Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.DiazomethaneProlyl Hydroxylases: Enzymes that specifically hydroxylate PROLINE residues on proteins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Levorphanol: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.PyruvatesApyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Receptors, Purinergic P2X2: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Receptor-mediated targeting of fluorescent probes in living cells. (1/2197)

A strategy was developed to label specified sites in living cells with a wide selection of fluorescent or other probes and applied to study pH regulation in Golgi. cDNA transfection was used to target a single-chain antibody to a specified site such as an organelle lumen. The targeted antibody functioned as a high affinity receptor to trap cell-permeable hapten-fluorophore conjugates. Synthesized conjugates of a hapten (4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one, phOx) and fluorescent probes (Bodipy Fl, tetramethylrhodamine, fluorescein) were bound with high affinity (approximately 5 nM) and specific localization to the single-chain antibody expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and plasma membrane of living Chinese hamster ovary cells. Using the pH-sensitive phOx-fluorescein conjugate and ratio imaging microscopy, pH was measured in the lumen of Golgi (pH 6.25 +/- 0.06). Measurements of pH-dependent vacuolar H+/ATPase pump activity and H+ leak in Golgi provided direct evidence that resting Golgi pH is determined by balanced leak-pump kinetics rather than the inability of the H+/ATPase to pump against an electrochemical gradient. Like expression of the green fluorescent protein, the receptor-mediated fluorophore targeting approach permits specific intracellular fluorescence labeling. A significant advantage of the new approach is the ability to target chemical probes with custom-designed spectral and indicator properties.  (+info)

Interaction of purified human proteinase 3 (PR3) with reconstituted lipid bilayers. (2/2197)

Proteinase 3 (PR3), the major target autoantigen in Wegener's granulomatosis is a serine proteinase that is normally stored intracellularly in the primary granules of quiescent neutrophils and monocytes. Upon cell activation, a significant portion of this antigen is detected on the cell surface membrane. The nature of the association of PR3 with the membrane and its functional significance are unknown. We investigated the interaction of purified human PR3 with mixtures of zwitterionic (dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, DMPC) and anionic (dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylglycerol, DMPG) phospholipids in reconstituted lipid bilayers using differential scanning calorimetry and lipid photolabeling, and measured the affinity of this interaction using spectrophotometry. Two other primary granule constituents, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were investigated for comparison. In calorimetric assays, using lipid vesicles of mixed DMPC/DMPG, increasing PR3 concentrations (protein/lipid molar ratio from 0 to 1 : 110) induced a significant decrease of the main chain transition enthalpy and a shift in chain melting temperatures which is indicative of partial insertion of PR3 into the hydrophobic region of the lipid membranes. This was confirmed by hydrophobic photolabeling using liposomes containing trace amounts of the photoactivable [125I]-labeled phosphatidylcholine analog TID-PC/16. The molar affinity of PR3, HNE, and MPO to lipid vesicles of different DMPC/DMPG ratios was then determined by spectrophotometry. At a DMPC/DMPG ratio of 1 : 1, molar affinities of PR3, Kd = 4.5 +/- 0.3 microm; HNE, 14.5 +/- 1.2 microm; and MPO, 50 +/- 5 microm (n = 3) were estimated. The lipid-associated PR3 exhibited two-fold lower Vmax and Km values, and its enzyme activity was slightly more inhibited (Ki) by the natural alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) or an autoantibody to PR3.  (+info)

Affinity labelling with MgATP analogues reveals coexisting Na+ and K+ forms of the alpha-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. (3/2197)

To test the hypothesis that Na+/K+-ATPase works as an (alpha beta)2-diprotomer with interacting catalytic alpha-subunits, tryptic digestion of pig kidney enzyme, that had been inactivated with substitution-inert MgATP complex analogues, was performed. This led to the demonstration of coexisting C-terminal Na+-like 80-kDa as well as K+-like 60-kDa peptides and N-terminal 40-kDa peptides of the alpha-subunit. To localize the ATP binding sites on tryptic peptides, studies with radioactive MgATP complex analogues were performed: Co(NH3)4-8-N3-ATP specifically modified the E2ATP (low affinity) binding site of Na+/K+-ATPase with an inactivation rate constant (k2) of 12 x 10-3.min-1 at 37 degrees C and a dissociation constant (Kd) of 207 +/- 28 microm. Tryptic digestion of the [gamma32P]Co(NH3)4-8-N3-ATP-inactivated and photolabelled alpha-subunit (Mr = 100 kDa) led, in the absence of univalent cations, to a K+-like C-terminal 60-kDa fragment which was labelled in addition to an unlabelled Na+-like C-terminal 80-kDa fragment. Tryptic digestion of [alpha32P]-or [gamma32P]Cr(H2O)4ATP - bound to the E1ATP (high affinity) site - led to the labelling of a Na+-like 80-kDa fragment besides the immediate formation of an unlabelled K+-like N-terminal 40-kDa fragment and a C-terminal 60-kDa fragment. Because a labelled Na+-like 80-kDa fragment cannot result from an unlabelled K+-like 60-kDa fragment, and because unlabelled alpha-subunits did not show any catalytic activity, the findings are consistent with a situation in which Na+- and K+-like conformations are stabilized by tight binding of substitution-inert MgATP complex analogues to the E1ATP and E2ATP sites. Hence, all data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP binding induces coexisting Na+ and K+ conformations within an (alphabeta)2-diprotomeric Na+/K+-ATPase.  (+info)

Identification, purification, and characterization of the rat liver golgi membrane ATP transporter. (4/2197)

Phosphorylation of secretory and integral membrane proteins and of proteoglycans also occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. ATP, the phosphate donor in these reactions, must first cross the Golgi membrane before it can serve as substrate. The existence of a specific ATP transporter in the Golgi membrane has been previously demonstrated in vitro using intact Golgi membrane vesicles from rat liver and mammary gland. We have now identified and purified the rat liver Golgi membrane ATP transporter. The transporter was purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of conventional ion exchange, dye color, and affinity chromatography. An approximately 70,000-fold purification (2% yield) was achieved starting from crude rat liver Golgi membranes. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa was identified as the putative transporter by a combination of column chromatography, photoaffinity labeling with an analog of ATP, and native functional size determination on a glycerol gradient. The purified transporter appears to exist as a homodimer within the Golgi membrane, and when reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine liposomes, was active in ATP but not nucleotide sugar or adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate transport. The transport activity was saturable with an apparent Km very similar to that of intact Golgi vesicles.  (+info)

Ectodomain cleavage and shedding of the type III transforming growth factor-beta receptor in lung membranes effect of temperature, ligand binding and membrane solubilization. (5/2197)

Previous studies from our laboratory [Philip, A. & O'Connor-McCourt, M. D. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 22290--22296] have shown that the lung exhibited the highest uptake of circulating [125I]-transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) on a per gram basis. This observation, together with the lack of information on TGF-beta receptor expression in the lung, prompted us to attempt to characterize TGF-beta receptors in this tissue. In the present report we show that the type III TGF-beta receptor is the most abundant TGF-beta binding protein in rat lung membranes and that it exhibits a 10-fold higher affinity for TGF-beta2 than for TGF-beta1. We observed that the majority of the type III receptor population in lung membranes is cleaved at a site in the central portion of the ectodomain, the resulting two fragments (95 kDa and 58 kDa) being held together by disulfide bonds. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a soluble form of the ectodomain of the type III receptor is shed from rat lung membranes in an efficient manner, with protease cleavage occurring at a site close to the transmembrane domain. This shedding is controllable by temperature, thus providing a system to study the mechanism of ectodomain release. Using this system, we show that the shedding is inhibited by prior ligand binding and by membrane solubilization. The identification of a membrane preparation which exhibits controllable and quantitative release of the type III receptor ectodomain provides a unique cell-free system for further studies of the mechanism of shedding of the type III TGF-beta receptor ectodomain.  (+info)

Photoaffinity labeling and mass spectrometry identify ribosomal protein S3 as a potential target for hybrid polar cytodifferentiation agents. (6/2197)

The ability of a novel class of hybrid polar compounds (HPCs) to induce differentiation and consequent cessation of proliferation of transformed cells has led to their development as potential chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototype of a family of hydroxamic acid based compounds (SAHA-like HPCs) that can, at micromolar concentrations, induce a variety of transformed cell lines to differentiate. The mechanism of action of the HPCs is not entirely understood. Searching for a cellular target of the SAHA-like HPCs, we synthesized a photoaffinity labeling reagent structurally based on SAHA, and probed for SAHA-binding proteins in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. Photoaffinity labeling in cell free extracts identified a 32-kDa protein (p32) that was specifically labeled by the photoaffinity reagent. Cell fractionation assays localized p32 to the P100 fraction. p32 was partially purified and identified by mass spectrometry as the 40 S ribosomal protein S3. Expression of epitope-tagged S3 in bacterial lysates followed by photoaffinity labeling confirmed its specific labeling. Identification of a cytodifferentiation agent target may shed light on the mechanism by which the SAHA-like HPCs exert their antitumor effects.  (+info)

Comparison of paclitaxel-, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-, and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced apoptosis. Evidence for EGF-induced anoikis. (7/2197)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a hormone that stimulates proliferation of many cell types, induces apoptosis in some cell lines that overexpress the EGF receptor. To evaluate the mechanism of EGF-induced apoptosis, MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells were examined by microscopy, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, enzyme assays, and affinity labeling after treatment with EGF, paclitaxel, or 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (5FUdR). Apoptosis induced by all three agents was accompanied by activation of caspases-3, -6, and -7, as indicated by disappearance of the corresponding zymogens from immunoblots, cleavage of substrate polypeptides in situ, and detection of active forms of these caspases in cytosol and nuclei using fluorogenic assays and affinity labeling. Further analysis indicated involvement of the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway of caspase activation, but not the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. Interestingly, caspase activation was consistently lower after EGF treatment than after paclitaxel or 5FUdR treatment. Additional experiments revealed that the majority of cells detaching from the substratum after EGF (but not paclitaxel or 5FUdR) were morphologically normal and retained the capacity to readhere, suggesting that EGF-induced apoptosis involves cell detachment followed by anoikis. These observations not only indicate that EGF- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in this cell line involve the same downstream pathways but also suggest that detachment-induced apoptosis is responsible for the paradoxical antiproliferative effects of EGF.  (+info)

Opening mechanism of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel based on analysis of single channels locked in each liganded state. (8/2197)

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels contain four subunits, each with a binding site for cGMP or cAMP in the cytoplasmic COOH-terminal domain. Previous studies of the kinetic mechanism of activation have been hampered by the complication that ligands are continuously binding and unbinding at each of these sites. Thus, even at the single channel level, it has been difficult to distinguish changes in behavior that arise from a channel with a fixed number of ligands bound from those that occur upon the binding and unbinding of ligands. For example, it is often assumed that complex behaviors like multiple conductance levels and bursting occur only as a consequence of changes in the number of bound ligands. We have overcome these ambiguities by covalently tethering one ligand at a time to single rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (Ruiz, ML., and J.W. Karpen. 1997. Nature. 389:389-392). We find that with a fixed number of ligands locked in place the channel freely moves between three conductance states and undergoes bursting behavior. Furthermore, a thorough kinetic analysis of channels locked in doubly, triply, and fully liganded states reveals more than one kinetically distinguishable state at each conductance level. Thus, even when the channel contains a fixed number of bound ligands, it can assume at least nine distinct states. Such complex behavior is inconsistent with simple concerted or sequential allosteric models. The data at each level of liganding can be successfully described by the same connected state model (with different rate constants), suggesting that the channel undergoes the same set of conformational changes regardless of the number of bound ligands. A general allosteric model, which postulates one conformational change per subunit in both the absence and presence of ligand, comes close to providing enough kinetically distinct states. We propose an extension of this model, in which more than one conformational change per subunit can occur during the process of channel activation.  (+info)

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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-({6-[(bromoacetyl)amino]hexanoyl}amino)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (C14H25BrN2O7) from the PQR.
Use Absolute Mag™ Bromoacetyl Magnetic Particles, Silica, 1.0 μm for fast, easy, and consistent Proteins/Ligands Immobilization
Sulfonated 2-acryloyltaxol and sulfonated 2-O-acyl acid taxol derivatives are synthesized which have improved water solubility and stability while maintaining bio-activity. In particular, 2-[(3-sulfo-1-oxopropyl)oxy]taxol sodium salt is synthesized by reacting taxol with acrylic acid, and subsequently reacting the 2-acryloyltaxol with bisulfite in a Michael reaction. 2-{[4-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)-1,4-dioxobutyl]oxy}taxol sodium salt and 2-{[4-((3-sulfopropyl)amino-1,4-dioxobutyl]oxy}taxol sodium salt are synthesized by reacting 2-succinyltaxol with the tetrabutylammonium salts of taurine and 3-aminopropyl sulfonic acid, respectively, and subsequently exchanging the ammonium with sodium. Glycol derivatives of 2-O-acyl acid taxols with improved water solubility are synthesized by reaction of a glycol with 2-O-acyl acid taxol.
Tracing cell division using a fluorescent label allows scientists to detect and quantify cell proliferation through multiple generations (Figure 1). Our Cell-ID™ Cell Proliferation Kits (Table 1) contain specially designed fluorescent labels, which can easily cross the plasma membrane and covalently label with protein inside cells without affecting morphology or physiology. During cell division, the fluorescent label is divided evenly between two daughter cells. Based on the fluorescence intensity, the proliferating cells can be easily detected up to 6 to 10 generations, even after several days in a cell culture environment or following fixation (Figure 2 ...
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This study describes a form of partial agonism for a CD8+ CTL clone, S15, in which perforin-dependent killing and IFN-gamma production were lost but Fas (APO1 or CD95)-dependent cytotoxicity preserved. Cloned S15 CTL are H-2Kd restricted and specific for a photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite peptide PbCS 252-260 (SYIPSAEKI). The presence of a photoactivatable group in the epitope permitted assessment of TCR-ligand binding by TCR photoaffinity labeling. Selective activation of Fas-dependent killing was observed for a peptide-derivative variant containing a modified photoreactive group. A similar functional response was obtained after binding of the wild-type peptide derivative upon blocking of CD8 participation in TCR-ligand binding. The epitope modification or blocking of CD8 resulted in an | or = 8-fold decrease in TCR-ligand binding. In both cases, phosphorylation of zeta-chain and ZAP-70, as well as calcium mobilization were reduced close to background levels,
Is specificity an important issue regarding affinity reagents? What about the validation of affinity reagents today, is it good enough? This depends on the application and the producer of the reagent. Validation should be the most important marketing argument that can be found.Today there is a continuous growth of both the number of affinity reagents that are produced and the different types of affinity reagents that are developed. In proteomics they become more and more important in exploring the human proteome. Therefore, validated affinity reagents should be on top of every proteomic researchers list. How should this be accomplished?Better international agreements on how affinity reagents should be tested to be regarded as functional reagents are needed. One of the most important issues is the specificity of the affinity reagent. An international standard for which specific validation that is needed for different kinds of applications would be very useful.In this thesis, it is shown that the ...
Smolinsky, G. and Pryde, G. A. (1971) The chemistry of vinyl azides, in The Azido Group (1971) (ed S. Patai), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470771266.ch10 ...
Exinon Black Phenyl Bottile Label - Brandzcoin- phenyl label design ,Exinon Black Phenyl Bottile Label design by BrandzSelective in vivo metabolic cell-labeling-mediated cancer ,Herein we report the design of sugars that can selectively label cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo Specifically, we inhibit the cell-labeling activity of tetraacetyl- N -azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac 4 ManAz) by converting its anomeric acetyl group to a caged ether bond that can be selectively cleaved by cancer-overexpressed enzymes and thus enables the overexpression of azido groups on the . ...
The Myc-Trap is a single chain polypeptide antibody coupled to agarose beads for immunoprecipitation / pull down of Myc-tagged proteins.
3-Azido-3-deoxy-myo-inositol (3-AMI) is a D-3-deoxy-3-substituted myo-inositol derivative and intracellular phosphatidinylinositol signal inhibitor. It was
In this article, we are discussing the description "Thermal labels" that often leads to many queries when raised by a customer buying the product. With the purpose of avoiding mistakes in ordering and customer returns when buying these thermal labels, here is the information about common types of thermal labels:- Direct Thermal Coated Labels These ...
A number of reactive dichlorotriazine dyes specifically and irreversibly inactivate pig heart lactate dehydrogenase, yeast glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and yeast hexokinase at sites competitive with NAD+, NADP+, and ATP respectively. Monochlorotriazine dyes, including Cibacron Blue F3G-A, do not inactivate lactate dehydrogenase but display high affinity and thus inhibit the inactivation by dichlorotriazine dyes. These data are interpreted in terms of the ability of nucleotide-binding enzymes to bind polysulphonated aromatic chromophores.. ...
Using H-2Kd-restricted CTL clones, which are specific for a photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite peptide PbCS(252-260) (SYIPSAEKI) and permit assessment of TCR-ligand interactions by TCR photoaffinity labeling, we have previously identified several peptide derivative variants for which TCR-ligand binding and the efficiency of Ag recognition deviated by fivefold or more. Here we report that the functional CTL response (cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production) correlated with the rate of TCR-ligand complex dissociation, but not the avidity of TCR-ligand binding. While peptide antagonists exhibited very rapid TCR-ligand complex dissociation, slightly slower dissociation was observed for strong agonists. Conversely and surprisingly, weak agonists typically displayed slower dissociation than the wild-type agonists. Acceleration of TCR-ligand complex dissociation by blocking CD8 participation in TCR-ligand binding increased the efficiency of Ag recognition in cases where
The DNA photoaffinity ligands, 7-azidoactinomycin D and 8-azidoethidium, form DNA adducts that cause chain cleavage upon treatment with piperidine. Chemical DNA sequencing techniques were used to detect covalent binding. The relative preferences for modifications of all possible sites defined by a base pair step (e.g. GC) were determined within all quartet contexts such as (IGCJ). These preferences are described in terms of effective site occupations, which expressthe ability of a ligand to covalently modify some base in the binding site. Ideally, the effective site occupations measured for photoaffinity agents can also be related to site-specific, non-covalent association constants of the ligand. The sites most reactive with 7-azidoactinomycin D were those preferred for non-covalent binding of unsubstituted actinomycin D. GC sites were most reactive, but next-nearest neighbors exerted significant influences on reactivity. GC sites in 5′-(pyrimidine)GC(purine)-3′ contexts, particularly ...
To investigate the role of the coreceptor CD8 and lipid rafts in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, we used soluble mono-and multimeric H-2K,sup,d,/sup,-peptide complexes and cloned S14 CTL specific for a photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide 252-260 [PbCS(ABA)]. We report that activation of CTL in suspension requires multimeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes co-engaging TCR and CD8. Using TCR ligand photo-cross-linking, we find that monomeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes promote association of TCR/CD3 with CD8/p56,sup,lck,/sup,. Dimerization of these adducts results in activation of p56lck in lipid rafts, where phosphatases are excluded. Additional cross-linking further increases p56,sup,lck,/sup, kinase activity, induces translocation of TCR/CD3 and other signaling molecules to lipid rafts and intracellular calcium mobilization. These events are prevented by blocking Src kinases or CD8 binding to TCR-associated K,sup,d,/sup, molecules, ...
Azido azetikoa konposatu organiko bat da. Formula kimiko hau du: CH3-COOH (C2H4O2).. Kolorerik gabeko likidoa da. Azido azetikoa ozpinaren osagai nagusia da. Azido ahultzat sailkatzen den arren, kontzentrazio altuetan korrosiboa da, eta gizakiaren larruazalari kalte egin diezaioke.. Azido azetiko sinpleena azido karboxilikoa da. Konposatu garrantzitsua da erreaktiboetan eta industria kimikoan, batez ere zeluloide azetatoa, argazki filma eta polibinil azetatoa ekoizteko. Zuntz sintetikoetan ere erabil daiteke. Etxebizitzetan, diluituta erabiltzen da. Kaltzioa kentzeko (E260) azidotasun erregulatzailetzat eta ongailutzat erabiltzen da.. ...
Photoaffinity cross‐linking is a rapidly developing technology for studying biomolecular interactions, including protein ligand‐receptor binding
Azido maliko (HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H) landare eta fruitu ugaritan -sagar berdeetan, batik bat- izaten den bi azidodun alkohola da. Landareen eta animalien zelulen metabolismoan parte hartzen du. 100 °C-tan urtzen diren kristalak eratzen ditu, eta uretan eta alkoholean urtzen da. Sintesiz ere lor daiteke, azido maleikoa berotuz, edo azido tartarikotik, sukzinikotik eta aspartikotik.. ...
Our legacy, or Plus range of software is no longer being developed as we focus entirely on our new Affinity range of professional graphic design software
Below are the 200 most popular labels used in OrthopaedicsOne Articles. The bigger the text, the more popular the label. Click on a label to see its associated content.. See also: global popular labels. ...
Below are the 200 most popular labels used in OrthopaedicsOne Articles. The bigger the text, the more popular the label. Click on a label to see its associated content.. See also: global popular labels. ...
Read the Label Article - When purchasing grains, it is important to read and understand the label to ensure that the products you purchase are what were intended and are of the best possible quality.
Labels dont define but can be used to provide an illustrative and explanative outline. A label, like an idea, can be changed, altered, morphed, redefined. A brand cannot. I have been labelled,...
在神经网络训练过程中或者训练完成后,需要评价模型的训练效果。评价的方法一般是计算全体预测值和全体真值(label)之间的距离,不同类型的任务会使用不同的评价方法,或者综合使用多个评价方法。在具体的任务
The report generally describes 5-bromoacetyl salicylamide, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 5-Bromoacetyl salicylamide market situation
BOC-Glycine N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, 99%, ACROS Organics™ 5g BOC-Glycine N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, 99%, ACROS Organics™ Amino Acids
Uridine-5-diphospho-α-D-galactose disodium salt (CAS 137868-52-1) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on uridine-5-diphospho-α-d-galactose
Excellent cycling performance of an electrode composed of silicon alone was achieved in a bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide (FSA)‐based electrolyte, with a high discharge capacity of 950 mA h g−1 observed even at the 500th cycle. To elucidate the reaction behavior of the Si electrode in an FSA‐based ionic liquid electrolyte, we investigated the change in the cross‐sectional morphology of the Si‐active material layer, the distribution of Li in the layer, and the crystallinity of Si on the electrode surface. By cross‐sectional scanning electron microscopy, we confirmed that the electrode thickness increased with the cycle number. The increase in thickness was less noticeable in the FSA‐based electrolyte than in an organic electrolyte. An elemental analysis of the electrode material revealed that a film derived from the electrolyte was formed not only on the surface but also inside of the electrode. Soft X‐ray emission spectroscopy demonstrated that the distribution of Li in the FSA‐based ...
Creative Peptides offers Z-L-Valine N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
5. Click Next to open the Create a Service , Hosted Service page. Type a valid third-level DNS name in the Service Name text box and click Check Availability. When moving a service, the name is the same as that for the original version. (You might need to wait a few minutes for the service deletion to propagate through the data center.). 6. Youll probably want all (or at least most) of your Hosted Service and Storage Accounts to share the same affinity group, so select the Yes, This Service Is Related to Some of My Other Hosted Service or Storage Accounts option button.. 7. If this is the first service or account in the Affinity Group, click the Create a New Affinity Group radio button, type a name for the new Affinity Group in the text box (USA-SouthCentral for this example), and select a data center location in the Region list:. ...
Boc Sciences offers cas 168567-90-6 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-1-azido-1-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl cyanide in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 168567-90-6 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-1-azido-1-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranosyl cyanide.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. [125I]7-azido-8-iodoketanserine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Labels and label values in STEM are used to hold the state of a population at any given time during a simulation. For instance, a compartmental SIR disease model has an SIRLabelValue that includes (among other things) the 3 EMF attributes s, i and r (of type EDouble). It is possible to create custom EMF labels and label values to represent other more exotic models. For instance, in tuberculosis the population can be be thought of as being in 2 infected states, either actively infected or latently infected. To implement such a disease model we need to create a new label and label value having two infected compartments instead of one. All disease model labels and label values must extend the StandardDiseaseModelLabel and StandardDiseaseModelLabelValue. By doing this, you inherit three mandatory attributes: S: The susceptible population. incidence: The number of new infectious cases in a given time period. You can sub-divide the incidence into particular incidences if a susceptible person can ...
label":"GECCO PLUS","value":"0","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"},"selected":true,"children":[{"label":"Anamnese / Risikofaktoren","value":"1","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"},"children":[{"label":"Chronische Lungenerkrankungen","value":"2","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen","value":"3","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Chronische Lebererkrankungen","value":"4","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Rheumatologische/immunologische Erkrankungen","value":"5","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Bestehende HIV-Infektion","value":"6","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Organtransplantiert","value":"7","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Diabetes","value":"8","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Aktive Tumor-/Krebserkrankungen","value":"9","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Raucherstatus","value":"10","attributes":{"class":" node-sdraft"}},{"label":"Chronische ...
Updated on 10 April 2010, 11.09pm We are having our next round of Burberry Blue Label preorders~ To get an inspiration of what bags to get, you can check out https://burberrybluelabel.wordpress.com. We are more likely to get items from this years collection but if youd like to order mid-2009 designs, well take in your order…
Accepted options are: - label: label to associate with the element - label_attributes: attributes to use when the label is rendered - label_options: label specific options. ...
Need a label customized? Were happy to help! Give us a call or design you label online, you can add logos, revise language, or add headings for no extra charge.
Fragile found in: Fragile Labels, Fragile Labels - This Side Up Fragile, Glass Handle With Care Label, Fragile Fluorescent Handling Labels, Fragile..
ラベルから何番目の命令の直前にブレークポイントを入れられるようにする. 実装した手続きのテストはREPLで試したが,テストの記述は省略. (define (set-breakpoint machine label n) ((machine set-breakpoint) label n)) (define (proc…
Be yourself, even if that means that there isnt a label for you. Explain to anyone who matters who you are. Youre not your labels.
Be yourself, even if that means that there isnt a label for you. Explain to anyone who matters who you are. Youre not your labels.
Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays) can exist in either a reduced, active form or an oxidized, inactive form. Reduced ribulose-5-phosphate kinase is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by the dichlorotriazine dye Reactive Red 1 (Procion Red MX-2B), but the irreversible inactivation of the oxidized form of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase occurs at only 0.05% of this rate. The rate of inactivation of the reduced enzyme by Reactive Red 1 (apparent bimolecular rate constant 10(4)M-1 X s-1 at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C) is several orders of magnitude greater than previous estimates of the rates of dye-mediated inactivation of other enzymes. The dye-dependent inactivation of the reduced enzyme is inhibited by Hg2+ or p-mercuribenzoate (thiol reagents that reversibly inhibit ribulose-5-phosphate kinase activity), or by ATP and ADP, the nucleotide substrates of the enzyme. Hydrolysed Reactive Red 1, which does not inactivate the enzyme, is a reversible inhibitor of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase. ...
BioAssay record AID 656250 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to PS1 Carboxy-terminal fragment in human HeLa cell membrane at 20 nM by photo-affinity in-gel fluorescence method in presence of GSI L458.
The covalent incorporation of [(3)H]all-trans-retinoic acid into proteins has been studied in tumoural Leydig (MLTC-1) cells. The maximum retinoylation activity of MLTC-1 cell proteins was 710+/-29 mean+/-SD) fmoles/8 x 10(4) cells at 37 degrees C. About 90% of [(3)H]retinoic acid was trichloroacetic acid-soluble after proteinase-K digestion and about 65--75% after ...
Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for (2-benzoyl-3-methylbenzoyl) 2-benzoyl-3-methylbenzenecarboperoxoate (CAS No. 96662-04-3)
Affinity labeling[edit]. Affinity label is a molecule that is similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific ... for affinity chromatography, affinity labeling, affinity therapy, and the avidin-biotin system. The Avidin-biotin complex is ... Specific uses of affinity chromatography include antibody affinity, Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and ... Affinity chromatography[edit]. Affinity chromatography[6] is a method of separating biochemical mixtures, based on a highly ...
"Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. ... Affinity[edit]. *between any kind of biomolecules[1] including proteins, DNA,[2] RNA,[3] peptides,[4] small molecules,[5] ... The thermophoresis of a fluorescently labeled molecule A typically differs significantly from the thermophoresis of a molecule- ... The thermophoretic movement of the fluorescently labelled molecule is measured by monitoring the fluorescence distribution F ...
Other labels can be used, such as affinity, photochemical or radioisotope tags. These labels are attached to the probe itself ... All these label free detection methods are relatively new and are not yet suitable for high-throughput protein interaction ... The most common and widely used method for detection is fluorescence labeling which is highly sensitive, safe and compatible ... Therefore, a number of label free detection methods are available, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), carbon nanotubes, ...
Affinity label for the tRNA binding sites on the E. coli ribosome allowed the identification of A and P site proteins most ... During 1977, Czernilofsky published research that used affinity labeling to identify tRNA-binding sites on rat liver ribosomes ... "SITE OF REACTION ON RIBOSOMAL-PROTEIN L27 WITH AN AFFINITY LABEL DERIVATIVE OF TRANSFER-RNA-F(MET)". FEBS Letters. ELSEVIER ... "IDENTIFICATION OF TRNA-BINDING SITES ON RAT-LIVER RIBOSOMES BY AFFINITY LABELING". Molecular and General Genetics. Springer ...
... received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Georgia Tech in 1978; his thesis was entitled "Affinity Labeling of ... Rasnick, David William (1978). "Affinity labeling of metalloendoproteases" (electronic thesis or dissertation). Retrieved 28 ...
It was released in 1981 on the Affinity label. In 1999, Polygram issued a compilation titled Quiet Now: Never Let Me Go which, ...
Inglese, J.; Johnson, D.L.; Shiau, A.; Smith, J.M.; Benkovic, S.J. (1990). "Subcloning, Characterization, and Affinity Labeling ... Using a bromoacetyl dideazafolate affinity analog James Inglese and colleagues first identified Asp144 as an active site ...
Vargo MA, Colman RF (January 2001). "Affinity labeling of rat glutathione S-transferase isozyme 1-1 by 17beta -iodoacetoxy- ... Benard V, Bokoch GM (2002). "Assay of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPase activation by affinity methods". Methods in Enzymology. 345: ... Because the GST protein has a strong binding affinity for GSH, beads coated with the compound can be added to the protein ... Most mammalian isoenzymes have affinity for the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and spectrophotometric assays utilising ...
Affinity labeling of an active site lysine by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal 5'-diphospho-5'-adenosine". The Journal of ...
Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Simon, Eric J.; Gioannini, Theresa; Gorissen, H. (August 1982). "Potential affinity labels for the opiate ... Essawi, M. Y. (April 1999). "Fentanyl analogues with a modified propanamido group as potential affinity labels: synthesis and ... "Potential affinity labels for the opiate receptor based on fentanyl and related compounds". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 25 ...
"Inactivation of Escherichia coli outer-membrane phospholipase a by the affinity label hexadecanesulfonyl fluoride. Evidence for ...
3H]GBR-12935: a specific high affinity ligand for labeling the dopamine transport complex. European Journal of Pharmacology. ... and oxo substituents on affinity for the dopamine and serotonin transporters. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2008 May 8;51(9): ... 3H radiolabelled form for the purpose of mapping the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain by selective labelling ...
Affinity labelling of the 40S subunits by derivatives of oligoribonucleotides containing the AUG codon". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT), label-free) and qualitative. In collaboration with scientists at the University of Dundee, ...
Affinity labelling of the 40S subunits by derivatives of oligoribonucleotides containing the AUG codon". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Community Commerce Networks (ComCom): A closed loop and private labeled transaction system for affinity groups. OrionNation: An ...
The P-site protein L27 has been determined by affinity labeling by E. Collatz and A.P. Czernilofsky (FEBS Lett., Vol. 63, pp. ... sites have been determined by affinity labeling by A.P. Czernilofsky et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA, pp. 230-34, 1974). ...
Mamunul; Lee, Jun-Seok (2017-06-24). "Photo-affinity labeling (PAL) in chemical proteomics: a handy tool to investigate protein ... In a label transfer reaction, a known protein is tagged with a detectable label. The label is then passed to an interacting ... Affinity electrophoresis as used for estimation of binding constants, as for instance in lectin affinity electrophoresis or ... Label transfer can also detect weak or transient interactions that are difficult to capture using other in vitro detection ...
... affinity labeling and heteronuclear NMR studies". Biochemistry. 35 (3): 803-813. doi:10.1021/bi951077g. PMID 8547260. Wang, S.C ...
"Photoaffinity labeling of high affinity nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-binding proteins in sea urchin ... a high affinity Ca2+-ATPase and a low affinity Ca2+/H+ antiporter (or exchanger, generically denoted as CHX). The pumps are ... In sea urchin egg homogenate, the binding protein(s) may be smaller than TPCs themselves, judging by photoaffinity labelling ... "Photoaffinity labeling of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) targets in mammalian cells". The Journal of ...
Biotin-binding affinity can be impaired by chemical labeling of streptavidin, such as with amine-reactive fluorophores. ... Monomeric streptavidin versions have an affinity for biotin of 10−7mol/L 10−8mol/L and so are not ideal for labeling ... The tetrameric streptavidin has also been used as a hub around which other proteins may be arranged, either by an affinity tag ... Most attempts at mutating streptavidin result in a lowered biotin-binding affinity, which is to be expected in such a highly ...
Affinity Labeling with Carbocations Derived from Mechanism-Based Analogs of 2, 3-Oxidosqualene and Site-Directed Mutagenesis ... Since the enzyme affinity for this second substrate is greater than for the monoepoxy (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene, under partial ...
1996). "Purification of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 from human placenta utilizing a novel affinity labelling ... and binds with equal affinity to the mineralocorticoid receptor, thereby out-competing aldosterone in cells that do not produce ...
Zheng, Y.; Abe, I.; Prestwich, G. (1998). "Inhibition kinetics and affinity labeling of bacterial squalene:hopene cyclase by ...
Sakiyama F, Nitta Y, Isoda Y, Toda H (1989). "Identification of glutamic acid 186 affinity-labeled by 2,3-epoxypropyl alpha-D- ...
... you may contest the nomination by visiting the page and clicking the button labelled "Contest this speedy deletion". This will ... That at least points to some affinity between the family and both clubs, but I can't get anything concrete to connect the ... you may contest the nomination by visiting the page and clicking the button labelled "Contest this speedy deletion". This will ...
A Photochemical Affinity-Labelling Reagent for the Opiate Receptor(s) Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Photochemical Affinity-Labelling Reagent for the Opiate Receptor(s). BETTY A. WINTER and AVRAM GOLDSTEIN ... A Photochemical Affinity-Labelling Reagent for the Opiate Receptor(s). BETTY A. WINTER and AVRAM GOLDSTEIN ... A Photochemical Affinity-Labelling Reagent for the Opiate Receptor(s). BETTY A. WINTER and AVRAM GOLDSTEIN ...
Data from thoroughly washed forebrain membranes suggest that [3H]dextrorphan predominantly labels a high affinity site defined ... Data from thoroughly washed forebrain membranes suggest that [3H]dextrorphan predominantly labels a high affinity site defined ... Data from thoroughly washed forebrain membranes suggest that [3H]dextrorphan predominantly labels a high affinity site defined ... Data from thoroughly washed forebrain membranes suggest that [3H]dextrorphan predominantly labels a high affinity site defined ...
Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a ... The label binds covalently to the enzyme so that the substrate can no longer bind, causing a permanent and irreversible change ...
... affinity labeling explanation free. What is affinity labeling? Meaning of affinity labeling medical term. What does affinity ... Looking for online definition of affinity labeling in the Medical Dictionary? ... Affinity Labelling. (redirected from affinity labeling). Also found in: Encyclopedia. Affinity Labelling. A method for studying ... Affinity labeling , definition of affinity labeling by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... mainly features 68Ga-labeled tracers, notably [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. The longer half-life of... ... Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of a new class of high-affinity 18F-labeled PSMA ligands for detection of prostate cancer ... Click labelling in PET radiochemistry. J Label Compd Radiopharm. 2009;52:407-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... We aimed to develop high-affinity PSMA inhibitors labeled with fluorine-18 as alternative tracers for prostate cancer. ...
Molina-Villa, T., Mendoza, V., López-Casillas, F. Affinity Labeling Detection of Endogenous Receptors from Zebrafish Embryos. J ... Identification of a nerve growth factor receptor protein in sympathetic ganglia membranes by affinity labeling. J. Biol. Chem. ... Imaging Glycans in Zebrafish Embryos by Metabolic Labeling and Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry… ...
Triazine dyes, a new class of affinity labels for nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Y D Clonis, C R Lowe ... Triazine dyes, a new class of affinity labels for nucleotide-dependent enzymes ... Triazine dyes, a new class of affinity labels for nucleotide-dependent enzymes ... Triazine dyes, a new class of affinity labels for nucleotide-dependent enzymes ...
Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase Affinity Labels ... Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase Affinity Labels ... Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase Affinity Labels ... Metastatogenic Potential by Pregraft Treatment of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells with Proteinase and Protein Kinase Affinity Labels ...
Under these conditions, [3H]A-317491 also labeled high-affinity (Kd = 9 nM) binding sites. Lower affinity binding components (K ... A-317491 specifically labeled high-affinity (Kd = 0.9 nM) recognition sites. High-affinity [3H]A-317491 binding was not ... 3H]A-317491, a Novel High-Affinity Non-Nucleotide Antagonist That Specifically Labels Human P2X2/3 and P2X3 Receptors. Michael ... 3H]A-317491, a Novel High-Affinity Non-Nucleotide Antagonist That Specifically Labels Human P2X2/3 and P2X3 Receptors. Michael ...
Alexa488-labeled affinity-purified [FL-N44AP]. vGAT Rabbit Polyclonal, Alexa488-labeled affinity-purified [FL-N44AP]. ... Affinity-purified anti-vGAT was raised against the C ÛÒterminal of the rat vesicular GABA transporter. The antigen sequence is ... The antibody was affinity-purified and has been conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa488. The antibody is routinely tested by ... SKU: FL-N44AP Categories: Antibodies, Fluorescent Conjugates Product Size: 25 ug, 100 ug , Antibody Type: affinity-purified, ...
... alpha bound to labeled [20-3H]-PDBU at a conc of 30 ug/mL. ... Binding affinity with protein kinase C (PK-C) ...
Binding affinity to recombinant 15N-labelled PSD95-PDZ1 domain expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 assessed as chemical shift ...
... Fei, Y ... OI-RD microscopy also confirmed the high-affinity binding of H. pylori outer-membrane protein BabA to Le(b). The OI-RD ... low-affinity microbial attachment mechanisms that may be essential for infectious processes. OI-RD microscopy was used to ... to immobilized glycoconjugates in real time with no need for labeling tags. The results suggest the presence of additional ...
Opioid Receptor Peptide Affinity Affinity Label Protected Peptide Parent Ligand This is a preview of subscription content, log ... The Synthesis of DAMGO-Based Potential Affinity Labels with High Mu Opioid Receptor Affinity and the Formation of Cyclic O- ... The Synthesis of DAMGO-Based Potential Affinity Labels with High Mu Opioid Receptor Affinity and the Formation of Cyclic O- ...
An affinity label for the regulatory dithiol of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays). A R Ashton ... This inhibition is competitive with respect to ATP (Ki approximately 0.5 mM). The dye appears to act as an affinity label for ... An affinity label for the regulatory dithiol of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays) ... An affinity label for the regulatory dithiol of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays) ...
"An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Method for Measuring the Affinity of a Spin-Labeled Analog of Cholesterol for Phospholipids ... An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Method for Measuring the Affinity of a Spin-Labeled Analog of... Williams, Justin; Wassall, ... An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Method for Measuring the Affinity of a Spin-Labeled Analog of Cholesterol for Phospholipids ... An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Method for Measuring the Affinity of a Spin-Labeled Analog of Cholesterol for Phospholipids ...
The affinity of DXM-M for the glucocorticoid receptor, measured by competitive binding assay, was 1/15 that of DXM. ... Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate of the [3H]-DXM-M labeled glucocorticoid receptor revealed a ... 6 cells and it acts as a slowly reversible glucocorticoid agonist at concentrations which correlate with the affinity of DXM-M ... To investigate the possible use of electrophilic affinity labelling for the characterization of glucocorticoid receptors, ...
An affinity-assay was developed that is based on the modulation of the diffusion coefficient of a redox-labelled hapten upon ... An affinity-assay was developed that is based on the modulation of the diffusion coefficient of a redox-labelled hapten upon ... A miniaturised electrochemical affinity assay based on a wall-free sample droplet and micro-dispensing of the redox-labelled ... A miniaturised electrochemical affinity assay based on a wall-free sample droplet and micro-dispensing of the redox-labelled ...
... en. ... Microfluidic affinity separation chip for selective capture and release of label-free ovarian cancer exosomes. ResearchSpace/ ... Our results demonstrate the successful isolation of intact and label-free exosomes, indicate that the amount of both total and ... Following capture, intact exosomes are released label-free using a low pH buffer and immediately neutralized downstream to ...
Word of Mouth is a series on Green Label wherein we get you guys onto cool things, via cool people. Jameel Bruner of The ... Check The Label: Get Ready for the Waves of Coastal.... When big brands lost that special something, GreyxWaves tried to ... Word of Mouth: Jameel Bruner of The Internet Has Worldly Taste And An Affinity For Anime ... Watch the Trailer for Last Days of JKWON, Green Labels.... Skaters know no boundaries. ...
Affinity labelling and cloning of steroid and thyroid hormone receptors Author. *Gronemeyer, H ...
Tritium-labeled N1-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-N2-propionylguanidine ([3H]UR-PI294), a high affinity histamine H3 and H4 ... This study reports the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of tritium-labeled N1-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-N2- ... The radioligand displayed high affinity for both histamine receptor subtypes (KD (hH3R) = 1.1 nM, KD (hH4R) = 5.1 nM) and was ... shown to serve as a valuable pharmacological tool for the determination of hH3R and hH4R affinities. ...
... including how BSI-derived affinity and functional assay-derived potency correlate for compounds of varying scaffolds ... Novel Gpr39 Agonists: Correlation Of Binding Affinity Using Label-Free Back-Scattering Interferometry With Potency In ... The difficulty associated with obtaining small molecule affinity data for functionally intact GPCRs effectively restricts the ... Back-scattering interferometry (BSI) is an emerging label-free, conformation-sensitive detection technology for quantitative ...
Graphene biosensor Agile R100 provides an 11-log dynamic range to enable accurate and reliable affinity ranking for hit ... Affinity ranking with a label-free kinetic binding platform can increase the efficiency of the drug discovery process. ... The affinity (KD) of each TNFα and inhibitor interaction calculated by Agile R100 confirms the previously-reported IC50 rank ... Agile R100 has an 11-log dynamic range, letting you use a single platform to measure very high affinity antibodies as well as ...
Affinity-labelling of the thyrotropin receptor. Characterization of the photoactive ligand. Biochemical Journal -London- 225 (3 ... Affinity Labels/pharmacology, Animals, Azides/pharmacology, Cattle, Cell Membrane/metabolism, Cross-Linking Reagents/ ... HSAB-TSH could be labelled with 125I and cross-linked to porcine and human TSH receptors. Analysis of the cross-linked ...
  • Data from thoroughly washed forebrain membranes suggest that [ 3 H]dextrorphan predominantly labels a high affinity site defined by the activated state of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-channel complex. (elsevier.com)
  • The pharmacological profile and regional distribution of [ 3 H]dextrorphan binding sites appear to distinguish these sites from those labeled either by [ 3 H]dextromethorphan or by putative σ receptor radioligands. (elsevier.com)
  • Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a class of enzyme inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, microfluidic devices have provided the ability to efficiently capture exosomes based on specific membrane biomarkers, but releasing the captured exosomes intact and label-free for downstream characterization and experimentation remains a challenge. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • This study reports the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of tritium-labeled N1-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]-N2-propionyl¬guanidine ([3H]UR-PI294), a novel readily accessible radioligand for the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) and H4 receptor (hH4R). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • An affinity-assay was developed that is based on the modulation of the diffusion coefficient of a redox-labelled hapten upon complementary recognition of the analyte leading to an increase of molecular weight and hence to a decrease of the diffusion coefficient. (lu.se)
  • The difficulty associated with obtaining small molecule affinity data for functionally intact GPCRs effectively restricts the range of assay techniques suited to quantifying these interactions in vitro. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Results from screening representatives from multiple novel GPR39 agonist series is presented, including how BSI-derived affinity and functional assay-derived potency correlate for compounds of varying scaffolds. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The affinity (K D ) of each TNFα and inhibitor interaction calculated by Agile R100 confirms the previously-reported IC50 rank order, while the platform provides an easy-to-use orthogonal technique. (nanomedicaldiagnostics.com)
  • ABPP probes label active enzymes, but not their inactive precursor or inhibitor-bound forms [4, and thus report on the major post-translational events that regulate enzyme function in vivo . (scripps.edu)
  • ABPP probes label active, but not inactive (e.g., inhibitor-bound, zymogen) enzymes in complex proteomes . (scripps.edu)
  • In the inactive state, however, lipidated Rabs are targeted with high affinity by the GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDI) that solubilizes the GTPase and thereby causes cytosolic localization. (nature.com)
  • In this study, fluorescent conjugates of risedronate, and its lower-affinity analogues deoxy-risedronate and 3-PEHPC, were used to compare the localization of compounds with differing mineral affinities in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similar differences in mineralizing surface and osteocyte network penetration between high- and low-affinity compounds were evident 7 days after administration, with fluorescent conjugates at forming surfaces buried under a new layer of bone. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Analog-sensitive kinases (AS-kinases) have provided a system to label, visualize, and identify kinase substrates ( Fig. 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This protocol updates earlier procedures in several ways to improve yield, account for nonspecific labeling by endogenous kinases, and reduce nonphosphorylated background so that very low abundance substrates can be identified ( Fig. 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The 18 F-labeled compounds were evaluated in nude mice bearing LNCaP tumors and compared to [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC and [ 18 F]DCFPyL. (springer.com)
  • Biodistribution studies of the two tracers with the highest imaged-derived tumor uptake and highest PSMA affinity were undertaken at 1 h, 2 h and 4 h post-injection (p.i.), and co-administration of PMPA was used to determine whether uptake was PSMA-specific. (springer.com)
  • Compounds showed PSMA-specific uptake in LNCaP tumors as high as 14 % ID/g, more than a 2-fold increase over [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. The facile and high-yielding radiosynthesis of these 18 F-labeled triazoles as well as their promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics make them worthy of clinical development for PET imaging of prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Probe molecules, typically labeled with a fluorescent dye, are added to the array. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to a method for the simultaneous optical qualitative and quantitative He jack of various labeled with fluorochromes or fluorogenic molecules of a mixture by means of Laserspektros copy according to the preamble of claim 1, as known from EP 0263037 A2. (google.com)
  • To directly demonstrate polyP localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on resin sections prepared by rapid freezing and freeze-substitution, specimens were labeled with PPBD containing an epitope tag and then the epitope tag was detected by an indirect immunocytochemical method. (elsevier.com)
  • Steric compatibility of the rigid steroid moiety for ordered saturated chains contributes to the high affinity that holds chol and sphingomyelin together in lipid rafts whereas, conversely, poor affinity of the sterol for highly disordered polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is hypothesized to drive the formation of PUFA-containing phospholipid domains depleted in chol. (deepdyve.com)
  • Autophagic vacuoles were labeled with MDC and analyzed by using either fluorescence microscopy ( 13 , 14 ) or fluorescence spectroscopy in cell lysates ( 14 ), essentially as described. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine. (osti.gov)
  • Monochlorotriazine dyes, including Cibacron Blue F3G-A, do not inactivate lactate dehydrogenase but display high affinity and thus inhibit the inactivation by dichlorotriazine dyes. (biochemj.org)
  • It was studied in two independent experiments: (i) penetration of 3 H-labeled dopamine from its mixture with 10 −5 M H 2 O 2 into hypothalamus and striatum structures of intact rat brain, and (ii) effect of unlabeled dopamine from a mixture with H2O2 on the rat motor activity in a haloperidol catalepsy model. (chemweb.com)