct from other immune reactions in its reliance on IgE, its high affinity receptor, FcεRI, and the primary effector cell-the tissue mast cell. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 are cytokines critical to the development of T cell-mediated humoral immune responses, which are associated with allergy and asthma, and exert their actions through three different combinations of shared receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin 6 is a potent pleiotropic cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation and plays an important role in the immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. (abcam.com)
  • GM-CSF Receptor Beta, also known as CSF2RB is a member of the type I cytokine receptor family. (prospecbio.com)
  • The interleukin-13 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor , binding Interleukin-13 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Guided by these differences we performed mutational and functional studies that, importantly, show GMRalpha interactions playing a major role in receptor signaling while betac interactions control high-affinity binding. (proteopedia.org)
  • Instead, IL-2-receptor interactions actually promote the loss of IL-2 responsiveness by diminishing the density of high-affinity binding sites at the time that Tac antigen levels are increased. (pnas.org)
  • In the context of helminthic infection, the effector functions of MC are largely mediated by high affinity interactions of the IgE receptor, FcεR1 present on MC. (bioscirep.org)
  • Currently, it is recognized that asthma is a multifactorial disease that results from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Antiviral properties include induction of 2'-5' A synthetase, ribonuclease L, and protein kinase P1. (medscape.com)
  • The HTLV-I-carrying cell lines ILT-Yan and TL-Mor, and the PBL expressed both high- and low-affinity IL-2-R. However, another HTLV-I-carrying T cell line, MT-1, expressed mainly low-affinity receptors. (rupress.org)
  • Replacement Of Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Residues 1162 And 1163 Compromises Insulin-Stimulated Kinase Activity And Uptake of 2-Deoxyglucose", Cell, 45:721-732, Jun. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The IL-3 receptor is involved in cell signaling for cell growth and differentiation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We further show that Rlk is phosphorylated and changes localization in response to T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation and, like the other Btk family kinases, can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases. (asm.org)
  • However, in B cells, a third nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Btk, is also important for signaling from antigen and other lymphocyte cell surface receptors ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Another Btk family kinase, Itk, which is expressed in T cells, is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated by engagement of either the T-cell receptor (TCR) or CD28 in T-cell lines and by FcɛRII stimulation in mast cells ( 1 , 6 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the strategies which has been developed, is to inhibit the effect of interleukin (IL)‐4 or IL‐5, two main Th2 cell derived cytokines. (ersjournals.com)
  • IL‐4 exerts its biological activities through binding with the IL‐4 receptor which is expressed on the surface of diverse cell types. (ersjournals.com)
  • As the magnitude of the IL-2-dependent proliferative response correlated with the density of high-affinity IL-2 binding sites, rather than Tac antigen levels, quantitation of Tac epitope density does not provide a reliable indication of IL-2-responsiveness among activated T-cell populations. (pnas.org)
  • Members of the Src familiy of protein kinases contribute to signals emanating from various receptors on the cell membrane, but the mechanisms by which the receptors modulate kinase activity is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Regulation of preB cell colony-enhancing factor by STAT-3dependent interleukin-6 trans-signalingImplications in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (docme.ru)
  • Its primary function in the body is to increase red blood cell numbers by way of preventing the apoptosis of erythroid progenitor cells via the homodimeric EPO receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-3 is thought to function via specific cell surface receptors to stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and survival of haematopoietic cell lines. (neuromics.com)
  • The IL-4 receptors exhibit an affinity of approximately 10-10 M. Receptors exist on freshly prepared B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as on various cell lines including lymphoid cells, mast cell lines, a variety of other hematopoietic cell lines, fibroblasts and stromal cell lines. (biovendor.com)
  • The presented method provides a rational approach towards targeting discontinuous epitopes, similar to what is naturally achieved by many B cell receptors. (ucsb.edu)
  • A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. (edu.au)
  • A further way that IL-1 and other cytokines may lead to β-cell destruction in vivo is via induction of the cell death receptor Fas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mast cells are highly granulated which typically contain proteases, particularly tryptase and chymase, that are influenced and regulated by the presence of cell mediators such as Interleukin-4. (edu.au)
  • Helper T cells can be induced to develop into TH 1 (ie, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-2) or TH 2 (ie, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13). (drbuttar.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that MNCs from newborn infants have a reduced capacity to produce cytokines, particularly interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ( 1 , 6 , 22 , 27 , 48 ), both of which are important in upregulating the cytotoxicity of NK cells ( 4 , 5 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • JAK2 also phosphorylates IL-5 receptor that leads to different signal pathways [ 7 ], [ 20 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Seed, "An LFA-3 cDNA Encodes A Phospholipid-linked Membrane Protein Homologous To Its Receptor CD2", Nature, 329:840-842, Oct. 29, 1987. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This gene encodes a cytokine receptor that specifically binds interleukin 15 (IL15) with high affinity. (mybiosource.com)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the interleukin 6 (IL6) receptor complex. (nih.gov)
  • In Th1 cells, IL-12 signaling through the IL12 receptor leads to the phosphorylation of STAT4 and continued Th1 differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-5 is capable to induce the survival, growth and differentiation of eosinophils and B-cells [ 2 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • It associates with CD122 and CD132 to form the high-affinity receptor for interleukin (IL)-2, a growth factor for T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 subunit has been shown to interact with Janus kinase 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Btk kinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation have both been shown to increase upon cross-linking or stimulation of surface immunoglobulin M and the interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-6 receptors in B cells, as well as cross-linking of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcɛRII) in mast cells ( 15 , 24 , 29 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Coexpression of IL-13Rα1 with IL-4Rα results in the formation of a high affinity receptor signaling complex ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition, it interacts with ST2 on mast cells and Th2 T cells to create a functional IL-33 receptor complex (7). (rndsystems.com)
  • IL-5 is primarily produced by CD4+ Th2 cells, but also by activated eosinophils, mast cells, EBV-transformed B cells, Reed-Sternberg cells in HodgkinÂ?s disease, and IL-2-stimulated invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) (1-3, 6-8). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Mast cells have high-affinity immunoglobulin-E (IgE) receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-linking IgE receptors with factors in mast cells activates mast cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The IgE-receptors of mast cells are saturated to a high degree under different normal conditions, without an obvious relation to antigenic stimulation, also in athymic animals. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Subsequently, IgE binds to the high-affinity receptor for IgE, Fc-epsilon-RI, on the surface of mast cells and, with subsequent exposure to the allergen, the IgE is cross-linked. (drbuttar.com)
  • Tissue mast cells are key regulators in allergy and inflammation and release histamine upon clustering of their IgE receptors. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Littermates after 8-10 generations were used in functional assays (see Figs. 3 - 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional IL-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) are present on pancreatic β-cells ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For this reason, significant effort has been focused on understanding the contribution of individual Th2 cytokines and their receptors to disease progression in animal models. (rupress.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that gene variations of cytokines and their receptors are associated with the risk of asthma [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This different distribution of secondary chains accounts for the difference distribution of completed receptors, being IL-4RI prevalently expressed in lymphocyte, and IL-4RII prevalently in non-hematopoietic cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • CD123, the alpha chain of the interleukin-3 receptor heterodimer, is expressed on the majority of leukemic stem cells and myelodysplastic syndrome hematopoietic stem cells and in 80% of acute myeloid leukemia. (haematologica.org)
  • Sharon M, Klausner RD, Cullen BR, Chizzonite R, Leonard WJ (1986) Novel Interleukin-2 receptor subunit detected by cross-linking under high-affinity conditions. (springer.com)
  • Rosenstein M, Ettinghausen SE, Rosenberg SA (1986) Extravasation of intravascular fluid mediated by the systemic administration of recombinant interleukin-2. (springer.com)
  • This receptor mediates neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation. (reportlinker.com)
  • During systemic inflammation, the nerve firing rate reaches up to 100 Hz ( 22 ) and, hence, endogenous transmitters such as NE reach high concentrations of ∼10 μmol/l in the synaptic cleft ( 5 ). (physiology.org)
  • Typical of heterodimeric type I cytokine receptors, signaling requires recruitment of the shared subunit to the initial cytokine:alpha subunit binary complex through an affinity conversion mechanism. (proteopedia.org)
  • These NK cells have both interleukin-2 receptors, alpha and beta (5). (pregnancysicknesssupport.org.uk)
  • 1OBZ: Crystal structure of the complex of the PDZ tandem of syntenin with an interleukin 5 receptor alpha peptide. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystal structures of the PDZ2 domain of the scaffolding protein syntenin, both unbound and in complexes with peptides derived from C termini of IL5 receptor (alpha chain) and syndecan, reveal the molecular roots of syntenin's degenerate specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha has been shown to interact with GNAI2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to IL2R alpha, an additional IL2-specific alpha subunit necessary for high affinity IL2 binding. (mybiosource.com)
  • Interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA) gene is a part of a high-affinity IL2 receptors complex system which is expressed on the regulatory T cells (T regs). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Conformational Changes in the GM-CSF Receptor Suggest a Molecular Mechanism for Affinity Conversion and Receptor Signaling. (proteopedia.org)
  • Interleukin-3 mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 135 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 15100 Dalton. (neuromics.com)
  • Molecular and structural basis of cytokine receptor pleiotropy in the interleukin-4/13 system. (nih.gov)
  • One major 125I-hIL-5-crosslinked complex of 75 to 85 Kd in Mr was detected on HL-60 cells using crosslinking agents giving a molecular mass of 55 to 60 Kd for the hIL-5 receptor itself. (edu.au)
  • 5. The recombinant fusion protein of claim 3 , wherein said peptide linker is about 15 amino acids in length. (google.com)
  • Therefore, IL‐5 antagonists offer the unique opportunity of selectively neutralizing the effect of eosinophils. (ersjournals.com)
  • This critical process is poorly understood due to the paucity of crystal structures of both binary and ternary receptor complexes for the same cytokine. (proteopedia.org)
  • IL-4 and IL-13, though, have many distinct functions in vitro and in vivo owing to differences in their receptor complexes. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It presents an extraordinary affinity to IL-13, but does not form complexes with any secondary chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. (genetex.com)
  • For this purpose, we developed an interleukin-2 (IL-2) radiolabeled with 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-IL-2), a cytokine that binds to a specific receptor expressed on activated lymphocytes ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)