Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fee Schedules: A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.OhioPlethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryScala Vestibuli: The upper chamber of the COCHLEA that is filled with PERILYMPH. It is connected to SCALA TYMPANI via helicotrema at the apex of the cochlea.Amrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Ocular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Trabeculectomy: Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.A Kinase Anchor Proteins: A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (1/2523)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (2/2523)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (3/2523)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Varying the degree of single-whisker stimulation differentially affects phases of intrinsic signals in rat barrel cortex. (4/2523)

Using intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI), we have shown previously that the point spread of evoked activity in the rat barrel cortex in response to single-whisker stimulation encompasses a surprisingly large area. Given that our typical stimulation consists of five deflections at 5 Hz, the large area of evoked activity might have resulted from repetitive stimulation. Thus in the present study, we use ISI through the thinned skull to determine whether decreasing the degree of single-whisker stimulation decreases the area of the cortical point spread. We additionally outline a protocol to quantify stimulus-related differences in the temporal characteristics of intrinsic signals at a fine spatial scale. In 10 adult rats, whisker C2 was stimulated randomly with either one or five deflections delivered in a rostral-to-caudal fashion. Each deflection consisted of a 0.5-mm displacement of the whisker as measured at the point of contact, 15 mm from the snout. The number of whisker deflections did not affect the area or peak magnitude of the cortical point spread based on the intrinsic signal activity occurring from 0.5 up to 1.5 s poststimulus onset. In contrast, the magnitude and time course of intrinsic signal activity collected after 1.5-s poststimulus onset did reflect the difference in the degree of stimulation. Thus decreasing the degree of stimulation differentially affected the early and late phases of the evoked intrinsic signal response. The implications of the present results are discussed in respect to probable differences in the signal source underlying the early versus later phases of evoked intrinsic signals.  (+info)

Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat. (5/2523)

In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. II. Responses To object texture and weights. (6/2523)

Three monkeys were trained to lift and hold a test object within a 12- to 25-mm position window for 1 s. The activity of single neurons was recorded during performance of the task in which both the weight and surface texture of the object were systematically varied. Whenever possible, each cell was tested with three weights (15, 65, and 115 g) and three textures (smooth metal, fine 200 grit sandpaper, and rough 60 grit sandpaper). Of 386 cells recorded in 3 monkeys, 45 cells had cutaneous receptive fields on the index or thumb or part of the thenar eminence and were held long enough to be tested in all 9 combinations of texture and weight. Recordings were made for the entire anterior-posterior extent of the thumb and index finger areas in somatosensory cortex including area 7b. However, the statistical analysis required a selection of only those cells for which nine complete recording conditions were available limiting the sample to cells in areas 2, 5, and 7b. Significant differences in the grip force accompanied 98% of the changes in texture and 78% of the changes in weight. Increasing the object weight also increased the force tangential to the skin surface as measured by the load or lifting force. The peak discharge during lifting was judged to be the most sensitive index of cell activity and was analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, peak cell discharge was normalized to allow comparisons among different combinations of texture and weight as well as comparisons among different neurons. Overall, the peak firing frequency of 87% of the cells was significantly modulated by changes in object texture, but changes in object weight affected the peak activity of only 58% of the cells. Almost all (17/18, 94%) of the static cells were influenced by the object texture, and 81% of the dynamic cells that were active only briefly at grip and lift onset were modulated by texture. For some cells, surface texture had a significant effect on neuronal discharge that was independent of the object weight. In contrast, weight-related responses were never simple main effects of the weight alone and appeared instead as significant interactions between texture and weight. Four neurons either increased or decreased activity in a graded fashion with surface structure (roughness) regardless of the object weight (P < 0.05). Ten other neurons showed increases or decreases in response to one or two textures, which might represent either a graded response or a tuning preference for a specific texture. The firing frequency of the majority (31/45) of neurons reflected an interaction of both texture and weight. The cells with texture-related but weight-independent activities were thought to encode surface characteristics that are largely independent of the grip and lifting forces used to manipulate the object. Such constancies could be used to construct internal representations or mental models for planning and controlling object manipulation.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (7/2523)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

Gating of afferent input by a central pattern generator. (8/2523)

Intracellular recordings from the sole proprioceptor (the oval organ) in the crab ventilatory system show that the nonspiking afferent fibers from this organ receive a cyclic hyperpolarizing inhibition in phase with the ventilatory motor pattern. Although depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current pulses injected into a single afferent will reset the ventilatory motor pattern, the inhibitory input is of sufficient magnitude to block afferent input to the ventilatory central pattern generator (CPG) for approximately 50% of the cycle period. It is proposed that this inhibitory input serves to gate sensory input to the ventilatory CPG to provide an unambiguous input to the ventilatory CPG.  (+info)

*Sweetness

Downstream of the taste receptor, the taste cells for sweet, bitter and umami share the same intracellular signalling pathway. ... ATP release channel CALHM1 gets activated by the depolarization and releases ATP neurotransmitter which activates the afferent ...

*Cerebellar peduncle

A relatively small afferent contribution is present. The efferent pathways include the cerebellorubral, dentatothalamic, and ... Afferent pathways include the anterior spinocerebellar and tectocerebellar tracts. The fibers of the anterior spinocerebellar ...

*Golgi tendon organ

The ascending or afferent pathways to the cerebellum are the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts. They are involved in ... The Ib afferent axon is a large diameter, myelinated axon. Each neurotendinous spindle is enclosed in a fibrous capsule which ... Ib afferents synapse with interneurons that are within the spinal cord that also project to the brain cerebellum and cerebral ... Each tendon organ is innervated by a single afferent type Ib sensory nerve fiber (Aɑ fiber) that branches and terminates as ...

*Lateral reticular nucleus

The afferent pathways to the LRN come from the spinal cord and higher brain structures. Most of the afferents come from the ... The subtrigeminal nucleus sends its projections to the flocculonodular lobe.[citation needed] All of these efferent pathways ...

*Itch

Neuropathic itch can originate at any point along the afferent pathway as a result of damage of the nervous system. They could ... The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are unmyelinated C-fibres. Two major classes of human C- ... Andrew D, Craig AD (2001). "Spinothalamic lamina I neurons selectively sensitive to histamine: a central neural pathway for ... Touch-evoked hyperalgesia requires continuous firing of primary afferent nociceptors, and punctuate hyperalgesia does not ...

*Pain and pleasure

A neuroanatomical review of the pain pathway, "Afferent pain pathways" by Almeida, describes various specific nociceptive ... "Afferent pain pathways: a neuroanatomical review." Brain Research, 1000(1-2), 40-56. Apkarian, A. V.; Bushnell, M. C.; Treede, ... Norman Doidge, the brain is limited in the sense that it tends to focus on the most used pathways. Therefore, having a common ... Then, there are also the descending pathways for the modulation of pain sensation. One of the brainstem regions responsible for ...

*Cough reflex

This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ... The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant ... This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent ...

*Nuclear chain fiber

The secondary nerve association involves an efferent and afferent pathway that measure the stress and strain placed on the ... The afferent pathway resembles a spring wrapping around the nuclear chain fiber and connecting to one of its ends away from the ... The afferent innervation is via type Ia sensory fibers and type II sensory fibers. These project to the nucleus proprius in the ... Again, depending on the stress and strain the muscles sustains, this afferent and efferent coordination will measure the " ...

*Regulation of gastric function

1.) Vagovagal Reflex Distention activates an afferent pathway which in turn stimulates efferent response from the dorsal ... 2.) Local ENS Pathway Activated ENS releases ACh stimulating parietal cells to secrete acid. As dietary protein is digested, it ... ACh is secreted by parasympathetic nerve fibers of both the short and long reflex ,.ml; pathways. Histamine is a paracrine ...

*Spastic hemiplegia

The spasticity occurs when the afferent pathways in the brain are compromised and the communication between the brain to the ... Cerebral Palsy~clinical at eMedicine el-Abd MA, Ibrahim IK (March 1994). "Impaired afferent control in patients with spastic ... The theory behind constraint-induced movement therapy is that new neural pathways are created. Alternative forms of physical ...

*Dejerine-Roussy syndrome

Therefore, the damage in the thalamus causes miscommunication between the afferent pathway and the cortex of the brain, ...

*Gamma motor neuron

The intrafusal muscle fibers control the resting level of the Ia afferent pathway, which in turn creates a steady level of ... Lesions controlling descending pathways in lower motor neurons to the upper limbs, can cause a loss in patient's ability to ... With low rates of activity of the descending pathway, fewer and smaller motor neurons are activated, leading to a small amount ... Hypotonia can be due to damage to alpha neurons or Ia afferents carrying sensory information to the alpha neurons. This creates ...

*Hunger (motivational state)

... receptors work to inhibit appetite upon distention of the GI tract by sending signals along the vagus nerve afferent pathway ...

*Eye examination

... afferent pathway), but can still receive neural signals from the brain (efferent pathway) to constrict. If there is a ... If there is an afferent defect in the left eye, both pupils will dilate when the light is shining on the left eye, but both ... This test detects the afferent pupil defect, also referred to as the Marcus Gunn pupil. It is conducted in a semidarkened room ...

*Gate control theory

Descending pathways also activate opioid receptor-containing parts of the spinal cord. Afferent pathways interfere with each ... Afferent pain-receptive nerves, those that bring signals to the brain, comprise at least two kinds of fibers - a fast, ... Stimulation of this area produces analgesia (but not total numbing) by activating descending pathways that directly and ... "Gephyrin Clusters Are Absent from Small Diameter Primary Afferent Terminals Despite the Presence of GABAA Receptors". J. ...

*Topographic map (neuroanatomy)

... refers to the maintenance of the particular order of afferent connections from the retina along the afferent pathway via sub- ... via different afferent pathways (dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract and spinothalamic tract), to the ventral posterior ... Afferents from taste receptors and mechanoreceptors of the tongue access different ascending systems in the brainstem. However ... Most sensory systems spatially segregate afferent input from primary sensory neurons to construct a topographic map that ...

*Motor program

182 Signals transmitted through efferent and afferent pathways allow the central nervous system to anticipate, plan or guide ... Evidence for the concept of motor programs include the following:p. 182 Processing of afferent information (feedback) is too ... In contrast to the open-loop response-chaining hypothesis, Adams' closed-loop theory suggested that processing of afferent ... each subsequent movement was thought to be automatically triggered by response-produced afferent information from the muscles. ...

*Said Awad

... dependence of sustained bladder contractions provoked by filling or by subcutaneous bethanechol upon sacral afferent pathways" ...

*Solitary nucleus

... via the vagus nerve Chemically and mechanically sensitive neurons of the general visceral afferent pathway (GVA) with endings ... Chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors of the general visceral afferent pathway (GVA) in the carotid body via glossopharyngeal ... The pathways for gastric and gustatory (taste) processes are believed to terminate in different subdivisions of the ... Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Solitary tract Duane ...

*Barrel cortex

... either by lesioning elements of the afferent pathway (e.g. the trigeminal nerve) or by ablating, plucking, or trimming some of ... In the lemniscal pathway, axons from the principal trigeminal nucleus cross over the midline and project to "barreloids" in the ... These different pathways are thought to transmit different modalities of sensory information from the whisker. The whisker ... The anatomical structure of the barrels is only affected by lesioning elements of the pathway, but innocuous forms of ...

*Bainbridge reflex

B-fibers send signals to the brain (the afferent pathway of the neural portion of the Bainbridge reflex), which then modulates ... both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to the SA node of the heart (the efferent pathway of the neural portion of the ...

*Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

... stimuli are initially processed by the cortex before being transmitted to the hippocampus along an afferent pathway, suggesting ... BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCS that contribute to the brain's ... Both of these pathways probably involve calcium-mediated phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133, thus allowing it to interact with ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ...

*Axon reflex

In the spinal cord reflex pathway the afferent neuron transmits information to spinal cord interneurons. These interneurons act ... The axon reflex pathway does not include an integration center or synapse that relays communication between neurons in the ... Langley defined this pathway as "axon reflex." In the early 20th century, British cardiologist Sir Thomas Lewis researched ... Acetylcholine also activates sudomotor fibers and primary afferent nociceptors, triggering axon reflexes in both. However, with ...

*Mark Lathrop

... a newly identified protein of the afferent auditory pathway, cause DFNB59 auditory neuropathy". Nat. Genet. United States. 38 ( ...

*Neuropeptide B

... learning and in the afferent pain pathway. It is expressed throughout the CNS with high levels in the substantia nigra, ...

*Reduced muscle mass, strength and performance in space

However, if there is an imbalance such that the protein synthetic pathway is decreased relative to that of the rate of ... Shenkman, BS; Litvinova, KS; Nemirovskaya, TL; Podlubnaya, ZA; Vikhlyantsev, IM; Kozlovskaya, IB (July 2004). "Afferent and ... Additionally, use of the metabolic pathway for glucose uptake is increased in muscles undergoing HS. Thus, while the enzyme ... constituting the PI3kinase/akt/mTOR pathway), which regulates the protein synthetic apparatus controlling protein translation. ...

*Iodoresiniferatoxin

... and have a particularly important role in signal conduction in afferent pain pathways. The proposed molecular mode of action of ... a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway". Nature. 389 (6653): 816-24. doi:10.1038/39807. PMID 9349813. Premkumar, LS; ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
Distension of the main pulmonary artery and its bifurcation are known to result in a reflex vasoconstriction and increased respiratory drive; however, these responses are observed at abnormally high distending pressures. In this study we recorded afferent activity from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors to investigate their stimulus-response characteristics and to determine whether they are influenced by physiological changes in intrathoracic pressure. In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, the pulmonary trunk and its main branches were vascularly isolated and perfused with venous blood at pulstatile pressures designed to simulate the normal pulmonary arterial pressure waveform. Afferent slips of a cervical vagus were dissected and nerve fibres identified that displayed discharge patterns with characteristics expected from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors. Recordings were obtained with (a) chest open (b) chest closed and resealed, and (c) with phasic negative ...
This is a list of medical mnemonics categorized and alphabetized. ABC - Airway, Breathing and Circulation AEIOU-TIPS - causes of altered mental status APGAR - a backronym for Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - Age, Sex, History, Injuries/illness, Condition, ETA/extra information FAST - Face, Arms, Speech, Time - stroke symptoms Hs and Ts - causes of cardiac arrest Is Path Warm? - suicide risk factors OPQRST - Onset, Provocation, Quality, Region, Severity, Time - symptom checklist RICE - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation - for sprains and bruises RNCHAMPS - mnemonic for the types of shock RPM-30-2-Can Do - mnemonic for START triage criteria SOCRATES - mnemonic used to evaluate characteristics of pain SOAP, a technique for writing medical records SLUDGE - Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric upset, and Emesis (effects of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning) Afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection exits. ...
My research interests are to investigate the mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic afferents activation and the associated central nervous system (CNS) reflex processing as well as modulation of electroacupuncture (EA) on CNS regulation of cardiovascular function. Studies of cardiac afferents activation are funded by a NIH grant (serve as CO-PI ). In these studies, I am investigating the mechanisms of activation and sensitization of cardiac afferents induced by multiple ischemic mediators including endothelins, thromboxane A2, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine, lactic acid (protons), reactive oxygen species and bradykinin (BK), which stimulate and/or sensitize cardiac spinal afferents during ischaemia and reperfusion in an interactive and multifactorial fashion. I am also studying the mechanisms underlying CNS reflex processing evoked by ischemic metabolites during myocardial ischemia ...
Definition of Solitary tract nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Solitary tract nucleus? Meaning of Solitary tract nucleus as a legal term. What does Solitary tract nucleus mean in law?
Long after a cut peripheral nerve reinnervates muscle and restores force production in adult cats, the muscle does not respond reflexively to stretch. Motivated by the likelihood that stretch areflexia is related to problems with sensing and controlling limb position after peripheral neuropathies, we sought to determine the underlying mechanism. Electrophysiological and morphological measurements were made in anesthetized rats having one of the nerves to the triceps surae muscles either untreated or cut and immediately rejoined surgically many months earlier. First, it was established that reinnervated muscles failed to generate stretch reflexes, extending observations of areflexia to a second species. Next, multiple elements in the sensorimotor circuit of the stretch reflex were examined in both the PNS and CNS. Encoding of muscle stretch by regenerated proprioceptive afferents was remarkably similar to normal, although we observed some expected abnormalities, e.g., increased length threshold. However,
To the Editor:. We read with interest the recent article by Zhang et al.1 The authors described secondary degeneration in remote regions after experimental cerebral ischemia, which could provide a target for stroke management. We completely agree that this is an appealing approach. However, the underlying pathology may be different in ischemic rodents and patients with stroke.. Remote areas such as the thalamus connected to the cortical infarct are affected because of delayed retrograde degeneration of afferent connections. This is associated with extensive and complex pathology including inflammatory reactions, β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, calcification, and angiogenesis in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion.2 The Aβ deposition is particularly robust after an ischemic insult, which starts as a diffuse aggregation and over time transforms into dense plaque-like deposits together with calcium in the ventroposterior medial and ventroposterior lateral nuclei.3,4 Altered ...
The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that is repeated monotonously throughout. The regularity of the laminated...
There are many other models that can simulate individual results presented here (Douglas and Martin, 1991; Ben-Yishai et al., 1995; Somers et al., 1995; Carandini and Ringach, 1997; Troyer et al., 1998; Adorján et al., 1999; Dragoi and Sur, 2000; Stetter et al., 2000) (for review, see Ferster and Miller, 2000; Seriès et al., 2003), and many of these models employ mechanisms similar to those used by PC/BC. However, the PC/BC model differs from these previous models in providing a computational explanation for the behavior of V1 neurons as well as providing a unified account of a number of processes that are currently considered, and modeled, in isolation. The model also makes testable predictions that are described in the supplemental material (available at www.jneurosci.org).. Consistent with previous models and neurophysiological results (Pei et al., 1994; Sompolinsky and Shapley, 1997; Xing et al., 2005), orientation tuning in the PC/BC model results from broadly tuned afferent excitation ...
Gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferents are a key mediatory of food intake. Through a balance of responses to chemical and mechanical stimuli food intake can be tightly controlled via the ascending satiety signals initiated in the GI tract. However, va
Our results have shown that, within the LS and CLS segments, deep pyramidal cells performed little to no filtering of envelope stimuli, as indicated by their gains that were independent of envelope frequency and negligible phase leads. As such, their responses closely resembled those of most peripheral afferents (Metzen and Chacron, 2015). An important question is thus, what is the functional role of having central neurons whose responses are virtually identical to those of most peripheral receptors? One potential explanation is that deep cells exclusively project to the nucleus praeminentialis and provide feedback to their superficial and intermediate counterparts indirectly via parallel fibers originating from cerebellar granule cells within the eminentia granularis posterior (Bastian et al., 2004). We hypothesize that the lack of filtering by LS and CLS deep cells is necessary to provide feedback to their superficial and intermediate counterparts, thereby determining their response properties ...
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry.
Injection of serotonin (5-HT) into the left atrium or ventricle activates a hypertensive chemoreflex. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the afferent pathway(s) that mediates this response. A secondary goal was to localize the receptive sites of this reflex. We measured changes in arterial pressure, reflex vascular responses in skeletal muscle and paw, and changes in renal nerve traffic that occurred after the left atrial or left ventricular injection of 5-HT. Injection of 5-HT (100 to 600 micrograms) into left atrium or ventricle produced large reflex increases in vascular resistance and sympathetic outflow. These responses were not reduced after bilateral cervical vagotomy. In separate experiments, increases in renal nerve traffic with left ventricular injection of 5-HT were assessed before and after cardiac sympathetic deafferentation. Interruption of cardiac sympathetic afferent pathways did not significantly attenuate increases in renal nerve activity with 5-HT. Injection of ...
The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording from motoneurones to
In the Golli-tau-eGFP (GTE) transgenic mouse the reporter gene expression is largely confined to the layer of subplate neurons (SPn), providing an opportunity to study their intracortical and extracortical projections. In this study, we examined the thalamic afferents and layer IV neuron patterning in relation to the SPn neurites in the developing barrel cortex in GTE mouse at ages embryonic day 17 (E17) to postnatal day 14 (P14). Serotonin transporter immunohistochemistry or cytochrome oxydase histochemistry was used to reveal thalamic afferent patterning. Bizbenzimide staining identified the developing cytoarchitecture in coronal and tangential sections of GTE brains. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled neurites and thalamic afferents were both initially diffusely present in layer IV but by P4-P6 both assumed the characteristic periphery-related pattern and became restricted to the barrel hollows. This pattern gradually changed and by P10 the GFP-labelled neurites largely accumulated at
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [H-J Sun, H Zhou, X-M Feng, Q Gao, L Ding, C-S Tang, G-Q Zhu, Y-B Zhou].
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Im currently cutting for the next two months and need some input on what natural bulking stack would help me achieve the best goals possible. I was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced short- and long-latency afferent inhibition following acute muscle pain. T2 - A potential role in the recovery of motor output. AU - Burns, Emma. AU - Chipchase, Lucinda Sian. AU - Schabrun, Siobhan May. N1 - © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected] PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: . Corticomotor output is reduced in response to acute muscle pain, yet the mechanisms that underpin this effect remain unclear. Here the authors investigate the effect of acute muscle pain on short-latency afferent inhibition, long-latency afferent inhibition, and long-interval intra-cortical inhibition to determine whether these mechanisms could plausibly contribute to reduced motor output in pain.DESIGN: . Observational same subject pre-post test design.SETTING: . Neurophysiology research laboratory.SUBJECTS: . Healthy, right-handed human volunteers (n = 22, 9 male; mean age ± standard ...
The laterodorsal nucleus (LDN) of the thalamus provides a prominent afferent projection to the postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum). To characterize synaptic transmission in this pathway, we placed stimulating electrodes in the LDN and recorded fEPSPs elicited in the postsubiculum of urethane-anesthetized rats. LDN stimulation elicited a source-sink dipole between the deep and superficial layers of the postsubiculum, respectively, consistent with anatomical evidence for the termination of thalamic afferents in the superficial layers of the structure, and the existence of deep layer neurons with apical dendrites extending into these layers. Postsubicular fEPSPs were typically 0.5-1.0 mV in amplitude, with a peak latency of approximately 6 ms. Consistent with anatomical observations, the short onset latency of fEPSPs elicited by LDN stimulation, and their ability to follow a 60-Hz train of stimulation, indicate that the projection is monosynaptic. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed pronounced ...
Renal denervation decreases arterial pressure (AP) in hypertensive rats and humans. This procedure destroys both afferent and efferent nerves. Several investigators have proposed that renal afferent nerves contribute to the elevated AP. We developed a procedure to selectively remove renal afferent nerves with capsaicin (1-100 mM) both topically on the nerve and in the renal pelvis. We examined the effects of renal deafferentation on the development of genetic and renal hypertension. We studied spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and a model of renal hypertension, two kidney-one clip (2K1C) in Sprague-Dawley rats. SHR were treated at 3-4 weeks of age with capsaicin. Mean arterial pressure was recorded by tail cuff through 16 weeks of age. On week 17, rats were cannulated, allowed 3 days to recover then had their AP measured directly for 3 days (3 hrs/day). Rats with renal deafferentation (n=11) had lower arterial pressure weeks 9-16 (average reduction AP=10.1±1.4 mmHg, ANOVA, p=0.0049) ...
Convergence of cutaneous, visceral and muscle afferents onto nociceptive dorsal horn neurons at the level of the medullary/spinal cord ...
Vision systems satisfying the single viewpoint constraint are called central projection systems. The perspective camera is an example of a central projection system. The mapping of points in the scene into points in the image is linear in homogeneous coordinates, and can be described by a 3 × 4 projection matrix P (pin-hole model). Perspective projection can be modeled by intersecting a plane with a pencil of lines going through the scene points and the projection center O. There are central projection systems whose geometry can not be described using the conventional pin-hole model. Mt is composed of two lines m and l lying on the projective plane ℘2 . In this case the conic is said to be degenerate, the 3 ×3 symmetric matrix Ω is rank 2, and Equation (15) becomes ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ t t ⎥. Γ(m, l) ⎢ Ω = ml + lm −→ ω = ⎢ (16) ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2 0 0⎥ ⎣0 0 0 0 2 0⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 1 e D In a similar way a conic locus can be composed of a ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely cause of the migraine aura. CSD causes a signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents via transient opening of neuronal Pannexin-1 (Panx1) mega-channels ...
Afferent fibers originating in nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) project to both supra- and subdiaphragmatic viscera. Back ...
The present study demonstrates the TRPA1 was expressed in both bladder and DRG (L6-S1) and had a pronounced upregulation in DRG but more slight in mucosa in rat cystitis. The blockade of TRPA1 via intrathecal administration decreased afferent nerve activities and consequently attenuated detrusor overactivity markly. More recently, Tomonori et al. have shown that TRPA1 channel could improve afferent nerve activities of the rat bladder through both Aδ- and C-fibers pathway [16]. TRPA1 channels have been conducted in multiple-sensation modalities at present including mechanical, nociceptive, and thermal sensation in mammal [17-19].. However, the function of TRPA1 as nociceptor in the DRG innervating bladder is really quite controversial and further research is needed. We suppose the activation of TRPA1 receptors in DRG may lead to hyperalgesia, playing a role in enhanced impulse conduction and detrusor overactivity. We observed hematuria, severe submucosal edema, hemorrhage, ulceration, congestion ...
The present results replicate our previous finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are not necessary for the feeding-suppressive effects of intraperitoneal IL-1β and LPS and extend those findings to include another bacterial cell wall compound, MDP. Our functional test of complete subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation confirmed in both SDA and COM groups that low doses of CCK (4 μg/kg) failed to suppress food intake. Furthermore, these data reveal that neither splanchnic nor vagal subdiaphragmatic visceral afferents are necessary to mediate the hypophagia produced by intraperitoneal administration of IL-1β, LPS, or MDP, because combined subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy failed to alter the ability of these compounds to suppress feeding.. The present finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferent fibers are not required for the hypophagic effect of intraperitoneal IL-1β, LPS, or MDP is consistent with results from other studies showing ...
title: The synaptic microcircuitry associated with primary afferent terminals in the interpolaris and caualis of trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.08.042, category: Article
We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating individual muscle nerves and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or electrotonically from other muscle nerves. Most of the recordings were made in the presence of DL-2-amino-5- phosphonovaleric acid (APV), picrotoxin, and strychnine to block long- latency excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Activation of muscle afferents evoked slow, positive potentials in muscle nerves but not in cutaneous nerves. These potentials were abolished in 0 mM Ca2+, 2mM Mn2+ solutions, indicating that they were generated by the action of chemical synapses. The muscle nerve recordings revealed a wide-spread pattern of excitatory connections between afferents and ...
This study has demonstrated that systemically administered CCK produces inhibition of a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons via a mechanism that is dependent on intact subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and central NMDA receptors.. Interruption of vagal afferent traffic arising in subdiaphragmatic branches of the vagus was achieved by topical application of the local anesthetic lidocaine. It was expected that this treatment would abolish the neuronal responses to CCK but not PBG, because subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are responsive to systemically administered CCK and PBG activates 5-HT3 receptors located on cardiopulmonary vagal afferents (19, 21). This prediction proved correct because lidocaine application to the subdiaphragmatic vagi blocked the response to systemic CCK but not PBG. This finding also suggests that the lidocaine did not spread sufficiently to anesthetize cardiopulmonary vagal afferents. We (16) have previously observed that the inhibitory responses of RVLM ...
1. Membrane currents evoked in the dentate gyrus (DG) by stimulation of afferent pathways from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and contralateral DG were examined by current-source density (CSD) analysis in urethan-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of each afferent pathway evoked membrane currents with distinct spatial and temporal organization in the DG. CSD and anatomic analysis revealed that afferent input from the EC activated the DG bilaterally through parallel and serial pathways. The analysis provided a detailed description of the location, timing, and relative amplitude of evoked monosynaptic and multisynaptic currents in the DG. 2. Orthodromic stimulation of the perforant path (PP) evoked a large ipsilateral excitatory postsynaptic current (iEPSC) at a latency of 2.5-4 ms in the middle and outer stratum moleculare (STM) of the DG, and a population spike that was generated by an excitatory inward current at a latency of 5-9 ms in the stratum granulosum. 3. A variable, low-amplitude ipsilateral ...
The cerebral cortex, which underlies higher brain functions, has undergone a large expansion in size during mammalian evolution, most notably in the primate lineage (Rakic, 1988; Caviness and Takahashi, 1995; Northcutt and Kaas, 1995; Rakic, 1995). Although many intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence cortical size and cytoarchitecture, such as patterns of neuronal migration (Letinic et al., 2002; Kriegstein and Noctor, 2004; Bystron et al., 2006), thalamic afferents (Windrem and Finlay, 1991; Dehay et al., 2001) and the diversification of subventricular zone neural progenitors (Smart et al., 2002; Haubensak et al., 2004; Miyata et al., 2004; Noctor et al., 2004; Fish et al., 2008), an increase in neuron number during brain development and evolution is ultimately controlled by the number and modes of division of neural progenitors in the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (Götz and Huttner, 2005; Kriegstein et al., 2006; Fish et al., 2008).. According to the radial unit ...
The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. Two weeks after a unilateral hippocampal aspiration, the 22Na efflux induc
The absence of intense N52 staining of TMJ neurons and only light N52 staining in the minority of these neurons suggests that the TMJ is innervated by afferents with unmyelinated and thinly myelinated (Aδ and C fiber) axons. That all TMJ afferents had an inflection on the falling phase of the action potential suggests that these neurons gave rise to high-threshold receptors (Ritter and Mendell 1992). Furthermore, the observation that the majority of TMJ afferents were responsive to capsaicin suggests that these afferents are nociceptive. These observations are consistent with previous electrophysiological and anatomical data. For example, results from an electrophysiological study using a mechanical search stimulus indicate that the TMJ is innervated by high-threshold afferents with slowly (Aδ and C fiber) conducting axons (Cairns et al. 2001). Similar results were obtained in a second electrophysiological study employing high-threshold mechanical and thermal stimuli as well as noxious ...
Stimulating the vagus nerve supports that tempering effect, but it can also somewhat excite the part of the nervous system that stimulates the immune response, which is counterproductive if youre looking to calm it.. "Every circuit has a path coming from the brain and one going to the brain, and when you stimulate electrically, you usually have no control over which one you get. You usually get both." Patel said. These paths are often in the same nerve being stimulated.. The path leaving the brain and going toward other organs, called the efferent pathway, is the one to stimulate to temper the immune system and help relieve chronic inflammatory conditions. The one going to the brain, called the afferent pathway, if stimulated, leads eventually to the hypothalamus, a pea-sized region in the center of the brain. That triggers a chain of hormonal responses, eventually releasing cytokines, messaging molecules that promote inflammation.. "You get a heightened inflammatory response when you stimulate ...
We describe a computational model of the principal cell in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb), the medium spiny projection (MSP) neuron. The model neuron, constructed in NEURON, includes all of the known ionic currents in these cells and receives synaptic input from simulated spike trains via NMDA, AMPA, and GABAA receptors. ... results suggest that afferent information integration by the NAcb MSP cell may be compromised by pathology in which the NMDA current is altered or modulated, as has been proposed in both schizophrenia and addiction ...
The Estimates and Projections (E&P) database is the most extensive update available, covering a broad range of demographic characteristics for the current year, and 5-year projections. Variables include:. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation by serotonin of the neurons in rat nucleus raphe magnus in vitro. AU - Pan, Z. Z.. AU - Wessendorf, M. W.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Nucleus raphe magnus contains a large population of raphe-spinal serotonergic neurons that are thought to be involved in descending control of pain transmission and the modulation of opioid analgesia. Intracellular recordings were made from nucleus raphe magnus neurons in the slice preparation. Cells were divided into two groups, primary and secondary cells, based on the action potential waveform and response to opioids, as reported previously. In some experiments, cells were filled with biocytin and 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing cells were identified immunohistochemically. Of the primary cells that were filled with biocytin, 93% stained for 5-hydroxytryptamine; 90% of biocytin-filled secondary cells were unlabeled for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Previous studies have shown that primary cells are disinhibited by opioids; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac vagal afferent stimulation by free radicals during ischaemia and reperfusion. AU - Schultz, Harold D.. AU - Ustinova, Elena E.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - 1. Myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion can evoke excitation of cardiac vagal afferent nerve endings and activation of a cardiogenic depressor reflex (Bezold-Jarisch effect). We postulate that oxygen free radicals, which are well known to be produced during ischaemia and reperfusion, contribute to this excitation. 2. Activity from vagal afferent fibres in rats, whose endings were located in the walls of all four chambers of the heart, was recorded in response to topical application of pro-oxidant chemicals to the surface of the heart. Activity was also recorded from vagal afferent fibres, whose endings were located in the left ventricle, in response to occlusion of the left anterior coronary artery (LAC) for 30 min and subsequent reperfusion. A majority of the recorded fibres were classified as chemosensitive ...
Selective reduction in or augmentation of intrasplenic NO caused a respective increase or decrease in systemic blood pressure. The same doses of pharmacological agents were without effect when administered systemically. The increase in MAP in response to intrasplenic L-NMMA was abolished by interrupting either the splenic or the renal nerves. It was also inhibited by administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril. On the basis of these results, we propose that the spleen participates in the regulation of blood pressure through a reflex pathway, whereby changes in splenic afferent nerve activity reflexly alter renal sympathetic control of renin release. The subsequent rise in circulating angiotensin II levels would act directly on the vasculature to raise total peripheral resistance. Angiotensin II could also alter central control of blood pressure by accessing the brain at the circumventricular organs.8. There is both structural and functional evidence to support the existence of such a reflex ...
Stroke are the main causes of motor disability among adults and are expected to impose an increasing social and economic burden for our Country. The impact of stroke on patients is enormous, with negative ramifications on the persons participation in social, vocational, and recreational activities. It is the primary cause of long-term disability in these countries. At the present stage, it is well known that control of balance during upright standing depends upon the central integration of afferent information from vestibular, somatosensory (proprioceptive, tactile), and visual systems, which constitute a multilink neural network for the control of neck, hip, and ankle joints. More recently, it has been studied at the level of cerebral cortex; vestibular inputs would reach face/neck representation of primary somatosensory cortex and would be then integrated with visual and somatosensory inputs in intraparietal, posterior end of the insula and medial superior temporal cortices. Remarkably, ...
The word homeostasis is derived from the Greek hómos "similar" and histemi "standing still". It is used to describe a general concept of environmental stability that is maintained within living organisms. An example is body temperature in humans, which can be consistently observed around 37ºC (98.6ºF). The term and concept are attributed to American physiologist, Walter Bradford Cannon, around the turn of the twentieth century. At that time, the concept of homeostasis built upon French physiologist, Claude Bernards, use of milieu de lintérieur (the environment within) during the mid-nineteenth century to describe the stability and protection of internal organs and tissues by the blood.; ".... the blood constitutes an actual organic environment, an intermediary between the external environment and the (internal) living molecules, which cannot safely be brought into contact with their external environment ..." -An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. preface by L Henderson, ...
Goldammer, J., and Dürr, V. (2011). "Central projections of antennal hair fields and descending interneurons in stick insect brain and suboesophageal ganglion" in Proc. Göttingen Neurobiol. Conf. T20-4A ...
The whisking of a rats whisker is a classic example of "active sensing" - in other words, sensing that involves movement. Prof. Ehud Ahissar studies rat whisking in order to understand how mammals perceive through all types of active sensing; without the continuous movement of whiskers, fingertips or eyes, our perception of our surroundings would be lacking. (If you dont believe us, try feeling the texture of your shirt or desktop without moving your fingers. You cant stop your eyes - as you read this, your eyes are actually moving back and forth in tiny movements.). In the latest research in his lab, postdoctoral fellow Dr. Avner Wallach and Dr. Knarik Bagdasarian managed to decode the signal that is sent from the clump of nerve endings at the base of the whisker to the rats brain. They accomplished this by creating a machine-brain interface, the machine recreating the whisking muscles movement and intercepting the nerve endings signals.. The amazing thing the scientists realized is that ...
If your not familiar with sensory deprivation than keep reading. Sensory deprivation is an age old technique used to detach the mind from the many daily senses that typically fight for our attention and focus. Constantly on high alert (especially in todays world), these senses pull and push the mind in all directions as they sense the world around them. From loud sirens, to the uncomfortable heat of your apartment, to the euphoric smell of your girlfriend. They all pull us away from our current thought and onto what ever sense we are perceiving.. What would happen is we were not perceiving any sense?. That was the exact thought of those who designed the sensory deprivation tanks - what if you didnt perceive anything, and your minds attention was not being fought over for the attention of your different senses? What would the mind be allowed to focus on?. The history of sensory deprivation goes back far into the industrial military complex where resources have spent abundantly to understand ...
Whisker-related axonal patterns and plasticity of layer 2/3 neurons in the mouse barrel cortex.: Elucidating neuronal circuits and their plasticity in the cereb
Looking for online definition of dorsal columns in the Medical Dictionary? dorsal columns explanation free. What is dorsal columns? Meaning of dorsal columns medical term. What does dorsal columns mean?
Looking for online definition of dorsal column in the Medical Dictionary? dorsal column explanation free. What is dorsal column? Meaning of dorsal column medical term. What does dorsal column mean?
If successful, this chip would artificially bridge the gaps in the neural network, working for both afferent and efferent signals (bi-directionally) to end the paralysis.. Whats incredibly exciting about this is the possibility of communicating afferent signals. When you see demonstrations of robots being wildly inappropriate in the amount of force they use, its usually because they only have the equivalent of efferent signals. This is one of the main hindrances of using an external system, like a robotic brace, to overcome paralysis.. According to ARM: "Research is also demonstrating that use of such a system may eventually help to coax brain neurons to rewire in ways that help the brain recover from stroke". While stroke and spinal injury arent the only causes of paralysis, they are two of the primary causes worldwide so eliminating these would be an immense achievement. The idea of having a computer chip inside your brain may sound like a bizarre concept, but there is already a growing ...
Bairam A, Dauphin C, Rousseau F, Khandjian EW. Expression of dopamine D2-receptor mRNA isoforms at the peripheral chemoreflex afferent pathway in developing rabbits. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;15(3):374-81. ...
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Title: Sensory Signal Transduction in the Vagal Primary Afferent Neurons. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 24. Author(s):Ying Li and Ying Li. Affiliation:Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, 6510 Medical Sciences Research Building I, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0682, USA., Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, 6510 Medical Sciences Research Building I, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0682, USA.. Keywords:Sensory transduction, Vagus nerve, Nodose ganglia, Cholecytokinin, Serotonin, Macronutrients, Endocrine and Enterochromaffin cells, Synergistic interactions. Abstract: The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. Activation of vagal afferent fibers results in inhibition of food intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of pancreatic secretion. Afferents nerves terminating near to the mucosa are in a position to ...
Different physiological pathways may lead to shortness of breath including via ASIC chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and lung receptors.[13]. It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information processing. It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a "mismatch" occurs between the two: such as when the need for ventilation (afferent signaling) is not being met by physical breathing (efferent signaling).[17]. Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and chest wall. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the lungs, juxtacapillary (J) receptors are sensitive to pulmonary interstitial edema, while stretch receptors signal ...
Stroke are the main causes of motor disability among adults and are expected to impose an increasing social and economic burden for our Country. The impact of stroke on patients is enormous, with negative ramifications on the persons participation in social, vocational, and recreational activities. It is the primary cause of long-term disability in these countries. At the present stage, it is well known that control of balance during upright standing depends upon the central integration of afferent information from vestibular, somatosensory (proprioceptive, tactile), and visual systems, which constitute a multilink neural network for the control of neck, hip, and ankle joints. More recently, it has been studied at the level of cerebral cortex; vestibular inputs would reach face/neck representation of primary somatosensory cortex and would be then integrated with visual and somatosensory inputs in intraparietal, posterior end of the insula and medial superior temporal cortices. Remarkably, ...
Research shows that rats and humans on a high-fat diet (HFD) are less sensitive to satiety signals known to act via vagal afferent pathways. We hypothesize that HFD causes an upregulation of 2-pore domain potassium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization of nodose ganglia (NG) and decreased vagal response to satiety signals, which contribute to hyperphagia. We show that a 2-week HFD caused an upregulation of 2-pore domain TWIK-related spinal cord K+ (TRESK) and TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ 1 (TASK1) channels by 330% ± 50% and 60% ± 20%, respectively, in NG. Patch-clamp studies of isolated NG neurons demonstrated a decrease in excitability. In vivo single-unit NG recordings showed that a 2-week HFD led to a 55% reduction in firing frequency in response to CCK-8 or leptin stimulation. NG electroporation with TRESK siRNA restored NG responsiveness to CCK-8 and leptin. Rats fed a 2-week HFD consumed ~40% more calories compared with controls. Silencing NG TRESK but not TASK1 channel expression ...
Unit recordings were made in the superior colliculus of cats anesthetized with chloralose and with Pentothal. Electrical stimulation of extraocular muscle afferents and neck muscle afferents excited more units in the superior colliculus than did a variety of moving and stationary visual stimuli. Units responding to neck muscle afferent stimulation fell into three populations; one population firing with a short latency and following stimulus presentation up to 1/s, a second population with a long latency and following stimulus presentation at frequencies lower than 15/min, and a third population exhibiting paired firing. The latencies and firing patterns of the third population combined the characteristics of each of the first two patterns. It is suggested that these characteristics of unit discharges stem from the existence of two pathways from neck muscle afferents to the superior colliculus. The projection is predominantly bilateral. Units responding to neck muscle afferent stimulation are ...
Although a seemingly basic and simple behavior, micturition necessitates precise integration and coordination of multiple divisions of the nervous system: visceral sensory, somatic motor, sympathetic, parasympathetic, as well as voluntary control from higher brain/ brainstem centers. When coordination of this circuitry falters, the consequences can be devastating and include severely decreased quality of life and substantial economic burden. This dissertation project investigates the potential role(s) of inflammatory mediators in bladder sensory physiology with the long term goal of elucidating potential targets for intervention. The overall hypothesis is that inflammatory-induced changes in the urinary bladder or afferent projections ultimately lead to dysfunctional micturition symptoms. Using a rodent model of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced bladder inflammation, we examined the expression and function of the chemokine/ receptor pair, CXCL12/CXCR4, and the activated (phosphorylated) form of ubiquitous
The distribution of serotonin (5HT-ir), FMRF amide (FMRF a-ir), catch-relaxing-peptide (CARP-ir), dopamine (DA-ir), gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA-ir), and leucokinin (LK-ir) immunoreactive neurons were compared in the ganglia of Helix CNS. These neurons are not distributed randomly, but their location outlines distinct groups in the ganglia. In a few groups only DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons can be seen, whereas in the majority of groups FMRFa-ir, CARP-ir and 5HT-ir neurons are localized together. In the latter groups of immunoreactive neurons either FMRFa- and CARP- or 5HT- and FMRFa-immunoreactivities coexist in numerous neurons. Immunoreactive groups composed of DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons are localized exclusively in the areas of the origin of skin nerves, suggesting that these neurons are related to the processing of cutaneous afferent information. Other groups constituted by 5HT-ir, FMRFa-ir and CARP-ir neurons are localized first of all in ganglia the neurons of which innervate large
Rats can readily be trained to jump a gap of around 16 cm in the dark and a considerably larger gap in the light for a food reward. In the light, they use vision to estimate the distance to be jumped. In the dark, they use their vibrissae at the farthest distances. Bilateral whisker shaving or barrel field lesions reduce the gap crossed in the dark by about 2 cm. Information from the barrel fields reaches motor areas via cortico-cortical, basal ganglia, or cerebellar pathways. The cells of origin of the ponto-cerebellar pathway are segregated in layer Vb of the barrel field. Efferent axons of Vb cells occupy a central position within the basis pedunculi and terminate on cells in the pontine nuclei. Pontine cells, in turn, project to the cerebellar cortex as mossy fibers. We trained normal rats to cross a gap in the light and in a dark alley that was illuminated with an infra-red source. When the performance was stable, we made unilateral lesions in the central region of the basis pedunculi, which
The mammalian nervous system can adapt to the challenges of life through neural plasticity. The brain will undergo extensive reorganization following sensory deprivation or damage to afferent pathways (Kaas, 2001). This plastic reorganization develops as a function of time. A recent review on plasticity in the blind (Lazzouni and Lepore, 2014) stressed the importance of critical periods and the influence of the duration of sensory deprivation on the re-organization of sensory cortices. Such considerations are paralleled in the hearing sciences, sharing the authors opinion that
Neurons FOS positive in the periaqueductal grey (A); nucleus raphe magnus (B) and locus coeruleus (C). The animals were treated with vehicle (A; v.o.) LEO (B: 2
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Matsumoto, G.; Vizzard, M.A.; D.G.oat, W.C.; Hisamitsu, T., 1995: Analysis of the spinal mechanisms involved in processing sensory input from the ureter
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The nociceptive flexion reflex and the crossed extension reflex are produced by the spinal cord to protect a limb from a source of nociception and potential tissue damage. Thus, nociceptive inputs activate flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles of the affected limb while producing the opposite effect on the contralateral flexor and extensor muscles. This constitutes the general rule observable for the reflex movements evoked from the limbs by stimulation of their peripheral afferents. As described by Brown and Sherrington in 1912, there are some exceptions to this rule, observable in the decerebrate or spinal cat, where ipsilateral extension or contralateral flexion can be elicited. However, no evidence of these exceptions has been described in man. In this study, the nociceptive flexion reflex was produced by stimulation of the right sural nerve using transcutaneous electrical stimulation. The stimulus intensity was adjusted individually at 120 % of the reflex threshold. To examine the ...
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the first node in the somatosensory pathway, and is an area essential for controlling the flow of sensory information sent to the brain. Interneurons constitute the vast majority of neurons in this area, and between 25-40% of those in laminae I-III are inhibitory. These inhibitory interneurons are critical for normal somatosensation, for example, by suppressing pain in the absence of noxious stimuli. Interneurons of the dorsal horn are poorly understood due to their morphological and functional diversity, and this is a major factor limiting our understanding of the neuronal circuitry of the dorsal horn. In order to better understand sensory processing in the dorsal horn it is first necessary to characterise the neurons in this area, and to determine the neuronal circuits in which they are integrated. To address this issue, two separate and non-overlapping populations of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn were thoroughly characterised in terms of ...
Representative illustration of phrenic nerve afferents stimulation related cord dorsum potential recorded at C4, C5, C6, and C7 spinal segments in one animal. T
A reflex action occurs when the body responds to a stimulus without the involvement of the brain. Batting of eyelids and rapid withdrawal of hands from a hot surface are examples of reflex actions....
A major reduction in incoming sensory information. The main input sensory channels are the eyes, ears, skin, and nose. If input from all of these is blocked, there is loss of the sense of reality, distortion of time and imagined space, hallucinations, bizarre thought patterns, and other indications of neurological dysfunction. Even minimal sensory deprivation in early childhood can have a serious effect on the personality. ...
?Ever since the concept of the sensory deprivation tank or floatation therapy was introduced to the health sector its benefits have been observed to be phenomenal.
Afferent activity (OMIM 608768 locus 13q21) creates lasting changes in the operating characteristics of synapses in the cortical epencephalon that comprises what most people think of as the brain. The sites of Purkinje cell loss has now been replaced by fibrillary KLHL1 accumulations resembling afferent axons the SCA8 phenotype corresponded. For the sake of comparison…
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Depolarizing Pre-Pulses (DPPs) disable Dorsal Root (DR) fibers, thereby enabling a broad effective range of stimulation of Dorsal Column (DC) fibers. S...
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Elasmobranch fishes have an electroreceptive system which they use for prey detection and orientation. Sensory inputs in this system are corrupted by a form of reafference generated by the animals own ventilation. However, we show here that in the carpet shark, Cephaloscylium isabella, as in two previously studied batoid species, this ventilatory noise is reduced by sensory processing within the medullary nucleus of the electrosensory system. It has been proposed that the noise cancellation is achieved by a common mode rejection mechanism. One prediction of this hypothesis is that secondary neurons within the medullary nucleus should have both excitatory and inhibitory components to their receptive fields. This prediction is experimentally verified here. Projection neurons of the medullary nucleus in the carpet shark typically have a focal excitatory, and a diffuse inhibitory, receptive field organization including a component of contralateral inhibition. This result provides strong support ...
Vibrissectomy induced changes in GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the adult rat barrel cortex. Article date: 1992/1/8 PubMed ID: 1531989 Journal name: The Journal of comparative neurology (ISSN: 0021-9967) ABSTRACT Within the rat primary somatosensory cortex, neurons responding principally to movement of each individual mystacial vibrissa are grouped together in structures termed barrels. Previous studies have examined changes in the area of cortex showing increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake …
Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing fetal or infant brain(1). Lesions to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate are often implicated, with other motor and non-motor areas frequently also affected. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial (2); causes include hypoxia(3), stroke(4) , infection(5), trauma and genetic factors(6). By the end of the second trimester, corticospinal axons have invaded the spinal grey matter and thalamic afferents the upper layers of the neocortex (7, 8). These systems undergo activity-dependent development (9, 10). After early brain injury, descending pathways are disrupted, with abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry (11, 12). Movement abnormalities are initially subtle but develop subsequently (13, 14). Aberrant post-lesional plasticity undoubtedly
Conventional rehabilitation following spinal cord injury (SCI) emphasizes functional gains through strengthening and compensation, using braces and assistive devices to achieve mobility. Rehabilitation practice using compensatory approaches is based on the prevailing assumption that neural recovery is not possible following SCI.. Recent evidence contradicts this assumption. Stimulated by the proper activation of peripheral afferents associated with walking, neuronal circuits may reorganize by strengthening of existing and previously inactive descending connections and local neural circuits. New approaches to locomotor recovery after SCI utilize sensory information related to locomotion to improve treadmill and overground walking.. Locomotor training velocity may be a critical, task-specific, and activity-dependent parameter affording appropriate phasic, afferent input to the neural system and promoting neural plasticity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of training velocity ...
NEURONAL GROUPS OF POSTERIOR GRAY COLUMN. Two groups are in the dorsal regions of spinal grey matter extending the whole length to the thoracic and upper lumbar segments. q Substantia gelatunosa (of Rolando) present at all levels. ◦ Golgi type II neurons. ◦ Afferents - pain, temp & touch through posterior root. q Nucleus dorsalis - lamina VI-VII (C8-L4). ◦ Associated with proprioceptive endings. q Nucleus Proprius. ◦ Large nerve cells anterior to substansia gelatinosa & fibers from posterior white column.. ◦ Sense of position and movement, two-point discrimination and vibration.. q Visceral afferent nucleus ◦ Medium size lateral to nucleus dorsalis T1 - L3.. ◦ Receives visceral afferent information.. NEURONAL GROUPS OF INTERMEDIATE GRAY COLUMN. ◦ Small neurons in T1 - L3. ◦ Autonomic preganglionic cells. ◦ Intermediolateral column - Projecting lateral gray column. ◦ Intermediomedial column interneurons. ◦ Sacral parasympathetic gray column in S2 - S4 CYTOARCHITECHTURAL ...
Blood flow in series increases the resistance; blood flow in parallel decreases the resistance (TPR).. By blocking the umbilical veins you have in respect limited the excess flood flow to the placenta.. This reduces the flow in parallel circulation; thus increases the TPR. (MAP = cardiac out put times TPR). This is because the total cross sectional area is reduced. From this, there is an increased pressure in the fetal circulation.. The baroreceptors located immediately distal to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery would sense a high pressure and increase their afferent signal via CN9.. This Reduces the sympathetics and increases the parasympathetics via CN10 (vagus).. Thus, reducing the heart rate!. ...
Once you have added the Leptin Rx to your paleo/primal template and you have successfully experienced all the "small wins" that I mentioned in the Leptin FAQs blog, what should you do next? If you recall reading the blog on how the leptin Rx works, it basically is a plan to make your gastrointestinal tract perform visceral exercises that it is not accustomed to performing, in order to cause neuroplastic changes in your hypothalamus arcuate nucleus. It uses the vagus nerve as the "stimulator" to send these new messages to the brain. After a period of time, the inflammation will slowly dissipate at the median eminence, and these afferent signals will force expression of certain genes that have been repressed since we were in utero. These genes and pathways are hardwired into our DNA at conception, and used until the child is 12-24 months old. After this time, they are not expressed any longer, because transgenerational epigenetics favors instead the use of the leptin receptor from an ...
Reflex Action is a reaction test to monitor and trend an athletes reaction time for ongoing performance monitoring over time. The results can be graphe...

Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity | European Respiratory SocietyChronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity | European Respiratory Society

Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European ... Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity. Richard D. Turner, Surinder S. Birring ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2019/05/30/13993003.00889-2019

Neuro-Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Overview, Multiple Sclerosis, Afferent Visual Pathway...Neuro-Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Overview, Multiple Sclerosis, Afferent Visual Pathway...

... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... Afferent Visual Pathway Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis. Optic neuritis. Optic neuritis is an inflammatory injury of the ... Costello F. The afferent visual pathway: designing a structural-functional paradigm of multiple sclerosis. ISRN Neurol. 2013. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1214270-overview

Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration | Journal of NeuroscienceKv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration | Journal of Neuroscience

Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ... Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ... In the present study, we examined the role of Kv1.1 in the afferent pathway of the carotid body chemoreflex. In the carotid ... Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/13/3389

Reflex pathways from group II muscle afferents | SpringerLinkReflex pathways from group II muscle afferents | SpringerLink

The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats ... Lundberg A, Malmgren K, Schomburg ED (1987b) Reflex path-ways from group II muscle afferents. 3. Secondary spindle afferents ... cutaneous afferents and joint afferents. It is postulated that these group II EPSPs are mediated by an interneuronal pathway ... Reflex path-ways from group II muscle afferents. 2. Functional characteristics of reflex pathways to α-motoneurones. Exp Brain ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00236299

Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus...Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus...

Both afferent and efferent nerve pathways in the atonic bladder can be reconstructed by suprasacral motor-to-motor and sensory- ... Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus ... Afferent and efferent nerve function in the atonic bladder caused by conus medullaris injury in a rat model was established by ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/jrecm/200824080/00005292-200824080-00007

Sydney Research Online: Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a reviewSydney Research Online: Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a review

Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a review. Authors: Graham, Stuart Lindsay. Klistorner, Alexander. Central ... Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a review, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol.45, 1, 2017,pp 62-72. ...
more infohttps://sro.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/10765/132982

Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Cardiac and Vascular RegulationAutonomic Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Cardiac and Vascular Regulation

Afferent pathways. The afferent pathways have receptors residing in the viscera and are sensitive to mechanical, chemical, or ... and increasing activity of the afferent pathway results in decreasing activity of the sympathetic efferent pathway and/or ... The afferent pathways synapse locally or in the ganglia, spinal cord, and more rostral portions of the autonomic nervous system ... In the afferent pathways, arterial baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus, aortic arch, and various thoracic arteries ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1922943-overview

Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure...Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure...

Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure ... Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure ... The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in ... CONCLUSION: PMP22 deletion leads to functional, metabolic and macro-structural alterations in the afferent visual system of ...
more infohttp://edoc.mdc-berlin.de/16065/

Frontiers | Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work? | PsychologyFrontiers | Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work? | Psychology

... the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and ... the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and ... The Vagal Afferent Pathway. Several studies have reported that HRVB might be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and/ ... It is known that the vagal afferent pathways affect brain areas known to be involved in affect regulation and mood (locus ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00756/full

Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyFast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

The Afferent Pathway. Alimentary Tract-Derived Afferent Signals Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid octanoylated peptide hormone first ... Figure 1. Afferent (gray), central (black), and efferent (white) pathways in the regulation of energy balance. The hormones ... Insulin is part of both the afferent and efferent pathway; unraveling its dual role provides valuable insights into the ... receives afferent hormonal and neural signals related to energy balance, fat stores, and satiety. The main afferent signals ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/12/2451.full

Frontiers | Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets on Visceral Sensory Pathways | NeuroscienceFrontiers | Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets on Visceral Sensory Pathways | Neuroscience

There are many unanswered questions about mGluR along visceral afferent pathways, the answers to which may reveal many more ... The focus here is on mGluR in sensory pathways from the viscera, where they have been explored as therapeutic targets. Group I ... Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. Their role in ... Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. Their role in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2011.00040/full

Functional elimination of afferen... preview & related info | MendeleyFunctional elimination of afferen... preview & related info | Mendeley

... a marked decrease in the number of afferent pathways i... ... a marked decrease in the number of afferent pathways ... Functional elimination of afferent pathways and decreased safety factor during postembryonic development of cockroach giant ... From analysis of the mechanisms underlying the elimination of functional afferent pathways and the appearance of low safety ... Spira, M. E., & Yarom, Y. (1983). Functional elimination of afferent pathways and decreased safety factor during postembryonic ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/papers/functional-elimination-afferent-pathways-decreased-safety-factor-during-postembryonic-development-co/

May 2003 - Volume 46 - Issue 5 : Diseases of the Colon & RectumMay 2003 - Volume 46 - Issue 5 : Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

Rectal Heat Thresholds: A Novel Test of the Sensory Afferent Pathway. Chan, Christopher L. H.; Scott, Mark S.; Birch, Malcolm J ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/dcrjournal/toc/2003/46050

Afferent fiber - definition of afferent fiber by The Free DictionaryAfferent fiber - definition of afferent fiber by The Free Dictionary

afferent fiber synonyms, afferent fiber pronunciation, afferent fiber translation, English dictionary definition of afferent ... Noun 1. afferent fiber - a nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the central nervous system sensory fiber nerve fiber, nerve ... afferent fiber. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to afferent fiber: afferent pathway ... Somatosympathetic reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics.. Inclusion of height and limb length ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/afferent+fiber

Neural Processing of Acoustic and Electric Interaural Time Differences in Normal-Hearing Gerbils | Journal of NeuroscienceNeural Processing of Acoustic and Electric Interaural Time Differences in Normal-Hearing Gerbils | Journal of Neuroscience

comparison with afferent pathways. J Neurophysiol 79:253-269. doi:10.1152/jn.1998.79.1.253 pmid:9425196. ... 1981) HRP study of the organization of auditory afferents ascending to central nucleus of inferior colliculus in cat. J Comp ... 2018) Anatomical basis for parallel and interconnected non-ITD pathways from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate ... 2010) Selective electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve activates a pathways specialized for high temporal acuity. J ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/38/31/6949?ijkey=9f5d601fab707a5161f3be8e7fa90bd6529e93ce&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Review. The conditioned immune response | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesReview. The conditioned immune response | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

a) Afferent pathways: how the central nervous system receives signals from the peripheral immune system. It is as yet not ... Two possible pathways have been proposed: a systemic or humoral pathway and a neural pathway. For the systemic or humoral ... The efferent and afferent communication pathways employed by the CNS and the peripheral immune system as well as the central ... 2005 Activation in vagal afferents and central autonomic pathways: early responses to intestinal infection with Campylobacter ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1572/1799

PEN TORCH by opto shosho on PreziPEN TORCH by opto shosho on Prezi

AFFERANT PATHWAY DEFECTS. It is the paradoxical response of a pupil to light in the presence of a relative afferent pathway ... The afferent pathway. The efferent pathway:. The Light Reflex. The light reflex consist of simultaneous and equal constriction ... AFFERANT PATHWAY DEFECTS. TOTAL AFFERENT PATHWAY DEFECT (TAPD) OR AMAUROTIC PUPIL. Caused by a complete optic nerve or retinal ... Afferent pathway defects.. Efferent pathway defects. Abnormalities of pupillary reflexes.. Swinging Flashlight Test.. BY: Myada ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/qpoa5_gkfyot/pen-torch/

Transfer function analysis from arterial baroreceptor afferent activity to renal nerve activity in rabbits.Transfer function analysis from arterial baroreceptor afferent activity to renal nerve activity in rabbits.

Afferent Pathways / physiology. Animals. Aorta / innervation. Arteries / innervation*. Electrophysiology. Fourier Analysis. ... Our results suggest that over 0.02-0.3 Hz the relationship between arterial baroreceptor afferent nerve activity and RNA is ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Transfer-function-analysis-from-arterial/8304519.html

Presynaptic inhibition of tooth pulp afferents in the trigeminal nucleus during REM sleep.Presynaptic inhibition of tooth pulp afferents in the trigeminal nucleus during REM sleep.

In order to find whether presynaptic inhibition of tooth pulp afferents is enhanced in any phase of sleep or wakefulness, the ... Afferent Pathways / physiology. Animals. Cats. Dental Pulp / innervation*. Electric Stimulation. Evoked Potentials. Neural ... In order to find whether presynaptic inhibition of tooth pulp afferents is enhanced in any phase of sleep or wakefulness, the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Presynaptic-inhibition-tooth-pulp-afferents/7403738.html

Neuroanesthesia Flashcards by Tulip 549 | BrainscapeNeuroanesthesia Flashcards by Tulip 549 | Brainscape

Which afferent pathways are involved in the oculocardiac reflex? Ciliary nerves go to ciliary ganglion behind the orbit, and ... afferent: trigeminal. efferent: vagal. The first step in treatment is to eliminate the offending stimulus, followed by ... The afferent and efferent branches of the oculocardiac reflex include which two nerves respectively? ... T- bradycardia is often seen because the only intact efferent component of the baroreflex pathways in quadriplegic patients is ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/neuroanesthesia-1676013/packs/1922944

Afferent neuron | definition of afferent neuron by Medical dictionaryAfferent neuron | definition of afferent neuron by Medical dictionary

... afferent neuron explanation free. What is afferent neuron? Meaning of afferent neuron medical term. What does afferent neuron ... Looking for online definition of afferent neuron in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to afferent neuron: afferent pathway. afferent neuron. A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or ... 15] These afferent neurons are CGRP-immunoreactive, and are believed to mediate the spinal reflex pathways to the sympathetic ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/afferent+neuron

Respiratory Physiology MGL8Respiratory Physiology MGL8

Afferent pathways - glossopharyngeal (carotid body) and vagus *Effect - Hyperpnea, bronchoconstriction *Arterial Baroreceptors ... This suggests that afferent information, from the vagus nerves (and possibly the spinal cord) may be important in preventing ... The nucleus of the tractus solitarius is a primary projection site of visceral afferents from the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, ... The location of the DRG within this tract suggests that the DRG may function to integrate afferent information for the control ...
more infohttp://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/physiology/courses_respiratory_mgl8.aspx

简介和结构 - 感觉和躯体神经系统 | Coursera简介和结构 - 感觉和躯体神经系统 | Coursera

by now considering an efferent pathway, the somatic nervous system. So we talked about the afferent pathways coming into ... And then in the next section, were going to talk more about how the afferent ... And then were going to consider the efferent pathway through the somatic ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/sheng-li-xue/jian-jie-he-jie-gou-15yQK

Nakamura SI[au] - PubMed - NCBINakamura SI[au] - PubMed - NCBI

The afferent pathways of discogenic low-back pain. Evaluation of L2 spinal nerve infiltration. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Nakamura+SI%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
  • Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nucleus of the tractus solitarius is a primary projection site of visceral afferents from the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, including input from the arterial chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, stretch receptors in the heart and lungs, and many others. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • From these results and corresponding ones on flexors (Holmqvist and Lundberg 1961) it is postulated that secondary afferents in addition to the weak monosynaptic connexions (Kirkwood and Sears 1975) have disynaptic excitatory pathways and trisynaptic inhibitory pathways to both flexor and extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results demonstrate the important role of Kv1.1 in afferent chemosensory activity and suggest that mutations in the human Kv1.1 gene have functional consequences during stress responses that involve respiratory reflexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Some processes involved in this pattern are caused by known reflexes, some with modulatory functions, often controlled by different autonomic pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated Kv1.1 in the afferent limb of the carotid body chemoreflex (the major regulator in the response to hypoxia), consisting of the carotid body, petrosal ganglion, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (jneurosci.org)
  • Appelberg B, Hulliger M, Johansson H, Sojka P (1983) Actions on γ-motoneurones elicited by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferent fibres in the hind limb of the cat. (springer.com)
  • afferent pathway within the residual limb . (tripdatabase.com)
  • It is postulated that these group II EPSPs are mediated by an interneuronal pathway from the FRA which also supply interneuronal pathways giving inhibition to extensor or/and flexor motoneurones and excitation to flexors as postulated by Eccles and Lundberg (1959) and Holmqvist and Lundberg (1961). (springer.com)
  • Their role in visceral pain remains to be determined, but they have shown promise in inhibition of the triggering of gastro-esophageal reflux, via an action on mechanosensory gastric afferents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Latency measurements suggest that the minimal linkage is disynaptic in the excitatory interneuronal pathways and trisynaptic in the inhibitory pathways. (springer.com)
  • It is proposed that the group II actions of the flexor reflex pattern characterizing the anaesthetized low spinal cat are due to suppression of the inhibitory pathway to flexor motoneurones and the excitatory pathway to extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • Pulmonary inflation afferent information inhibits pneumotaxic center respiratory activity. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • The location of the DRG within this tract suggests that the DRG may function to integrate afferent information for the control of breathing. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in HNPP patients. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • CONCLUSION: PMP22 deletion leads to functional, metabolic and macro-structural alterations in the afferent visual system of HNPP patients. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Efferent visual pathway lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) may create a perception of oscillopsia, a visual disturbance in which objects appear to jiggle or move owing to nystagmus (involuntary eye movements). (medscape.com)
  • Optic neuritis is an inflammatory injury of the optic nerve that causes vision loss, which is common in MS. Some individuals with MS also experience homonymous visual field defects caused by lesions in retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway. (medscape.com)
  • Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording from motoneurones to knee flexors and ankle extensors. (springer.com)
  • In some ankle extensor motoneurones the disynaptic group II EPSPs occurred in combination with IPSPs from the FRA (including group II and III muscle afferents). (springer.com)
  • Appelberg B, Johansson H, Kalistratov G (1977) The influence of group II muscle afferents and low threshold skin afferents on dynamic fusimotor neurones to the triceps surae of the cat. (springer.com)
  • Ellaway PH, Murphy PR, Tripathi A (1982) Closely coupled excitation of γ-motoneurones by group III muscle afferents with low mechanical threshold in the cat. (springer.com)
  • The afferent activity of this chemosensory pathway is initiated at oxygen-sensitive cells in the carotid body that lies in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (jneurosci.org)