Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.United StatesSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.WashingtonAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
  • The decrease in daylight affects the body's circadian rhythm - that part of our brain that tells us when to sleep and when to get up. (brighthub.com)
  • In addition to the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, the decrease in sunlight causes an increase in melatonin, the sleep-related hormone, and a decrease in serotonin, which can cause depression. (brighthub.com)
  • Among seniors, this stigma around needing mental healthcare is often exacerbated by generational stereotypes of depression as something for people with "major problems," or as a normal part of life that should just be endured. (caring.com)
  • Depression is an affective disorder characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure and may include insomnia or hypersomnia, weight loss or gain, diminished concentration, and fatigue (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). (rpnas.com)
  • Research has indicated that ECT can be highly effective in alleviating symptoms of major depression (APA, 2016), yet there is evidence that it can cause short or long-term deficits in memory, for example difficulty recalling past events (retrograde amnesia) and current events (anterograde amnesia). (pocketmags.com)
  • According to Lorenzo Cohen, the next step is to conduct clinical trials by taking a population of cancer patients who meet the criteria for depression and anxiety, treating their mood disorders and seeing whether outcomes are improved, compared to a control group that does not receive the same treatment. (cnn.com)
  • These depressive episodes are associated with poor outcomes - problems with school, relationships, suicide attempts - even with depression that started recently. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Secondary outcomes included the durability of response, changes in self-reports of depression, anxiety, and the proportion of responders. (scienceblog.com)
  • Screening for postnatal depression is well established, although as yet we have no evidence that treatment can improve long-term outcomes for the child. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • These findings underscore the benefit of depression care to improve work outcomes and to yield a potential return on healthcare investment to employers. (nih.gov)
  • In the context of HIV, depression not only has a major impact on quality of life but also is associated with poorer overall health outcomes. (aidsmap.com)
  • The study examined the impact of depression severity on both long- and short-term outcomes. (aidsmap.com)
  • Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have worse outcomes if they also have a history of depression. (cmaj.ca)
  • The early management of acute myocardial infarction is known to influence outcomes, and patients with a coexisting history of depression may be treated differently in the emergency department than those without one. (cmaj.ca)
  • We examined whether, according to self-report, maternal stroking over the first weeks of life modified associations between prenatal depression and physiological and behavioral outcomes in infancy, hence mimicking effects of rodent licking and grooming. (plos.org)
  • Sharp H, Pickles A, Meaney M, Marshall K, Tibu F, Hill J (2012) Frequency of Infant Stroking Reported by Mothers Moderates the Effect of Prenatal Depression on Infant Behavioural and Physiological Outcomes. (plos.org)
  • The results suggest that physicians should consider discussing these associations with their patients who are prescribed medications that have depression as a potential adverse effect," said authors, including Dima Mazen Qato, PharmD, MPH, PhD, Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago. (mdedge.com)
  • Wilson's theory suggests that living in a neighbourhood seriously affected by poverty affects a wide range of individual outcomes, such as economic self-sufficiency, violence, drug use, low birthweight, and cognitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain areas associated with short-term memory, self and negative emotions are linked with depression which may cause the patients to dwell on bad thoughts and experience poor sleep quality, suggests a study. (siliconindia.com)
  • A new study has found that when parents are diagnosed with depression, it can have a significant negative impact on their children's performance at school. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study posited that it could be attributed to parents and children sharing the same genes and the possibility of passing on a disposition for depression. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, "Associations of Parental Depression With Child School Performance at Age 16 Years in Sweden," whose lead author was Drexel alumna Hanyang Shen, was published in JAMA Psychiatry . (eurekalert.org)
  • Regarding depression specifically, there has been one study that demonstrates a possible link between intake of Vitamin D from food and supplements and a reduction of depressive symptoms in post-menopausal women. (healthcentral.com)
  • Lastly, the study also states that anxiety has more impact than depression. (redorbit.com)
  • The authors of the study, which is published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, concluded: 'Now that we know that anxiety and major depression are both markers of increased cardiac risk, it is imperative that these patients receive the best treatment for both their cardiac and psychiatric conditions. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Our study reveals that depression is far too common and is associated with serious problems in school and at home for adolescents," said senior author Elizabeth Miller, M.D., director, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Children's Hospital. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Irving Kirsch's specialty has been the study of the placebo effect: the taking of a dummy pill without any medication in it that creates an expectation of healing that is so powerful, symptoms are actually alleviated. (cbsnews.com)
  • The study suggests that social support can be an important factor in preventing depression. (nih.gov)
  • For the second stage of the study, the team used a method called Mendelian randomization to narrow down the list to those factors with a causal connection to depression risk. (nih.gov)
  • More research is needed to determine how the factors identified in this study might contribute to depression. (nih.gov)
  • A new University of California, Davis, study, however, shows that adolescents with large hippocampal volume were more, or less, susceptible to feelings of depression depending on how unsafe -- or conversely -- protected they felt in their home and community environments. (eurekalert.org)
  • Traditionally, research has shown that a smaller hippocampus is implicated in depression, but this study showed that a larger hippocampus may indicate a greater ability for adolescents to take advantage of the support in their environments and overcome fear, anxiety and depression. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study also pointed out that as neuroimaging becomes more feasible in diagnosis, the findings could prove helpful in identifying individuals' risk for depression early on. (eurekalert.org)
  • The teens involved in the study were of Mexican origin, a group which is a group at heightened risk for depression, the authors state. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, "Hippocampal Volume as Amplifier of Effect of Social Context on Adolescent Depression," is co-authored by faculty from the UC Davis Center for Mind and Brain, and the departments of psychology and human ecology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their depression symptoms at the beginning of the study were more severe. (medindia.net)
  • The study found that those in the insomnia with depression and insomnia with both anxiety and depression groups had significantly higher Beck depression inventory scores compared to those with primary insomnia or insomnia with anxiety. (healthcentral.com)
  • Depression- an unseen disease: As per an epidemiological study in the year 2000, the prevalence of mental disorders in India was 70.5 per 1000 in rural and 73 per 1000 in urban population. (newkerala.com)
  • One study out of Sweden compared mortality rates for more than 50,000 patients with either unipolar or bipolar depression. (opposingviews.com)
  • This new study shows how your Facebook feed may be affecting your emotional health. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The study titled "Prevalence of Depression Among Fathers at the Pediatric Well-Child Care Visit" was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Pediatrics on July 23. (medicaldaily.com)
  • We need to drop the stigma with all mental illness, whoever it affects," said Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News chief medical correspondent who was not involved with the study. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Scientists are hopeful that the findings of this study may shine a bright ray of light into the dark world of depression that approximately 16 million Americans find themselves living in at one or more points during the year. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A prospective cohort study has found that the children of mothers with persistent antenatal depression are more likely to have developmental delay at 18 months. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Previous results from the study have shown that mothers have higher EPDS scores during pregnancy than postnatally, 2 and a meta-analysis estimated the point prevalence of major depression at the end of the second trimester to be 4.9%, 3 compared with 2.5% in women in the general population. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • TUESDAY, June 12, 2018 -- The estimated prevalence of using medications with depression as an adverse effect is 37.2 percent, according to a study published in the June 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association . (drugs.com)
  • NEW YORK - In a key advance for the study of depression, a comprehensive scan of human DNA has turned up the apparent hiding places of more than a dozen genes linked to the disorder. (globalnews.ca)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of systemic administration of poly I:C on the release of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β1, and GM-CSF) in the brain and spleen, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, expression of GAD65, GABA A α, GABA A β as well as Hsp70, and production of dark neurons after induction of repetitive CSD in juvenile rats. (springer.com)
  • A 2015 study published in Cognition & Emotion also concluded that depression may cause short-term memory loss. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This prospective cohort study investigated the relationship between improvements in both depression symptoms and productivity in outpatients from 77 clinics in Minnesota following routine depression treatment. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrated a significant relationship betweenimprovement in depression symptoms and improvements in productivity following routine primary care depression treatment. (nih.gov)
  • A recent study published in JAMA found that people who take medications with depression or suicidal thoughts listed as a side effect are, in fact, more likely to be depressed or suicidal. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, the study found that 37% of respondents used at least one prescription medication with depression as a side effect, that use of these medications had significantly increased between 2005 and 2014, and that people who took them were more likely to be older (65 or older), female, widowed, and have other chronic health problems. (harvard.edu)
  • Monshouwer K, Smit F, Ruiter M, Ormel H, Verhulst F, Vollebergh W, Oldehinkel T (2012) Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence: the TRAILS study. (springer.com)
  • This study suggests a possible causal effect of depression on COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. (nih.gov)
  • The study also showed that acute depression also had an impact on key aspects of cognitive function, including motor skills and speed of thought. (aidsmap.com)
  • W hen Vikram Patel first began to study mental health, he believed depression only existed in rich nations. (theguardian.com)
  • Scientists found in a 21-year longitudinal study that mid adolescent (ages 14-16) depression significantly increased the risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance dependencies during young adult years (ages 16-21). (huffpost.com)
  • And this significant prevalence is likely contributing to increasing rates of depression in the U.S., according to a new study published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). (baptisthealth.net)
  • Even some forms of prescription-strength and over-the-counter ibuprofen have the potential of depression as a side effect, the study authors found. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Another study has shown there is a possible link between depression in moms and cellular damage in infants. (momsmilkboutique.com)
  • Vietnamese in Germany represent a scarcely researched and vulnerable group for mental health problems, especially under exposure to migration-related stressors (MRS). This study analyzes the effect of those MRS on the severity level and symptom pattern of depression. (hindawi.com)
  • Grant, G.D. Bioactive Constituents in Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Their Effect on the Risk of Depression-A Comparative Constituent Analysis Study. (mdpi.com)
  • We conclude that none of the experimental drugs are adequate for therapeutic use in opioid-induced respiratory depression and all need further study of efficacy and toxicity. (asahq.org)
  • Our present study aims to investigate the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with this system by exploring the effects of MEL with or without a facilitator of GABA-ergic neurotransmission, diazepam (DZ) on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. (scirp.org)
  • The effect of MEL and DZ reported in this study concerns selective modulation of behavioral anxiety and depression since locomotor activity assessed by the OFT and EPM was not affected. (scirp.org)
  • The results suggest doctors need to screen lung cancer patients for depression and then act to refer patients for care, said Barbara Andersen , lead author of the study and professor of psychology at The Ohio State University . (technologynetworks.com)
  • A 2002 study found that more severe depression was associated with a decreased likelihood of early recovery. (postpartumprogress.com)
  • Use of multiple medications with depression as a possible side effect was associated with greater likelihood of concurrent depression, authors of the study reported in JAMA. (mdedge.com)
  • Experiencing trauma early in life and having certain genes can put you at higher risk for depression. (nih.gov)
  • How much time they spent on the computer and how much salt they consumed showed the highest increase in risk for depression. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that a high CAR represents a time-limited risk factor for onsets of MDEs, which increases risk for depression independently of future major stressful life events. (cambridge.org)
  • Early recognition of symptoms and signs of depression can help in taking a holistic approach to the management of depression. (medindia.net)
  • But, whatever the trigger, Wells hopes parents will be watchful for the signs of depression in their child. (pjstar.com)
  • When you feel so much ambivalence and confusion about the signs of depression suddenly showing up, you find it harder to be calm, clear and confident. (yourtango.com)
  • No matter what they called it, no matter what they held to be the reason or the cure, they cited hopelessness, exhaustion, inability to confront their problems and a lack of interest in life - classic signs of depression. (theguardian.com)
  • The research indicated that children whose mothers had been diagnosed with depression are likely to achieve grades that are 4.5 percentage points lower than peers whose mothers had not been diagnosed with depression. (eurekalert.org)
  • He added that, while it remains unclear why giving birth in winter or spring should have a positive effect, it could be linked to the "seasonal enjoyment of indoor activities mothers experience with newborns. (womansday.com)
  • Both types of problems were reported by teachers, though teacher depression did not appear to result in more reports of externalizing problems from the mothers of the children in the sample. (edweek.org)
  • While healthcare providers often screen new mothers for depression before and after birth, the screening is not as prioritized with new fathers. (medicaldaily.com)
  • When comparing screenings, it was found 4.4 percent of fathers tested positive for depression - a figure extremely close to the 5 percent of mothers who screened positive. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Unfortunately in this trial, we have no idea of the DHA status of the mothers at the beginning of pregnancy or when they were evaluated for depression," Duffy MacKay, vice president of scientific & regulatory affairs at the Council for Responsible Nutrition, said in a news release. (drugs.com)
  • Prevalence of depression in mothers ranged from 30%-38% within the first 24 months following a child's epilepsy diagnosis. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mothers, in particular, are at greatest risk for psychological distress or depression in response to their child's epilepsy, as they are often the primary caregivers for their children. (healthcanal.com)
  • Results showed that children of mothers with elevated levels of depressive symptoms have poorer health-related quality of life than children of mothers with low levels of depression. (healthcanal.com)
  • After pharmacological treatments, anxiety levels are evaluated in behavioral tests of Open Field (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression levels are evaluated by the forced swim test (FST). (scirp.org)
  • We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. (springer.com)
  • While not specifically shown, it is likely that the immune system suffers, making untreated depression a pathway to infection. (opposingviews.com)
  • Most importantly, those with insomnia comorbid with anxiety or depression had similar scores on the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale, when compared to those with primary insomnia. (healthcentral.com)
  • Those with insomnia and both anxiety and depression scored significantly higher on some subscales of the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale compared to those with primary insomnia. (healthcentral.com)
  • We calculated the adjusted odds of low-priority triage (Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale score of 3, 4 or 5) for patients with acute myocardial infarction who had a charted history of depression. (cmaj.ca)
  • The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPI), two sub-scales of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and an open ended questionnaire and demographic sheet were mailed out to 600 psychiatric nurses in Saskatchewan. (rpnas.com)
  • Dima Mazen Qato, Pharm.D., M.P.H., Ph.D., from the University of Illinois at Chicago, and colleagues analyzed five two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006 through 2013-2014) for use of prescription medications with depression as a potential adverse effect. (drugs.com)