Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Evaluation of manifestations of disease.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

Use of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist to screen for psychosocial problems in pediatric primary care: a national feasibility study. (1/661)

BACKGROUND: Routine use of a brief psychosocial screening instrument has been proposed as a means of improving recognition, management, and referral of children's psychosocial morbidity in primary care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of routine psychosocial screening using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) in pediatrics by using a brief version of the checklist in a large sample representative of the full range of pediatric practice settings in the United States and Canada. We evaluated large-scale screening and the performance of the PSC in detecting psychosocial problems by (1) determining whether the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction identified by the PSC was consistent with findings in previous, smaller samples; (2) assessing whether the prevalence of positive PSC screening scores varied by population subgroups; and (3) determining whether the PSC was completed by a significant proportion of parents from all subgroups and settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one thousand sixty-five children between the ages of 4 and 15 years were seen in 2 large primary care networks: the Ambulatory Sentinel Practice Network and the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network, involving 395 pediatric and family practice clinicians in 44 states, Puerto Rico, and 4 Canadian provinces. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire that included demographic information, history of mental health services, the 35-item PSC, and the number of pediatric visits within the past 6 months. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of psychosocial dysfunction as measured by the PSC in school-aged and preschool-aged pediatric outpatients (13% and 10%, respectively) were nearly identical to the rates that had been reported in several smaller samples (12%-14% among school-aged children and 7%-14% among preschoolers). Consistent with previous findings, children from low-income families were twice as likely to be scored as dysfunctional on the PSC than were children from higher-income families. Similarly, children from single-parent as opposed to those from 2-parent families and children with a past history of mental health services showed an elevated risk of psychosocial impairment. The current study was the first to demonstrate a 50% increase in risk of impairment for male children. The overall rate of completed forms was 97%, well within an acceptable range, and at least 94% of the parents in each sociodemographic subgroup completed the PSC form. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the PSC offers an approach to the recognition of psychosocial dysfunction that is sufficiently consistent across groups and locales to become part of comprehensive pediatric care in virtually all outpatient settings. In addition to its clinical utility, the consistency and widespread acceptability of the PSC make it well suited for the next generation of pediatric mental health services research, which can address whether earlier recognition of and intervention for psychosocial problems in pediatrics will lead to cost-effective outcomes.  (+info)

The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (2/661)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention.  (+info)

Alexithymia: a facet of essential hypertension. (3/661)

Two hundred thirty-seven newly diagnosed yet untreated hypertensive men and women, 35 to 54 years of age, were compared with an age- and gender-stratified random population sample of 146 normotensive men and women to find out whether psychological distress symptoms, anger expression, and alexithymia are associated with elevated blood pressure and whether the possible associations are independent of sodium and alcohol intake, body mass index, and physical fitness. The independent attributes of mean arterial pressure were studied by multivariate regression analyses after combining the subjects in the hypertensive and control groups. Three questionnaires were used: the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-37), a 31-item version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26). Total scores of the TAS-26 were higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive men and women than in their normotensive control subjects (75.6+/-7.8 vs 64.1+/-9.8 in men and 72.9+/-7.1 vs 57.5+/-11.5 in women). There were no differences between the study and control groups in psychological distress symptoms, including anxiety, depression, and hostility, or in anger expression. In multivariate regression analyses, higher age, male gender, higher sodium intake, lower physical fitness, and alexithymia were independently and highly significantly (P<0.01 for male gender, P<0.0001 for other variables) associated with increased blood pressure, explaining altogether 39.5% of the cross-sectional variation in mean arterial pressure. We conclude that alexithymia, that is, poor ability to experience and express emotions, is associated with elevated blood pressure independent of sodium and alcohol intake, body mass index, and physical fitness.  (+info)

Lifetime low-level exposure to environmental lead and children's emotional and behavioral development at ages 11-13 years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study. (4/661)

The Port Pirie Cohort Study is the first study to monitor prospectively the association between lifetime blood lead exposure and the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems experienced by children. Lead exposure data along with ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist were obtained for 322 11-13-year-old children from the lead smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia. Mean total behavior problem score (95% confidence interval (CI)) for boys whose lifetime average blood lead concentration was above 15 microg/dl was 28.7 (24.6-32.8) compared with 21.1 (17.5-24.8) in boys with lower exposure levels. The corresponding mean scores (95% CI) for girls were 29.7 (25.3-34.2) and 18.0 (14.7-21.3). After controlling for a number of confounding variables, including the quality of the child's HOME environment (assessed by Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment), maternal psychopathology, and the child's IQ, regression modeling predicted that for a hypothetical increase in lifetime blood lead exposure from 10 to 30 microg/dl, the externalizing behavior problem score would increase by 3.5 in boys (95% CI 1.6-5.4), and by 1.8 (95% CI -0.1 to 11.1) in girls. Internalizing behavior problem scores were predicted to rise by 2.1 (95% CI 0.0-4.2) in girls but by only 0.8 (95% CI -0.9 to 2.4) in boys.  (+info)

Income group differences in relationships among survey measures of physical and mental health. (5/661)

The present research tested the hypothesis that the experience of health is hierarchically organized such that gratification of physical health needs must precede gratification of mental health needs. It was reasoned that because the nondisadvantaged possess greater resources for the gratification of health needs in general, symptoms of mental illness would be more salient for this group and thus better able to explain variance in both mental and physical illness. On the other hand, it was reasoned that symptoms of physical illness would be more salient and thus better able to explain variance in both mental and physical illness for the disadvantaged. Results of the study indicate income group differences in patterns of relationships among health variables, supporting the hypothesis and suggesting important differences in the validity of health measures across income groups. The results are related to previous findings in medical sociology, and suggestions for future research are made.  (+info)

Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger. (6/661)

Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to fearful, disgusted and happy expressions. No previous studies have investigated the neural substrates which mediate responses to sad and angry expressions. Using functional neuroimaging, we tested two hypotheses. First, we tested whether the amygdala has a neural response to sad and/or angry facial expressions. Secondly, we tested whether the orbitofrontal cortex has a specific neural response to angry facial expressions. Volunteer subjects were scanned, using PET, while they performed a sex discrimination task involving static grey-scale images of faces expressing varying degrees of sadness and anger. We found that increasing intensity of sad facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the left amygdala and right temporal pole. In addition, we found that increasing intensity of angry facial expression was associated with enhanced activity in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. We found no support for the suggestion that angry expressions generate a signal in the amygdala. The results provide evidence for dissociable, but interlocking, systems for the processing of distinct categories of negative facial expression.  (+info)

The three dimensions of headache impact: pain, disability and affective distress. (7/661)

It is increasingly recognized that pain measures alone provide incomplete information about the impact of pain on functioning or quality-of-life. A wide range of measures that promise to provide additional information about the impact of pain on people's lives are thus coming into use. In order to clarify the construct of headache impact, we attempted to identify the dimensions assessed by a set of 22 headache-impact measures and to identify the specific measures that best assessed each of these headache-impact dimensions. Adults (n=329) with frequent benign headache disorders completed a comprehensive assessment battery that included 22 headache-impact measures. Factor analysis was then used to identify dimensions underlying the headache-impact measures. Three factors labeled Affective Distress, Pain Density and Disability best accounted for correlations among headache-impact measures. Interfactor correlations ranged between 0.37 and 0.20, suggesting three correlated but separable impact dimensions. These results suggest the construct of headache impact needs to be broadened beyond pain and disability to include affective distress. An adequate assessment of the impact of recurrent headache disorders in clinical trials and other research may require measures from all three of the headache-impact dimensions identified here.  (+info)

Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care. (8/661)

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character traits and degree of alexithymia of a selected group of women with active eating disorders and in recovery, and to recommend responses by members of the primary care team that might meet the needs of such individuals. METHOD: Letters were sent to 200 female members of the Eating Disorders Association who had agreed to participate in research. Seventy-nine women volunteered to complete four postal questionnaires. This gave a response rate of 38.5%. Responders were categorised into three groups--anorexic, bulimic, and recovered--using the criteria of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). The results of the 16PF5 Personality Inventory (16PF5) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlated using Pearson's correlation. A biographical questionnaire was also completed. RESULTS: In all three subgroups, high scores were achieved on the 16PF5 on 'apprehension and social sensitivity', while there were significant differences in the scores for 'privateness': a scale that measures the ability to talk about feelings and confide in others. On the TAS-20, 65% of the anorexic and 83% of the bulimic group scored in the alexithymic range compared with 33% of the recovered group. There was a significant negative correlation between alexithymia and social skills such as 'social and emotional expressivity' on the 16PF5. CONCLUSION: The results of this study emphasise the difference between those with active eating disorders who achieved high scores for privacy, introversion, and alexithymia, and those who have recovered. These character traits give potential helpers an important indication of the areas that can both block and facilitate recovery, and they act as a reminder that the presenting symptoms in eating disorders and other psychosomatic conditions are the outward presentation of internal conflict. It is suggested that effective screening and needs assessment will facilitate a more appropriate and prompt therapeutic response. This may be provided in the primary care setting where appropriate training has occurred.  (+info)

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is not specifically defined in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DS-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it is classified as a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern.

According to the DSM-5, a seasonal pattern is defined as: "There has been a regular temporal relationship between the onset of major depressive episodes in major depressive disorder and a particular time of the year (e.g., always starts in fall or winter)." This means that someone with SAD experiences depressive symptoms during specific seasons, most commonly in late fall or winter, but in some cases, also in spring or summer.

The symptoms of SAD may include:

* Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
* Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
* Having low energy
* Having problems sleeping
* Experiencing changes in appetite or weight
* Feeling sluggish or agitated
* Having difficulty concentrating
* Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty
* Having thoughts of death or suicide

These symptoms must be more severe than just feeling "blue" or having a bad day. They also must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be due to substance use or another medical condition.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Symptom assessment is the process of actively collecting and interpreting information about a patient's experiences of disease-related symptoms. It involves identifying, quantifying, and evaluating the impact of symptoms on a person's functioning and quality of life. This process often includes using validated tools or scales to measure symptom severity, frequency, and distress. The goal of symptom assessment is to inform clinical decision making, improve patient outcomes, and help monitor the effectiveness of treatment interventions. It is an ongoing process that should be repeated regularly to adjust care plans as needed based on changes in symptoms over time.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

"Do antipsychotics ameliorate or exacerbate Obsessive Compulsive Disorder symptoms?: A systematic review". Journal of Affective ... The delusion is part of the Schneider's first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia. The diagnosis of the condition can be made using ... Characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia, such as thought broadcasting...suggest a failure in distinguishing between oneself ... Raguram, R.; Kapur, R.L. (1985). "A Study of First Rank Symptoms of Schneider in Functional Psychoses". Indian Journal of ...
Keller M.C., Nesse R.M. (2005). "Is low mood an adaptation? Evidence for subtypes with symptoms that match precipitants" (PDF ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 86 (1): 27-35. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.12.005. PMID 15820268. Marks I. M., Nesse R. M. (1994). " ...
Journal of Affective Disorders. 218: 15-22. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.046. PMID 28456072. Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K ... in ameliorating disease and the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and localized physical pain in patients with ... "The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled ... "Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". ...
The symptoms of major depression, such as loss of interest in virtually all activities and suicidality, are inherently costly, ... Wittman, D. (2014). "Darwinian Depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 168 (2): 142-150. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.052. ... First, the associated symptoms of depression, such as inactivity and lethargy, encourage the affected individual to rest. ... Simultaneously, publicly displayed symptoms, which reduce the depressive's ability to conduct basic life activities, serve as a ...
Although symptoms of feeling down, baby blues and a lack of sleep are common amongst new parents, a diagnosis of depression is ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 215: 62-70. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.031. PMID 28319693. Verwijk E, Comijs HC, Kok RM, Spaans ... Light to moderate symptoms could be treated at home. This includes being well-rested, getting alone time, eating a well- ... Despite common symptoms of loss of appetite and insomnia, women are more likely to display atypical behaviours such as ...
Journal of Affective Disorders. 55 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00191-8. PMID 10512600. Zheng, D; MacEra, CA; Croft, JB ... If depression is a system consisting of various symptoms, when one of the symptoms improves, the entire trajectory of the ... Symptom targeted intervention (STI) is a clinical program being used in medical settings to help patients who struggle with ... "The promise of Symptom Targeted Intervention (STI) in improving mood and quality of life outcomes in dialysis patients-part 2 ...
Journal of Affective Disorders. Elsevier BV. 245: 98-112. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.10.114. hdl:10072/380915. ISSN 0165-0327. PMID ... Somatic symptom disorder corresponds to the way an individual views and reacts to symptoms as rather than the symptoms ... Somatic symptoms disorder pertains to how an individual interprets and responds to symptoms as opposed to the symptoms ... The Somatic Symptom Scale - 8 (SSS-8) is a short self-report questionnaire that is used to evaluate somatic symptoms. It ...
One of the most widely used measures of mania symptoms is the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia mania ... The measure assesses the child's mood and behavior symptoms, asking parents or teachers to rate how often the symptoms have ... It is important that the CMRS accurately discriminate from symptoms of ADHD because core symptoms of adolescent Bipolar ... and to accurately discriminate the symptoms of mania from symptoms of ADHD. ...
Parental classes of depressive symptoms across time". Journal of Affective Disorders. 200: 293-302. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.01. ... The symptoms of post-adoption depression are common to symptoms of depression, and include changes in sleeping pattern and ... Parental classes of depressive symptoms across time". Journal of Affective Disorders. 200: 293-302. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.01. ... Signs and symptoms of post-adoption depression often come out around one month post adoption. Anxiety Changes in appetite ...
Affective symptoms, such as feelings of sadness and guilt, are more commonly reported in Western samples than in Hispanic, ... "Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective ... Symptoms of postpartum depression include sad or depressed mood, feelings of worry, anxiety, guilt, or worthlessness, ... Lancaster CA, Gold KJ, Flynn HA, Yoo H, Marcus SM, Davis MM (January 2010). "Risk factors for depressive symptoms during ...
Journal of Affective Disorders. 48 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(97)00105-5. PMID 9495597. Sims A (2002). Symptoms in the ... "affective basis of delusion." Delusions and other positive symptoms of psychosis are often treated with antipsychotic ... Sims A (2002). Symptoms in the mind: an introduction to descriptive psychopathology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. p. 127. ISBN ... Higher levels of dopamine qualify as a symptom of disorders of brain function. That they are needed to sustain certain ...
"Mood Disorders; Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2022-05-09. Goto, Keiko; Murayama, ... Journal of Affective Disorders Reports. 5: 100173. doi:10.1016/j.jadr.2021.100173. ISSN 2666-9153. S2CID 237850992. " ... "Important factors in the observation dimensions of high school Yogo teachers to detect prodromal symptoms of mental health ...
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): Symptoms. (September 22, 2011). Maruani, Julia; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis (2019 ... Seasonal affective disorder is a medical condition in which the affected person experiences mood changes alongside seasonal ... These patients have symptoms such as dizziness. Roman doctors associated brain injury with speech impairments, incontinence, ... These symptoms are reminiscent of Borderline personality disorder, a Cluster B personality disorder characterized by unstable ...
Ahola, K.; Hakenen, J. (2007). "Job strain, burnout, and depressive symptoms: A prospective study among dentists". Journal of ... Affective Disorders. 104 (1-3): 103-110. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.03.004. PMID 17448543. Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). "Factorial ... The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is a psychological assessment instrument comprising 22 symptom items pertaining to ...
During chronic toxicity, the gastrointestinal symptoms seen in acute toxicity are less prominent. The symptoms are often vague ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 80 (2-3): 269-271. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00133-2. PMID 15207941. Gutwinski S, Fierley L, ... restlessness and somatic symptoms like vertigo, dizziness or lightheadedness. Symptoms occur within the first week and are ... In addition to tremors, lithium treatment appears to be a risk factor for development of parkinsonism-like symptoms, although ...
... and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with bipolar depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 288: 191-198. doi:10.1016/j. ... This result could be very useful for schizophrenia, as one of the symptoms includes cognitive deficits. Cariprazine has partial ... extrapyramidal symptoms) as drugs that act on dorsal striatum dopamine receptors. Cariprazine also acts on 5-HT1A receptors, ... as well as other third generation antipsychotics possesses a lower chance of exacerbating extrapyramidal symptoms. However the ...
"Cannabis use and mania symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). Journal of Affective Disorders. 171: 39-47. doi: ... This is due to a desire to alleviate the symptoms of these experiences through marijuana use. Chronic users who use for ... Depersonalization is defined as a dissociative symptom in which one feels like an outside observer with respect to one's ... Research has suggested that CBD can safely reduce some symptoms of psychosis in general. A 2014 review examined psychological ...
Retrieved September 6, 2008 MedlinePlus Overview seasonalaffectivedisorder Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): Symptoms. ... "Narrow-band blue-light treatment of seasonal affective disorder in adults and the influence of additional nonseasonal symptoms ... "Patterns of depressive symptom remission during the treatment of seasonal affective disorder with cognitive-behavioral therapy ... The symptoms of it mimic those of dysthymia or even major depressive disorder. There is also potential risk of suicide in some ...
It contains 21 measures of depressive symptom severity, and also captures atypical symptoms that are common in SAD. Partonen, ... and their combination in treating seasonal affective disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders. 80 (2-3): 273-283. doi:10.1016/ ... "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for seasonal affective disorder: A pilot study". Journal of Affective Disorders. 168: 205- ... The main symptom of SAD targeted is low energy levels, remedied with fatigue management and energy conservation strategies. The ...
January 2007). "Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis". ... formal testing found no cognitive impairment and suggested the reported symptoms may reflect the affective and somatic ... Symptoms such as rapid heart rate, shortness of breath on exertion, and edema may predominate. Older patients also tend to have ... Overall, reported symptoms vary from mild to severe aspects of anxiety or depression, and may include psychotic and behavioral ...
Depression symptoms during pregnancy: evidence from growing up in New Zealand. Journal of affective disorders, 186, 66-73. ...
... towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients". Journal of Affective Disorders. 88 (2): 217-33. doi: ... The rating "yes" would mean the symptom is present or this trait is "typical of me," and "no" would mean that the symptom is ... In addition, while the HCL-32 is a sensitive instrument for hypomanic symptoms, it does not distinguish between bipolar I and ... Existing measures for bipolar disorder focused on identifying personality factors and symptom severity instead of the episodic ...
"Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective ... Newborns whose mothers use heroin during the gestational period often exhibit withdrawal symptoms at birth and are more likely ...
Even though they have these symptoms during an attack, the main symptom is the persistent fear of having future panic attacks. ... Anxiety is linked to fear and manifests as a future-oriented mood state that consists of a complex cognitive, affective, ... To be diagnosed, symptoms typically need to be present for at least six months, be more than would be expected for the ... Symptoms of anxiety can range in number, intensity, and frequency, depending on the person. However, most people do not suffer ...
"Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective ... Symptoms typically resolve within two weeks. Symptoms lasting longer than two weeks are a sign of a more serious type of ... Although both diagnoses overlap in their signs and symptoms, some symptoms specific to postpartum PTSD include being easily ... The most severe symptoms last from 2 to 12 weeks, and recovery takes 6 months to a year. Women who have been hospitalized for a ...
"Diurnal variation of symptoms in seasonal affective disorder". Psychiatry Research. 37 (1): 105-111. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(91) ... Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(1), 152-155. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.12.017 Gruber, R., & Cassoff, J. (2014). The interplay ... Emotion regulation difficulties are associated with greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and borderline personality, that ... with symptoms like irritability, anxiety, apathy and dysphoria. Goldstein, A. N., & Walker, M. P. (2014). The Role of Sleep in ...
"A meta-analysis of the association between adolescent social media use and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective Disorders ... Symptoms of ADHD have been positively correlated with digital media use in a large prospective study. The ADHD symptom of ... 2,587 subjects had no significant symptoms of ADHD at baseline with a mean number of 3.62 modern digital media activities used ... There has been research showing that 84 percent of participants exposed to pro-ED social media developed symptoms of an eating ...
Symptoms may be vary between each sub-type of generalized anxiety disorder. Generally, symptoms must be present for at least ... Journal of Affective Disorders (Systematic Review). 190: 264-71. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.069. PMID 26540080. Wen MC, Chan LL ... Their symptoms could be related to external events they fear, such as their home burning down because they forgot to turn off ... A symptom can be a strained appearance, with increased sweating from the hands, feet, and axillae, along with tearfulness, ...
For adults with depressive symptoms, there is some weak evidence to suggest that music therapy may help reduce symptoms and ... Affective neuroscience Art therapy Biomusicology Chronobiology Dispokinesis Eloise (psychiatric hospital) Embodied music ... Kolk, Herman; Heeschen, Claus (May 1990). "Adaptation symptoms and impairment symptoms in Broca's aphasia". Aphasiology. 4 (3 ... It was found that there was a significant change in grief symptoms and behaviors with the experimental group in the home, but ...
... cognitive symptoms of depression and response to antidepressants in GENDEP. Journal of affective disorders, 127(1-3), 337-342. ... Genetic moderation of the effects of the Family Check-Up intervention on children's internalizing symptoms: A longitudinal ...
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter. ... Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter. ... Symptoms usually build up slowly in the late autumn and winter months. Symptoms are often the same as with other forms of ... With no treatment, symptoms usually get better on their own with the change of seasons. Symptoms can improve more quickly with ...
F31.4: Bipolar affective disorder, current episode severe depression without psychotic symptoms You are currently very ... For a long time you may have no symptoms from the disorder. ...
Learn about the signs and symptoms of SAD, and ways to help cope. ... Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that ... What are signs and symptoms of seasonal affective disorder?. Signs of depression and seasonal affective disorder can be very ... Seasonal affective disorder symptoms should subside after a few months when the season starts to change again. If youre ... It may help to know there can be certain signs and symptoms of seasonal affective disorder that are specific to the season.1 ...
Seasonal affective disorder , The signs, symptoms, and treatments. Many of us experience fluctuations in our mood that can last ... Coping with loneliness , The signs, symptoms and treatments. Loneliness is an emotion that all of us will feel at some point in ... Workplace anxiety , The signs, symptoms and coping strategies. The relationship between work and anxiety is an intricate and ... If the onset of depressive symptoms seem to coincide with changes in the weather or temperature, you may be experiencing a type ...
38] These delays occur in language, social, and motor development approximately 10-18 years before affective symptoms appear. [ ... encoded search term (Pediatric Bipolar Affective Disorder) and Pediatric Bipolar Affective Disorder What to Read Next on ... Pediatric Bipolar Affective Disorder. Updated: Jun 08, 2021 * Author: Bettina E Bernstein, DO, DFAACAP, DFAPA; Chief Editor: ... Hallmark symptoms of mania include an abnormal, often expansive, and elevated mood lasting for at least 1 week. They may also ...
Although symptoms of feeling down, baby blues and a lack of sleep are common amongst new parents, a diagnosis of depression is ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 215: 62-70. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.031. PMID 28319693. Verwijk E, Comijs HC, Kok RM, Spaans ... Light to moderate symptoms could be treated at home. This includes being well-rested, getting alone time, eating a well- ... Despite common symptoms of loss of appetite and insomnia, women are more likely to display atypical behaviours such as ...
What is SAD? Sometimes referred to as the winter blues, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that is ... Recognize symptoms and their seasonal pattern. Symptoms can include: low energy, not wanting to get out of bed, feeling sad on ... Do symptoms improve slightly on sunnier days?. *Get as much natural sunlight as possible. Light and not getting enough of it is ... What is SAD? Sometimes referred to as the winter blues, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that is ...
Association between pubertal development and depressive symptoms in girls from a UK cohort - Volume 42 Issue 12 ... Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Vol. 9, Issue. 11, p. 1798. *CrossRef ... Early Childhood Father Absence and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls from a UK Cohort: The Mediating Role of Early ... Joinson, C, Heron, J, Lewis, G, Croudace, T, Araya, R (2011). Timing of menarche and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls ...
Persistent depressive symptoms, HPA-axis hyperactivity, and inflammation: the role of cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms. ... affective symptoms. The associations with somatic symptoms were also independent of relevant confounding factors. In contrast, ... cognitive-affective versus somatic) of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period using Trait-State-Occasion (TSO) structural ... affective symptoms were weak after adjustment for all covariates. These distinct associations reveal the importance of ...
Somatic symptoms in primary affective disorder. Presence and relationship to the classification of depression. Arch Gen ... IEEE Trans Affective Comput 2010 Jan;1(1):18-37. [CrossRef]. *Gravenhorst F, Muaremi A, Bardram J, Grünerbl A, Mayora O, Wurzer ... Clinical symptoms are assessed primarily through interviews or psychiatric scales, which are dependent on reports from the ... and diurnal rhythm as a function of bright light in bipolar II seasonal affective disorder: an exploratory study. Psychiatry ...
Depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of dying from heart disease or any cause in a study of more than 23,000 ... Depressive symptoms were measured only at baseline, so the investigators were not able to account for the changes in depressive ... Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores and were categorized as none/minimal, mild, ... Moderate to severe (but not mild) depressive symptoms were also associated with a greater than twofold higher risk of IHD ...
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. September 2014.. *Van Wingen GA, van Broekhoven F, Verkes RJ, et al. Progesterone ... Other physical symptoms include headaches and insomnia. Psychological symptoms may include feeling restless or tense, having a ... and those who suffer from both anxiety and depression tend to have more severe symptoms and earlier onset of symptoms of both. ... Each has its own set of symptoms, but all are characterized by excessive fear or worry. Symptoms are usually both emotional and ...
Seasonal Affective Disorder * Self Harming Behaviors * Somatic Symptom Disorder * Somatoform Disorders * Substance Addiction ...
Trajectories of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms in acutely hospitalized older adults: The hospital-ADL study. Reichardt ... OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among acutely hospitalized older patients and ...
Depression comes in many forms, including seasonal affective disorder and postpartum depression. Although some types of ... A licensed therapist in Rochester can help you understand and manage symptoms of depression. ... Their needs may include finding strategies to manage their symptoms, understanding a ... Their needs may include finding strategies to manage their symptoms, understanding a ...
with affective expression (high in mania/depression dimension); with developmental expression (high in developmental cognitive ... deficit/negative symptoms); and not otherwise specified.. ...depending on whether certain "thresholds" for the various ... Another proposed contributor to the etiology of mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and seasonal affective disorder) is ...
Affective Disorders. Any disorder in which the primary symptoms are associated with mood disturbances, such as extreme ... affective filter. The affective filter hypothesis (Dulay, Krashen, and Burt, 1982) describes the need for second-language ... affective neuroscience. A term used to describe the field of neuroscience investigating questions related to affect, including ... affective neuroscientists. A term used to describe the field of neuroscience investigating questions related to affect, ...
What are the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder? Dr. Joseph Allen explains more about symptoms of seasonal affective ... What are some tips for keeping allergy symptoms under control? Dr. Joseph Allen talks more about keeping allergy symptoms under ... What is seasonal affective disorder? Dr. Joseph Allen talks more about seasonal affective disorder. ... The Surprising Facts About Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) How the dark days of winter can mess with your mood. ...
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). * Sleep Disorders * Somatic Symptom Disorder * Specific Learning Disorders ... Examining Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Young Survivors ... and dissociative subtype of PTSD symptoms whereas recent adult non-traumatic stressors do not: results from an online survey ...
Seasonal affective disorder. Symptoms: Depression, change in sleep habits, difficulty concentrating, increased anxiety, ... Most times, symptoms go away with the spring, she said.. There are some simple ways to manage symptoms of SAD. Maintaining a ... "Most often, the winter months are when SAD symptoms are most likely to be present, but sometimes, symptoms occur during the ... The decrease in sunlight during fall and winter also affects symptoms.. People tend to be less active and less exposed to ...
Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias ... Affective forecasting bias in preschool children. J Exp Child Psychol 2017;159:175-84.doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.005pmid:http ... Affective forecasting: an unrecognized challenge in making serious health decisions. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:1708-12.doi: ... How do you feel? affective forecasting and the impact bias in track athletics. J Soc Psychol 2009;149:343-8.doi:10.3200/SOCP. ...
The effects of bright light treatment on affective symptoms in people with dementia: a 24-week cluster randomized controlled ... The effect of bright light on rest-activity rhythms and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia  Kolberg, Eirin ( ... Accurately and reliably measuring the presence and severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms is essential for ... Background: The majority of people with dementia have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), including ...
Depression and seasonal affective disorder share the same symptoms, but they are not the same illness. The best way to ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is characterized by major depressive episodes that recur seasonally for at least two years ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, can affect up to 7.9 percent of the general population each year. ... Additional symptoms of SAD include craving carbohydrates, weight gain and reduced production of vitamin D, which can affect ...
It increases our understanding of the brains emotional system and how brain activity can lead to psychiatric symptoms such as ... However, low mood and depression are affective side effects. STN is adjoined with para-STN, associated with appetitive and ... The aim is for DBS to treat the symptoms of the disease without causing severe side effects," says Mackenzie. ... To investigate causality between STN and aversion, affective behavior is addressed using optogenetics in mice. ...
Prevalence and relationship to affective distress and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral ...
These symptoms often make it difficult to cope with work and put a strain on relationships. This is a recognized problem known ... What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder that stems from the lack of ... This can sometimes cause or amplify some symptoms of winter depression and SAD, which is why using an alarm clock that mimics a ... For many people, the dark mornings and short days of autumn and winter trigger Seasonal Affective Disorder, or more commonly ...
Urinary Incontinence May Increase Risk for Depressive Symptoms Among Adults. Risk for symptoms of depression may be associated ... These findings, from a cross-sectional study, were published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. Read more. ...
Journal of Affective Disorders. Sierau, S., Warmingham, J., White, L.O., Klein A. M., & von Klitzing, K. (2020). Childhood ... Teen childbearing and offspring internalizing symptoms: The mediating role of child maltreatment. Development and ... Journal of Affective Disorders. Petrenko, C.L., Parr, J., Kautz, C., Tapparello, C., Olson, H.C., (2020). A Mobile Health ... the effect of child maltreatment on suicide risk among disadvantaged minority female adolescents with depressive symptoms. ...
Show author(s) (2021). The effects of bright light treatment on affective symptoms in people with dementia: a 24-week cluster ... Show author(s) (2024). Oral symptoms in dying nursing home patients. Results from the prospective REDIC study. BMC Oral Health. ... Show author(s) (2024). Impact of Pain and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms on Activities in Nursing Home Residents (COSMOS Trial). ... Show author(s) (2021). Impact of medication review on psychotropic drug use for behavioral and psychological symptoms of home- ...
  • Your provider may also perform a physical exam and blood tests to rule out other disorders that have symptoms similar to SAD. (
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5 ) does not distinguish adult-onset from childhood- or adolescent-onset symptoms of bipolar disorder. (
  • Therefore, bipolar disorders are viewed as having a spectrum of symptoms that range from mild hypomania to the most extreme mania, which may include life-threatening behaviors, dysphoria, and psychotic features. (
  • Affective disorders, i.e. mental disorders that influence the way you think and feel, are one of the most common mental disorders in the world. (
  • Currently, according to the WHO estimates, 100 million of people suffer from affective disorders. (
  • Modern affective disorders poorly fit the traditional classification - depressive states have blurred symptoms but still bear a great danger of suicide risk. (
  • The first group included 43 (56.6%) women with bipolar affective disorder without personality disorders , the second - 33 women (43.4%) who were diagnosed with certain personality disorders . (
  • All patients had repeated (more than two) episodes of affective disorders, during which mood and activity level were significantly impaired. (
  • The research, published in the Journal of Affective Disorders , is the most up-to-date study of its kind, providing a meta-analysis of 30 studies involving 3,501 women who were going through the menopause in 14 countries, including the UK, USA, Iran, Australia, and China. (
  • The study is published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. (
  • Journal of Affective Disorders , 274, 1-7. (
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and among the most frequent comorbid disorders in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but it is unclear whether the presence of OCD affects the symptom presentation of MDD in youth. (
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter. (
  • If light therapy is going to help, symptoms of depression should improve within 3 to 4 weeks. (
  • However, if these mood changes are significant, it may be seasonal depression, also known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). (
  • Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that comes with seasonal changes. (
  • Signs of depression and seasonal affective disorder can be very similar. (
  • In general, you may notice symptoms commonly seen with depression, like feeling hopeless, losing interest in activities, having low energy, or feeling sad or "empty. (
  • Whether you experience winter seasonal affective disorder or seasonal depression another time of year, there are ways to help cope. (
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression associated with changes in the seasons - it happens at about the same time every year. (
  • You are diagnosed with seasonal depression or another mood disorder based on the pattern of your symptoms. (
  • It can also contribute to symptoms of depression and anxiety. (
  • Sometimes referred to as the winter blues, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that is related to the change in seasons, specifically the cold winter months and lack of sun. (
  • Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a kind of depression that appears at certain times of the year. (
  • People with seasonal affective disorder make up about 10% of all depression cases. (
  • Your doctor can help rule out any other causes for your symptoms, like thyroid problems or other types of depression. (
  • Regular exercise, a healthy diet, good sleep habits, staying connected to others, balanced thinking techniques, and managing stress have all been shown to reduce the symptoms of depression. (
  • Bipolar affective disorder is characterized by periods of deep, prolonged, and profound depression that alternate with periods of an excessively elevated or irritable mood known as mania. (
  • The treatment of bipolar affective disorder is directly related to the phase of the episode (ie, depression or mania) and the severity of that phase, and it may involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication. (
  • Symptoms for winter SAD tend to differ from traditional depression, including an elevated appetite craving carbohydrates and increased sleep and time spent in bed. (
  • COVID-19 and Ebola virus disease (EVD) stigmatization have specifically been proven predictors of severe psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms ( 1 , 11 - 13 ). (
  • A B A mfiA A A B A B B N A A B A BN A A A A B A A B A A A B N A B A A N A ABSTRACT We used the self-reported 27-item Child Depression Inventory to investigate the rate and correlates of depressive symptoms among 5409 secondary school adolescents in Oman. (
  • All the regions of the their studies suggest that clinical depression country were selected at the first stage and is not categorically distinct from other de- sample size for each sex was determined in grees and patterns of depressive symptoms. (
  • However, approximately 20% of adults with bipolar disorder had symptoms beginning in adolescence. (
  • The diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder are the same regardless of the patient's age at the onset of symptoms. (
  • Go to Bipolar Affective Disorder for complete information on this topic. (
  • Although bipolar disorder is diagnosed based on the patient's history and clinical course, laboratory studies may be necessary to rule out other potential causes of the patient's signs and symptoms as well as to have baseline results before administering certain medications. (
  • For a long time you may have no symptoms from the disorder. (
  • Seasonal affective disorder can be traced back to less sunlight. (
  • What are signs and symptoms of seasonal affective disorder? (
  • It may help to know there can be certain signs and symptoms of seasonal affective disorder that are specific to the season. (
  • Seasonal affective disorder symptoms should subside after a few months when the season starts to change again. (
  • How can I cope with seasonal affective disorder? (
  • Phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder has been shown to suppress the brain's production of melatonin. (
  • How is seasonal affective disorder (SAD) diagnosed? (
  • Is there a test I need to diagnose seasonal affective disorder (SAD)? (
  • Nearly 30% of adult population has ever had affective disorder. (
  • People with true seasonal affective disorder crave carbohydrates-sweets and starches. (
  • Regular exercise is a powerful way to fight seasonal affective disorder. (
  • November 28, 2017) - Saint Joseph Berea, part of KentuckyOne Health, invites the community to learn more about symptoms, causes and treatment of seasonal affective disorder, at the free Bite Size Learning event on Tuesday, December 5, 2017. (
  • Clark will discuss those commonly affected by seasonal affective disorder, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and how to help others with the disorder. (
  • Suma Chand, PhD , the director of the cognitive behavioral therapy program at St. Louis University School of Medicine in Missouri, says a person who has panic disorder is "very avoidant of many situations that could trigger [their] panic symptoms," and the panic disorder is likely impacting their ability to go to work regularly, go shopping, attend church, and the like. (
  • Migraine is a complex neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of pain and other associated symptoms. (
  • If you find that you feel like a completely different person depending on the season, you may have a mental illness called seasonal affective disorder. (
  • A less common form of seasonal affective disorder affects people in the summer months and usually starts in the spring. (
  • There are some groups of people who are at higher risk of seasonal affective disorder. (
  • If you think you might have seasonal affective disorder, talk to your doctor. (
  • Light therapy -has been proven effective for people with seasonal affective disorder. (
  • This report describes trends in the percentage of adults with symptoms of an anxiety disorder or a depressive disorder and those who sought mental health services. (
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a depressive disorder marked by sadness and symptoms that develop in a seasonal pattern. (
  • Most people develop seasonal affective disorder during late autumn and winter, when there is less light during the day. (
  • Your health care provider can make a diagnosis by asking about your history of symptoms. (
  • In addition, the DISC is DSM-IV loyal and all symptom criteria must be met to meet the diagnosis. (
  • In November 2023, NICE drafted updated guideline recommendations to include more treatment choices for menopause symptoms, with evidence showing that CBT could help reduce symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats, depressive symptoms and problems sleeping. (
  • Therapy and meditation help to combat menopause symptoms, a study has found. (
  • The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice) recently recommended the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for menopause symptoms, including hot flushes, and the official guidelines are currently being written. (
  • Is a Brief Body Scan Helpful for Adolescent Athletes' Sleep Problems and Anxiety Symptoms? (
  • Prediction of the trajectories of depressive symptoms among children in the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study using machine learning approach. (
  • The good news is phototherapy can improve symptoms in the first week of use. (
  • Symptoms usually build up slowly in the late autumn and winter months. (
  • We used multivariable regression models to examine the relative contributions of pubertal status and timing in accounting for increases in level of depressive symptoms at 14 years. (
  • Then, in each level of depressive symptoms among ado- region, male and female sub-samples were lescents, the greater the risk of developing selected in proportion to the secondary problematic patterns of substance abuse. (
  • Menopause experts warned that therapy would only be able to treat some symptoms of menopause because it would be unable to address the underlying problem which is caused by a hormonal imbalance. (
  • Feb. 28, 2024 -- Therapies such as group counseling, marital support and mindfulness can treat some symptoms of menopause like anxiety and poor mood, according to a new analysis. (
  • However, most studies of menopause symptom management focus on hormonal replacement therapy and physiological symptoms. (
  • This restricts treatment options for women who are concerned about the risks of hormone replacement therapy and overlooks the wellbeing of women with non-physiological symptoms, such as brain fog and mood problems, which are highly prevalent. (
  • On the surface, this [study] may appear to be a study that says, actually, talking therapy may help with some physiological symptoms. (
  • Persistent depressive symptoms, HPA-axis hyperactivity, and inflammation: the role of cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms. (
  • This could be attributed to a differential role of such biological systems in somatic versus cognitive-affective depressive symptoms which remains largely unexplored. (
  • In the current study, we investigated the associations of hair cortisol and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) with the longitudinal persistence and dimensions (cognitive-affective versus somatic) of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period using Trait- State -Occasion (TSO) structural equation modelling. (
  • Notably, both biomarkers exhibited stronger relationships with somatic than with cognitive- affective symptoms . (
  • The associations with somatic symptoms were also independent of relevant confounding factors. (
  • When the symptoms of anxiety and the associated behaviors are having a detrimental impact on your well-being and day-to-day functioning, it's important to get help. (
  • The delusion is part of the Schneider's first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia. (
  • This may result from obsessive-compulsive symptoms that initially present or worsen with the use of atypical antipsychotics, a common treatment modality for schizophrenia. (
  • Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores and were categorized as none/minimal, mild, and moderate to severe. (
  • Compared to no/minimal depressive symptoms, risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was 35% higher and 49% higher, respectively, among those with mild depressive symptoms and 62% higher and 79% higher, respectively, among those with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. (
  • Moderate to severe (but not mild) depressive symptoms were also associated with a greater than twofold higher risk of IHD mortality. (
  • can affect people in different ways - some have mild symptoms, while others have severe symptoms that can lead to harm to themselves or others. (
  • Depressive symptoms were assessed from wave 1 (2002-03) to wave 8 (2016-17). (
  • As of today, there is no single common concept of affective pathology. (
  • This indicates the need for the search of new approaches to the treatment of affective pathology implying the assessment not only of the symptoms but also the set of interrelated social, personally significant issues and problems, the general state of the patient's body, its adaptive resources and the possibilities of their implementation. (
  • Of no less importance are the study of the structure and specificity of affective pathology in modern conditions, the identification of personal characteristics of patients, their relationship and mutual influence. (
  • Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans PubMed de 1980 à 2021 en utilisant diverses combinaisons de termes MeSH comme tabac, diabète, hypertension, dyslipidémie, trouble dépressif majeur, trouble bipolaire, schizophrénie. (
  • It is unclear whether pubertal status or timing of puberty explains the increase in depressive symptoms in girls during adolescence. (
  • Depressive symptoms in mid-adolescence were more strongly influenced by breast stage than timing of menarche. (
  • History of mental illness, high score in negative health locus of control, low score in positive health locus of control, not taking breakfast, poor relationship with family members, friends and teachers and physical abuse dur- ing adolescence significantly predicted depressive symptoms in the logistic regression model. (
  • Furthermore, most longitudinal research to date has focused on transient rather than persistent depressive symptoms . (
  • Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. (
  • After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. (
  • DSM-5 uses universal symptoms to define the diagnostic criteria for mood episodes, including major depressive and manic episodes. (
  • I would like to see a more balanced approach between HRT and the psychosocial model where both of these things are taken into consideration and we look at the underlying hormonal imbalance, and we look at how that's impacting somebody's mood and cognition and anxiety symptoms, and work together in a holistic way. (
  • There is a graded positive association between depressive symptoms and mortality in adults, a finding researchers say supports development of a comprehensive nationwide strategy to improve mental and physical health. (
  • Cite this: Depressive Symptoms Linked to Higher Mortality in Adults - Medscape - Oct 18, 2023. (
  • Adults who had symptoms that generally occurred more than one half of the days or nearly every day were classified as having symptoms, consistent with published scoring recommendations § ( 4 ). (
  • Lead author, Professor Aimee Spector (UCL Psychology & Language Sciences), said: "Women can spend a notable number of years in their lives dealing with a range of menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes, mood changes and brain fog. (
  • Co-author and master's graduate, Zishi Li (UCL Psychology & Language Sciences), said: "This study provides encouraging evidence to support the use of psychosocial interventions for managing non-physiological menopausal symptoms. (
  • Aimee Spector, Phd., professor of clinical psychology of aging at University College of London, said the results show a clear link between physical and psychological symptoms, with hot flashes being one example. (
  • Prevalence and correlates of PTSD and depressive symptoms one month afer the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in a sample of home-quarantned Chinese university students. (
  • Most people inflicted with SAD experience symptoms during the fall and winter, which saps their energy and leaves them feeling moody. (
  • If you experience symptoms of severe seasonal mood changes for at least 2 consecutive winters (or another season), you may have a case of SAD. (
  • Neurobehavioral effects such as reversible subjective symptoms, prolonged personality or mood changes and intellectual impairment have been studied epidemiologically and in volunteers. (
  • Lack of sleep is known to make SAD symptoms worsen. (
  • Interventions such as mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), could be an effective treatment option for menopause-related mood symptoms, memory and concentration problems, finds a new study by UCL researchers. (
  • Treatment is started in the fall or early winter, before the symptoms of SAD begin. (
  • With no treatment, symptoms usually get better on their own with the change of seasons. (
  • Symptoms can improve more quickly with treatment. (
  • Either condition can trigger the other, and those who suffer from both tend to have more severe symptoms, as well as earlier onset of those symptoms. (
  • The CBT-based interventions included educating women about the psychological symptoms of the menopause, alongside cognitive and behavioural strategies, relaxation techniques, and symptom monitoring. (
  • Psychological symptoms may include feeling restless or tense, having a feeling of dread, or experiencing ruminative or obsessive thoughts. (
  • Time of administration is dependent upon number of diagnostic modules administered and number of symptoms endorsed. (
  • A panic attack, sometimes called an anxiety attack, is a sudden and often unexpected onset of fear and discomfort that's accompanied by intense symptoms, such as a racing heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating, trembling, chest pain or discomfort, and a sense of imminent doom. (
  • Hallmark symptoms of mania include an abnormal, often expansive, and elevated mood lasting for at least 1 week. (
  • Symptoms were measured using standardised, internationally recognised self-report instruments , including the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 (which considers factors such as a lack of interest in doing things, issues with sleep, and feelings of low mood) and the GAD7 questionnaire (which asks how often a person feels worried, on edge or unable to relax). (
  • A sample of youth with OCD and MDD (n = 124) and a sample of youth with MDD but no OCD (n = 673) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A). The overall and symptom-level presentation of MDD were examined using group comparisons and network analysis. (
  • Our results revealed that higher cortisol and CRP levels were significantly associated with persistent depressive symptoms across the study period. (
  • No significant differences in the interconnections among symptoms emerged. (
  • In most cases, SAD symptoms typically start around late fall or early winter. (
  • Symptoms can include: low energy, not wanting to get out of bed, feeling sad on a daily basis, increased irritability, trouble concentrating, insomnia, loss of interest in daily activities. (
  • Other physical symptoms include headaches and insomnia . (
  • However, this is the first study to consider other forms and doses of therapy, alongside assessing which type is best for different symptoms. (
  • Historically, there's a lot of controversy about women being told their symptoms are not real or being told that symptoms are all in their head and being dismissed," said study senior author Dr Roopal Desai. (
  • In this study, we aimed to explore the correlation between trigeminal hyperalgesia and affective status or behavioral components in a migraine-specific animal model. (
  • If you're noticing your symptoms are lasting longer, it may be time to talk to your doctor. (