Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 126.96.36.199.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Genes, p16: Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Deoxyribonuclease HpaII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 188.8.131.52). It recognizes and cleaves the sequences C/CGG and GGC/C at the slash. HpaII is from Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 184.108.40.206.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16: A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15: An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing four ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. INK4B is often inactivated by deletions, mutations, or hypermethylation in HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.snRNP Core Proteins: The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.Histone Demethylases: Enzymes that catalyse the removal of methyl groups from LYSINE or ARGININE residues found on HISTONES. Many histone demethylases generally function through an oxidoreductive mechanism.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 220.127.116.11.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Protein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases: A family of histone demethylases that share a conserved Jumonji C domain. The enzymes function via an iron-dependent dioxygenase mechanism that couples the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate to the hydroxylation of N-methyl groups.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 18.104.22.168.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesAdenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF: A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It antagonizes the function of MDM2 PROTEIN (which regulates P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN by targeting it for degradation). p14ARF is produced from the beta mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced alpha transcript, is CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Epigenetic Repression: The turning off of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION in certain regions of CHROMATIN without changes in the DNA sequence. Typically epigenetic repression is a way that developmental changes are programmed at the cellular level.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Cyclin A1: A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mice, Inbred C57BLGenome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Genes, Intracisternal A-Particle: Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 22.214.171.124.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.GuanineOxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Angelman Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Fang M, Chen D, Yang CS (January 2007). "Dietary polyphenols may affect DNA methylation". J. Nutr. 137 (1 Suppl): 223S-228S. ... "Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells". PLoS ... One example that seems to refute this biophysical model for methylation is that tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is ... The idea that modifications act as docking modules for related factors is borne out by histone methylation as well. Methylation ...
In this cancer, DERL3 methylations seems to mediate the Warburg Effect. ... and affecting the exercised limbs. Some patients may also have epilepsy, most commonly childhood absence epilepsy. Mild mental ... "A DERL3-associated defect in the degradation of SLC2A1 mediates the Warburg effect". Nature Communications. 5: 3608. Bibcode ...
The results indicate that RNA polymerase II CTD truncation mutations affect the ability to induce transcription of a subset of ... Based on histone post translational modifications - phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquination. See: chromatin ... TFIIE affects TFIIH's catalytic activity. Without TFIIE, TFIIH will not unwind the promoter. ... As for initiation, protein interference, seen as the "drug/sequence-dependent arrest affected factors" and "RNA Pol II ...
The first methylation, that of PE to PMME, has been shown to be the rate-limiting step in conversion of PE to PC. It is ... Effect of different substrates". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 250 (9): 3359-67. PMID 1123345. Vance DE, Ridgway ND ( ... The exact mechanism by which PEMT catalyzes the sequential methylation of PE by three molecules of SAM to form PC remains ... da Costa KA, Kozyreva OG, Song J, Galanko JA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH (Jul 2006). "Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human ...
This effect is exacerbated when moving from bulk samples to single cells. Other methods to detect DNA methylation include ... Single-cell DNA methylome sequencing quantifies DNA methylation. There are several known types of methylation that occur in ... Single-cell DNA methylation sequencing has been widely used to explore epigenetic differences in genetically similar cells. To ... Restriction enzymes also enable the detection of other types of methylation, such as 6mA with DpnI. Nanopore-based ...
... affects social distance between adult males and females, and may be responsible at least in part for romantic ... Autism may also be associated with an aberrant methylation of OXTR. ... Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, so it ... Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking: In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin ...
"Experimental alteration of DNA methylation affects the phenotypic plasticity of ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis ... This movement affected agricultural research and led to food shortages in the 1960s and seriously affected the USSR. ... If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the ... The strength of natural selection in the wild was greater than expected; the effect of ecological factors such as niche ...
Carballeira, Luis; Pérez Juste, Ignacio (1998). "Influence of calculation level and effect of methylation on axial/equatorial ... "Vorläufiger Bericht über die Wirkung der Salpetersäure auf organische Alkalien" [Preliminary report on the effect of nitric ...
Fang M, Chen D, Yang CS (January 2007). "Dietary polyphenols may affect DNA methylation". J. Nutr. 137 (Suppl 1): 223S-28S. doi ... One example that seems to refute this biophysical model for methylation is that tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 is ... The idea that modifications act as docking modules for related factors is borne out by histone methylation as well. Methylation ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ...
... inhibit with weak effect the reuptake of dopamine. Antidepressants affect variable neuronal receptors like muscarinic- ... N-methylation of milnacipran in substituent group R4 and R5 reduces the norepinephrine and serotonin activity. Researches ... A phenyl group in substituent R6 showed effect on norepinephrine transporters. Substituent groups in R6 and R7 with allylic ... This effect of SNRIs results in increased dopamine neurotransmission, in addition to the increases in serotonin and ...
Fang, Mingzhu; Chen, Dapeng; Yang, Chung S. (January 2007). "Dietary polyphenols may affect DNA methylation". The Journal of ... This effect may be responsible for both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic potential of the substance. It was found to ... inhibition of cytosine methylation inhibition of DNA methyltransferase inhibition of the glycine receptor Isoflavones genistein ... Patisaul, Heather B.; Melby, Melissa; Whitten, Patricia L.; Young, Larry J. (2002). "Genistein Affects ERβ- But Not ERα- ...
DNA methylation: The strong effect of age on DNA methylation levels has been known since the late 1960s. Horvath ... Such a genetic effect is called the antagonistic pleiotropy effect when referring to a gene (pleiotropy signifying the gene has ... DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Furthermore, prematurely aged mice can be ... As of 2015[update], metformin was under study for its potential effect on slowing ageing in the worm C.elegans and the cricket. ...
"The effect of methylation inhibitors on citreamicin biosynthesis in Micromonospora citrea". The Journal of Antibiotics. 44 (11 ...
The addition of one, two, or three methyl groups to lysine has little effect on the chemistry of the histone; methylation ... PADs can also produce the opposite effect by removing or inhibiting mono-methylation of arginine residues on histones and thus ... What was said above of the chemistry of lysine methylation also applies to arginine methylation, and some protein domains-e.g ... di and tri-methylation appear to have different meanings. Because of this, lysine methylation tends to be a very informative ...
Thus, mutations in the enzyme can affect transcription elongation. RNA splicing mRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase Post- ... "Regulation of mRNA cap methylation". Biochemical Journal. 425 (2): 295-302. doi:10.1042/BJ20091352. PMC 2825737 . PMID 20025612 ... However the severity of the effect is dependent on the guanlyltransferase mutation. Furthermore, the guanylyltransferase ...
"The Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Mercury Methylation by Desulfobulbus propionicus 1pr3". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6: 1 ... "The Influence of Sulfide on Solid-Phase Mercury Bioavailability for Methylation by Pure Cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus ( ...
O-methylation has an effect on the solubility of flavonoids. O-methylated flavonoids formation implies the presence of specific ... Those enzymes mediate the O-methylation on a specific hydroxyl group, like on 4' (example in Catharanthus roseus) or 3' ( ... Schroder, G; Wehinger, E; Lukacin, R; Wellmann, F; Seefelder, W; Schwab, W; Schröder, J (2004). "Flavonoid methylation: a novel ... Brunet, Gunter; Ibrahim, Ragai K. (1980). "O-methylation of flavonoids by cell-free extracts of calamondin orange". ...
This suggests that the methylation has a big control on the effect of gene expression. Some m6A demethylases, such as FTO and ... m6A describes the methylation of the nitrogen at position 6 of the adenosine base within mRNA. Discovered in 1974, m6A is the ... Without 2′-O-methylation activity the immune system triggers higher levels of type 1 interferon activity. It is also seen that ... m6A methylation regulates nuclear export of mature mRNA and mRNA stability. How, and in response to what stimulus, the cell ...
MBP may affect different cell types in each case. PAD3 expression has been linked to sheep wool modification. Citrullination of ... Methylation and phosphorylation of MBP are active during the process of myelinogenesis. In early CNS development of the embryo ... This increases the hydrophobicity of the protein, which can lead to changes in protein folding, affecting the structure and ... One modification mechanism is methylation. A methyl group (CH3) binds to an arginine on the histone protein, altering DNA ...
O-methylation occurs. O-methylation Cyclic-ether formation Monocerin produced by Exserohilum turcicum causes Northern Corn Leaf ... It has a lesser effect against cucumber. Polyketide synthase Fungicide use in the United States Setosphaeria turcica Axford, L. ...
Lysine methylation. The addition of one, two, or many methyl groups to lysine has little effect on the chemistry of the ... Arginine methylation. What was said above of the chemistry of lysine methylation also applies to arginine methylation, ... di-methylation repression repression activation tri-methylation activation repression repression ... effect by removing or inhibiting mono-methylation of arginine residues on histones and thus antagonizing the positive effect ...
Methylation, as well as other epigenetic modifications, affects transcription, gene stability, and parental imprinting. It ... 2'-O-methylation, m6A methylation, m1G methylation as well as m5C are most commonly methylation marks observed in different ... Methylation, and Depression" on Psychology Today "DNA Methylation - What is DNA Methylation?" from News-Medical.net "Histone ... The function of Retinoblastoma protein N-terminal methylation is not known. DNA methylation, a key component of genetic ...
Many examples of asRNAs show the inhibitory effect on transcription initiation via epigenetic modifications. DNA methylation ... Epigenetic regulations such as DNA methylation and histone methylation can repress gene expression by inhibiting initiation of ... The biological consequences of histone methylation are context dependent. In general, histone methylation leads to gene ... Since then, much effect has been devoted to developing asRNAs as drug candidates. In 1998, the first asRNA drug, fomivirsen, ...
"Influence of calculation level and effect of methylation on axial/equatorial equilibria in piperidines". Journal of ... For instance, high selectivity for one ground state conformer is observed in the following radical methylation reaction. The ... the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (1994) "Curtin-Hammett principle". Jeffrey I. Seeman (1983). "Effect of ...
Phosphorylation may affect other post-translational modifications, including sumoylation and acetylation. Methylation of WRN ...
... with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA methylation. The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides ... There is not enough evidence to determine if lifestyle interventions affect mortality in those who already have DM2. ... Doses are then increased to effect (blood sugar levels being well controlled). When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice ... results in a slight decrease in stroke risk but no effect on overall risk of death. ...
... funding for this investigator to conduct expanded clinical trials to attempt to demonstrate the effect of providing methylation ...
N2 - DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the genome critical for numerous processes, including transcriptional ... It remains unclear, however, exactly how chromatin and epigenetic chromatin modifications affect the biological properties of ... AB - DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the genome critical for numerous processes, including transcriptional ... DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of the genome critical for numerous processes, including transcriptional ...
Hypotonia in affected children typically improves by 2 to 3 years of age, however by early childhood most affected individuals ... Methylation study of the 15q11.2-q13 region is considered a first-tier diagnostic test in the work-up of either of these ... If methylation studies are positive, further evaluation, such as FISH analysis to evaluate for chromosome 15 imprinting center ... Methylation studies do not indicate the genetic mechanism responsible for the diagnosis (i.e. deletion, uniparental disomy, etc ...
DNA methylation affects the formation of active chromatin.. Keshet I, Lieman-Hurwitz J, Cedar H. ... The results suggest that DNA methylation may exert its effect on gene transcription by altering both specific and nonspecific ... Total CpG methylation prevented the formation of this structure and rendered these sequences DNAase I-insensitive over the ... To study the mechanism of gene repression by DNA methylation, M13 gene constructs were methylated to completion and inserted ...
Methylation is a chemical change to DNA that can affect the ways genes are expressed and regulated.) ... In a study that correlated changes in DNA methylation (a chemical change that affects the level of gene expression) to changes ... the effect of smoking on the entire spectrum of methylation on genes in the placenta was significant. ... This kind of altered methylation or chemical add-on in as few as six sites in the landscape of methylated genes and DNA can be ...
... Václav Římal, Ondřej ... Václav Římal, Ondřej Socha, Josef Štěpánek, and Helena Štěpánková, "Spectroscopic Study of Cytosine Methylation Effect on ...
This study aims to explore the influence of MDR1 methylation on curative effect of interventional embolism chemotherapy for ... The methylation status of the MDR1 gene promoter region 16 CpG units was analyzed by using kilobase-specific cracking and ... Methylation rate of 13 CpG units in normal tissues was significantly greater than cervical tissues (P ... Influence of MDR1 methylation on the curative effect of interventional embolism chemotherapy for cervical cancer Zhi Huang,1,* ...
The effect of HhaI methylation on DNA local structure K R Fox K R Fox ... K R Fox; The effect of HhaI methylation on DNA local structure. Biochem J 15 February 1986; 234 (1): 213-216. doi: https://doi. ... The effect of methylating the central cytosine in the sequence GCGC on the sensitivity to digestion by deoxyribonuclease I was ...
DNA methylation is a normal phenomenon which helps in gene expression, cell differentiation and is an inheritable process. ... DNA Methylation and Its Effect on Various Cancers: An Overview Sabitha Vadakedath1 and Venkataramana Kandi2* 1Department of ... Citation: Vadakedath S, Kandi V (2016) DNA Methylation and Its Effect on Various Cancers: An Overview. J Mol Biomark Diagn S2: ... Role of DNA methylation in cancer-a generalized view. In a normal healthy individual DNA methylation ensures proper gene ...
Im trying to come up with a computational model of CpG site methylation and the subsequent effect of this methylation on the ... in a chromosome and it is virtually infeasible to look at all the sites individually to determine which sites have an effect on ... Determining CpG methylation and effect on gene expression - posted in Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: ... Im trying to come up with a computational model of CpG site methylation and the subsequent effect of this methylation on the ...
Arsenic exposure and methylation efficiency in 202 women in the Argentinean Andes were assessed from concentrations of arsenic ... We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure and metabolism on DNA methylation. ... methylation. with no effect of MMA. Carriers of the slow-metabolizing AS3MT haplotype were associated with more p16 methylation ... methylation. of the tumor suppressor gene p16 and the DNA repair gene MLH1: effect of arsenic metabolism and genotype M. B. ...
Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse ...
The effect of N-methylation on the conformational landscape of alanine: the case of N-methyl-L-alanine E. M. Neeman, I. León, E ... The effect of N-methylation on the conformational landscape of alanine: the case of N-methyl-L-alanine ...
... lysine methylation seems to have more pronounced position specific effect on the kinetic parameters. In case of K50 methylation ... In contrast, lysine methylation did not affect the binding affinity of Tat peptide to TAR RNA at K50, nonetheless three fold ... K51 acetylation showed similar effect on both association and dissociation rates. ...
Our study indicates a novel effect of PSEN1 on MAPT methylation, and suggests a mutation-specific effect of the PSEN1 Δex9 ... Our study indicates a novel effect of PSEN1 on MAPT methylation, and suggests a mutation-specific effect of the PSEN1 Δex9 ... Effect of PSEN1 mutations on MAPT methylation in early-onset Alzheimers disease. Author(s): Kirsten G. Coupland, Woojin S. Kim ... Title:Effect of PSEN1 mutations on MAPT methylation in early-onset Alzheimers disease ...
The projects aims at studying transcription and DNA methylation patterns in human pluripotent stem cells that differentiate ... The effect of variantions in DNA methylation patterns on gene expression and functionality of hepatocytes derived from human ... The effect of variantions in DNA methylation patterns on gene expression and functionality of hepatocytes derived from human ... This project investigates how atypical methylation patterns affect the function of hepatocytes generated in vitro from hPSC, ...
We hypothesize that this phenomenon can be promising for future research to understand how physical factors of the host affect ... decrease the mitochondrial genome methylation in strains SC5314 and L757. However, the methylation decrease is quantitatively ... decrease the mitochondrial genome methylation in strains SC5314 and L757. However, the methylation decrease is quantitatively ... We hypothesize that this phenomenon can be promising for future research to understand how physical factors of the host affect ...
Find out how poor methylation can affect your thyroid and your health. ... There is a genetic mutation called MTHFR that can affect your ability to heal. ... There is a genetic mutation called MTHFR that can affect your ability to heal. Find out how poor methylation can affect your ... Medications that Negatively Affect Methylation Even If You Do Not Have the Gene. *Acid blockers and antacids ...
Temperature affects methylation of the myogenin putative promoter, its expression and muscle cellularity in Senegalese sole ... Campos, C., Valente, L.M., Conceição, L.E., Engrola, S. & Fernandes, J.M.O. (2013). Temperature affects methylation of the ...
... with defined moments of epigenetic imprinting of specific genes affect the eventual DNA methylation state of those genes and ( ... the DNA methylation state. Moreover, although the DNA methylation rate appears to be robust, (I) temporal imbalances coinciding ... We illustrate that similar genes -i.e. MEST, KCNQ1OT1, and IGF2- possess an altered DNA methylation profile in animal models, ... We highlight that ART procedures affect physiological levels of enzymes and substrates involved in the folate and methionine ...
TET2 Mutations Affect Non-CpG Island DNA Methylation at Enhancers and Transcription Factor-Binding Sites in Chronic ... TET2 Mutations Affect Non-CpG Island DNA Methylation at Enhancers and Transcription Factor-Binding Sites in Chronic ... TET2 Mutations Affect Non-CpG Island DNA Methylation at Enhancers and Transcription Factor-Binding Sites in Chronic ... TET2 Mutations Affect Non-CpG Island DNA Methylation at Enhancers and Transcription Factor-Binding Sites in Chronic ...
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype affects promoter methylation of tumor-specific genes in sporadic colorectal ... However, in the presence of high folate levels, the negative effect of MTHFR TT on the efficiency of the methylation process ... Methylation-specific PCR: a novel PCR assay for methylation status of CpG islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:9821-9826. [ ... Table 2 Stratification analysis of tumors and genes promoter methylation frequencies. Variables. Methylation positive (%). ...
Although the statistical effect was marginal, the present study is the first to report an increase in DNA methylation in ... Cravo ML, Pinto AG, Chaves P, et al. Effect of folate supplementation on DNA methylation of rectal mucosa in patients with ... Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma ... Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma ...
Polyphenols: Biological Activities, Molecular Targets, and the Effect of Methylation. Author(s): K. R. Landis-Piwowar, Q. P. ... K. R. Landis-Piwowar and Q. P. Dou, " Polyphenols: Biological Activities, Molecular Targets, and the Effect of Methylation", ... Likewise, naturally occurring polyphenols may contain O-methylations in place of the hydroxyls of the parent compounds. While ... Furthermore, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of polyphenol methylation on the anticancer activity will be ...
This video discusses the benefits of methylation on aging and health. Edited... ... Methylation is a form of alkylation with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom. ... Effect of methylation on aging Methylation is a form of alkylation with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, ... Tags: Effect of methylation on aging Uploaded by: watchme ( Send Message ) on 24-11-2010. Dnatube suggest users to have ...
MethyltransferasesGenomeMechanismMolecularModificationsGlobal DNA MethylationFolateHistoneMethionineEpigeneticsMTHFRGenomicGene promoterMethyltransferasesDemethylationTranscriptionalRole of DNA MethylationEffects of DNA methylationDifferences in DNA methylationAberrantMetabolismExpressionFound that methylationGenotypeMaternalChromatinLoss of methylationIncrease in methylationPromoter DNA methylationMRNAEpigenetic changesExposureMethyl donorCell proliferationSupplementationBisulfiteLower methylationEnzymatic methylationSelective MethylationVitroArsenicMononuclear cellGenome-wide DNAAnalyses0.005SignificantlyBiologicalGeneticInvestigateEpithelialHuman genomeFolicFindings
- It remains unclear, however, exactly how chromatin and epigenetic chromatin modifications affect the biological properties of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B). (unthsc.edu)
- If methylation studies are positive, further evaluation, such as FISH analysis to evaluate for chromosome 15 imprinting center deletion, may be performed to determine the underlying genetic mechanism, which has implications with respect to recurrence risk. (geneticscenter.com)
- Methylation studies do not indicate the genetic mechanism responsible for the diagnosis (i.e. deletion, uniparental disomy, etc). (geneticscenter.com)
- 50-Hz MF does not affect global DNA methylation of SH-SY5Y cells treated with the neurotoxin MPP. (emf-portal.org)
- The epigenetic effects of exposure of neuroblastoma cells to a 50 Hz magnetic field on global DNA methylation should be investigated. (emf-portal.org)
- Exposure to the magnetic field did not induce significant changes in global DNA methylation in any exposure group, with or without treatment with MPP + , compared to the respective sham exposures . (emf-portal.org)
- The authors conclude that exposure of neuroblastoma cells to a 50 Hz magnetic field does not influence global DNA methylation . (emf-portal.org)
- Wilson's disease: changes in methionine metabolism and inflammation affect global DNA methylation in early liver disease. (escholarship.org)
- PCA treatment of tx-j mice reduced Tnf-α and ALT levels, betaine treatment increased S-adenosylmethionine and up-regulated Dnmt3b levels, and both treatments restored global DNA methylation levels.Reduced hepatic Sahh expression was associated with increased liver SAH levels in the tx-j model of WD, with consequent global DNA hypomethylation. (escholarship.org)
- Increased global DNA methylation was achieved by reducing inflammation by Cu chelation or by providing methyl groups. (escholarship.org)
- tC18:1) has any effects on global DNA methylation and the transcriptome in cultured human THP-1 monocytes, and whether the progeny of EA-supplemented dams during either pregnancy or lactation in mice ( n = 20 per group) show any epigenetic change after exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
- EA induced a biphasic effect on global DNA methylation in THP-1 cells, i.e. hypermethylation in the 1-50 μM concentration range, followed by hypomethylation up to the 200 μM dose. (biomedcentral.com)
- Folate is the main nutrient that starts the methylation process. (realfoodforager.com)
- The creation of melatonin and serotonin both require methylation (SAMe) and are folate dependent. (realfoodforager.com)
- We highlight that ART procedures affect physiological levels of enzymes and substrates involved in the folate and methionine cycle thereby altering the DNA methylation state. (uva.nl)
- Genomic DNA methylation, serum and erythrocyte folate, and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured at baseline and post intervention. (bmj.com)
- Low folate status may increase the risk of neoplasia by inducing DNA hypomethylation, which can affect DNA stability and gene expression. (bmj.com)
- Folate is a methyl donor in the methylation cycle, which maintains adequate cellular levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for biological methylation reactions, including methylation of DNA. (bmj.com)
- A limited supply of folate can impair the methylation cycle, and consequently DNA methylation, and cause intracellular levels of homocysteine to rise. (bmj.com)
- We hypothesised that genetic factors linked to folate metabolism may play a role in BWS predisposition via effects on methylation maintenance at KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR. (biomedcentral.com)
- Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the folate pathway affecting methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ), methionine synthase reductase ( MTRR ), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine S -methyltransferase (MTR), cystathionine beta-synthase ( CBS ) and methionine adenosyltransferase ( MAT1A ) were examined in 55 BWS patients with KCNQ1OT1 TSS-DMR LOM and in 100 unaffected cases. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study is the first to examine folate pathway genetics in BWS and to identify rare DNMT1 missense variants in affected individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
- In fact, the methylation pathway is involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, using folate. (selfhacked.com)
- The end result of the methylation cycle is methionine, but also produces other compounds important for antioxidant defense and affects folate metabolism. (selfhacked.com)
- In the first article in this series , I gave an overview about what methylation is and how the nutrients folate and B12 function to support it. (autoimmunewellness.com)
- Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? (bmj.com)
- Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of dietary folate intake on the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. (bmj.com)
- Folate is a B vitamin necessary for the production of red blood cells and the synthesis and normal methylation of DNA. (bmj.com)
- the protective effect of folate on breast cancer is more pronounced for heavy drinkers. (bmj.com)
- Folate and DNA Methylation: A Mechanistic Link between Folate Deficiency and Colorectal Cancer? (aacrjournals.org)
- Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon transfer involving remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which is a precursor of S -adenosylmethionine, the primary methyl group donor for most biological methylations. (aacrjournals.org)
- Aberrant DNA methylation has been considered as a leading mechanism by which folate deficiency enhances colorectal carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, currently available data pertaining to the effects of folate deficiency on DNA methylation are inconsistent and incomplete. (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, the pattern of site- and gene-specific DNA methylation induced by folate deficiency may not be in concert with the direction of changes in genomic DNA methylation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although there is no definitive evidence supporting the protective effect of folate supplementation on colorectal carcinogenesis from human experiments at present, several small intervention studies have demonstrated that folate supplementation can improve or reverse surrogate end point biomarkers of CRC ( 8 -14 ) and some epidemiological studies have shown a beneficial effect of multivitamin supplements containing ≥400 μg folic acid on CRC risk and mortality ( 15 -17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The data from animal studies generally support a causal relationship between folate depletion and CRC risk and an inhibitory effect of modest levels of folate supplementation on colorectal carcinogenesis ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Via its role as a methyl donor, dietary folate supply may influence DNA methylation. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- We investigated the effects of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation on selected gene methylation in the small intestine of wild type (WT) and Apc+/Min mice at weaning and as adults. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- We also investigated the effects of folate depletion post-weaning on gene methylation in adult mice. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Low maternal folate reduced p53 methylation in adults (p=0.04). (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Low post-weaning folate increased Ape methylation in Apc+/Min mice only (p = 0.008 for interaction). (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Also, the differential effects of altered folate supply on DNA methylation in WT and Apc+/Min mice suggest that genotype may modulate epigenetic responses to environmental cues and may have implications for the development of personalized nutrition. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- DNA methylation alters histones of chromatin structure by activating histone deacetylase (HDA). (omicsonline.org)
- Thus, DNA methylation influences histone modifications as shown in Figure 3 . (omicsonline.org)
- Preovulatory Aging In Vivo and In Vitro Affects Maturation Rates, Abundance of Selected Proteins, Histone Methylation Pattern and Spindle Integrity in Murine Oocytes", PLOS ONE , vol. 11, 2016, : e0162722. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- mechanisms of which include cytosine methylation and histone deacetylation . (prolekare.cz)
- A , Individual residues on histone tails undergo of a number of unique modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and mono-, di-, and tri-methylation surround the transcription start site (TSS) for a given gene. (nih.gov)
- Methylation of DNA is catalysed by DNA methyl transferase in which methyl donor is Sadenosyl methionine (SAM). (omicsonline.org)
- Hepatic methionine metabolism may play an essential role in regulating methylation status and liver injury in Wilson's disease (WD) through the inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) by copper (Cu) and the consequent accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). (escholarship.org)
- But if the methylations cycle is less efficient - like if the activity of your MTHFR is reduced - homocysteine can build up because not enough of it is being converted to methionine. (selfhacked.com)
- Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and methionine synthase A2756G polymorphisms influence on leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level. (cdc.gov)
- Methylation changes to the epigenome are controlled by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from the methyl donor S -adenosyl methionine onto the 5′ position on the cytosine ring. (pnas.org)
- While chemical methylation of an amide bond uses a strong base to generate the imidate, OphA, the precursor protein of the fungal peptide macrocycle omphalotin A, self-hypermethylates amides at pH 7 using S -adenosyl methionine (SAM) as cofactor. (sciencemag.org)
- Effect of the methionine analogs, ethionine and norleucine, on DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli 15T. (semanticscholar.org)
- The PEMT enzyme converts phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) via three sequential methylations by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). (wikipedia.org)
- epigenetics , methylation and 3 more. (protocol-online.org)
- NEW YORK - UK epigenetics startup Base Genomics has raised $11.5 million (£9.1 million) to commercialize a new approach for DNA methylation sequencing that management believes will find applications in research and diagnostics alike. (genomeweb.com)
- Epigenetics often refers to changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression , but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome , such as prions . (wikipedia.org)
- There is a genetic mutation called MTHFR that can affect your ability to heal. (realfoodforager.com)
- See more about methylation and MTHFR here. (realfoodforager.com)
- MTHFR (C677T) - This is a gene that encodes an enzyme involved in methylation (the methylenetetrahydrofolate or MTHFR enzyme). (autoimmunewellness.com)
- Multivariable linear regression was employed to examine associations of physical activity, BMI and NSAID use with LINE-1 DNA methylation and interactions with MTR and MTHFR gene variants. (cdc.gov)
- This test looks at specific enzymes that are affected by your genetic makeup, including the enzyme MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), which is the most important enzyme involved in creating 5-MTHF. (thorne.com)
- What is the MTHFR Genetic Defect and How Can it Affect You? (globalhealingcenter.com)
- A defect in the MTHFR gene may promote high levels of homocysteine levels in your tissues, negatively affecting mental health and mood. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Methylation, a process involving the transfer of a methyl group to another compound, is also associated with the MTHFR gene. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Importantly, both absolute and relative methylation levels at specific genomic regions vary substantially between methods, with clear implications for DNA methylation studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Next, the team was interested in whether these defects could be corrected for by restoring methylation at certain genomic locations. (nyscf.org)
- The methylation status of the MDR1 gene promoter region 16 CpG units was analyzed by using kilobase-specific cracking and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. (dovepress.com)
- P-gp expression level coded by MDR1, methylation status of partial MDR1 gene promoter regions CpG island, is closely related to the efficacy of interventional embolism chemotherapy for cervical cancer before the operation. (dovepress.com)
- Array expression data revealed that EA induced a pro-inflammatory and adipogenic transcriptional profile compared with OA, although with modest effects on selected ( n = 9) gene promoter methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results showed that DUSP-6 gene expression is related to its promoter methylation state, cervical lymph node metastasis is related to DUSP-6 gene promoter methylation state in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 5-aza-cdR can inhibit invasion of CNE2 cells, and make re-expression of DUSP-6 gene by promoter demethylation in CNE2 cells. (scitechnol.com)
- DUSP-6 gene promoter methylation state is possibly an important factor that effected invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (scitechnol.com)
- The purpose of this study was to study the P14/ARF gene promoter methylation and effect of Interleukin-17 on this methylation among breast cancer patients in the south of the country and its comparison with healthy people. (ac.ir)
- We used PCR-RFLP method In order to study of Interleukin-17 gene polymorphism, and MSPCR method was used to study of P14/ARF gene promoter methylation. (ac.ir)
- The patterns of methylation and demethylation presented here can have an impact on health, aging, and chronic disease like cancer [ 4 ]. (selfhacked.com)
- Think of methylation, and the opposite action, demethylation, as the mechanism that allows the gears to turn, and turns biological switches on and off for a host of systems in the body. (thorne.com)
- DNA methylation of non-coding region of DNA helps to maintain transcriptional silencing whereas in coding region of DNA it leads to an epigenetic modification. (omicsonline.org)
- This methylation of DNA not only causes change in transcriptional activity but also leads to change in chromatin structure in promoter region of the gene [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- In this case, methylation at lysine 9 on H3 (a mark of transcriptional repression) and phosphorylation at serine 10 on H3 repress each other, whereas phosphorylation at serine 10 enhances acetylation on lysine 14 (a mark of transcriptional activation. (nih.gov)
- It is presently unclear is the specific combination of CpG methylation marks constitutes a "code" for unique outcomes, or if the overall or average density of methylation is a larger determinant of transcriptional efficacy. (nih.gov)
- However, no mediation effects on IL-2, IL-4 and IL-13 survived Bonferroni correction.CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides preliminary evidence supporting the mediating role of DNA methylation in the association between objective aspects of PNMS and child immune states, favoring a Th2 shift. (mcgill.ca)
- In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of DNA methylation on steroidogenesis using the human adrenocortical NCI-H295R cell line as a model. (elsevier.com)
- We found no significant effect of DNA methylation across HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DRB5 on severity, although we cannot rule out time- or tissue-specific effects of DNA methylation. (ox.ac.uk)
- EPCAM positive and negative fraction) demonstrated significant differences in DNA methylation between all three tissue fractions indicating cell type specific methylation patterns can be masked in unseparated tissue samples. (diagenode.com)
- Human airways already demonstrate gender-based differences in DNA methylation signatures at birth, providing an early hint of which infants may be predisposed to develop respiratory disorders like asthma later in life, a research team reports in a paper published online April 3, 2018, in Scientific Reports. (news-medical.net)
- Aberrant DNA methylation has also been associated with psychiatric conditions and might constitute a pathogenic mechanism for other diseases as well ( Feinberg, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
- We investigated whether aberrant methylation might contribute to a presumed dysregulation of SNCA expression in sporadic PD. (jneurosci.org)
- We investigated whether miR-29s could target DNMT3A and -B and whether restoration of miR-29s could normalize aberrant patterns of methylation in non-small-cell lung cancer. (pnas.org)
- Dysregulation and aberrant patterns of DNA methylation are generally considered to be mechanistically involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Finally, we consider how aberrant epigenetic modifications may lead to cognitive disorders that affect learning and memory, and we review the therapeutic potential of epigenetic treatments for the amelioration of these conditions. (nih.gov)
- Aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in human adrenocortical tumorigenesis, which is often accompanied by abnormal hormone production. (elsevier.com)
- Most of the changes in smokers affected cellular pathways associated with oxidative stress - the burden of toxic elements called free radicals that are produced in the course of normal metabolism. (redorbit.com)
- We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure and metabolism on DNA methylation . (rsc.org)
- To examine the relationship between inflammation-related lifestyle factors and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) DNA methylation, and test for interaction by gene variants involved in one-carbon metabolism. (cdc.gov)
- Associations between genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism and LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal breast tissues. (cdc.gov)
- Just as we expected from our previous studies in one gene, this dysregulation between DNA methylation and gene expression when a mom smokes is pretty profound," said Aagaard, an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology at BCM and senior author of the report. (redorbit.com)
- DNA methylation is a normal phenomenon which helps in gene expression, cell differentiation and is an inheritable process. (omicsonline.org)
- Thus, DNA methylation alters chromatin configuration from open to closed form, silencing gene expression [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- I'm trying to come up with a computational model of CpG site methylation and the subsequent effect of this methylation on the expression of a gene of interest. (protocol-online.org)
- However, given that there can be thousands of methylated sites in a chromosome and it is virtually infeasible to look at all the sites individually to determine which sites have an effect on the gene's expression. (protocol-online.org)
- But this defeats the purpose of the model which is to perhaps find new CpG that affect a gene's expression profile. (protocol-online.org)
- We examined whether altered DNA methylation of the MAPT promoter, with its potential to modulate gene expression, was a common phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease patients with differing aetiologies. (eurekaselect.com)
- Methylation is a metabolic process in the human body that helps make and eliminate neurotransmitters and this affects cognition and mood, it protects nerves and helps in detoxification and gene expression (think cancer). (realfoodforager.com)
- a ) Decitabine reduces DNA methylation in solid tumors, and should be assessed for its ability to increase expression of factors required for efficacy of other agents. (aacrjournals.org)
- Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). (eur.nl)
- We propose that increased SAH levels and inflammation affect widespread epigenetic regulation of gene expression in WD. (escholarship.org)
- The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of GADD45γ methylation, to evaluate the correlation between GADD45γ methylation and protein expression, and to investigate the relation between methylation status and clinicopathologic parameters in DLBCL tissues and reactive lymphoid node tissues from patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. (tjh.com.tr)
- DNA methylation analysis in the intestinal epithelium-effect of cell separation on gene expression and methylation profile. (diagenode.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data highlight the importance of considering the potential effect of cell separation on gene expression as well as DNA methylation signatures. (diagenode.com)
- Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by directly altering DNA methylation dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
- RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR are used to detect mRNA expression and methylation state of DUSP-6 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and CNE2 cell line. (scitechnol.com)
- The changes of mRNA expression and methylation state of DUSP-6 gene, proliferation and invasion of cells were detected after 5-aza- 2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-cdR) treated CNE2 cell line. (scitechnol.com)
- In this study, we have detected the methylation state and expression of DUSP-6 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and CNE2 cell linea nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line). (scitechnol.com)
- Effect of regional DNA methylation on gene expression. (mysciencework.com)
- We found that methylation of human SNCA intron 1 decreased gene expression, while inhibition of DNA methylation activated SNCA expression. (jneurosci.org)
- Methylation of SNCA intron 1 was reduced in DNA from sporadic PD patients' substantia nigra, putamen, and cortex, pointing toward a yet unappreciated epigenetic regulation of SNCA expression in PD. (jneurosci.org)
- We examined the expression profile and methylation status of RASSF1A in two NPC cell lines, 38 primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 14 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia using RT-PCR and methylated specific PCR(MSP) respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- This article describes the effect of DNA methylation on gene expression. (pediaa.com)
- The main function of DNA methylation is to regulate the gene expression depending on the requirements of a particular cell. (pediaa.com)
- Among the epigenetic marks that can modify gene expression, DNA methylation is the best studied. (mdpi.com)
- Epigenetic changes affect gene expression in different ways. (cdc.gov)
- The very low expression of estrogen receptor in blood cells could explain the observed insensitivity of methylation at LINE-1 to natural hormonal variations in females. (mpg.de)
- Vitrification does not significantly affect the methylation patterns of the CpG islands in the Dnmt1o, Hat1, and Hdac1 promoters in mouse metaphase II oocytes, but reduces expression of Dnmt1o mRNA. (fertstertdialog.com)
- To investigate the effect of vitrification on Dnmt1o, Hat1, and Hdac1 promoter CpG island methylation patterns and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes. (fertstertdialog.com)
- After vitrification, surviving mouse MII oocytes subjected to methylation and expression analysis with fresh oocytes used as a control. (fertstertdialog.com)
- Expression levels of mRNA as measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of methylation patterns of the CpG islands in the Dnmt1o, Hat1, and Hdac1 promoters analyzed by bisulfite mutagenesis and sequencing. (fertstertdialog.com)
- Vitrification did not statistically significantly alter the methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands in Dnmt1o, Hat1, or Hdac1, but did statistically significantly decrease the expression of Dnmt1o mRNA in mouse MII oocytes. (fertstertdialog.com)
- DNA methylation and consequential altered gene expression, has been proposed as a mechanism mediating these effects. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- This study aims to investigate the expression of SOX7 gene in bladder cancer as well as to investigate the regulation and significance of SOX7 promoter methylation on bladder cancer . (bvsalud.org)
- Methods GEPIA, Oncomine, MethHC, and cBioPortal databases were used to speculate the SOX7 expression and promoter methylation in bladder cancer tissues . (bvsalud.org)
- 5-aza-dC significantly reduced H19 imprinted control region methylation and increased H19 expression in blastocysts derived from vitrified embryos. (fertstertdialog.com)
- To determine the effect of vitrification and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) on the methylation levels of the putative imprinted control region (ICR) of H19 and H19 expression in bovine two-cell embryos and their derived blastocysts. (fertstertdialog.com)
- In a cross-sectional study of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity but not PCOS affected the expression of adipose expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines. (fertstertdialog.com)
- A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs1360780) in FKBP5 (FK506 Binding Protein 5) has been shown to interact with exposure to childhood adversity to promote loss of methylation and increase in gene expression in adults. (figshare.com)
- A human cell line treated with cortisol showed that changes in intron 5 CpG methylation and FKBP5 expression were inversely associated. (figshare.com)
- Vitamin E in turn may exert important functions in methylation and gene expression processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sixty cord blood DNA samples from the Boston Birth Cohort were genotyped at rs1360780 and studied for methylation changes as they relate to genotype and exposure to affective disorders during pregnancy. (figshare.com)
- The recessive genotype (TT) was associated with increased methylation at multiple CpGs in the FKBP5 intron 5 region (p (figshare.com)
- Additionally, prenatal stress exposure compounded with the risk genotype may lead to a compensatory increase in methylation. (figshare.com)
- Here, we present a new 12 Mbp wheat capture probe set, that allows both the profiling of genotype and methylation from the same DNA sample. (biomedcentral.com)
- The resultant genotype and epi-type data is highly comparable in terms of coverage and SNP/methylation site identification to that generated from separate captures for DNA sequencing and methyl-seq. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, by defining SNP frequencies in a diverse landrace from the Watkins collection we highlight the importance of having genotype data to prevent false positive methylation calls. (biomedcentral.com)
- Can social support during pregnancy affect maternal DNA methylation? (nature.com)
- Maternal active and past ED are associated with differences in offspring whole-genome methylation. (bristol.ac.uk)
- DNA methylation mediates the effect of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on cytokine production in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm. (mcgill.ca)
- We asked whether rs1360780 can influence FKBP5 intronic methylation in the context of exposure to maternal affective disorders in utero. (figshare.com)
- DNA methylation affects the formation of active chromatin. (nih.gov)
- The changes brought to the chromatin structure by DNA methylation restrict the access of transcription factors to the regulatory sequences. (pediaa.com)
- We validated and extended the Beadchip data using bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq), and analyzed differential methylation (DM) at the CpG-level and by an element-level classification for groups of CpGs in chromatin domains. (datamed.org)
- For this purpose DNA methylation arrays and mRNA arrays will be run on samples from defined stages during the differentiation process and will be compared to data from primary cells. (his.se)
- Protein abundance of YBX2, an important regulator of mRNA stability, storage and recruitment in the oocyte, was not affected by in vitro aging. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- This important paper details the drawbacks and benefits of using saliva as a tissue sample for the study of epigenetic changes affected by experiences. (news-medical.net)
- Since its pathogenesis may involve epigenetic changes, we used Illumina 450K Methylation Beadchips to profile CpG methylation in endometriosis stromal cells compared to stromal cells from normal endometrium. (datamed.org)
- Arsenic exposure and methylation efficiency in 202 women in the Argentinean Andes were assessed from concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]), measured by HPLC-ICPMS . (rsc.org)
- Our results indicate that environmental conditions, such as continuous exposure for 12 weeks to hypoxia and 37 ∘ C, decrease the mitochondrial genome methylation in strains SC5314 and L757. (frontiersin.org)
- c ) Exposure within the previous 3 months to a wide range of chemotherapy and targeted agents is associated with decreased copper/platinum uptake transporter CTR1 and with a trend to increased DNA methylation. (aacrjournals.org)
- We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. (eur.nl)
- ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis. (emf-portal.org)
- Assessing the combined effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure and oxidative stress on LINE-1 promoter methylation in human neural cells. (emf-portal.org)
- To help understand whether peripheral mononuclear cells have a role in mediating these responses in older smokers with higher cumulative smoke exposure, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation in a group of well characterized adult African American subjects informative for smoking, as well as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) levels. (uga.edu)
- Meanwhile, trypan blue dye exclusion assays was used to detect the effect of RASSF1A transfection alone and the co-transfection of RASSF1A and K-Ras on cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results suggest that DNA methylation may be implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical cells. (elsevier.com)
- The hypothesis that folic acid supplementation increases DNA methylation in leucocytes and colorectal mucosa was tested in 31 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma using a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel design. (bmj.com)
- Since its first use in 1992 [ 1 ], bisulfite (BS) sequencing of DNA has become the gold standard for analysis of DNA methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
- DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). (diagenode.com)
- CRIP1 methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. (cdc.gov)
- Bisulfite sequencing PCR was used to detect CpG island methylation density in EphB4 promoter. (bvsalud.org)
- Overall design: Bisulfite converted DNA from 9 primary cell cultures of endometriosis stromal cells from ovarian ectopic sites (OESC) and control endometrial stromal cells (CESC) were hybridized to the Illumina Infinium 450k Human Methylation Beadchip. (datamed.org)
- Study participants carrying a lower methylation capacity characterized by higher MMA% (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 2.09-12.27), lower DMA% (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-1.26), primary methylation index (PMI) (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.28-1.12) and SMI (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) had a significantly higher risk of skin lesions compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for occupation categories. (ovid.com)
- Amongst offspring of ED women, those born to women with restrictive-type and purging-type ED had lower methylation levels compared to those of controls. (bristol.ac.uk)
- Variations in DNA methylation has been demonstrated upon differentiation of hPSC and these differences may underlie the functionality impairment of in vitro differentiated cells. (his.se)
- This project investigates how atypical methylation patterns affect the function of hepatocytes generated in vitro from hPSC, with the ultimate goal to develop differentiation regimes that prevent these defects. (his.se)
- It will also develop methods to regulate DNA methylation through genetic and/or chemical manipulations and explore the possibility of an epigenetic memory in reprogrammed cells that are derived in vitro. (his.se)
- In all cases, the integrated sequences retained the in vitro-directed methylation pattern. (mysciencework.com)
- In vitro results largely confirmed these findings, as neither estrogen nor dihydrotestosterone affected LINE-1 or Alu methylation in Hek293T, HUVEC, or MDA-kb2 cell lines. (mpg.de)
- Natural male aging negatively affects both in vivo and in vitro reproductive outcomes in an outbred murine model. (fertstertdialog.com)
- In linear regression analysis, log 2 -transformed urinary arsenic concentrations were positively associated with methylation of p16 ( β = 0.14, P = 0.0028) and MLH1 ( β = 0.28, P = 0.0011), but not with LINE1 . (rsc.org)
- Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), total arsenic (tAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analysed to determine methylation capacity, methylation efficiency and the dose-response relationship with skin lesions. (ovid.com)
- The findings confirmed that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was significantly associated with increased skin lesion risks and the effect might be modified by labour intensive occupations. (ovid.com)
- In conclusion, our analyses suggest potential epigenome effects that might be associated with functional outcomes, yet the effect sizes were small and should be verified by additional investigation. (ku.dk)
- In addition, complementary bioinformatic analyses were conducted to delineate possible pathways affected by long-term smoking. (uga.edu)
- We performed a systematic search (PubMed) following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines for preclinical and clinical studies focused on genome-wide and gene-specific DNA methylation in the context of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and major depressive disorder. (mdpi.com)
- The majority of standard library preparation methods yield a significantly biased sequence output and overestimate global methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands in Dnmt1o, Hat1, and Hdac1 were not statistically significantly when comparing vitrified oocytes and fresh oocytes. (fertstertdialog.com)
- K. R. Landis-Piwowar and Q. P. Dou, " Polyphenols: Biological Activities, Molecular Targets, and the Effect of Methylation", Current Molecular Pharmacology (2008) 1: 233. (eurekaselect.com)
- The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child. (wikipedia.org)
- This paper attempts to review genetic changes attributed to abnormalities in DNA methylation which in turn activate tumoriogenic potential of cells further leading to cancer. (omicsonline.org)
- Florida Politics reports Florida's law barring life, long-term care, and disability insurers from using genetic information in coverage decisions went into effect at the beginning of July. (genomeweb.com)
- Researchers attempt to estimate how much of the human genome's methylation patterns can be attributed to genetic ancestry. (the-scientist.com)
- First, you can have a simple and easy genetic test to find out if you have a problem with your methylation cycle. (thorne.com)
- There are seven specific nutrients that can help the methylation cycle achieve optimal performance , even if an individual has the genetic mutation that slows down the methylation cycle. (thorne.com)
- These studies assume that the effect of genetic variants is the same regardless of whether they are inherited from the mother or the father. (prolekare.cz)
- The effect of genetic variants on phenotypes may depend upon the parent from whom the variant was inherited , . (prolekare.cz)
- We set out to investigate how the different steps of current library preparation protocols affect the final sequence output and, ultimately, the quantification and interpretation of methylation data. (biomedcentral.com)
- In a recent study, NYSCF - Robertson Investigator Alumnus Alexander Meissner, PhD, of Harvard University teamed up with NYSCF - Druckenmiller Fellow Alumnus Evangelos Kiskinis, PhD, of Northwestern University to investigate how methylation guides stem cells into motor neurons. (nyscf.org)
- A systematic study on the methyl substituted 2-hydroxypyridine molecule is presented in this paper to investigate the methylation effect in the ground electronic state (S0) using ab initio calculations. (tsijournals.com)
- Although the strength of the association is modest, its adverse effect on breast cancer is one of the most consistent findings among the many hypothesised dietary risk factors. (bmj.com)
- These findings suggest that rs1360780 can influence FKBP5 intronic methylation by acting in cis as a methylation quantitative locus and highlight the impact of genotypic risk on methylation in utero. (figshare.com)