Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (1/2523)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (2/2523)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Gabapentin suppresses ectopic nerve discharges and reverses allodynia in neuropathic rats. (3/2523)

Repetitive ectopic discharges from injured afferent nerves play an important role in initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is effective for treatment of neuropathic pain but the sites and mechanisms of its antinociceptive actions remain uncertain. In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that therapeutic doses of gabapentin suppress ectopic afferent discharge activity generated from injured peripheral nerves. Mechanical allodynia, induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats, was determined by application of von Frey filaments to the hindpaw. Single-unit afferent nerve activity was recorded proximal to the ligated sciatic nerve site. Intravenous gabapentin, in a range of 30 to 90 mg/kg, significantly attenuated allodynia in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, gabapentin, in the same therapeutic dose range, dose-dependently inhibited the ectopic discharge activity of 15 injured sciatic afferent nerve fibers through an action on impulse generation. However, the conduction velocity and responses of 12 normal afferent fibers to mechanical stimulation were not affected by gabapentin. Therefore, this study provides electrophysiological evidence that gabapentin is capable of suppressing the ectopic discharge activity from injured peripheral nerves. This action may contribute, at least in part, to the antiallodynic effect of gabapentin on neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Varying the degree of single-whisker stimulation differentially affects phases of intrinsic signals in rat barrel cortex. (4/2523)

Using intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI), we have shown previously that the point spread of evoked activity in the rat barrel cortex in response to single-whisker stimulation encompasses a surprisingly large area. Given that our typical stimulation consists of five deflections at 5 Hz, the large area of evoked activity might have resulted from repetitive stimulation. Thus in the present study, we use ISI through the thinned skull to determine whether decreasing the degree of single-whisker stimulation decreases the area of the cortical point spread. We additionally outline a protocol to quantify stimulus-related differences in the temporal characteristics of intrinsic signals at a fine spatial scale. In 10 adult rats, whisker C2 was stimulated randomly with either one or five deflections delivered in a rostral-to-caudal fashion. Each deflection consisted of a 0.5-mm displacement of the whisker as measured at the point of contact, 15 mm from the snout. The number of whisker deflections did not affect the area or peak magnitude of the cortical point spread based on the intrinsic signal activity occurring from 0.5 up to 1.5 s poststimulus onset. In contrast, the magnitude and time course of intrinsic signal activity collected after 1.5-s poststimulus onset did reflect the difference in the degree of stimulation. Thus decreasing the degree of stimulation differentially affected the early and late phases of the evoked intrinsic signal response. The implications of the present results are discussed in respect to probable differences in the signal source underlying the early versus later phases of evoked intrinsic signals.  (+info)

Contribution of sensory feedback to the generation of extensor activity during walking in the decerebrate Cat. (5/2523)

In this investigation we have estimated the afferent contribution to the generation of activity in the knee and ankle extensor muscles during walking in decerebrate cats by loading and unloading extensor muscles, and by unilateral deafferentation of a hind leg. The total contribution of afferent feedback to extensor burst generation was estimated by allowing one hind leg to step into a hole in the treadmill belt on which the animal was walking. In the absence of ground support the level of activity in knee and ankle extensor muscles was reduced to approximately 70% of normal. Activity in the ankle extensors could be restored during the "foot-in-hole" trials by selectively resisting extension at the ankle. Thus feedback from proprioceptors in the ankle extensor muscles probably makes a large contribution to burst generation in these muscles during weight-bearing steps. Similarly, feedback from proprioceptors in knee extensor appears to contribute substantially to the activation of knee extensor muscles because unloading and loading these muscles, by lifting and dropping the hindquarters, strongly reduced and increased, respectively, the level of activity in the knee extensors. This conclusion was supported by the finding that partial deafferentation of one hind leg by transection of the L4-L6 dorsal roots reduced the level of activity in the knee extensors by approximately 50%, but did not noticeably influence the activity in ankle extensor muscles. However, extending the deafferentation to include the L7-S2 dorsal roots decreased the ankle extensor activity. We conclude that afferent feedback contributes to more than one-half of the input to knee and ankle extensor motoneurons during the stance phase of walking in decerebrate cats. The continuous contribution of afferent feedback to the generation of extensor activity could function to automatically adjust the intensity of activity to meet external demands.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. II. Responses To object texture and weights. (6/2523)

Three monkeys were trained to lift and hold a test object within a 12- to 25-mm position window for 1 s. The activity of single neurons was recorded during performance of the task in which both the weight and surface texture of the object were systematically varied. Whenever possible, each cell was tested with three weights (15, 65, and 115 g) and three textures (smooth metal, fine 200 grit sandpaper, and rough 60 grit sandpaper). Of 386 cells recorded in 3 monkeys, 45 cells had cutaneous receptive fields on the index or thumb or part of the thenar eminence and were held long enough to be tested in all 9 combinations of texture and weight. Recordings were made for the entire anterior-posterior extent of the thumb and index finger areas in somatosensory cortex including area 7b. However, the statistical analysis required a selection of only those cells for which nine complete recording conditions were available limiting the sample to cells in areas 2, 5, and 7b. Significant differences in the grip force accompanied 98% of the changes in texture and 78% of the changes in weight. Increasing the object weight also increased the force tangential to the skin surface as measured by the load or lifting force. The peak discharge during lifting was judged to be the most sensitive index of cell activity and was analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, peak cell discharge was normalized to allow comparisons among different combinations of texture and weight as well as comparisons among different neurons. Overall, the peak firing frequency of 87% of the cells was significantly modulated by changes in object texture, but changes in object weight affected the peak activity of only 58% of the cells. Almost all (17/18, 94%) of the static cells were influenced by the object texture, and 81% of the dynamic cells that were active only briefly at grip and lift onset were modulated by texture. For some cells, surface texture had a significant effect on neuronal discharge that was independent of the object weight. In contrast, weight-related responses were never simple main effects of the weight alone and appeared instead as significant interactions between texture and weight. Four neurons either increased or decreased activity in a graded fashion with surface structure (roughness) regardless of the object weight (P < 0.05). Ten other neurons showed increases or decreases in response to one or two textures, which might represent either a graded response or a tuning preference for a specific texture. The firing frequency of the majority (31/45) of neurons reflected an interaction of both texture and weight. The cells with texture-related but weight-independent activities were thought to encode surface characteristics that are largely independent of the grip and lifting forces used to manipulate the object. Such constancies could be used to construct internal representations or mental models for planning and controlling object manipulation.  (+info)

Distinct populations of NMDA receptors at subcortical and cortical inputs to principal cells of the lateral amygdala. (7/2523)

Fear conditioning involves the transmission of sensory stimuli to the amygdala from the thalamus and cortex. These input synapses are prime candidates for sites of plasticity critical to the learning in fear conditioning. Because N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in fear learning, we investigated the contribution of NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission at putative cortical and thalamic inputs using visualized whole cell recording in amygdala brain slices. Whereas NMDA receptors are present at both of these pathways, differences were observed. First, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor-mediated component of the synaptic response, relative to the NMDA component, is smaller at thalamic than cortical input synapses. Second, thalamic NMDA responses are more sensitive to Mg2+. These findings suggest that there are distinct populations of NMDA receptors at cortical and thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala. Differences such as these might underlie unique contributions of the two pathways to fear conditioning.  (+info)

Gating of afferent input by a central pattern generator. (8/2523)

Intracellular recordings from the sole proprioceptor (the oval organ) in the crab ventilatory system show that the nonspiking afferent fibers from this organ receive a cyclic hyperpolarizing inhibition in phase with the ventilatory motor pattern. Although depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current pulses injected into a single afferent will reset the ventilatory motor pattern, the inhibitory input is of sufficient magnitude to block afferent input to the ventilatory central pattern generator (CPG) for approximately 50% of the cycle period. It is proposed that this inhibitory input serves to gate sensory input to the ventilatory CPG to provide an unambiguous input to the ventilatory CPG.  (+info)

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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Responses and afferent pathways of superficial and deeper C,sub,1,/sub,-C,sub,2,/sub, spinal cells to intrapericardial algogenic chemicals in rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
Distension of the main pulmonary artery and its bifurcation are known to result in a reflex vasoconstriction and increased respiratory drive; however, these responses are observed at abnormally high distending pressures. In this study we recorded afferent activity from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors to investigate their stimulus-response characteristics and to determine whether they are influenced by physiological changes in intrathoracic pressure. In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, the pulmonary trunk and its main branches were vascularly isolated and perfused with venous blood at pulstatile pressures designed to simulate the normal pulmonary arterial pressure waveform. Afferent slips of a cervical vagus were dissected and nerve fibres identified that displayed discharge patterns with characteristics expected from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors. Recordings were obtained with (a) chest open (b) chest closed and resealed, and (c) with phasic negative ...
This is a list of medical mnemonics categorized and alphabetized. ABC - Airway, Breathing and Circulation AEIOU-TIPS - causes of altered mental status APGAR - a backronym for Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - Age, Sex, History, Injuries/illness, Condition, ETA/extra information FAST - Face, Arms, Speech, Time - stroke symptoms Hs and Ts - causes of cardiac arrest Is Path Warm? - suicide risk factors OPQRST - Onset, Provocation, Quality, Region, Severity, Time - symptom checklist RICE - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation - for sprains and bruises RNCHAMPS - mnemonic for the types of shock RPM-30-2-Can Do - mnemonic for START triage criteria SOCRATES - mnemonic used to evaluate characteristics of pain SOAP, a technique for writing medical records SLUDGE - Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric upset, and Emesis (effects of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning) Afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection exits. ...
My research interests are to investigate the mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic afferents activation and the associated central nervous system (CNS) reflex processing as well as modulation of electroacupuncture (EA) on CNS regulation of cardiovascular function. Studies of cardiac afferents activation are funded by a NIH grant (serve as CO-PI ). In these studies, I am investigating the mechanisms of activation and sensitization of cardiac afferents induced by multiple ischemic mediators including endothelins, thromboxane A2, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine, lactic acid (protons), reactive oxygen species and bradykinin (BK), which stimulate and/or sensitize cardiac spinal afferents during ischaemia and reperfusion in an interactive and multifactorial fashion. I am also studying the mechanisms underlying CNS reflex processing evoked by ischemic metabolites during myocardial ischemia ...
Long after a cut peripheral nerve reinnervates muscle and restores force production in adult cats, the muscle does not respond reflexively to stretch. Motivated by the likelihood that stretch areflexia is related to problems with sensing and controlling limb position after peripheral neuropathies, we sought to determine the underlying mechanism. Electrophysiological and morphological measurements were made in anesthetized rats having one of the nerves to the triceps surae muscles either untreated or cut and immediately rejoined surgically many months earlier. First, it was established that reinnervated muscles failed to generate stretch reflexes, extending observations of areflexia to a second species. Next, multiple elements in the sensorimotor circuit of the stretch reflex were examined in both the PNS and CNS. Encoding of muscle stretch by regenerated proprioceptive afferents was remarkably similar to normal, although we observed some expected abnormalities, e.g., increased length threshold. However,
To the Editor:. We read with interest the recent article by Zhang et al.1 The authors described secondary degeneration in remote regions after experimental cerebral ischemia, which could provide a target for stroke management. We completely agree that this is an appealing approach. However, the underlying pathology may be different in ischemic rodents and patients with stroke.. Remote areas such as the thalamus connected to the cortical infarct are affected because of delayed retrograde degeneration of afferent connections. This is associated with extensive and complex pathology including inflammatory reactions, β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, calcification, and angiogenesis in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion.2 The Aβ deposition is particularly robust after an ischemic insult, which starts as a diffuse aggregation and over time transforms into dense plaque-like deposits together with calcium in the ventroposterior medial and ventroposterior lateral nuclei.3,4 Altered ...
The cerebellar cortex comprises a few cell types and two main afferent systems arranged in a stereotyped synaptic pattern that is repeated monotonously throughout. The regularity of the laminated...
There are many other models that can simulate individual results presented here (Douglas and Martin, 1991; Ben-Yishai et al., 1995; Somers et al., 1995; Carandini and Ringach, 1997; Troyer et al., 1998; Adorján et al., 1999; Dragoi and Sur, 2000; Stetter et al., 2000) (for review, see Ferster and Miller, 2000; Seriès et al., 2003), and many of these models employ mechanisms similar to those used by PC/BC. However, the PC/BC model differs from these previous models in providing a computational explanation for the behavior of V1 neurons as well as providing a unified account of a number of processes that are currently considered, and modeled, in isolation. The model also makes testable predictions that are described in the supplemental material (available at www.jneurosci.org).. Consistent with previous models and neurophysiological results (Pei et al., 1994; Sompolinsky and Shapley, 1997; Xing et al., 2005), orientation tuning in the PC/BC model results from broadly tuned afferent excitation ...
Gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferents are a key mediatory of food intake. Through a balance of responses to chemical and mechanical stimuli food intake can be tightly controlled via the ascending satiety signals initiated in the GI tract. However, va
The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording from motoneurones to
In the Golli-tau-eGFP (GTE) transgenic mouse the reporter gene expression is largely confined to the layer of subplate neurons (SPn), providing an opportunity to study their intracortical and extracortical projections. In this study, we examined the thalamic afferents and layer IV neuron patterning in relation to the SPn neurites in the developing barrel cortex in GTE mouse at ages embryonic day 17 (E17) to postnatal day 14 (P14). Serotonin transporter immunohistochemistry or cytochrome oxydase histochemistry was used to reveal thalamic afferent patterning. Bizbenzimide staining identified the developing cytoarchitecture in coronal and tangential sections of GTE brains. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled neurites and thalamic afferents were both initially diffusely present in layer IV but by P4-P6 both assumed the characteristic periphery-related pattern and became restricted to the barrel hollows. This pattern gradually changed and by P10 the GFP-labelled neurites largely accumulated at
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [H-J Sun, H Zhou, X-M Feng, Q Gao, L Ding, C-S Tang, G-Q Zhu, Y-B Zhou].
The pain system involves a set of ascending pathways that convey nociceptive information from peripheral nociceptors via neuronal tracts of the spinal cord to the higher levels of the CNS.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Organization of Prefrontal-Striatal Connections. AU - Groenewegen, HJ. AU - Wouterlood, FG. AU - Uylings, HBM. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - This chapter describes the organization of the prefrontal-striatal projections. There exists a topographical relationship in these projections, such that sensorimotor cortices project to the dorsolateral part of the striatum, associative cortical regions to more ventral and medial regions, and the limbic cortical areas to the most ventromedial striatal areas. Whereas the parallel, segregated nature of these projections has been emphasized for a long time, more recent studies, taking into account the so-called focal and diffuse types of termination of cortical afferents in the striatum, show that there is considerable overlap between projections from different prefrontal cortical projection areas in the striatum. This allows for specific integration of information. Further, the relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatal ...
own identity that could bring you straight to the depressiontervistati. Sildenafil, Is marketed with dosages fromfixed and dose escalation studies (23) . In responders,resistance, it is stressed, âincreased production of endogenous genetic or ethnic-racial, comorbilità , the weight, the riskbeautiful 2).why increase the dimen-These potentially modifiable risk factors and causespeptide) and nitric oxide (NO). Is 3. the afferent pathways and byErectile dysfunction and diabetesGLP1 allows you to reach ambitious targets in safety and feel. All participants were subjected to the relief of the parameters cialis 20mg.. There are conditions that facilitate the1. Gebski V, Marschner I, Keech AC. Specifying objectives andza how much is deleterious on the-is not diagnosed. Cardiovascular disease (but-rea (29±5; 30±5; 29±4 kg/m2 in the three groups, respectively). âglycated hemoglobin, have not shown differences signi-and physical fitness in men aged 40â 75 years. Int J Impot a Mediterranean ...
t= [0:0.1:2*pi]; Inb1.time = t; Inb1.signals.values(:,1) = 2*sin(t); Inb1.signals.values(:,2) = 2*cos(t); t= [0:0.2:2*pi]; Inb2.time = t; Inb2.signals.values(:,1) = sin(2*t); t= [0:0.1:2*pi]; Inb3.time = t; Inb3.signals.values(:,1) = 0.5*sin(3*t); Inb3.signals.values(:,2) = 0.5*cos(3*t); save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb1; save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb2 -append; save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb3 -append; disp(rsim_i_multi_struct.mat contains three variables Inb1\Inb2\Inb3); disp(in struct format. Note that command save -append option must be); disp(used to generate the MAT-file to preserve the order of the); disp(variables in the MAT-file generated. The command:) disp(save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb1 Inb2 Inb3 might not preserve); disp(the order of the variables in the MAT-file and you should not use it); disp(to generate the MAT-file. ...
Im currently cutting for the next two months and need some input on what natural bulking stack would help me achieve the best goals possible. I was
The major unit of functionality of the lateral line is the neuromast. The neuromast is a mechanoreceptive organ which allows the sensing of mechanical changes in water. There are two main varieties of neuromasts located in animals, canal neuromasts and superficial or freestanding neuromasts. Superficial neuromasts are located externally on the surface of the body, while canal neuromasts are located along the lateral lines in subdermal, fluid filled canals. Each neuromast consists of receptive hair cells whose tips are covered by a flexible and jellylike cupula. Hair cells typically possess both glutamatergic afferent connections and cholinergic efferent connections.[12] The receptive hair cells are modified epithelial cells and typically possess bundles of 40-50 microvilli "hairs" which function as the mechanoreceptors.[13] These bundles are organized in rough "staircases" of hairs of increasing length order.[14] This use of mechanosensitive hairs is homologous to the functioning of hair cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced short- and long-latency afferent inhibition following acute muscle pain. T2 - A potential role in the recovery of motor output. AU - Burns, Emma. AU - Chipchase, Lucinda Sian. AU - Schabrun, Siobhan May. N1 - © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected] PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: . Corticomotor output is reduced in response to acute muscle pain, yet the mechanisms that underpin this effect remain unclear. Here the authors investigate the effect of acute muscle pain on short-latency afferent inhibition, long-latency afferent inhibition, and long-interval intra-cortical inhibition to determine whether these mechanisms could plausibly contribute to reduced motor output in pain.DESIGN: . Observational same subject pre-post test design.SETTING: . Neurophysiology research laboratory.SUBJECTS: . Healthy, right-handed human volunteers (n = 22, 9 male; mean age ± standard ...
The laterodorsal nucleus (LDN) of the thalamus provides a prominent afferent projection to the postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum). To characterize synaptic transmission in this pathway, we placed stimulating electrodes in the LDN and recorded fEPSPs elicited in the postsubiculum of urethane-anesthetized rats. LDN stimulation elicited a source-sink dipole between the deep and superficial layers of the postsubiculum, respectively, consistent with anatomical evidence for the termination of thalamic afferents in the superficial layers of the structure, and the existence of deep layer neurons with apical dendrites extending into these layers. Postsubicular fEPSPs were typically 0.5-1.0 mV in amplitude, with a peak latency of approximately 6 ms. Consistent with anatomical observations, the short onset latency of fEPSPs elicited by LDN stimulation, and their ability to follow a 60-Hz train of stimulation, indicate that the projection is monosynaptic. Paired-pulse stimulation revealed pronounced ...
The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an
Renal denervation decreases arterial pressure (AP) in hypertensive rats and humans. This procedure destroys both afferent and efferent nerves. Several investigators have proposed that renal afferent nerves contribute to the elevated AP. We developed a procedure to selectively remove renal afferent nerves with capsaicin (1-100 mM) both topically on the nerve and in the renal pelvis. We examined the effects of renal deafferentation on the development of genetic and renal hypertension. We studied spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and a model of renal hypertension, two kidney-one clip (2K1C) in Sprague-Dawley rats. SHR were treated at 3-4 weeks of age with capsaicin. Mean arterial pressure was recorded by tail cuff through 16 weeks of age. On week 17, rats were cannulated, allowed 3 days to recover then had their AP measured directly for 3 days (3 hrs/day). Rats with renal deafferentation (n=11) had lower arterial pressure weeks 9-16 (average reduction AP=10.1±1.4 mmHg, ANOVA, p=0.0049) ...
In: Kultas-Ilinsky K, Ilinsky IA, editors. Basal Ganglia and Thalamus in Health and Movement Disorders. New York: Kluwer Academic Plenum Press, pp. 61-67, 2001 Abstract Knowledge of the organization and connections of the basal ganglia has greatly advanced in recent years, and, concurrently, und ...
Vision systems satisfying the single viewpoint constraint are called central projection systems. The perspective camera is an example of a central projection system. The mapping of points in the scene into points in the image is linear in homogeneous coordinates, and can be described by a 3 × 4 projection matrix P (pin-hole model). Perspective projection can be modeled by intersecting a plane with a pencil of lines going through the scene points and the projection center O. There are central projection systems whose geometry can not be described using the conventional pin-hole model. Mt is composed of two lines m and l lying on the projective plane ℘2 . In this case the conic is said to be degenerate, the 3 ×3 symmetric matrix Ω is rank 2, and Equation (15) becomes ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ t t ⎥. Γ(m, l) ⎢ Ω = ml + lm −→ ω = ⎢ (16) ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2 0 0⎥ ⎣0 0 0 0 2 0⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 1 e D In a similar way a conic locus can be composed of a ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely cause of the migraine aura. CSD causes a signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents via transient opening of neuronal Pannexin-1 (Panx1) mega-channels ...
Afferent fibers originating in nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) project to both supra- and subdiaphragmatic viscera. Back ...
The present study demonstrates the TRPA1 was expressed in both bladder and DRG (L6-S1) and had a pronounced upregulation in DRG but more slight in mucosa in rat cystitis. The blockade of TRPA1 via intrathecal administration decreased afferent nerve activities and consequently attenuated detrusor overactivity markly. More recently, Tomonori et al. have shown that TRPA1 channel could improve afferent nerve activities of the rat bladder through both Aδ- and C-fibers pathway [16]. TRPA1 channels have been conducted in multiple-sensation modalities at present including mechanical, nociceptive, and thermal sensation in mammal [17-19].. However, the function of TRPA1 as nociceptor in the DRG innervating bladder is really quite controversial and further research is needed. We suppose the activation of TRPA1 receptors in DRG may lead to hyperalgesia, playing a role in enhanced impulse conduction and detrusor overactivity. We observed hematuria, severe submucosal edema, hemorrhage, ulceration, congestion ...
The present results replicate our previous finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are not necessary for the feeding-suppressive effects of intraperitoneal IL-1β and LPS and extend those findings to include another bacterial cell wall compound, MDP. Our functional test of complete subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation confirmed in both SDA and COM groups that low doses of CCK (4 μg/kg) failed to suppress food intake. Furthermore, these data reveal that neither splanchnic nor vagal subdiaphragmatic visceral afferents are necessary to mediate the hypophagia produced by intraperitoneal administration of IL-1β, LPS, or MDP, because combined subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy failed to alter the ability of these compounds to suppress feeding.. The present finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferent fibers are not required for the hypophagic effect of intraperitoneal IL-1β, LPS, or MDP is consistent with results from other studies showing ...
title: The synaptic microcircuitry associated with primary afferent terminals in the interpolaris and caualis of trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.08.042, category: Article
We have examined the organization of muscle afferent projections to motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of chick embryos between stage 37, when muscle afferents first reach the motor nucleus, and stage 44, which is just before hatching. Connectivity between afferents and motoneurons was assessed by stimulating individual muscle nerves and recording the resulting motoneuron synaptic potentials intracellularly or electrotonically from other muscle nerves. Most of the recordings were made in the presence of DL-2-amino-5- phosphonovaleric acid (APV), picrotoxin, and strychnine to block long- latency excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Activation of muscle afferents evoked slow, positive potentials in muscle nerves but not in cutaneous nerves. These potentials were abolished in 0 mM Ca2+, 2mM Mn2+ solutions, indicating that they were generated by the action of chemical synapses. The muscle nerve recordings revealed a wide-spread pattern of excitatory connections between afferents and ...
This study has demonstrated that systemically administered CCK produces inhibition of a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons via a mechanism that is dependent on intact subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and central NMDA receptors.. Interruption of vagal afferent traffic arising in subdiaphragmatic branches of the vagus was achieved by topical application of the local anesthetic lidocaine. It was expected that this treatment would abolish the neuronal responses to CCK but not PBG, because subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are responsive to systemically administered CCK and PBG activates 5-HT3 receptors located on cardiopulmonary vagal afferents (19, 21). This prediction proved correct because lidocaine application to the subdiaphragmatic vagi blocked the response to systemic CCK but not PBG. This finding also suggests that the lidocaine did not spread sufficiently to anesthetize cardiopulmonary vagal afferents. We (16) have previously observed that the inhibitory responses of RVLM ...
The cerebral cortex, which underlies higher brain functions, has undergone a large expansion in size during mammalian evolution, most notably in the primate lineage (Rakic, 1988; Caviness and Takahashi, 1995; Northcutt and Kaas, 1995; Rakic, 1995). Although many intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence cortical size and cytoarchitecture, such as patterns of neuronal migration (Letinic et al., 2002; Kriegstein and Noctor, 2004; Bystron et al., 2006), thalamic afferents (Windrem and Finlay, 1991; Dehay et al., 2001) and the diversification of subventricular zone neural progenitors (Smart et al., 2002; Haubensak et al., 2004; Miyata et al., 2004; Noctor et al., 2004; Fish et al., 2008), an increase in neuron number during brain development and evolution is ultimately controlled by the number and modes of division of neural progenitors in the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (Götz and Huttner, 2005; Kriegstein et al., 2006; Fish et al., 2008).. According to the radial unit ...
The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. Two weeks after a unilateral hippocampal aspiration, the 22Na efflux induc
Both cell types generic kamagra super 160mg without a prescription, in conjunction with enteric microbiota produce a variety of signalling molecules that can activate a number of receptors on extrinsic primary afferent neurons buy kamagra super 160 mg with visa. Therefore, endocrine, neuronal and immune signals are all integrated and are sent to specific brain regions and may alter cognition, mood and emotions. The stomach is predominantly governed by vago-vagal reflexes, thus signals arising from extrinsic and intrinsic neurons are relatively weak. In the intestines, intrinsic primary afferent neurons and enteric motorneurons are important for intestinal function afferents are much stronger in the intestine, which are reliant on these signals [17]. Inter- estingly, some of these intrinsic afferents are normally unresponsive to mechanical stimuli, and only become responsive during periods of inflammation [33]. These terminals contain chemosensitive receptors, which are responsive to the ...
Stimulating the vagus nerve supports that tempering effect, but it can also somewhat excite the part of the nervous system that stimulates the immune response, which is counterproductive if youre looking to calm it.. "Every circuit has a path coming from the brain and one going to the brain, and when you stimulate electrically, you usually have no control over which one you get. You usually get both." Patel said. These paths are often in the same nerve being stimulated.. The path leaving the brain and going toward other organs, called the efferent pathway, is the one to stimulate to temper the immune system and help relieve chronic inflammatory conditions. The one going to the brain, called the afferent pathway, if stimulated, leads eventually to the hypothalamus, a pea-sized region in the center of the brain. That triggers a chain of hormonal responses, eventually releasing cytokines, messaging molecules that promote inflammation.. "You get a heightened inflammatory response when you stimulate ...
We describe a computational model of the principal cell in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb), the medium spiny projection (MSP) neuron. The model neuron, constructed in NEURON, includes all of the known ionic currents in these cells and receives synaptic input from simulated spike trains via NMDA, AMPA, and GABAA receptors. ... results suggest that afferent information integration by the NAcb MSP cell may be compromised by pathology in which the NMDA current is altered or modulated, as has been proposed in both schizophrenia and addiction ...
We describe a computational model of the principal cell in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb), the medium spiny projection (MSP) neuron. The model neuron, constructed in NEURON, includes all of the known ionic currents in these cells and receives synaptic input from simulated spike trains via NMDA, AMPA, and GABAA receptors. ... results suggest that afferent information integration by the NAcb MSP cell may be compromised by pathology in which the NMDA current is altered or modulated, as has been proposed in both schizophrenia and addiction ...
It has been clear for almost two decades that cortical representations in adult animals are not fixed entities, but rather, are dynamic and are continuously modified by experience. The cortex can preferentially allocate area to represent the particular peripheral input sources that are proportionall …
The Estimates and Projections (E&P) database is the most extensive update available, covering a broad range of demographic characteristics for the current year, and 5-year projections. Variables include:. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation by serotonin of the neurons in rat nucleus raphe magnus in vitro. AU - Pan, Z. Z.. AU - Wessendorf, M. W.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Nucleus raphe magnus contains a large population of raphe-spinal serotonergic neurons that are thought to be involved in descending control of pain transmission and the modulation of opioid analgesia. Intracellular recordings were made from nucleus raphe magnus neurons in the slice preparation. Cells were divided into two groups, primary and secondary cells, based on the action potential waveform and response to opioids, as reported previously. In some experiments, cells were filled with biocytin and 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing cells were identified immunohistochemically. Of the primary cells that were filled with biocytin, 93% stained for 5-hydroxytryptamine; 90% of biocytin-filled secondary cells were unlabeled for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Previous studies have shown that primary cells are disinhibited by opioids; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac vagal afferent stimulation by free radicals during ischaemia and reperfusion. AU - Schultz, Harold D.. AU - Ustinova, Elena E.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - 1. Myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion can evoke excitation of cardiac vagal afferent nerve endings and activation of a cardiogenic depressor reflex (Bezold-Jarisch effect). We postulate that oxygen free radicals, which are well known to be produced during ischaemia and reperfusion, contribute to this excitation. 2. Activity from vagal afferent fibres in rats, whose endings were located in the walls of all four chambers of the heart, was recorded in response to topical application of pro-oxidant chemicals to the surface of the heart. Activity was also recorded from vagal afferent fibres, whose endings were located in the left ventricle, in response to occlusion of the left anterior coronary artery (LAC) for 30 min and subsequent reperfusion. A majority of the recorded fibres were classified as chemosensitive ...
Selective reduction in or augmentation of intrasplenic NO caused a respective increase or decrease in systemic blood pressure. The same doses of pharmacological agents were without effect when administered systemically. The increase in MAP in response to intrasplenic L-NMMA was abolished by interrupting either the splenic or the renal nerves. It was also inhibited by administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril. On the basis of these results, we propose that the spleen participates in the regulation of blood pressure through a reflex pathway, whereby changes in splenic afferent nerve activity reflexly alter renal sympathetic control of renin release. The subsequent rise in circulating angiotensin II levels would act directly on the vasculature to raise total peripheral resistance. Angiotensin II could also alter central control of blood pressure by accessing the brain at the circumventricular organs.8. There is both structural and functional evidence to support the existence of such a reflex ...
NEUROANATOMY. General organization of the nervous system. Meningeal coverings and the ventricular system. The spinal cord: external and internal organization. The spinal nerves. The brain stem: external and internal organization. Main nuclei of the brain stem. The tectum. The reticular formation. The cranial nerves. The cerebellum: external and internal organization. Nuclei and cerebellar cortex. The diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, basic facts on epithalamus and subthalamus. The telencephalon: external configuration. The cerebral cortex. The basal nuclei. Organization of the telencephalic white matter. Overview of the limbic system. The ippocampus. Cerebral specializations. Afferent systems. Overview of the different receptor types. Exteroceptive and proprioceptive sensory receptors. Ascending sensory pathways. The olfactory receptors and and the olfaction pathway. The gustatory receptors and the taste pathway. The eye and the visual system. The ear and the auditory and vestibular systems. ...
Stroke are the main causes of motor disability among adults and are expected to impose an increasing social and economic burden for our Country. The impact of stroke on patients is enormous, with negative ramifications on the persons participation in social, vocational, and recreational activities. It is the primary cause of long-term disability in these countries. At the present stage, it is well known that control of balance during upright standing depends upon the central integration of afferent information from vestibular, somatosensory (proprioceptive, tactile), and visual systems, which constitute a multilink neural network for the control of neck, hip, and ankle joints. More recently, it has been studied at the level of cerebral cortex; vestibular inputs would reach face/neck representation of primary somatosensory cortex and would be then integrated with visual and somatosensory inputs in intraparietal, posterior end of the insula and medial superior temporal cortices. Remarkably, ...
A neuroanatomical review of the pain pathway, "Afferent pain pathways" by Almeida, describes various specific nociceptive ... "Afferent pain pathways: a neuroanatomical review." Brain Research, 1000(1-2), 40-56. Apkarian, A. V.; Bushnell, M. C.; Treede, ... Norman Doidge, the brain is limited in the sense that it tends to focus on the most used pathways. Therefore, having a common ... Then, there are also the descending pathways for the modulation of pain sensation. One of the brainstem regions responsible for ...
This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ... The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant ... This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent ...
A relatively small afferent contribution is present. The efferent pathways include the cerebellorubral, dentatothalamic, and ... Afferent pathways include the anterior spinocerebellar and tectocerebellar tracts. The fibers of the anterior spinocerebellar ...
"Central pathways responsible for depolarization of primary afferent fibres". J. Physiol.(Gr.Brit.). 65 (2): 237-257. Kostyuk, P ...
"Parallel "Pain" Pathways Arise from Subpopulations of Primary Afferent Nociceptor." Science Direct. 15 Sept. 2005. Web. 28 Mar ... The peduncle is not part of the lateral-spinothalamic-tract-pathway; the medulla receives the info and passes it onto the ...
... pathways arise from subpopulations of primary afferent nociceptor". Neuron. 47: 787-93. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.015. PMID ... Cao, Y.Q.; Mantyh, P.W.; Carlson, E.J.; Gillespie, A.-M.; Epstein, C.J.; Basbaum, A.I. (1998). "Primary afferent tachykinins ... Liu, H.; Mantyh, P.W.; Basbaum, A.I. (1997). "NMDA-receptor regulation of substance P release from primary afferent nociceptors ... "TRPV1-expressing primary afferents generate behavioral responses to pruritogens via multiple mechanisms". Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
The signaling pathway of the peripheral mechanism uses afferent vagal to hypothalamic centers. The central responses are ... mediated through a pathway including serotonergic and opioidergic components. Inveterately, enterostatin cuts fat intake, ...
Visceral afferent fibers go to spinal cord following pathway of pelvic splanchnic nerve fibers. In the distal 1/3 of the ... They contain both preganglionic parasympathetic fibers as well as visceral afferent fibers. ...
The ascending or afferent pathways to the cerebellum are the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts. They are involved in ... The Ib afferent axon is a large diameter, myelinated axon. Each neurotendinous spindle is enclosed in a fibrous capsule which ... Ib afferents synapse with interneurons that are within the spinal cord that also project to the brain cerebellum and cerebral ... Each tendon organ is innervated by a single afferent type Ib sensory nerve fiber (Aɑ fiber) that branches and terminates as ...
The afferent pathways to the LRN come from the spinal cord and higher brain structures. Most of the afferents come from the ... The subtrigeminal nucleus sends its projections to the flocculonodular lobe.[citation needed] All of these efferent pathways ...
In the spinal cord reflex pathway the afferent neuron transmits information to spinal cord interneurons. These interneurons act ... The axon reflex pathway does not include an integration center or synapse that relays communication between neurons in the ... Langley defined this pathway as "axon reflex." In the early 20th century, British cardiologist Sir Thomas Lewis researched ... Acetylcholine also activates sudomotor fibers and primary afferent nociceptors, triggering axon reflexes in both. However, with ...
Wang, S. C.; Borison, Herbert L. (1951). "Copper Sulphate Emesis: A Study of Afferent Pathways from the Gastrointestinal Tract ... Stimulation of different receptors are involved in different pathways leading to emesis, in the final common pathway substance ...
By contrast, in polysynaptic reflex pathways, one or more interneurons connect afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) signals ... A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the ... A reflex arc, then, is the pathway followed by nerves which (a.) carry sensory information from the receptor to the spinal cord ... During a somatic reflex, nerve signals travel along the following pathway: Somatic receptors in the skin, muscles and tendons ...
The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on each side has an afferent limb and two efferent limbs. The afferent limb has nerve ... therefore the left afferent limb is damaged. The rest of the pupillary light reflex neural pathway on both sides are otherwise ... The afferent limb carries sensory input. Anatomically, the afferent limb consists of the retina, the optic nerve, and the ... Right afferent limb is intact, but left efferent limb, left CN III, is damaged.) For example, in a person with abnormal left ...
It enhances bladder storage via suppression of the afferent limb of the micturition reflex pathway. Fujimura, M.; Izumimoto, N ...
"Acute and chronic changes in dorsal horn innervation by primary afferents and descending supraspinal pathways after spinal cord ... Both pathways depend on the production of chemokines and other molecules important in the inflammatory response. A very ... Mechanoreceptors follow the same general pathway. However, they do not cross over at the level of the spinal cord, but at the ... TNF-alpha then binds to the TNF receptors expressed on nociceptors, activating the MAPK/NF-kappa B pathways. This leads to the ...
... a newly identified protein of the afferent auditory pathway, cause DFNB59 auditory neuropathy". Nat. Genet. United States. 38 ( ...
The secondary nerve association involves an efferent and afferent pathway that measure the stress and strain placed on the ... The afferent pathway resembles a spring wrapping around the nuclear chain fiber and connecting to one of its ends away from the ... The afferent innervation is via type Ia sensory fibers and type II sensory fibers. These project to the nucleus proprius in the ... Again, depending on the stress and strain the muscles sustains, this afferent and efferent coordination will measure the " ...
"Effects of monoamines on interneurons in four spinal reflex pathways from group I and/or group II muscle afferents". Eur. J. ... "Comparison of Effects of Various Types of NA and 5-HT Agonists on Transmission from Group II Muscle Afferents in the Cat". The ...
Neuropathic itch can originate at any point along the afferent pathway as a result of damage of the nervous system. They could ... The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are unmyelinated C-fibres. Two major classes of human C- ... Andrew D, Craig AD (2001). "Spinothalamic lamina I neurons selectively sensitive to histamine: a central neural pathway for ... Touch-evoked hyperalgesia requires continuous firing of primary afferent nociceptors, and punctuate hyperalgesia does not ...
The spasticity occurs when the afferent pathways in the brain are compromised and the communication between the brain to the ... Cerebral Palsy~clinical at eMedicine el-Abd MA, Ibrahim IK (March 1994). "Impaired afferent control in patients with spastic ... The theory behind constraint-induced movement therapy is that new neural pathways are created. Alternative forms of physical ...
... learning and in the afferent pain pathway. It is expressed throughout the CNS with high levels in the substantia nigra, ...
1.) Vagovagal Reflex Distention activates an afferent pathway which in turn stimulates efferent response from the dorsal ... 2.) Local ENS Pathway Activated ENS releases ACh stimulating parietal cells to secrete acid. As dietary protein is digested, it ... ACh is secreted by parasympathetic nerve fibers of both the short and long reflex ,.ml; pathways. Histamine is a paracrine ...
... where the neurons in the digestive tract communicate through both afferent and efferent pathways with the vagus nerve. The ... It functions as a pathway for the innervation in the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal wall. Functional gastrointestinal (GI ... Genetics and pharmacogenetics of aminergic transmitter pathways in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Pharmacogenomics. ...
... and have a particularly important role in signal conduction in afferent pain pathways. The proposed molecular mode of action of ... a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway". Nature. 389 (6653): 816-24. doi:10.1038/39807. PMID 9349813. Premkumar, LS; ...
Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting.[36] ... Substance P coexists with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation.[ ... Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... "Delineation of the endocytic pathway of substance P and its seven-transmembrane domain NK1 receptor". Molecular Biology of the ...
Kv1.1 deletion augments the afferent hypoxic chemosensory pathway and respiration. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 30;25(13):3389-99. ... Both reflex pathways result from activation of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. Determining the mechanism ... Sensory afferent and hypoxia-mediated activation of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons that project to the rostral ... Dopamine inhibits N-type channels in visceral afferents to reduce synaptic transmitter release under normoxic and chronic ...
The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats ... Lundberg A, Malmgren K, Schomburg ED (1987b) Reflex path-ways from group II muscle afferents. 3. Secondary spindle afferents ... cutaneous afferents and joint afferents. It is postulated that these group II EPSPs are mediated by an interneuronal pathway ... Reflex path-ways from group II muscle afferents. 2. Functional characteristics of reflex pathways to α-motoneurones. Exp Brain ...
... Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008 Aug;20(8):877-83. doi: ... Increased oesophageal afferent pain sensitivity may play an important role in a subset of NERD and could offer an alternate ... with heightened afferent sensitivity as normal latency evoked potential responses could be elicited with reduced afferent input ... We demonstrate that NERD patients form a continuum of oesophageal afferent sensitivity with a correlation between the degree of ...
Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ... Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ... In the present study, we examined the role of Kv1.1 in the afferent pathway of the carotid body chemoreflex. In the carotid ... Kv1.1 Deletion Augments the Afferent Hypoxic Chemosensory Pathway and Respiration. David D. Kline, Maria C. F. Buniel, Patricia ...
Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European ... Chronic cough: ATP, afferent pathways and hypersensitivity. Richard D. Turner, Surinder S. Birring ...
... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... Afferent Visual Pathway Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis. Optic neuritis. Optic neuritis is an inflammatory injury of the ... Costello F. The afferent visual pathway: designing a structural-functional paradigm of multiple sclerosis. ISRN Neurol. 2013. ...
Both afferent and efferent nerve pathways in the atonic bladder can be reconstructed by suprasacral motor-to-motor and sensory- ... Bypassing Spinal Cord Injury: Surgical Reconstruction of Afferent and Efferent Pathways to the Urinary Bladder after Conus ... Afferent and efferent nerve function in the atonic bladder caused by conus medullaris injury in a rat model was established by ...
Afferent Pathways. The afferent pathways triggering the various forms of reflex syncope are less well understood. While space ... Presumably, the increase in venous return leads to interruption of the afferent pathways that triggered the reflex in the first ... Also, while the afferent limb may differ among the various forms of reflex syncope, the efferent limb is seemingly relatively ... Efferent Pathways. As noted above, syncope, except in rare circumstances such as hypoxia, results from transient failure of CBF ...
... may have an effect in improving the voiding functions through an inhibition of the neuronal activity in the afferent pathways ... investing the effects of tamsulosin and sildenafil and comparing the degree of the suppressive effects on the afferent pathways ... Kim, S., Ko, I., Hwang, L. et al. An animal study to compare the degree of the suppressive effects on the afferent pathways of ... The degree of the expression of c-Fos and NGF in the afferent pathways of micturition was analyzed based on the number of c-Fos ...
Afferent pathways. The afferent pathways have receptors residing in the viscera and are sensitive to mechanical, chemical, or ... and increasing activity of the afferent pathway results in decreasing activity of the sympathetic efferent pathway and/or ... The afferent pathways synapse locally or in the ganglia, spinal cord, and more rostral portions of the autonomic nervous system ... In the afferent pathways, arterial baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus, aortic arch, and various thoracic arteries ...
As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical ... The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been ... From: The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats ...
... the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and ... the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and ... The Vagal Afferent Pathway. Several studies have reported that HRVB might be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and/ ... It is known that the vagal afferent pathways affect brain areas known to be involved in affect regulation and mood (locus ...
Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure ... Afferent visual pathway affection in patients with PMP22 deletion-related hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure ... The objective of this study was to identify potential structural and functional alterations in the afferent visual system in ... CONCLUSION: PMP22 deletion leads to functional, metabolic and macro-structural alterations in the afferent visual system of ...
Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a review. Authors: Graham, Stuart Lindsay. Klistorner, Alexander. Central ... Afferent visual pathways in multiple sclerosis: a review, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol.45, 1, 2017,pp 62-72. ...
The Afferent Pathway. Alimentary Tract-Derived Afferent Signals Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid octanoylated peptide hormone first ... Figure 1. Afferent (gray), central (black), and efferent (white) pathways in the regulation of energy balance. The hormones ... Insulin is part of both the afferent and efferent pathway; unraveling its dual role provides valuable insights into the ... receives afferent hormonal and neural signals related to energy balance, fat stores, and satiety. The main afferent signals ...
Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle. / Coleridge, H. M.; Coleridge, J. C.G.; Schultz, H. D. ... Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1989;42(1):1-63. https ... Coleridge, H. M. ; Coleridge, J. C.G. ; Schultz, H. D. / Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth ... title = "Afferent pathways involved in reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle",. author = "Coleridge, {H. M.} and Coleridge ...
There are many unanswered questions about mGluR along visceral afferent pathways, the answers to which may reveal many more ... The focus here is on mGluR in sensory pathways from the viscera, where they have been explored as therapeutic targets. Group I ... Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. Their role in ... Many inhibitory mGluR are also expressed in visceral afferents, many of which markedly reduce excitability. Their role in ...
afferent fiber synonyms, afferent fiber pronunciation, afferent fiber translation, English dictionary definition of afferent ... Noun 1. afferent fiber - a nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the central nervous system sensory fiber nerve fiber, nerve ... afferent fiber. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to afferent fiber: afferent pathway ... Somatosympathetic reflexes: afferent fibers, central pathways, discharge characteristics.. Inclusion of height and limb length ...
Orienting toward threat: Contributions of a subcortical pathway transmitting retinal afferents to the amygdala via the superior ... Orienting toward threat: Contributions of a subcortical pathway transmitting retinal afferents to the amygdala via the superior ... Probabilistic diffusion tractography was used to provide the first direct evidence for a subcortical pathway from the retina to ... suggesting that afferents via the retinotectal tract contributed to the bias. Probabalistic tractography was used to virtually ...
The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Afferent ... The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. In: The Japanese journal of physiology. 1985 ; Vol. ... Fukuda H, Fukai K. The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. The Japanese journal of ... Fukuda, H & Fukai, K 1985, The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog, The Japanese journal of ...
The influence of hind leg extensor muscle afferents on the timing of locomotor phase transitions was examined in adult, ... Effects of extensor muscle afferents on the timing of locomotor activity during walking in adult rats Brain Res. 1997 Feb 28; ... Afferent Pathways / physiology* * Animals * Cats * Electric Stimulation / instrumentation * Electric Stimulation / methods * ... Large diameter muscle afferents innervating the lateral or medial gastrocnemius were electrically stimulated during walking. A ...
Rectal Heat Thresholds: A Novel Test of the Sensory Afferent Pathway. Chan, Christopher L. H.; Scott, Mark S.; Birch, Malcolm J ...
This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ... The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant ... The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent ...
Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express the cholecystokinin (CCK) type 1 receptor Posted on December 7, 2018. by ... Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express the cholecystokinin (CCK) type 1 receptor (CCK1R) and, as predicted with the role of CCK ...
Our results indicate that both a hormonal pathway and a renal sympathetic afferent pathway conduct information from the kidney ... Our results indicate that both a hormonal pathway and a renal sympathetic afferent pathway conduct information from the kidney ... Our results indicate that both a hormonal pathway and a renal sympathetic afferent pathway conduct information from the kidney ... Our results indicate that both a hormonal pathway and a renal sympathetic afferent pathway conduct information from the kidney ...
  • Dopamine inhibits N-type channels in visceral afferents to reduce synaptic transmitter release under normoxic and chronic intermittent hypoxic conditions. (missouri.edu)
  • For example, binding of PRR can lead to activation of the afferent vagus nerve, which communicates neuronal signals via the lower brain stem (nucleus tractus solitarius) to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and amygdala. (biologists.org)
  • In the knee, they are located in the retinaculum, fat pad, synovium, and periosteum, 10 and all these structures may play a role in the tendon pain pathway. (bmj.com)
  • These properties are consistent with input from koniocellular or "W-like" ganglion cells in the retina and suggest that blue-off cells, as previously shown for blue-on cells, could contribute to cortical mechanisms for visual perception via the koniocellular pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike cells in the parvocellular (PC) and ventral (magnocellular) layers, the constituent cells of koniocellular pathways show diverse functional properties and widespread cortical terminations and are considered to have arisen early in the evolutionary history of the visual system ( 7 ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The interruption of afferent and efferent brain-body pathways promotes extensive cortical reorganization. (mdpi.com)
  • Within this context, cortical and subcortical control, pathways and functions of the different types of eye movement systems will also be investigated. (edu.au)
  • The medial basal hypothalamus (21.0%), amygdala (13.5%), septum (13.5%), hippocampus (8.5%) and olfactory tubercle and further rostral cortical region (17.0%) are the other main sites of origin of supraoptic nucleus afferents. (springer.com)
  • A series of studies by Smith and colleagues ( 24 , 37 , 38 , 43 ) using a decerebrate rat preparation has suggested that in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs), both mechanically and chemically sensitive muscle afferents engaged during skeletal muscle contraction are stimulated excessively compared with those in normotensive rats, thereby evoking exaggerated sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to contraction. (physiology.org)
  • From these results and corresponding ones on flexors (Holmqvist and Lundberg 1961) it is postulated that secondary afferents in addition to the weak monosynaptic connexions (Kirkwood and Sears 1975) have disynaptic excitatory pathways and trisynaptic inhibitory pathways to both flexor and extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • There was an internal latency difference for the two excitatory pathways that would, if left uncompensated, position the ITD response function too far outside the physiological range to be useful for estimating ITD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We provide objective evidence that increased oesophageal pain sensitivity in reflux negative NERD is associated with heightened afferent sensitivity as normal latency evoked potential responses could be elicited with reduced afferent input. (nih.gov)
  • The twenty first century has seen a revolution in our understanding of the receptor systems and regulatory pathways that underlie the responses of these specialised cells to the occurrence of tissue damage. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We found that the cells exhibiting blue-off responses are largely segregated to the koniocellular pathway. (pnas.org)
  • SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Common interneurones in reflex pathways from group 1a and 1b afferents of knee flexors and extensors in the cat. (gu.se)
  • Several stretch-induced signaling cascades have been described with multiple levels of crosstalk between the different pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Probabilistic diffusion tractography was used to provide the first direct evidence for a subcortical pathway from the retina to the amygdala, via the superior colliculus and pulvinar, that transmits visual stimuli signaling threat. (cf.ac.uk)
  • It is thought that on-type signals for blue-yellow color vision are carried by cells in a distinct, diffusely projecting (koniocellular) pathway, but the pathway taken by blue-off signals is not known. (pnas.org)
  • By contrast, the divergence of M and L cones to yield red-green signals in PC pathway cells occurred relatively recently (≈15 million years ago) in the evolution of the primate visual system ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, transmits starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagus afferent nerve. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The influence of hind leg extensor muscle afferents on the timing of locomotor phase transitions was examined in adult, decerebrate rats, walking on a treadwheel. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this study also show major differences in the integration of extensor muscle afferents between adult and neonatal rats. (nih.gov)
  • It is proposed that the group II actions of the flexor reflex pattern characterizing the anaesthetized low spinal cat are due to suppression of the inhibitory pathway to flexor motoneurones and the excitatory pathway to extensor motoneurones. (springer.com)
  • In some ankle extensor motoneurones the disynaptic group II EPSPs occurred in combination with IPSPs from the FRA (including group II and III muscle afferents). (springer.com)
  • Olfactory Pathways" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)