A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
The act of killing oneself.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A form of phototherapy using color to influence health and to treat various physical or mental disorders. The color rays may be in the visible or invisible spectrum and can be administered through colored lights or applied mentally through suggestion.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Marked disorders of thought (delusions, hallucinations, or other thought disorder accompanied by disordered affect or behavior), and deterioration from a previous level of functioning.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis. (1/123)

OBJECTIVE: Gray matter volume and glucose utilization have been reported to be reduced in the left subgenual cingulate of subjects with familial bipolar or unipolar depression. It is unclear whether these findings are secondary to recurrent illness or are part of a familial/genetic syndrome. The authors' goal was to clarify these findings. METHOD: Volumetric analyses were performed by using magnetic resonance imaging in 41 patients experiencing their first episode of affective disorder or schizophrenia and in 20 normal comparison subjects. RESULTS: The left subgenual cingulate volume of the patients with affective disorder who had a family history of affective disorder was smaller than that of patients with affective disorder with no family history of the illness and the normal comparison subjects. Patients with schizophrenia did not differ from comparison subjects in left subgenual cingulate volume. CONCLUSIONS: Left subgenual cingulate abnormalities are present at first hospitalization for psychotic affective disorder in patients who have a family history of affective disorder.  (+info)

The man who claimed to be a paedophile. (2/123)

A psychiatrist recounts a case of a man presenting with severe depression who claimed to have abused children and his pet dog. Clinical management of the case hinged on whether this claim was true, a lie or delusional. The uncertainty over this raised complex ethical dilemmas regarding confidentiality and protection of the public (and animals).  (+info)

Impact of genetic vulnerability and hypoxia on overall intelligence by age 7 in offspring at high risk for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses. (3/123)

Risk factors for schizophrenia, such as genetic vulnerability and obstetric complications, have been associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We tested the association of these risk factors with general intellectual ability in offspring at high risk for psychoses and normal control subjects. Offspring of 182 parents with DSM-IV schizophrenia or affective psychoses were recruited and diagnosed from the Boston and Providence cohorts of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP). Control subjects from the NCPP were selected to be comparable with affected parents based on the parent's age, ethnicity, study site, number of offspring enrolled in the NCPP, and payment status, and on the offspring's age, sex, and history of obstetric complications. Based on data prospectively acquired from pregnancy and events of gestation, labor, delivery, and the neonatal period, we derived a measure of probable hypoxic-ischemic insult. We also report on standardized measures of general intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ]) collected at age 7. General linear mixed models were used to test for the simultaneous effects of genetic vulnerability, defined as parental diagnosis, and probable hypoxic insult on age 7 IQ. Specificity of the effects for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses and sex effects were also tested. Low IQ at age 7 was significantly associated with genetic vulnerability to psychoses, in particular with schizophrenia.  (+info)

Sixteen-year mortality in patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium. (4/123)

BACKGROUND: Lithium treatment is claimed to reduce mortality in patients with affective disorder, but the evidence is conflicting. AIM: To estimate mortality rates from a cohort of patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium with an observation period of two years and a follow-up after 16 years. METHOD: The mortality rates of patients were compared with those of the general Danish population, standardised for age, gender and calendar time with respect to death from all causes, suicide and death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Forty of the study's 133 patients died during the 16-year observation period (11 from suicide). Mortality among patients commenced on lithium was twice that of the general population. The statistically significantly elevated mortality was due largely to an excess of suicides; mortality from all other causes was similar to the background populations. Thirty-two patients died after the first two years of observation and were included in the analysis of the association between death and treatment compliance. Suicide occurred more frequently among those patients not complying with treatment. CONCLUSION: Mortality, especially suicide, was significantly increased in unselected patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium relative to the general population.  (+info)

Obstetric complications and affective psychoses. Two case-control studies based on structured obstetric records. (5/123)

BACKGROUND: Unlike schizophrenia, little interest has been taken in the incidence of obstetric complications in affective psychoses. AIMS: To find out whether obstetric complications are more common in affective psychoses than matched controls. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen probands with an in-patient diagnosis of affective psychosis who had been born in Scotland in 1971-74, and a further 84 born in 1975-78, were closely matched with controls and the incidence of obstetric complications in the two compared using obstetric data recorded in a set format shortly after birth. RESULTS: Abnormal presentation of the foetus was the only complication significantly more common in the affective probands in the 1971-74 birth cohort and artificial rupture of the membranes was the only event more common in the probands in the 1975-78 cohort. Both are probably chance findings. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that the incidence of obstetric complications is raised in people with affective psychoses of early onset.  (+info)

Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms. (6/123)

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether outcome in schizoaffective disorders is more similar to schizophrenia or affective disorders. AIMS: To provide longitudinal data on clinical course and outcome in schizoaffective disorders versus schizophrenia and affective disorders, and determine whether mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. METHOD: A total of 210 patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar manic disorders and depression were assessed at hospitalisation and then followed up four times over 10 years. RESULTS: At all four follow-ups, fewer patients with schizoaffective disorders than with schizophrenia showed uniformly poor outcome. Patients with mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms during index hospitalisation showed significantly poorer subsequent outcome (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Schizoaffective outcome was better than schizophrenic outcome and poorer than outcome for psychotic affective disorders. Mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. The results could fit a symptom dimension view of schizoaffective course.  (+info)

Association of depression and gender with mortality in old age. Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL). (7/123)

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and increased mortality risk in older persons may depend on the severity of the depressive disorder and gender. AIMS: To investigate the association between major and mild depressive syndromes and excess mortality in community-living elderly men and women. METHOD: Depression (Geriatric Mental State AGECAT) was assessed in 4051 older persons, with a 6-year follow-up of community death registers. The mortality risk of neurotic and psychotic depression was calculated after adjustment for demographic variables, physical illness, cognitive decline and functional disabilities. RESULTS: A total of 75% of men and 41% of women with psychotic depression had diet at follow-up. Psychotic depression was associated with significant excess mortality in both men and women. Neurotic depression was associated with a 1.67-fold higher mortality risk in men only. CONCLUSIONS: In the elderly, major depressive syndromes increase the risk of death in both men and women, but mild depression increases the risk of death only in men.  (+info)

Prefrontal gray matter volume reduction in first episode schizophrenia. (8/123)

Functional measures have consistently shown prefrontal abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of prefrontal volume reduction have been less consistent. In this study, we evaluated prefrontal gray matter volume in first episode (first hospitalized) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, compared with first episode patients diagnosed with affective psychosis and normal comparison subjects, to determine the presence in and specificity of prefrontal abnormalities to schizophrenia. Prefrontal gray and white matter volumes were measured from first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 17), and from gender and parental socio-economic status-matched subjects with affective (mainly manic) psychosis (n = 17) and normal comparison subjects (n = 17), age-matched within a narrow age range (18--29 years). Total (left and right) prefrontal gray matter volume was significantly reduced in first episode schizophrenia compared with first episode affective psychosis and comparison subjects. Follow-up analyses indicated significant left prefrontal gray matter volume reduction and trend level reduction on the right. Schizophrenia patients showed 9.2% reduction on the left and 7.7% reduction on the right compared with comparison subjects. White matter volumes did not differ among groups. These data suggest that prefrontal cortical gray matter volume reduction is selectively present at first hospitalization in schizophrenia but not affective psychosis.  (+info)

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is not specifically defined in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DS-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it is classified as a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern.

According to the DSM-5, a seasonal pattern is defined as: "There has been a regular temporal relationship between the onset of major depressive episodes in major depressive disorder and a particular time of the year (e.g., always starts in fall or winter)." This means that someone with SAD experiences depressive symptoms during specific seasons, most commonly in late fall or winter, but in some cases, also in spring or summer.

The symptoms of SAD may include:

* Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
* Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
* Having low energy
* Having problems sleeping
* Experiencing changes in appetite or weight
* Feeling sluggish or agitated
* Having difficulty concentrating
* Feeling hopeless, worthless or guilty
* Having thoughts of death or suicide

These symptoms must be more severe than just feeling "blue" or having a bad day. They also must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must not be due to substance use or another medical condition.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

Phototherapy is a medical treatment that involves the use of light to manage or improve certain conditions. It can be delivered in various forms, such as natural light exposure or artificial light sources, including lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or fluorescent lamps. The wavelength and intensity of light are carefully controlled to achieve specific therapeutic effects.

Phototherapy is most commonly used for newborns with jaundice to help break down bilirubin in the skin, reducing its levels in the bloodstream. This type of phototherapy is called bilirubin lights or bili lights.

In dermatology, phototherapy can be applied to treat various skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and acne. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, PUVA (psoralen plus UVA), and blue or red light therapies are some examples of dermatological phototherapies.

Phototherapy can also be used to alleviate symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and other mood disorders by exposing patients to bright artificial light, which helps regulate their circadian rhythms and improve their mood. This form of phototherapy is called light therapy or bright light therapy.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any phototherapy treatment, as inappropriate use can lead to adverse effects.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Substance-induced psychosis is a type of psychosis that is caused by the use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder as follows:

A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a combination of substances.

C. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium and is not better explained by a psychotic disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal, or after exposure to a medication.

D. The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder).

It's important to note that the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis requires a thorough medical and psychiatric evaluation to determine if the symptoms are caused by substance use or another underlying mental health condition.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Paranoid Schizophrenia is a subtype of Schizophrenia, which is a chronic and severe mental disorder. It is characterized by the presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations. The delusions in paranoid schizophrenia often involve themes of persecution or grandiosity. Individuals with this subtype usually have a clear sense of self and maintain relatively well-preserved cognitive functions and affect. However, their symptoms can significantly impact their ability to function in daily life, social relationships, and vocational activities. It's important to note that schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and its diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's symptoms, history, and mental status examination.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Antimanic agents are a class of medications primarily used to treat mania, a symptom of bipolar disorder. These agents help to control and reduce the severity of manic episodes, which can include symptoms such as elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.

The most commonly used antimanic agents are mood stabilizers, such as lithium and valproate (Depakote), and atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), and aripiprazole (Abilify). These medications work by altering the levels or activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is also considered an effective antimanic treatment for severe mania that has not responded to medication. ECT involves applying electrical currents to the brain while the patient is under anesthesia, which induces a seizure and can help to reduce symptoms of mania.

It's important to note that antimanic agents should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, a comprehensive treatment plan for bipolar disorder typically includes psychotherapy, education, and support to help manage the condition and prevent future episodes.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Cyclothymic Disorder, also known as Cyclothymia, is a mental health disorder that is characterized by chronic and persistent mood fluctuations. It is a milder form of Bipolar Disorder and is defined by the presence of numerous hypomanic episodes (less severe than manic episodes) and depressive symptoms that do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode.

To be diagnosed with Cyclothymic Disorder, an individual must experience these mood swings for at least two years (or one year in children and adolescents). The hypomanic periods are typically characterized by feelings of euphoria or irritability, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive behavior. During the depressive phases, individuals may experience feelings of sadness, hopelessness, guilt, fatigue, and changes in appetite and sleep patterns.

Cyclothymic Disorder can significantly impact a person's daily life, causing difficulties with personal relationships, work or school performance, and overall well-being. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you may have this condition, as it can be effectively managed with appropriate treatment, such as medication and psychotherapy.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Prodromal symptoms refer to the early, often nonspecific signs or symptoms that appear before the onset of a particular disease or condition. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific illness, and they may include things like fatigue, headache, muscle aches, or changes in appetite or sleep patterns.

In some cases, prodromal symptoms may be mild and easily dismissed as simply feeling "under the weather." However, they can also serve as important warning signs that a more serious condition is on the horizon. For example, prodromal symptoms of a migraine headache might include mood changes, food cravings, or neck stiffness in the days leading up to the actual headache.

It's worth noting that not everyone who experiences prodromal symptoms will go on to develop the full-blown illness. However, if you notice any unusual or persistent symptoms that concern you, it's always a good idea to speak with your healthcare provider for further evaluation and guidance.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Lithium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element lithium (Li) combined with one or more other elements. Lithium is an alkali metal with the atomic number 3 and is highly reactive, so it is typically found in nature combined with other elements to form stable compounds.

Lithium compounds have a variety of uses, including in the production of ceramics, glass, and lubricants. However, they are perhaps best known for their use in psychiatric medicine, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the most commonly prescribed lithium compound for this purpose.

Lithium compounds work by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin and dopamine. They can help to reduce the severity and frequency of manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder, as well as potentially having a mood-stabilizing effect. It is important to note that lithium compounds must be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects if not properly monitored.

Paranoid disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by the presence of paranoia, which is defined as a persistent and unfounded distrust or suspicion of others. This can include beliefs that others are trying to harm you, deceive you, or are plotting against you. These beliefs are not based in reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, includes two paranoid disorders: Delusional Disorder and Paranoid Personality Disorder.

Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more delusions for a month or longer, with no significant hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. The individual's functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual may appear cold and aloof or may be explosively angry if they feel threatened.

It's important to note that these disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a paranoid disorder, it's important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional.

Suicide is defined in the medical field as the intentional taking of one's own life. It is a complex phenomenon with various contributing factors, including psychological, biological, environmental, and sociocultural elements. Suicide is a significant global public health concern that requires comprehensive understanding, prevention, and intervention strategies. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of self-harm or suicide, it's essential to seek help from a mental health professional immediately.

Lithium is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. In the field of medicine, lithium is most commonly referred to as a medication, specifically as "lithium carbonate" or "lithium citrate," which are used primarily to treat bipolar disorder. These medications work by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes.

Lithium is a naturally occurring substance, and it is an alkali metal. In its elemental form, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. However, when combined with carbonate or citrate ions to form lithium salts, it becomes more stable and safe for medical use.

It's important to note that lithium levels in the body must be closely monitored while taking this medication because too much lithium can lead to toxicity, causing symptoms such as tremors, nausea, diarrhea, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death. Regular blood tests are necessary to ensure that lithium levels remain within the therapeutic range.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

'Schizophrenic language' is not a formal medical term, but the concept refers to the unusual and often disturbed patterns of speech that can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia. These language abnormalities are considered one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and can include:

1. **Word Salad (Incoherent Speech)**: This is when a person's speech becomes disorganized, fragmented, and lacks logical or understandable connections between words, phrases, or sentences. It may seem like the individual is randomly stringing together words without any clear meaning.

2. **Neologisms (Made-Up Words)**: These are new words or phrases that have been invented by the individual. They may be understandable only to the person using them.

3. **Tangentiality (Straying Off Topic)**: This is when a person's responses are indirect and unrelated to the topic being discussed, although they may start off on topic. The speaker may stray further and further from the original point until they are no longer discussing it at all.

4. **Perseveration (Persistent Repetition)**: This is when a person repeats certain words, phrases, or ideas over and over again, even when they are not relevant to the conversation.

5. **Illogical Thinking/Conclusions**: A person's thoughts may not follow a logical sequence, leading to illogical conclusions or statements that do not make sense in the context of the conversation.

6. **Thought Disorder**: This is a broader term that includes various disturbances in thinking and thought processes, which can then manifest as abnormalities in speech.

It's important to note that these symptoms can vary widely from person to person, and not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of them. Furthermore, these symptoms should be evaluated and diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Freudian theory, also known as psychoanalytic theory, is a psychological clinical and theoretical framework proposed by Sigmund Freud and his followers. It focuses on the unconscious mind and the importance of childhood experiences in shaping an individual's behavior, thoughts, and feelings.

The theory posits that the human mind is divided into three parts: the id (primitive instincts), the ego (rational thought), and the superego (moral standards). According to Freudian theory, conflicts between these parts of the mind shape an individual's personality and behavior.

Freud also proposed several concepts such as the Oedipus complex, penis envy, and defense mechanisms, which are used to explain the development of personality and psychopathology. These concepts have been widely debated and criticized in the field of psychology, but Freudian theory has still had a significant impact on our understanding of human behavior and mental health.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Color therapy, also known as chromotherapy, is a complementary medicine practice that uses color and light to balance energy in the body, mind, and spirit with the goal of promoting physical and emotional health and well-being. It is based on the idea that different colors correspond to the seven main chakras or energy centers in the body and can help to balance, heal, and restore these centers.

In color therapy, various colors are used to treat different conditions. For example, red is thought to stimulate and energize, while blue is considered calming and soothing. Practitioners may use colored lights, colored fabrics, or other tools to expose the body to specific colors. Some practitioners also incorporate color therapy into other forms of healing, such as massage or acupuncture.

It's important to note that there is limited scientific evidence to support the use of color therapy for specific medical conditions. While some people report feeling better after receiving color therapy, it should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care. If you are considering trying color therapy, it is a good idea to discuss it with your healthcare provider first.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Lithium carbonate is a medical inorganic salt that is commonly used as a medication, particularly in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It works by stabilizing mood and reducing the severity and frequency of manic episodes. Lithium carbonate is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.

The medical definition of lithium carbonate is: "A white, crystalline powder used as a mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It acts by reducing the availability of sodium and potassium ions within nerve cells, which alters the electrical activity of the brain and helps to regulate mood. Lithium carbonate is also used in the treatment of cluster headaches and to reduce aggression in patients with behavioral disorders."

It's important to note that lithium carbonate requires careful medical supervision due to its narrow therapeutic index, meaning there is a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

A psychiatric hospital is a type of medical facility that specializes in the treatment and care of patients with mental illnesses or disorders. These hospitals provide inpatient and outpatient services, including evaluation, diagnosis, and therapy for various psychiatric conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.

Psychiatric hospitals typically have a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and occupational therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. The treatment modalities used in psychiatric hospitals may include medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and milieu therapy.

Psychiatric hospitals may also offer specialized programs for specific populations, such as children and adolescents, older adults, or individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The goal of psychiatric hospitals is to stabilize patients' symptoms, improve their functioning, and help them develop the skills necessary to manage their mental health condition in the community.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Dissociative disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by disruptions or dysfunctions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. These disturbances can be sudden or ongoing and can interfere significantly with a person's ability to function in daily life. The main types of dissociative disorders include:

1. Dissociative Amnesia: This disorder is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually due to trauma or stress.
2. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder): In this disorder, a person exhibits two or more distinct identities or personalities that recurrently take control of their behavior.
3. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: This disorder involves persistent or recurring feelings of detachment from one's self (depersonalization) or the environment (derealization).
4. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder: These categories are used for disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the specific dissociative disorders but still cause significant distress or impairment.

Dissociative disorders often develop as a way to cope with trauma, stress, or other overwhelming life experiences. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), as well as medication for co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

A Psychiatric Department in a hospital is a specialized unit that provides diagnostic, treatment, and management services for patients with various mental disorders. This department is typically staffed by psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, social workers, and other mental health professionals who work together to evaluate, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health conditions such as:

* Mood disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder)
* Anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder)
* Personality disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder)
* Psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia)
* Substance use disorders (e.g., drug addiction, alcoholism)
* Eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)
* Neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

The Psychiatric Department may offer both inpatient and outpatient services, including individual and group therapy, medication management, psychoeducation, and crisis intervention. Inpatient units provide 24-hour care for patients who require intensive treatment and monitoring, while outpatient services allow patients to receive treatment while continuing to live in their communities.

The Psychiatric Department may also be involved in research, teaching, and community outreach programs aimed at promoting mental health awareness, reducing stigma, and improving access to mental health care.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

Psychoanalytic theory is a psychological framework developed primarily by Sigmund Freud and his followers, which seeks to explain psychic phenomena in terms of unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences. It posits that the human mind is composed of three elements: the id (primitive instincts), ego (rational thought), and superego (moral standards). The theory emphasizes the importance of resolving unconscious conflicts, making the unconscious conscious, and analyzing defense mechanisms in order to alleviate psychological distress and promote mental health. It also includes various concepts such as the Oedipus complex, psychosexual development stages, and transference/countertransference phenomena.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) are mental health facilities that provide a range of comprehensive and accessible mental health services to a specific geographic community or catchment area. They are designed to serve as the primary point of contact for individuals seeking mental health care and aim to provide coordinated, continuous, and person-centered care.

CMHCs typically offer a variety of services, including:

1. Outpatient mental health treatment: This includes individual, group, and family therapy sessions with licensed mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and counselors.
2. Crisis intervention and emergency services: CMHCs often have 24-hour crisis hotlines and mobile crisis teams that can respond to mental health emergencies in the community.
3. Psychiatric evaluation and medication management: Psychiatrists or nurse practitioners at CMHCs can assess individuals for psychiatric disorders, provide diagnoses, and prescribe and manage psychotropic medications as needed.
4. Prevention and early intervention services: CMHCs may offer programs that focus on mental health promotion, suicide prevention, and early identification and treatment of mental health issues in children and adolescents.
5. Case management and care coordination: CMHC staff can help individuals navigate the mental health system, connect with community resources, and coordinate care across various providers and services.
6. Rehabilitation and recovery services: CMHCs may provide vocational training, educational support, and other rehabilitative services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their personal goals and maximize their independence.
7. Community outreach and engagement: CMHCs often engage in activities that promote mental health awareness, reduce stigma, and increase access to care within the communities they serve.

The goal of CMHCs is to provide accessible, high-quality mental health services that are integrated with primary care and other community-based services, ensuring that individuals receive the support they need to manage their mental health concerns and improve their overall well-being.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is often referred to as the "hormone of darkness" because its production is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Melatonin plays a key role in synchronizing the circadian rhythm, the body's internal clock that regulates various biological processes over a 24-hour period.

Melatonin is primarily released at night, and its levels in the blood can rise and fall in response to changes in light and darkness in an individual's environment. Supplementing with melatonin has been found to be helpful in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It may also have other benefits, including antioxidant properties and potential uses in the treatment of certain neurological conditions.

It is important to note that while melatonin supplements are available over-the-counter in many countries, they should still be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as their use can have potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that have been widely used for their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. They can also be used as premedication before medical procedures to produce sedation, amnesia, and anxiolysis. Some examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), and temazepam (Restoril).

While benzodiazepines are effective in treating various medical conditions, they can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effect. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to taper off benzodiazepines gradually under medical supervision.

Benzodiazepines are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States due to their potential for abuse and dependence. It is essential to use them only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of their potential risks and benefits.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

The Raphe Nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the midline of the pons, medulla oblongata, and mesencephalon (midbrain). These neurons are characterized by their ability to synthesize and release serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various functions such as mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

The Raphe Nuclei project axons widely throughout the central nervous system, allowing serotonin to modulate the activity of other neurons. There are several subdivisions within the Raphe Nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Dysfunction in the Raphe Nuclei has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A LOD (Logarithm of Odds) score is not a medical term per se, but rather a statistical concept that is used in genetic research and linkage analysis to determine the likelihood of a gene or genetic marker being linked to a particular disease or trait. The LOD score compares the odds of observing the pattern of inheritance of a genetic marker in a family if the marker is linked to the disease, versus the odds if the marker is not linked. A LOD score of 3 or higher is generally considered evidence for linkage, while a score of -2 or lower is considered evidence against linkage.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

Anti-anxiety agents, also known as anxiolytics, are a class of medications used to manage symptoms of anxiety disorders. These drugs work by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain and promoting relaxation and calmness. They include several types of medications such as benzodiazepines, azapirone, antihistamines, and beta-blockers.

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed anti-anxiety agents. They work by enhancing the inhibitory effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).

Azapirones are a newer class of anti-anxiety agents that act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Buspirone (Buspar) is an example of this type of medication, which has fewer side effects and less potential for abuse compared to benzodiazepines.

Antihistamines are medications that are primarily used to treat allergies but can also have anti-anxiety effects due to their sedative properties. Examples include hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Beta-blockers are mainly used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions but can also help manage symptoms of anxiety such as rapid heartbeat, tremors, and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is an example of a beta-blocker used for this purpose.

It's important to note that anti-anxiety agents should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and potential for dependence or addiction. Additionally, these medications are often used in combination with psychotherapy and lifestyle modifications to manage anxiety disorders effectively.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor, mutism, negativism, rigidity, posturing, stereotypy, agitation, or Grimmacing. It can be a symptom associated with various neurological and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or brain injury. Catatonic symptoms can also occur as a side effect of certain medications.

The diagnosis of catatonia is typically made based on the observation of characteristic clinical symptoms and the exclusion of other potential causes through medical evaluation. Treatment for catatonia may include medication, such as benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), depending on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

Serotonergic neurons are specialized types of nerve cells (neurons) that produce, synthesize, and release the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). These neurons have their cell bodies located in specific brainstem nuclei, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. They project and innervate various regions of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and other brain areas. Serotonergic neurons play crucial roles in regulating numerous physiological functions, such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, cognition, and sensorimotor activities. Alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neurodevelopmental conditions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used clinician-rated scale for assessing the severity of psychopathology in individuals with mental illness. It consists of 18 items, each rated on a 7-point scale (1=not present to 7=extremely severe), that measure various symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, hallucinations, and unusual thoughts. The BPRS is often used in research and clinical settings to monitor treatment response and symptom changes over time.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autistic disorder). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. Risperidone belongs to a class of drugs called benzisoxazole derivatives.

This medication can decrease aggression and schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusional thinking, and hostility. It may also help to improve your mood, thoughts, and behavior. Some forms of risperidone are also used for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior).

It's important to note that this is a general medical definition, and the use of risperidone should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have potential side effects and risks.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Schizophrenia: According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by the presence of two or more core symptoms for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated). These core symptoms include:

1. Delusions: irrational beliefs that are not based on reality, despite evidence to the contrary.
2. Hallucinations: seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
3. Disorganized speech: frequent derailment or incoherence.
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior: extremely disordered behavior, or a lack of behavior (catatonia).
5. Negative symptoms: diminished emotional expression or avolition (lack of motivation).

Additionally, social/occupational dysfunction must be present for a significant portion of time since the onset of the disturbance, and there must be a continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months. The symptoms cannot be due to substance use or another medical condition.

Disorders with Psychotic Features: These are mental disorders characterized by the presence of one or more psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior) as a prominent feature of the disorder. Examples include schizoaffective disorder, mood disorders with psychotic features, substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder, and personality disorders with psychotic features. The specific diagnostic criteria for each disorder vary based on the presence and duration of psychotic symptoms, along with other associated features.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Human chromosome pair 13 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes carry genetic information in the form of genes, which are sequences of DNA that code for specific traits and functions. Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosome pair 13 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y).

Chromosome pair 13 contains several important genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, such as cri-du-chat syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 (13p), resulting in distinctive cat-like crying sounds in infants, developmental delays, and intellectual disabilities. Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by a deletion or mutation of the terminal end of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q), leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, absent or delayed speech, and autistic behaviors.

It's important to note that while some genetic disorders are associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities, many factors can contribute to the development and expression of these conditions, including environmental influences and interactions between multiple genes.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Lithium Chloride (LiCl) is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a clinical condition. However, it can be defined chemically as an inorganic compound consisting of lithium and chlorine. Its chemical formula is LiCl, and it is commonly used in laboratory settings for various purposes such as a drying agent or a component in certain chemical reactions.

It's worth noting that while lithium salts like lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are used medically to treat bipolar disorder, lithium chloride is not used for this purpose due to its higher toxicity compared to other lithium salts.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in cases of severe or treatment-resistant major depression, bipolar disorder, and catatonia. In ECT, a brief electrical current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The purpose and specific effects of this procedure are not fully understood, but it's believed to cause changes in brain chemistry that can help relieve symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

The treatment is typically administered under general anesthesia and is usually given two to three times a week for a total of six to twelve treatments. While ECT has been associated with certain risks, such as memory loss and confusion, it is generally considered safe when performed by trained medical professionals. It's important to note that ECT should only be used in cases where other treatment options have been exhausted or have proven ineffective.

Patient readmission refers to the event when a patient who was previously discharged from a hospital or healthcare facility returns for further treatment, often within a specified period. It is measured as a percentage of patients who are readmitted within a certain time frame, such as 30, 60, or 90 days after discharge. Readmissions may be planned or unplanned and can occur due to various reasons, including complications from the initial illness or treatment, inadequate post-discharge follow-up care, or the patient's inability to manage their health conditions effectively at home. High readmission rates are often considered an indicator of the quality of care provided during the initial hospitalization and may also signify potential issues with care coordination and transitions between healthcare settings.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the body's stress response.

There are two main types of CRH receptors: CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. When CRH binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. ACTH then stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and stress response.

In addition to their role in the HPA axis, CRH receptors have been implicated in a variety of other physiological processes, including anxiety, depression, addiction, and pain perception. Dysregulation of the CRH system has been associated with several psychiatric and neurological disorders, making CRH receptors an important target for drug development in these areas.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Traumatic stress disorders are a category of mental health conditions that occur after exposure to a traumatic event or series of events. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several types of traumatic stress disorders, including:

1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): This disorder occurs after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, such as combat, sexual assault, or a natural disaster. Symptoms include avoidance of reminders of the trauma, intrusive thoughts about the event, negative changes in mood and cognition, alterations in arousal and reactivity, and disturbances in sleep and concentration.
2. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD): This disorder is similar to PTSD but has a shorter duration. It occurs after exposure to a traumatic event and lasts for less than a month. Symptoms include dissociation, intrusive thoughts about the event, and avoidance of reminders of the trauma.
3. Adjustment Disorders: These disorders occur in response to a stressor or change in life circumstances, such as the loss of a job or the death of a loved one. Symptoms include anxiety, depression, and disturbances in conduct.
4. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED): These disorders occur in children who have experienced neglect or abuse and have difficulty forming attachments to caregivers.

It's important to note that traumatic stress disorders can have significant impacts on a person's daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic stress disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

Human chromosome pair 4 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and they are identical or very similar in length and gene content. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains genetic information, and proteins that package and organize the DNA.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with chromosome pair 4 being one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Chromosome pair 4 is a medium-sized pair and contains an estimated 1,800-2,000 genes. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are essential for various functions in the body, such as development, growth, and metabolism.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 4 can lead to genetic disorders, including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 4, and 4p16.3 microdeletion syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a specific region on the short arm of chromosome 4. These conditions can result in developmental delays, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and other health problems.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a type of protein called a neurotrophin, which is involved in the growth and maintenance of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. BDNFA is encoded by the BDNF gene and is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It plays an essential role in supporting the survival of existing neurons, encouraging the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses, and contributing to neuroplasticity - the ability of the brain to change and adapt as a result of experience. Low levels of BDNF have been associated with several neurological disorders, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A startle reaction is a natural, defensive response to an unexpected stimulus that is characterized by a sudden contraction of muscles, typically in the face, neck, and arms. It's a reflexive action that occurs involuntarily and is mediated by the brainstem. The startle reaction can be observed in many different species, including humans, and is thought to have evolved as a protective mechanism to help organisms respond quickly to potential threats. In addition to the muscle contraction, the startle response may also include other physiological changes such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Expressed Emotion (EE) is a term used in the field of psychiatry and psychology to describe the level of criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement expressed by family members or close relatives towards an individual with a mental illness. It is measured through a standardized interview called the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). High levels of EE have been found to be associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with mental illness, particularly those with severe and persistent conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Functional neuroimaging is a branch of medical imaging that involves the use of various techniques to measure and visualize the metabolic activity or blood flow in different regions of the brain. These measurements can be used to infer the level of neural activation in specific brain areas, allowing researchers and clinicians to study the functioning of the brain in various states, such as during rest, cognitive tasks, or disease processes.

Some common functional neuroimaging techniques include:

1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain, which are associated with neural activity.
2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This technique involves the injection of a small amount of radioactive tracer into the body, which is taken up by active brain cells. The resulting gamma rays are then detected and used to create images of brain activity.
3. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Similar to PET, SPECT uses a radioactive tracer to measure blood flow in the brain, but with lower resolution and sensitivity.
4. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): This technique uses near-infrared light to measure changes in oxygenation levels in the brain, providing a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for studying brain function.

Functional neuroimaging has numerous applications in both research and clinical settings, including the study of cognitive processes, the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and the development of new treatments and interventions.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another being. In a medical or clinical context, empathy refers to the healthcare provider's capacity to comprehend and respond to a patient's emotional experiences, perspectives, and concerns. Empathy involves not only cognitive understanding but also the emotional resonance with the patient's situation. It is a crucial component of the physician-patient relationship, fostering trust, satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and better healthcare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thinking" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a cognitive process, which is a general term used to describe various mental activities related to perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language use, learning, and problem-solving. These processes are studied across many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.

If you're looking for medical definitions of cognitive processes or conditions that affect cognition, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more details.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

In a medical or psychological context, guilt is not typically defined as it is a legal or moral term. However, guilt can be discussed in terms of its role in mental health and psychopathology.

Guilt is a cognitive-emotional experience that occurs when an individual believes they have violated their personal standards, values, or moral rules, resulting in harm to others or themselves. Excessive, persistent, or disproportionate guilt can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and personality disorders like borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

In some cases, guilt might contribute to the development or maintenance of psychological distress and impairment. It is essential to differentiate between adaptive guilt, which can motivate positive changes in behavior, and maladaptive guilt, which can lead to excessive self-blame, shame, and reduced self-esteem.

In summary, while there is no medical definition of 'guilt,' it is a psychological construct that can be relevant to mental health and psychopathology when experienced in an excessive, persistent, or disproportionate manner.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia that begins before the age of 13. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines it as a disorder characterized by the presence of at least two active symptom categories (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms) for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (with some symptoms persisting for at least 6 months).

The onset of schizophrenia in children can be insidious and may present with subtle changes in behavior, social interactions, and emotional expression. Symptoms may include:

* Delusions: False beliefs that are not based on reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.
* Hallucinations: Perception of stimuli without an external source, such as hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
* Disorganized speech: Incoherent or irrelevant speech, frequent derailment, or inability to maintain a conversation.
* Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior: Marked impairment in personal hygiene, self-care, and interpersonal relationships, or unusual motor behaviors such as rigidity, stupor, or agitation.
* Negative symptoms: Reduced emotional expression, avolition (lack of motivation), alogia (poverty of speech), or anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure).

Childhood-onset schizophrenia can have a profound impact on a child's development, academic performance, and social relationships. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term disability. Treatment typically involves a combination of antipsychotic medication, psychotherapy, and supportive services to address the complex needs of children with this disorder.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Theory of Mind (ToM) is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept from psychology and cognitive science. It refers to the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, understanding that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own. This cognitive skill enables us to explain and predict people's behaviors based on their mental states, fostering social cognition and interaction.

While ToM is not a medical definition itself, impairments in Theory of Mind have been associated with various medical and neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. In these cases, difficulties in understanding others' mental states may lead to challenges in social communication and interaction.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Alcoholic psychosis is a term used to describe a group of psychiatric disorders that are directly related to alcohol abuse or withdrawal. The two most common types of alcoholic psychosis are Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome, which often occur together and are referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Wernicke's encephalopathy is a acute neurological disorder characterized by confusion, memory loss, difficulty with muscle coordination, and abnormal eye movements. It is caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency that is often seen in people who are chronic alcoholics.

Korsakoff's syndrome, on the other hand, is a chronic memory disorder characterized by severe memory loss and confusion. People with Korsakoff's syndrome often have difficulty learning new information and may confabulate, or make up information, to fill in gaps in their memory.

Both Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome are serious conditions that require immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves administering thiamine and other vitamins, as well as providing supportive care to help manage symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcohol abuse can also lead to other types of psychosis, such as delirium tremens (DTs), which is a severe form of alcohol withdrawal that can cause confusion, hallucinations, and seizures. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Reality testing is a psychological concept that refers to the ability to distinguish between what is real and what is not. It is the process of comparing one's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, or perceptions with external reality, to determine their accuracy and validity. This skill is essential for effective functioning in daily life, as it helps individuals to navigate their environment, make sound decisions, and respond appropriately to different situations.

In psychiatric and psychological assessments, reality testing is often evaluated as a measure of cognitive and emotional stability. Individuals with impaired reality testing may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imagined, which can be indicative of various mental health conditions, such as psychosis, schizophrenia, or severe depression. Reality testing is an essential aspect of maintaining a grasp on consensual reality and is crucial for successful social interactions and interpersonal relationships.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Cannabis is a plant genus that includes three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. It contains psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids, the most notable of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces the "high" associated with marijuana use.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes, while Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content and is mainly used for industrial purposes, such as hemp fiber production.

Medicinally, cannabis is used to treat various conditions, including pain, nausea, and loss of appetite associated with cancer and HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among others. However, its use remains controversial due to its psychoactive effects and potential for abuse. Its legal status varies widely around the world, ranging from outright prohibition to decriminalization or full legalization for medical and/or recreational purposes.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Anger is a normal and adaptive human emotion, which can be defined as a negative emotional state that involves feelings of annoyance, irritation, hostility, and aggression towards someone or something that has caused harm, injury, or unfair treatment. It is a complex emotional response that can have physical, mental, and behavioral components.

Physiologically, anger triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. This can result in symptoms such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened sensory perception.

In terms of mental and behavioral components, anger can manifest as thoughts of revenge, verbal or physical aggression, or passive-aggressive behaviors. Chronic or uncontrolled anger can have negative impacts on one's health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

It is important to note that while anger is a normal emotion, it becomes a problem when it leads to harmful behaviors or interferes with daily functioning. In such cases, seeking professional help from a mental health provider may be necessary to learn healthy coping mechanisms and manage anger effectively.

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a term used in genetics that refers to the non-random association of alleles at different loci (genetic locations) on a chromosome. This means that certain combinations of genetic variants, or alleles, at different loci occur more frequently together in a population than would be expected by chance.

Linkage disequilibrium can arise due to various factors such as genetic drift, selection, mutation, and population structure. It is often used in the context of genetic mapping studies to identify regions of the genome that are associated with particular traits or diseases. High levels of LD in a region of the genome suggest that the loci within that region are in linkage, meaning they tend to be inherited together.

The degree of LD between two loci can be measured using various statistical methods, such as D' and r-squared. These measures provide information about the strength and direction of the association between alleles at different loci, which can help researchers identify causal genetic variants underlying complex traits or diseases.

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are brain responses that are directly related to a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. P300 is a positive deflection in the ERP waveform that occurs approximately 300 milliseconds after the onset of a rare or unexpected stimulus. It is often used as an index of cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and decision-making. The amplitude of the P300 component is typically larger for targets than for non-targets, and it is thought to reflect the amount of attentional resources allocated to the processing of the stimulus. Additionally, the latency of the P300 component can be used as an indicator of the speed of cognitive processing.

It's important to note that ERPs are measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and it requires averaging multiple trials to extract the signal from the noise. Also, P300 is just one component of ERP, there are other components like N100, P100, N200 etc which also have their own significance in understanding the cognitive processes.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that individuals use to cope with stressful, threatening, or uncomfortable situations. These mechanisms help protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety, fear, or other negative emotions. They can also help individuals maintain a positive self-image and a sense of control in difficult circumstances.

There are many different types of defense mechanisms, including:

1. Repression: The unconscious forgetting or pushing aside of painful memories or thoughts.
2. Denial: Refusing to acknowledge the existence or reality of a threatening situation or feeling.
3. Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or emotions to someone else.
4. Displacement: Channeling unacceptable feelings toward a safer or less threatening target.
5. Rationalization: Creating logical explanations or excuses for unacceptable behavior or feelings.
6. Reaction formation: Converting unconscious impulses or desires into their opposite, conscious attitudes or behaviors.
7. Sublimation: Transforming unacceptable impulses or instincts into socially acceptable behaviors or activities.
8. Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety.
9. Suppression: Consciously pushing aside unwanted thoughts or feelings.
10. Identification: Adopting the characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors of another person as a way of coping with anxiety or fear.

Defense mechanisms can be adaptive or maladaptive, depending on the situation and how they are used. While they can help individuals cope with stress and maintain their emotional well-being in the short term, relying too heavily on defense mechanisms can lead to problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of their defense mechanisms and work to develop healthier coping strategies over time.

Self-mutilation, also known as self-injury or self-harm, refers to the deliberate infliction of pain or damage to one's own body without the intention of committing suicide. It can take many forms, including cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or piercing the skin. The behavior is often used as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, trauma, or other psychological issues. Self-mutilation can be a sign of serious mental health concerns and should be treated as such. It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is engaging in self-harm behaviors.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a mental health condition where an individual becomes obsessed with perceived flaws or defects in their appearance, which are often either minimal or not observable to others. The preoccupation with these real or imagined physical imperfections can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Individuals with BDD may spend excessive time examining themselves in the mirror, seeking reassurance from others, or trying to camouflage or cover up their perceived flaws. They may also engage in repetitive behaviors such as skin picking, hair pulling, or excessive grooming. The obsessions and compulsions related to BDD can lead to significant anxiety, depression, and social isolation.

BDD typically begins in adolescence and is more common in women than men. It is important to note that BDD is different from normal concerns about appearance, as the preoccupation with perceived flaws in BDD is excessive and causes significant distress or impairment. Treatment for BDD often involves a combination of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat schizophrenia in patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic treatments. It is also used off-label for the treatment of severe aggression, suicidal ideation, and self-injurious behavior in individuals with developmental disorders.

Clozapine works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, particularly the D4 receptor, which is thought to be involved in the development of schizophrenia. It also has a strong affinity for serotonin receptors, which contributes to its unique therapeutic profile.

Clozapine is considered a medication of last resort due to its potential side effects, which can include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), seizures, orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), and weight gain. Because of these risks, patients taking clozapine must undergo regular monitoring of their blood counts and other vital signs.

Despite its potential side effects, clozapine is often effective in treating treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has been shown to reduce the risk of suicide in some patients. It is available in tablet and orally disintegrating tablet formulations.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there isn't a universally accepted medical or scientific definition for "happiness." Happiness is a subjective experience and can mean different things to different people. It's often associated with feelings of joy, contentment, satisfaction, or well-being.

However, in the field of positive psychology, happiness is sometimes defined as "the overall experience of pleasure and meaning" or "subjective well-being." This can be measured in terms of both cognitive judgments (how satisfied people are with their lives) and affective evaluations (how often people experience positive emotions and negative emotions).

Please note that while we can study factors that contribute to happiness, such as strong social connections, meaningful activities, and positive emotions, the experience of happiness itself is highly individual and subjective.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Dangerous behavior is a term used to describe any action or inaction that has the potential to cause harm, injury, or damage to oneself or others. This can include a wide range of behaviors, such as:

* Physical violence or aggression towards others
* Substance abuse, including alcohol and drug use
* Risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected sex or multiple partners
* Self-harm, such as cutting or burning oneself
* Suicidal ideation or attempts
* Reckless driving or operating machinery while impaired
* Neglecting one's own health or the health of others

Dangerous behavior can be the result of a variety of factors, including mental illness, substance abuse, trauma, environmental factors, and personality traits. It is important to note that dangerous behavior can have serious consequences for both the individual engaging in the behavior and those around them. If you or someone you know is engaging in dangerous behavior, it is important to seek help from a qualified medical professional as soon as possible.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The "commitment of the mentally ill" refers to a legal process where a person who is deemed to have a mental illness and poses a danger to themselves or others is involuntarily placed in a psychiatric hospital or treatment facility for their own safety and well-being. The specific criteria and procedures for commitment vary by jurisdiction, but generally require a formal evaluation and court order.

The purpose of commitment is to provide intensive treatment and supervision for individuals who are unable to make informed decisions about their own care due to the severity of their mental illness. This legal process is designed to balance the need to protect the individual's civil liberties with the need to ensure public safety and provide necessary medical treatment.

It's important to note that commitment is typically a last resort, after other less restrictive options have been tried or considered. The goal of commitment is to stabilize the individual's condition and help them develop the skills and resources they need to live safely and independently in the community.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Crisis intervention is a immediate, short-term emergency response to help individuals who are experiencing an acute distress or destabilizing event and are at risk of harm to themselves or others. The goal of crisis intervention is to restore equilibrium and ensure the person's safety, while also addressing any immediate needs or concerns. This may involve various strategies such as:

1. Psychoeducation: Providing information about the crisis situation, common reactions, and coping skills.
2. Emotional support: Offering a safe and non-judgmental space for the person to express their feelings and concerns.
3. Problem-solving: Helping the person identify potential solutions to the crisis situation and make informed decisions.
4. Safety planning: Developing a plan to ensure the person's safety and prevent future crises.
5. Referral: Connecting the person with appropriate resources and services for ongoing support and care.

Crisis intervention is often provided by mental health professionals, such as counselors, social workers, or psychologists, in various settings including hospitals, emergency departments, crisis hotlines, and community mental health centers.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

Psychophysiology is a branch of psychology that deals with the scientific study of the relationships between physical processes (such as heart rate, skin conductance, brain activity) and mental or emotional states. It involves the use of physiological measures to understand psychological phenomena and how they relate to behavior. This field of study often employs various research methods, including laboratory experiments, observational studies, and neuroimaging techniques, to examine these relationships in both healthy individuals and those with psychological disorders. The goal of psychophysiology is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning.

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist is a medically trained doctor who specializes in psychiatry, and they are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems. They can use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial interventions, to help patients manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psychiatrists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and mental health nurses. They may provide services in a range of settings, including hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and private practices.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and helpful information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone else has concerns about mental health, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare provider.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a standardized system for classifying and coding mortality and morbidity data, established by the World Health Organization (WHO). It provides a common language and framework for health professionals, researchers, and policymakers to share and compare health-related information across countries and regions.

The ICD codes are used to identify diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health conditions. The classification includes categories for various body systems, mental disorders, external causes of injury and poisoning, and factors influencing health status. It also includes a section for symptoms, signs, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings.

The ICD is regularly updated to incorporate new scientific knowledge and changing health needs. The most recent version, ICD-11, was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and will come into effect on January 1, 2022. It includes significant revisions and expansions in several areas, such as mental, behavioral, neurological disorders, and conditions related to sexual health.

In summary, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally recognized system for classifying and coding diseases, injuries, causes of death, and other health-related information, enabling standardized data collection, comparison, and analysis across countries and regions.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Behavioral symptoms refer to changes or abnormalities in a person's behavior, which may be indicative of an underlying medical or psychological condition. These symptoms can manifest as a wide range of observable behaviors that are unusual, disruptive, or distressing for the individual experiencing them or those around them. Examples of behavioral symptoms include:

1. Agitation: A state of irritability, restlessness, or excitement, often accompanied by aggressive or disruptive behavior.
2. Aggression: Hostile or violent behavior directed towards others, including verbal or physical attacks.
3. Apathy: A lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
4. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns: Significant fluctuations in the amount or frequency of food intake or sleep, which can be indicative of various medical or psychological conditions.
5. Disinhibition: A loss of restraint or impulse control, leading to inappropriate behavior in social situations.
6. Hallucinations: Perception of sensory stimuli (such as sight, sound, touch) without an external source, often associated with certain mental illnesses or neurological disorders.
7. Hyperactivity: Increased activity levels, often accompanied by impulsivity and difficulty focusing attention.
8. Impaired judgment: Poor decision-making abilities, often resulting in risky or harmful behavior.
9. Inattention: Difficulty focusing or sustaining attention on a task or activity.
10. Mood changes: Fluctuations in emotional state, such as depression, anxiety, or euphoria.
11. Psychosis: A severe mental disorder characterized by detachment from reality, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking or behavior.
12. Repetitive behaviors: Engaging in repetitive actions or movements, often associated with certain developmental disorders or neurological conditions.
13. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions or activities, often indicative of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns.
14. Thought disturbances: Disorganized or disrupted thinking patterns, such as racing thoughts, tangential thinking, or loose associations between ideas.

Behavioral symptoms can be caused by various factors, including medical conditions (such as infections, brain injuries, or neurodegenerative diseases), mental health disorders (such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia), substance abuse, and environmental factors (such as stress or trauma). Accurate assessment and diagnosis are crucial for determining appropriate treatment interventions.

In a medical context, awareness generally refers to the state of being conscious or cognizant of something. This can include being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as being aware of external events or sensations.

For example, a person who is awake and alert is said to have full awareness, while someone who is in a coma or under general anesthesia may be described as having reduced or absent awareness. Similarly, a person with dementia or Alzheimer's disease may have impaired awareness of their surroundings or of their own memory and cognitive abilities.

In some cases, awareness may also refer to the process of becoming informed or educated about a particular health condition or medical treatment. For example, a patient may be encouraged to increase their awareness of heart disease risk factors or of the potential side effects of a medication. Overall, awareness involves a deep understanding and perception of oneself and one's environment.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

A human genome is the complete set of genetic information contained within the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of most human cells. It includes all of the genes, which are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins, as well as non-coding regions of DNA that regulate gene expression and provide structural support to the chromosomes.

The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and is estimated to contain around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The sequencing of the human genome was completed in 2003 as part of the Human Genome Project, which has had a profound impact on our understanding of human biology, disease, and evolution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pleasure" is not typically defined in medical terms. It is more commonly understood in psychological or philosophical contexts. Pleasure is often described as a positive emotional response associated with satisfying needs and desires, or enjoying certain experiences. However, in a medical context, the term might be used to describe the positive feelings some people may associate with certain health-related behaviors or experiences. For example, a person might derive pleasure from engaging in regular exercise, which can have positive effects on their physical and mental health.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

'Shared Paranoid Disorder' is also known as 'Induced Paranoid Disorder' or 'Folie à deux.' It is not listed as a separate disorder in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) used by mental health professionals for diagnosis. However, it can be classified under Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders.

It is described as a delusional disorder that develops in an individual due to a close and influential relationship with another person who has an established delusional disorder. The secondary person's delusion is similar to or derived from the primary person's delusion, and they usually share a common living situation or have a very close emotional bond.

The delusions are not due to any other medical condition, substance use, or better explained by another mental disorder. Also, when the relationship between the two individuals ends, the secondary person's delusional symptoms usually decrease or disappear.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Neurosciences is a multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the structure, function, development, and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It incorporates various scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science to understand the complexities of the nervous system at different levels, from molecular and cellular mechanisms to systems and behavior.

The field encompasses both basic research and clinical applications, with the aim of advancing our knowledge of the nervous system and developing effective treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Specialties within neurosciences include neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, neurobiology, neuroimmunology, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, and computational neuroscience, among others.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the brain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate gyrus, and other nearby areas. It's associated with emotional responses, instinctual behaviors, motivation, long-term memory formation, and olfaction (smell). The limbic system is also involved in the modulation of visceral functions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sexual drive.

The structures within the limbic system communicate with each other and with other parts of the brain, particularly the hypothalamus and the cortex, to regulate various physiological and psychological processes. Dysfunctions in the limbic system can lead to a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of memory impairment.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Mentally ill persons are individuals who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder or mental illness, which is characterized by a syndrome of symptoms that significantly interferes with their cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral abilities. These disorders can range from mild to severe and may include conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders, among others. It's important to note that a mental illness is not the same as intellectual disability or developmental disorder, although these conditions can also co-occur with mental illnesses.

Mentally ill persons require appropriate evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment from qualified mental health professionals to help them manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. It's essential to approach mentally ill individuals with compassion, respect, and understanding, as stigma and discrimination can exacerbate their challenges and hinder their recovery.

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. COMT mediates the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a catechol functional group in these molecules, resulting in the formation of methylated products that are subsequently excreted.

The methylation of catecholamines by COMT regulates their concentration and activity in the body, and genetic variations in the COMT gene can affect enzyme function and contribute to individual differences in the metabolism of these neurotransmitters. This has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

Emergency services in psychiatry, also known as crisis intervention services, refer to immediate and urgent mental health services provided to individuals who are experiencing an acute mental health emergency. These services aim to assess, manage, and stabilize the individual's mental health crisis and ensure their safety, as well as the safety of others.

Psychiatric emergency services may include:

1. Crisis hotlines: 24-hour telephone support lines that provide immediate assistance and referral to appropriate mental health services.
2. Mobile crisis teams: Mental health professionals who provide on-site assessment, intervention, and referral services in the community.
3. Psychiatric emergency departments: Specialized units within hospitals that provide urgent psychiatric evaluation, treatment, and short-term stabilization for individuals in a mental health crisis.
4. Inpatient psychiatric units: Short-term hospitalization for individuals who require intensive psychiatric care and monitoring during a crisis.
5. Respite care services: Temporary supportive housing and care for individuals in a mental health crisis, providing relief for both the individual and their family or caregivers.

The primary goal of psychiatric emergency services is to provide timely and effective interventions that can help prevent further deterioration of the individual's mental health, reduce the risk of suicide or self-harm, and promote recovery and stabilization.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure. This structure is composed of a benzene ring fused to a thiazepine ring, which is itself formed by the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring (a seven-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms).

In the medical field, dibenzothiazepines are known for their pharmacological properties and have been used in the development of various drugs. Some dibenzothiazepine derivatives exhibit antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant activities. However, due to their potential for adverse effects and the availability of safer alternatives, they are not widely used in clinical practice today.

It is important to note that specific dibenzothiazepine compounds may have unique properties and uses beyond their general classification as a chemical class. Always consult medical literature or healthcare professionals for accurate information on specific drugs or compounds.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Aphorisms are concise, pithy statements that express a general truth or principle in a clever or memorable way. They often relate to a specific area of knowledge or experience, such as medicine or morality. In the context of medicine, medical aphorisms are sayings or phrases that convey important principles or wisdom related to the practice of medicine. Examples include "First do no harm" (Hippocrates) and "When in doubt, cut it out" (William Stewart Halsted).

Proverbs, on the other hand, are traditional sayings that express a general truth or piece of advice based on common sense or folk wisdom. They often take the form of simple sentences or phrases and may be metaphorical or figurative in nature. Medical proverbs might include sayings like "The patient's own doctor is the best" or "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."

Together, aphorisms and proverbs can serve as useful tools for medical professionals to remember important principles and practices, as well as communicate complex ideas in a simple and memorable way.

Psychomotor agitation is a state of increased physical activity and purposeless or semi-purposeful voluntary movements, usually associated with restlessness, irritability, and cognitive impairment. It can be a manifestation of various medical and neurological conditions such as delirium, dementia, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance withdrawal. Psychomotor agitation may also increase the risk of aggressive behavior and physical harm to oneself or others. Appropriate evaluation and management are necessary to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Adolescent Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in adolescents, which are individuals typically ranging in age from 13 to 18 years old. This field requires specialized knowledge, training, and expertise in the unique developmental, emotional, and behavioral challenges that adolescents face. Adolescent psychiatrists provide comprehensive assessments, including medical and psychological evaluations, and develop individualized treatment plans that may involve psychotherapy, medication management, and/or coordination with other healthcare professionals and community resources. They also work closely with families to help them understand their adolescent's mental health needs and support their recovery process.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

Community psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on providing mental health services within the context of a person's community, rather than in a traditional clinical setting such as a hospital or clinic. The goal of community psychiatry is to provide comprehensive, accessible, and personalized mental health care that is integrated into the individual's natural support systems, including their family, friends, and social networks.

Community psychiatrists work closely with other mental health professionals, social workers, and community organizations to develop and implement treatment plans that address the unique needs of each individual. They may provide services in a variety of settings, such as community mental health centers, group homes, schools, and primary care clinics.

The approach of community psychiatry recognizes that mental illness affects not only the individual but also their family, friends, and larger community. Therefore, interventions often focus on improving social determinants of health, such as housing, employment, and education, in addition to providing traditional mental health treatments like medication and therapy.

Overall, community psychiatry aims to reduce stigma around mental illness, improve access to care, and promote recovery and resilience in individuals with mental health conditions.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Croatia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe. If you have any questions about Croatian healthcare or medical practices, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Subliminal stimulation refers to the presentation of stimuli (such as visual, auditory, or tactile) below the threshold of conscious perception. The term "subliminal" means "below the limen," with "limen" being the smallest intensity level at which a stimulus can be perceived and recognized.

In subliminal stimulation, the individual is unaware of the presence of the stimuli and cannot consciously identify or respond to them. However, research suggests that such stimuli may still have an impact on cognitive processes, emotions, and behaviors, as they can influence brain activity and activate unconscious mental processes.

It's important to note that subliminal stimulation has been a subject of controversy, particularly in the context of its application in advertising and entertainment. While some studies suggest that subliminal messages may have subtle effects on behavior, other research has failed to replicate these findings or found them to be minimal at best. Additionally, ethical concerns surround the use of subliminal stimulation, as it involves manipulating individuals without their knowledge or consent.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

'Catha' is a plant species also known as Khat, Kat, or Qat. It contains psychoactive compounds that can cause stimulant-like effects when chewed, brewed into tea, or taken in other forms. The main active compound in Catha is cathinone, which is similar in structure and effects to amphetamines.

The use of Catha can produce feelings of euphoria, increased alertness, and talkativeness, but it can also cause side effects such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. Long-term use of Catha has been associated with a number of health problems, including tooth decay, gastrointestinal issues, and mental health disorders.

It's worth noting that the legal status of Catha varies by country and region. In some places, it is legal and widely used, while in others, it is considered a controlled substance and its use is restricted or prohibited.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "smiling" is not typically considered a medical term. It's a part of normal human behavior and facial expression. A smile usually refers to the action of turning up the corners of the mouth to signal pleasure, affection, amusement, or approval. However, in a medical context, a person may be unable to smile due to various conditions, such as facial paralysis caused by Bell's palsy or a stroke. In such cases, the ability to smile can be an important part of rehabilitation and recovery.

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize, understand, and manage our own emotions and the emotions of others. It involves the skills of perception, understanding, reasoning with emotions, and managing emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. EI includes four key components:

1. Perception and Expression of Emotion: The ability to accurately perceive, identify, and express emotions in oneself and others.
2. Understanding and Analyzing Emotion: The ability to understand the causes and consequences of emotions and how they may combine and change over time.
3. Emotional Reasoning: The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking and problem solving, and to make decisions based on both emotional and rational information.
4. Emotional Management: The ability to manage emotions in oneself and others, including the regulation of one's own emotions and the ability to influence the emotions of others.

Emotional intelligence is not a fixed trait, but rather can be developed and improved through practice and learning. It has been shown to have significant implications for personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and professional success.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Psychophysiologic Disorders, also known as psychosomatic disorders, refer to a category of mental health conditions where psychological stress and emotional factors play a significant role in causing physical symptoms. These disorders are characterized by the presence of bodily complaints for which no physiological explanation can be found, or where the severity of the symptoms is far greater than what would be expected from any underlying medical condition.

Examples of psychophysiologic disorders include:

* Conversion disorder: where physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing occur in the absence of a clear medical explanation.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): where abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits are thought to be caused or worsened by stress and emotional factors.
* Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES): where episodes that resemble epileptic seizures occur without any electrical activity in the brain.
* Chronic pain syndromes: where pain persists for months or years beyond the expected healing time, often accompanied by depression and anxiety.

The diagnosis of psychophysiologic disorders typically involves a thorough medical evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment usually includes a combination of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation techniques, stress management, and sometimes medication for co-occurring mental health conditions.

Intelligence tests are standardized procedures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive abilities, such as their problem-solving skills, logical reasoning, verbal comprehension, and spatial relations. These tests provide a quantitative measurement of intelligence, often reported as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. It is important to note that intelligence is a multifaceted concept, and intelligence tests measure only certain aspects of it. They should not be considered the sole determinant of an individual's overall intellectual capabilities or potential.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Somalia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Horn of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Qatar" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in the Middle East, on the Arabian Peninsula. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Early diagnosis refers to the identification and detection of a medical condition or disease in its initial stages, before the appearance of significant symptoms or complications. This is typically accomplished through various screening methods, such as medical history reviews, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Early diagnosis can allow for more effective treatment interventions, potentially improving outcomes and quality of life for patients, while also reducing the overall burden on healthcare systems.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

I must clarify that I cannot provide a "medical definition" of intelligence, as intelligence is not a concept that is typically defined within the field of medicine. Intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or decisions based on reason, experience, and information. It is often measured through various cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, and knowledge acquisition.

The concept of intelligence is studied in many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and education. In medicine, healthcare professionals may assess a person's cognitive abilities to better understand their health status or develop treatment plans. However, there is no specific "medical definition" for intelligence. Instead, it is a multifaceted concept that can be influenced by various genetic, environmental, and experiential factors.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

2010). Residual psychotic and depressive symptoms in a clinical trial for psychotic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders ... psychotic depression and mixed affective episodes among 14,529 patients with bipolar disorder" (PDF). Journal of Affective ... "Environmental and familial risk factors for psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 147 ... The prognosis for psychotic depression is not considered to be as poor as for schizoaffective disorders or primary psychotic ...
Strakowski, S (1996-07-08). "Racial influence on diagnosis in psychotic mania". Journal of Affective Disorders. 39 (2): 157-162 ... while the most common mental disorders include anxiety-disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, and ... and stress-induced hippocampal atrophy has been associated with the origination and development of affective disorders. ... and anxiety disorders, such as through increasing vulnerability to development of these disorders and permitting the continued ...
"Cigarette smoking and psychotic symptoms in bipolar affective disorder". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 179: 35-38. doi: ... July 2006). "A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders ... Increased Risk Of Psychiatric Disorders." ScienceDaily 3 March 2009. 5 December 2010 Ross RG (July 2006). "Psychotic and manic- ... The associated features of bipolar disorder are clinical phenomena that often accompany bipolar disorder (BD) but are not part ...
... "for about a third of cases with non-affective psychotic disorders." Non-affective psychotic disorders are, by definition, not ... "psychotic" mood disorder, namely either psychotic bipolar disorder or psychotic major depression. Only when psychotic states ... Schizoaffective disorder is defined by mood disorder-free psychosis in the context of a long-term psychotic and mood disorder. ... psychotic mood disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. People with schizoaffective disorder are likely to have co-occurring ...
Crespi, Bernard (May 2016). "The Evolutionary Etiologies of Autism Spectrum and Psychotic Affective Spectrum Disorders". ... schizoaffective disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Similarly, when analyzed, ... and psychotic-affective conditions" (PDF). Cognition. 150: 181-99. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.02.001. PMID 26896903. S2CID ... and psychotic-affective conditions". Cognition. 150: 181-199. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.02.001. PMID 26896903. S2CID ...
McGuffin, P., F. Rijsdijk, M. Andrew, P. Sham, R. Katz and A. Cardno (2003). "The heritability of bipolar affective disorder ... "Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders: The Maudsley Twin Psychosis series." Archives of General Psychiatry 56: 162-168 ... Turning to mood disorders it was shown with SEM that both clinically ascertained and operationally defined MDD (9) and BPD (13 ... Turning to mood disorders it was shown with SEM that both clinically ascertained and operationally defined MDD [16] and BPD [19 ...
Her report concluded that he had psychotic schizo-affective disorder and had brain dysfunction. Lewis, along with a New York ... but Lewis reported diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociative identity disorder, brain damage, and psychomotor ... Most people with this disorder are not violent. And probably abuse alone does not create a grotesquely violent individual. ... She specializes in the study of violent individuals and people with dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly known as ...
... and bipolar or major affective disorder. Population as of January 2021 is 66. This unit is general population Andrew Suh - ... These offenders are diagnosed as chronically mentally ill; diagnoses of the inmates have included schizophrenia, psychotic, ...
For eight years, Wadeson worked with patients with affective disorders, including mania, psychotic depression, and suicide risk ...
... psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and conduct disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain ... Disorders affecting children such as ADHD, along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, high functioning autism ... Disorders affecting children such as ADHD, along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, high functioning autism ... "A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders. 93 (1-3): ...
... psychotic depression, brief psychotic disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Thought broadcasting is rare and there are no ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 82 (2): 167-174. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.03.011. PMID 15488245. Reports of OCD induction or ... Thought broadcasting is most commonly found among people that have a psychotic disorder, specifically schizophrenia. Thought ... "Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 61 (Suppl 1): ...
"Gene-based SNP mapping of a psychotic bipolar affective disorder linkage region on 22q12.3: association with HMG2L1 and TOM1". ... "Gene-based SNP mapping of a psychotic bipolar affective disorder linkage region on 22q12.3: association with HMG2L1 and TOM1". ...
The K-SADS-PL is used to screen for affective and psychotic disorders as well as other disorders, including, but not limited to ... The K-SADS is used to measure previous and current symptoms of affective, anxiety, psychotic, and disruptive behavior disorders ... is a semi-structured interview aimed at early diagnosis of affective disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and ... disorders "Other Specified and Related Disorders). Notably, it also added a module on pervasive developmental disorders, with ...
... affective disorders, psychotic disorders, degenerative disorders, eating behavior, and sleep behavior. Drugs such as opium, ... The hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), also known as post-psychedelic perception disorder, has been observed ... Prog.) ^ Lewy, A. J., "Circadian Phase Sleep And Mood Disorders", (5th Gen. Prog.) ACNP resources American College of ... Developments in neuropsychopharmacology may directly impact the studies of anxiety disorders, ...
Sadock, B. J.; Sadock, VA (2008). "11.3 Delusional Disorder and Shared Psychotic Disorder". Kaplan and Sadock's Concise ... Bipolar 1 disorder can lead to severe affective dysregulation, or mood states that sway from exceedingly low (depression) to ... Journal of Affective Disorders, 323, 607-616. Isham, Louise; Griffith, Laura; Boylan, Anne‐Marie; Hicks, Alice; Wilson, Natalie ... Noll, R. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 122. ISBN ...
... may be a common etiology underlying hallucinations in BPD and those in other conditions like psychotic and affective disorders ... mood disorders, including major depression and bipolar disorder anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, social anxiety ... substance use disorders, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. People ... Gunderson JG, Elliott GR (March 1985). "The interface between borderline personality disorder and affective disorder". The ...
... psychotic, affective, anxiety and substance use). The United States Department of Veterans Affairs commissioned a larger study ... Rifai advocates for screening patients with psychiatric disorders for hepatitis C. In the mid 2000s, Rifai was involved in ... El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kunik, Mark; Richardson, Peter; Rabeneck, Linda (2002). "Psychiatric disorders among veterans with ... MacReady, Norra (2003-01-01). "Psychiatric disorders more likely in HCV patients. (Substance Abuse in 88%)". Clinical ...
MRI volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with psychotic patients with first-episode affective disorder ...
... "did not reveal any signs of a current psychotic condition or of any major affective disorder." As part of its post-conviction ...
Journal of affective disorders, 127(1-3), 337-342. Keers, R., & Pluess, M. (2017). Childhood quality influences genetic ... The effects of polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and smoking behaviour on psychotic experiences in UK Biobank. ... Assary, E., Vincent, J. P., Keers, R., & Pluess, M. (2018, May). Gene-environment Interaction and Psychiatric Disorders: Review ... research focussed on identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with the development of psychiatric disorders and ...
... assessed and followed up with a large cohort of infants whose parents had both affective and non-affective psychotic disorders ... which was designed to genetically assess major mood and psychotic disorders as well as their conditions. DIGS continues to ... infants with chronic fetal hypoxia-like symptoms did show a higher risk of cognitive impairment and psychotic disorders, ... with bipolar disorder and without either disorder. The results of the study showed unique gene expression patterns for all ...
Psychosis will in general appear as an affective disorder (e.g. psychotic depression), a psychotic disorder (e.g. catatonic ... Today diagnosis for psychotic patients and mentally or otherwise ill persons are most commonly placed by ICD or DSM criteria. ... During his lifetime he interviewed more than 2000 psychotic patients, latterly with Dr Sieglinde von Trostorff. He died in East ... With Kleist, he created a complex classification of psychotic illnesses called Nosology. His work covered psychology, ...
... disorder Major depressive disorder Dysthymia Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Psychotic depression Seasonal affective disorder ( ... disorder Brief psychotic disorder Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder ... Separation anxiety disorder Specific phobia Social anxiety disorder Panic disorder Agoraphobia Generalized anxiety disorder ... Sexual masochism disorder Sexual sadism disorder Fetishistic disorder Transvestic disorder Other specified paraphilic disorder ...
... affective disorders, tic disorders, executive function disturbances, psychotic features, and language impairment). Heart ... Diagnosis is often delayed and attributed to another condition such as tic disorder or conversion disorder. The controversial ... especially obsessive-compulsive disorder but also attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ... Treat the movement disorder Immunosuppression Prevention of relapses and further cardiac damage Manage the disability ...
... confusion Induction of hypomania or mania in patients with underlying bipolar affective disorder Psychotic symptoms Tremor ... Patients with bipolar affective disorder should not receive antidepressants whilst in a manic phase (including hypomania) under ... Treatment of the depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder For the symptomatic relief of anxiety, tension or insomnia The ... adolescents and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone ...
... have a personal or family history of primary psychotic or affective disorders like Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective disorder, ... Some research has shown that these substances have helped people with such mental disorders as obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... Bipolar 1 disorder, or psychotic symptoms in the setting of depression. The main approach used in the contemporary resurgence ... for treatment-resistant depression and major depressive disorder) and MDMA (for post-traumatic stress disorder). Humans have ...
A 2002 study found that relapse of major affective and psychotic disorders occurred more frequently when seven or more time ... Delayed sleep phase disorder is a medical disorder characterized by delayed sleeping time and a proportionately delayed waking ... "Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag Disorders An American Academy of Sleep ... Delayed sleep phase disorder Sleep deprivation Kalat, James W. (8 February 2018). Biological Psychology (13 ed.). Cengage. p. ...
Delusions also occur as symptoms of many other mental disorders, especially the other psychotic disorders. The DSM-IV and ... schizoaffective disorder and affective psychoses: Meta-analytic study". British Journal of Psychiatry. 195 (6): 475-482. doi: ... metabolic disorders, and endocrine disorders. Other psychiatric disorders must then be ruled out. In delusional disorder, mood ... Additional features of delusional disorder include the following: It is a primary disorder. It is a stable disorder ...
According to the hypothesis of affect-logics, the outbreak of psychotic disorders in a formerly non-psychotic person follows ... affect-logics therefore postulates that schizophrenia can be understood as a primarily affective disorder, with secondary ... Affective states may be short or long lasting, strong or mild, clearly felt in body and mind or remain largely unconscious, ... As an alternative based on affect-logics, he proposes a treatment of acute psychotic states focused on a sustained reduction of ...
Keown P, Holloway F, Kuipers E (May 2002). "The prevalence of personality disorders, psychotic disorders and affective ... Major depressive disorder Panic disorder[citation needed] Paranoid personality disorder Social anxiety disorder[citation needed ... Schizoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders". Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders: Personality ... Schizoid personality disorder (/ˈskɪtsɔɪd, ˈskɪdzɔɪd, ˈskɪzɔɪd/, often abbreviated as SzPD or ScPD) is a personality disorder ...
... define epilepsy as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by ... Psychotic Disorders. Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perception. Psychotic ... Bipolar Affective Disorders. Bipolar affective disorder is chronic psychiatric disease with severe changes in mood with a wide ... Affective disorders in epilepsy. Ettinger AB, Kanner AM. Psychiatric issues in Epilepsy: A Practical Guide to Diagnosis and ...
2010). Residual psychotic and depressive symptoms in a clinical trial for psychotic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders ... psychotic depression and mixed affective episodes among 14,529 patients with bipolar disorder" (PDF). Journal of Affective ... "Environmental and familial risk factors for psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 147 ... The prognosis for psychotic depression is not considered to be as poor as for schizoaffective disorders or primary psychotic ...
... and affective disorders. Adults have a high rate of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. ... The frequency of autoimmune disorders in patients with partial 22q11.2DS was reviewed by Tison et al [8] in a large cohort of ... Because of its rarity, most parents have neither heard of this disorder nor do they know anyone who has it to whom they can ... 22q11.2DS encompasses the following phenotypically similar disorders-including DiGeorge syndrome:. * Velocardiofacial syndrome ...
Seasonal Affective Disorder and Light Therapy for Mood Disorders. *Chapter 35. Atypical Depression, Dysthymia, and Cyclothymia ... Major Depressive Disorder With Psychotic Features. *Chapter 37. Pediatric Mood Disorders. *Chapter 38. Geriatric Mood Disorders ... Part V: Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders. *Chapter 23. Cognitive and Behavior Therapies for Major Depressive Disorder and ... Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder and Persistent Depressive Disorder. *Chapter 25. Psychoanalytic and ...
In general, any history of inpatient treatment, psychotic episodes, violent or suicidal behavior, affective disorder (including ... were for substance use or affective disorder, and evacuations for mania and hypomanic states accounted for 3%. ... Customs officials might confiscate Schedule II drugs commonly used to treat attention deficit disorder (e.g., narcotics or ... Travelers who witness or who are directly involved in traumatic or life-threatening events can experience acute stress disorder ...
... by Disorder Category - National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, United States, 2017-2019 - Featured Topics from the ... Rates of Emergency Department Visits Related to Mental Health Disorders Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years, ... affective) disorder (12.6), other MHD (5.3), and schizophrenia, schizotypal, delusional, or other nonmood psychotic disorder ( ... QuickStats: Rates of Emergency Department Visits Related to Mental Health Disorders Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years, by Disorder ...
... and affective deficits without psychotic-like cognitive/perceptual distortions.. 2. Schizoid Personality Disorder Site provides ... a Mood Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to ... Personality Disorders: Paranoid, Schizoid, and Schizotypal (DVD) *Personality Disorders: Borderline Personality Disorder, ... Schizoid Personality Disorder: Personality Disorder, Schizophrenia, Delusional Disorder, Flattened Affect, Eugen Bleuler, ...
They also suffer from more psychotic and addictive disorders. Women have a higher prevalence of personality disorders and ... affective symptoms. Conclusions: There are sociodemographic and clinical differences between male and female prison inmates who ... Introduction: Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is a frequent disorder in hemodialysis patients and the effect on the ...
296.X Affective Psychoses 300.X Neuroses 303.X Alcoholism 309.X Mental Disorders not specified as Psychotic; associated with ... or functional disorders (e.g., endocrine imbalance, chromosomal disorders, psychosis) which would confound evaluation of ... 427.9 Other and Unspecified Disorders of Heart Rhythm (Other than PAT, AT, VF, Heart Block) 429.0 Cardiac Enlargement and ... follicles in the adolescent disorder. Follicular hypereratosis is distinguished from perifolliculosis by the ring of capillary ...
Affective Disorders, Psychotic. *Depressive Disorder. *Huntington Disease. *Nausea. *Pain. *Psychotic Disorders. *Reye Syndrome ...
Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior. Explore symptoms, ... Many individuals with bipolar disorder have relatives with other mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders (such as depression or ... Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 1 *Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 7 ... including anxiety disorders (such as panic attacks), behavioral disorders (such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), ...
... and transient psychotic disorder; schizophrenia; and other non-affective psychotic disorders *Bipolar affective disorder: manic ... Schizoaffective disorder *Severe depressive episode with psychotic features *Delusional disorder *Post-traumatic stress ... Grandiose delusions (such as special powers or missions) occur in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder *Delusions of ... Obsessive compulsive disorder *Schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder *Aspergers syndrome *Attention deficit ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders 1 0 Affective Disorders, Psychotic 1 0 Alcohol-Related Disorders 1 0 ... Content source: Public Health Genomics Branch in the Division of Blood Disorders and Public Health Genomics, National Center on ...
Anxiety disorder, affective disorder, ADD/ADHD, developmental disorder, psychotic & organic disorder. *Credentialing needed ...
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that occurs during certain times of the ... Bipolar disorder can also cause psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. ... Bipolar Disorder: This mental health disorder is characterized by extreme mood swings between periods of mania (an abnormally ... Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by a persistent low mood and lack of ...
... to losing shelter or whether the state of being homeless increased the likelihood of developing symptoms of a mental disorder ... psychotic disorders (F2) and affective disorders (F3). Substance use (F1), psychotic disorders (F2) and personality disorders ( ... Every second homeless case was diagnosed with a substance use disorder and every third homeless case with a psychotic disorder ... and every third case was diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (F2: 30.0%). Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders did ...
Participants with diagnosed psychotic or affective disorders were excluded. We found that high PGL did not predict less ... and the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale by van Katwyk et al. RESULTS: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis ... anxiety and sleep disorders. There is a global trend of switching from norm-referenced assessment (NRA) to criterion-referenced ... but have not developed the respective disorders, are still susceptible to experience milder forms of ill-being in terms of job ...
18+ years and a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar affective disorder or depression with psychotic features ... 2015) A systematic review and meta-analysis of premature mortality in bipolar affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 ... Tagged with: bipolar disorder, body mass index, British Journal of Psychiatry, diet, dieticians, meta-analysis, nutrition, ...
Mental Disorders, Mood Disorders, Affective Disorders, Psychotic, Phobic Disorders, Anxiety, Neurobiology, Resilience, ... Anxiety Disorders, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Neurobiology, Life Cycle Stages, Substance-Related Disorders ... Feeding and Eating Disorders, Bipolar Disorder, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Child Abuse, Sexual, Gender and Health, ... Borderline Personality Disorder, Sexual Behavior, Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry), Developmental Disabilities, Disorders of Sex ...
This report describes rates of emergency department visits related to mental health disorders. ... This report describes rates of emergency department visits related to mental health disorders. ... affective) disorder (12.6), other MHD (5.3), and schizophrenia, schizotypal, delusional, or other nonmood psychotic disorder ( ... or other nonmood psychotic disorders (F20-F29). A visit could be included in more than one disorder category. ...
Depression and other affective or mood disorders. Anxiety disorders such as PTSD or Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Psychotic ... Language disorders 75%. Learning problems or disabilities 40%. Anxiety disorders 25%. Depression 15%. Behavioural problems 75% ... Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or Hyperkinetic Disorder is the term used by professionals to describe children, young ... Developmental and neurodevelopmental disorders and difficulties Medical problems such as relating to brain injuries or epilepsy ...
... or a current psychotic disorder, dissociative disorder, bipolar affective disorder or personality disorders.. 8. Have a current ... 9. Have current major depressive disorder with psychotic features.. 10. Would present a serious risk to others as established ... a. Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) will be assessed at baseline (screening) and at long-term follow-up).. 5. ... 1. The AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) will be used to measure baseline alcohol use over the past year ...
... social factors to psychotic and non-psychotic relapse after childbirth in women with previous histories of affective disorder. ... Howard, L. Psychotic disorders and parenting - the relevance of parents children for general adult psychiatric services. Psych ... Debating psychotic disorders and parenting, and the relevance of a mothers children for general adult psychiatric services was ... This 1 in 10,000 chance of a psychotic depression has turned into a police matter now, and Elena poses. She is ready to fight ...
Personality and Personality DisordersPersonality and Personality Disorders D R T R I S H N U N E S C O N S U L T A N T P S Y C ... AFFECTIVE/MOOD AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS. Documents med.mahidol.ac.th · 8.1 (psychotic disorders) (mood disorders) (personality ... BS 7 OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS Cognitive disorders Personality disorders Dissociative disorders Obesity eating disorders ... Personality Disorders. Personality Disorders- Axis II (less serious than Axis I disorders Personality disorders - psychological ...
Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder with psychotic features is associated with impaired processing speed ... 94-98, Journal of affective disorders, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1-1. journal article ... The kynurenine pathway in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of 101 studies ... Induced Ketosis as a Treatment for Neuroprogressive Disorders: Food for Thought?. G Morris, B Puri, A Carvalho, M Maes, M Berk ...
Mood Disorders vs. Psychotic Disorders. Bipolar disorder is whats known as a mood disorder, or an affective disorder. The ... Schizophrenia is known as a psychotic disorder. The primary symptom in psychotic disorders is psychosis or the inability to ... People with bipolar disorder may have psychotic symptoms that are related to mood - such as being Jesus when happy - whereas ... These symptoms are the way in which each disorder is separately diagnosed. For example, bipolar disorder is diagnosed primarily ...
Lithium is used to treat bipolar affective disorders. It may potentiate the effect of depolarizing and competitive ... This group of drugs is used primarily to treat psychotic symptoms and constitutes a chemically heterogeneous group of major ... Identifying patients with preexisting seizure disorders assures that their anticonvulsant medications can be continued. On the ...
... including obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, psychotic conditions, depression, character ... psychotic disorders, personality, anxiety, and stress and anxiety disorders. ... People with identified mental illnesses, compound usage disorder, or other mental disorders can find their necessary health ... For instance, to help a customer with obsessive-compulsive disorder, a behavioral therapist might teach that specific, bit by ...
  • You are currently very depressive due to a bipolar disorder. (bund.de)
  • A bipolar disorder is a mental illness. (bund.de)
  • With a bipolar disorder, one's mood can change in different ways. (bund.de)
  • You can also be depressive due to a bipolar disorder. (bund.de)
  • It can occur in the context of bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critically important to the clinician is the section on management of mood disorders, which provides treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, as well as information on understanding, and preventing, suicide in children, adolescents, and adults. (appi.org)
  • They frequently treat conditions like Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophreniform and Schizoaffective Disorder along with other conditions at varying frequencies. (healthline.com)
  • Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with bipolar disorder experience both dramatic "highs," called manic episodes, and "lows," called depressive episodes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomanic episodes, which are similar to but less extreme than manic episodes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with bipolar disorder often have repeated thoughts of death and suicide, and they have a much greater risk of dying by suicide than the general population. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bipolar disorder is classified into several types based on the mood changes that occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bipolar I involves manic episodes, which can be accompanied by psychotic symptoms, and hypomanic or depressive episodes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cyclothymic disorder involves hypomanic episodes and depressive episodes that are typically less severe than those in bipolar I or bipolar II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bipolar disorder often occurs with other mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders (such as panic attacks), behavioral disorders (such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ), and substance abuse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bipolar disorder is a common form of mental illness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Very little is known for certain about the genetics of bipolar disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some of the genetic changes associated with bipolar disorder have also been found in people with other common mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Understanding the genetics of bipolar disorder and other forms of mental illness is an active area of research. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that nongenetic (environmental) factors also contribute to a person's risk of developing bipolar disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Substance abuse and traumatic head injuries have also been associated with bipolar disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The inheritance pattern of bipolar disorder is unclear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, most people who have a close relative with bipolar disorder will not develop the condition themselves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many individuals with bipolar disorder have relatives with other mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders (such as depression or schizophrenia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These disorders may run in families in part because they share some genetic risk factors with bipolar disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Iain Campbell, a researcher in Scotland, has lived with Bipolar disorder for much of his life. (usf.edu)
  • Campbell had lived with bipolar disorder for much of his life. (usf.edu)
  • In online forums, people with bipolar disorder were sharing similar anecdotes - they were finding improvements in their mood, increased clarity and fewer episodes of depression. (usf.edu)
  • He put together a 45-minute video summing up the biological rationale for using the ketogenic diet in bipolar disorder and posted it on social media, not expecting much after that. (usf.edu)
  • Their son Matt had bipolar disorder and had been on many medications in recent years. (usf.edu)
  • Now, around a dozen clinical trials are in the works, testing the diet's effect on mental illness, most notably for bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and depression, but also for conditions like anorexia, alcoholism and PTSD. (usf.edu)
  • Risperdal is a a psychotropic agent used to heal schizophrenia, bipolar mania, irritability associated with autistic disorder. (mywikiparty.com)
  • Bipolar disorder can also cause psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. (notvisiblestilldisabled.com)
  • The consultant psychiatrist diagnosed it as a case of bipolar affective disorder, current episode manic with psychotic features. (ijrh.org)
  • Can Early Symptoms Predict Bipolar Disorder? (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • and Professor Ross J. Baldessarini, MD, Director of the International Consortium for Bipolar & Psychotic Disorders Research of the Mailman Research Center at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Mass. (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • Mania Bipolar disorders are characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression, although many patients have a predominance of one or the other. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents Bipolar disorder is characterized by alternating periods of mania, depression, and normal mood, each lasting for weeks to months at a time. (msdmanuals.com)
  • however, these episodes do not meet the specific criteria for a bipolar or major depressive disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It can be difficult to distinguish from schizoaffective disorder, a diagnosis that requires the presence of psychotic symptoms for at least two weeks without any mood symptoms present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis using the DSM-5 involves meeting the criteria for a major depressive episode, along with the criteria for "mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic features" specifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new edition of The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Mood Disorders is a systematic and painstaking reconceptualization of its predecessor. (appi.org)
  • Investigational agents, most notably ketamine and its relatives, constitute an exciting frontier in the treatment of mood disorders, and the clinical application, routes of delivery, dosing, risks, and clinical trials are explored in a dedicated chapter that is both rigorous and thorough. (appi.org)
  • There is compelling evidence that childhood maltreatment (defined as exposure to emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and neglect before the age of 18 years) is a prominent risk factor for the development of mood disorders as well as for a pernicious course and poor treatment response in mood disorders. (appi.org)
  • These findings, as well as the underlying neurobiological and environmental interactions that may contribute to the development of mood disorders, are examined thoroughly and thoughtfully. (appi.org)
  • As our understanding of immune function in mood disorders has grown, psychoneuroimmunology has emerged as a focus of study likely to make major contributions to clinical practice in the coming decades. (appi.org)
  • The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Mood Disorders equips clinicians and trainees with the knowledge they need to alleviate suffering in their patients with mood disorders. (appi.org)
  • This mental health disorder is characterized by extreme mood swings between periods of mania (an abnormally elevated mood) and depression. (notvisiblestilldisabled.com)
  • Unfortunately ADHD is also often misdiagnosed in children and young people with mood or anxiety disorders, or in children with medical, learning or attachment problems. (cinaps.co.uk)
  • Introduction: Mania is a form of mood disorder initially, characterised by elevated mood, insomnia, increased libido and grandiosity. (ijrh.org)
  • A homotypic pattern consisted of affective or mood-associated symptoms that are related to, but fall short of, standard diagnostic criteria for BD: for example, mood swings, relatively mild symptoms of excitement, or major depression, sometimes severe and with psychotic symptoms. (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • Depression, as World Health Organization describes it refers to a mood disorder characterised by symptoms like loss of interest, lack of appetite, sadness, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, feeling guilty and having low esteem. (essaytyping.com)
  • The disease includes a disposition to intermittent and often liberal mood troubles, symptomatology variances range from minor to severe signs with or lacking psychotic features and relations with other somatic and psychiatric syndromes. (essaytyping.com)
  • Overview of Mood Disorders Mood disorders are emotional disturbances consisting of prolonged periods of excessive sadness, excessive elevated mood, or both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For a long time you may have no symptoms from the disorder. (bund.de)
  • Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipolar psychotic depression requires that psychotic symptoms occur during severe depressive episodes, although residual psychotic symptoms may also be present in between episodes (e.g., during remission, mild depression, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with psychotic depression experience the symptoms of a major depressive episode, along with one or more psychotic symptoms, including delusions and/or hallucinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychotic symptoms tend to develop after an individual has already had several episodes of depression without psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, once psychotic symptoms have emerged, they tend to reappear with each future depressive episode. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other depressive episodes, psychotic depression tends to be episodic, with symptoms lasting for a certain amount of time and then subsiding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychotic symptoms are often missed in psychotic depression, either because patients do not think their symptoms are abnormal or they attempt to conceal their symptoms from others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to overlapping symptoms, differential diagnosis includes also dissociative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies on psychosis related to Alzheimer's disease indicate that antipsychotic drugs have equivocal efficacy in improving psychotic symptoms and may have side effects or risks that outweigh their benefits. (nih.gov)
  • This disorder most often appears in late adolescence or early adulthood, although symptoms can begin at any time of life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Manic and depressive episodes can include psychotic symptoms, such as false perceptions (hallucinations) or strongly held false beliefs (delusions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two patients with schizo-affective disorder had "truly dramatic, life-changing improvement in their psychotic symptoms," he says. (usf.edu)
  • Symptoms and treatment of schizoid personality disorder combined with substance abuse. (geometry.net)
  • Kalus (1995, p. 58) believes that the schizoid personality disorder is distinguished by the predominance of negative symptoms associated with the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, i.e., social, interpersonal, and affective deficits without psychotic-like cognitive/perceptual distortions. (geometry.net)
  • Experiencing the symptoms of psychosis is often referred to as having a psychotic episode. (abcmedicalnotes.com)
  • Somatoform disorders that include inexplicable symptoms that significantly impact lifestyle and impair the senses or movement. (barbaslaw.com)
  • The heterotypic pattern consisted of other types of prodromal symptoms, such as early anxiety and disorders of attention or behavior. (healthnewsdigest.com)
  • The other symptoms like the psychomotor and sleep instabilities, low self-esteem, feeling guilty, suicidal propensities and autonomic as well as gastrointestinal disorders always exist. (essaytyping.com)
  • Delusions occur without hallucinations in about one-half to two-thirds of patients with psychotic depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple interacting biologic and psychosocial factors determine the risk for the development of either schizophreniform psychoses or major depression in patients with epilepsy, and behavioral disorders in epilepsy have multiple risk factors and multifactorial etiologies. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis for psychotic depression is not considered to be as poor as for schizoaffective disorders or primary psychotic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family members of those who have experienced psychotic depression are at increased risk for both psychotic depression and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most patients with psychotic depression report having an initial episode between the ages of 20 and 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • While psychotic depression can be chronic (lasting more than 2 years), most depressive episodes last less than 24 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of biological features that may distinguish psychotic depression from non-psychotic depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HPA axis appears to be dysregulated in psychotic depression, with dexamethasone suppression tests demonstrating higher levels of cortisol following dexamethasone administration (i.e. lower cortisol suppression). (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with psychotic depression also have higher ventricular-brain ratios than those with non-psychotic depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, psychotic depression may be confused with schizoaffective disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several treatment guidelines recommend pharmaceutical treatments that include either the combination of a second-generation antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic or tricyclic antidepressant monotherapy or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as the first-line treatment for unipolar psychotic depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence indicating that combination therapy with an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic is more effective in treating psychotic depression than either antidepressant treatment alone or placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of psychotic depression, the following are the most well-studied antidepressant/antipsychotic combinations: First-generation Amitriptyline/perphenazine Amitriptyline/haloperidol Second-generation Venlafaxine/quetiapine Olanzapine/fluoxetine Olanzapine/sertraline There is insufficient evidence to determine if treatment with an antidepressant alone is effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, any history of inpatient treatment, psychotic episodes, violent or suicidal behavior, affective disorder (including mania, hypomania, or major depression), any treatment for substance use problems, and any current treatments warrant further evaluation by a mental health professional, preferably one experienced in handling problems related to international travel. (cdc.gov)
  • Depression is a mental health disorder that can impact people in different ways. (notvisiblestilldisabled.com)
  • Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that occurs during certain times of the year, most commonly winter months. (notvisiblestilldisabled.com)
  • Depression can be a very serious mental health disorder that can lead to a number of negative consequences if left untreated. (notvisiblestilldisabled.com)
  • The understanding of the pathophysiology of depression is challenging because a single hypothesis cannot explain the disorder symptomatology. (essaytyping.com)
  • The gene 3p25-26 was present in more than eight hundred relatives having recurring depression where scientist trust that forty per cent of individuals were having the disorder traces to a genetic link. (essaytyping.com)
  • The immunological changes during psychiatric and side effects of depression caused by using cytokines in treating cancer and hepatitis provide evidence favouring the depression disorder. (essaytyping.com)
  • We offer talking therapies for people experiencing depression, general anxiety and worry, health anxiety, panic attacks, social anxiety, traumatic memories and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (slam.nhs.uk)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this of the authors using the Farsi version of the systematic review indicated that is the first study in Asia and the Islamic the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Dis- the rate of psychotic illness, manic Republic of Iran that investigated the orders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) episodes, major depression, attention prevalence of psychiatric disorders [11]. (who.int)
  • Adults have a high rate of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • In this case, individualised homoeopathic treatment has shown a positive role for the remission of manic episode with psychotic features without the support adjunctive therapy or conventional medication in the current episode. (ijrh.org)
  • The disorder occurs at any stage from childhood to adulthood and is an incredible cost to society because it causes severe disruption or distress and if untreated it can be deadly. (essaytyping.com)
  • Depressive Disorders Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and often by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The stressors of travel can cause preexisting psychiatric disorders to recur, latent or undiagnosed problems to become apparent, and new problems to arise. (cdc.gov)
  • Because travel medicine specialists rarely have mental health credentials, they should use a brief inquiry aimed at eliciting previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Also inquire about current psychiatric disorders and treatment and whether any members of their immediate family have serious mental health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to know that many other psychiatric disorders, mental illnesses and medical problems can present very similar to ADHD (differential diagnoses) in terms of poor concentration, impulsivity and hyperactivity, and that ADHD is often a complex assessment and diagnosis to make. (cinaps.co.uk)
  • ABSTRACT Data are lacking about the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviour in incarcerated adolescents in Asia. (who.int)
  • This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the prediction of suicidal attempts in 100 incarcerated males aged 12-19 years in Shiraz. (who.int)
  • 25 surveys found that nearly all of them ment, to assess psychiatric disorders Individuals older than 19 years were not reported that over two-thirds of the [2] although it has been indicated included. (who.int)
  • 58% of these patients have a history of depressive episodes, 32% have agoraphobia without panic or other anxiety disorder, and 13% have psychoses. (medscape.com)
  • Duloxetine is used to treat major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. (mywikiparty.com)
  • Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, clinical files of all mental healthcare users receiving treatment were reviewed to identify those with a current or previous diagnosis of one or more of the following anxiety disorders: generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and agoraphobia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Of the 650 available records, 103 (15.8%) included at least one anxiety disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3.5% of these were psychotic episodes without prior psychiatric history. (cdc.gov)
  • Dahmer also had schizoid personality disorder features and schizotypal pathology, expert says. (geometry.net)
  • For these reasons, it does not cover diagnoses such as pervasive developmental disorders, speech and language disorders, or the organic brain syndromes. (cdc.gov)
  • ADHD, like other mental illness and neurodevelopmental disorders, is frequently missed, especially in a 'hard to reach' population where children and/or their families do not ask for help. (cinaps.co.uk)
  • adolescents suffered from psychiatric that some disorders such as ADHD disorders [1]. (who.int)
  • The Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) Essential Feature According to the DSM-IV (1994, p. 638), the essential feature of the schizoid personality disorder "e;is a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings. (geometry.net)
  • The ICD-10 (1994, p. 225) describes the schizoid personality disorder as "e;characterized by withdrawal from affectional, social and other contacts, with a preference for fantasy, solitary activities and introspection. (geometry.net)
  • Site provides American and European descriptions of the disorder along with brief outline of treatment Category Health Mental Health Schizophrenia Schizoid Personality. (geometry.net)
  • criteria are met prior to the onset of Schizophrenia, add "Premorbid " e.g., "schizoid personality disorder (Premorbid). (geometry.net)
  • During 2017-2019, 52.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons were related to a diagnosed mental health disorder (MHD) in the United States per year. (cdc.gov)
  • MHD = mental health disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • About 90% of not assessed different psychiatric Va Tarbiat) Prison, which is the only the studies on adolescents in juvenile disorders [9], or they studied mental prison in Shiraz. (who.int)
  • Background: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of lifetime mental disorders according to South African research. (bvsalud.org)
  • Still, those who have experienced a depressive episode with psychotic features have an increased risk of relapse and suicide compared to those without psychotic features, and they tend to have more pronounced sleep abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agoraphobia was diagnosed in 14.6% of patients almost exclusively as comorbid with panic disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, ask travelers about current or past use of illicit substances and whether they have a formally diagnosed substance use disorder or if health care providers, friends, or family have suggested that the traveler might be using alcohol or other substances to excess. (cdc.gov)
  • Although undoubtedly important in the care of the patient with epilepsy, advances in neurologic diagnosis and treatment tended to obscure the behavioral manifestations of epilepsy until Gibbs drew attention to the high incidence of behavioral disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Children and adults with 22q11.2DS have high rates of behavioral, psychiatric, and communication disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Of those, 65.1% had GAD, 34.0% had panic disorder and 29.1% had SAD. (bvsalud.org)
  • In logistic regression analysis only self-harming behaviour and major depressive disorder were significant predictors of attempted suicide. (who.int)
  • The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) define epilepsy as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the biologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition. (medscape.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les données sont rares au sujet de la prévalence des troubles psychiatriques et du comportement suicidaire des adolescents incarcérés en Asie. (who.int)
  • A significant portion of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) develop psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and other psychotic and affective symptoms, and the responsible gene/s are assumed to also play a significant role in the etiology of nonsyndromic psychiatric disease. (nih.gov)
  • 22q11DS populations also have increased rates of psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia, including mood disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The main diagnoses included schizophrenia (n = 226), schizoaffective disorder (n = 67), bipolar disorder (n = 82), and major depressive disorder (n = 29). (nih.gov)
  • We genotyped nine tag SNPs in this sample but did not observe significant differences in allele or haplotype frequencies in any of the analyzed groups (all affected, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia alone, and bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) compared with the control group. (nih.gov)
  • People with these disorders, which include schizophrenia and other disorders with psychotic symptoms , have better outcomes if they receive early and comprehensive care. (nih.gov)
  • Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that results from subtle changes and abnormalities in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to identify predictable, quantifiable abnormalities in neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy that characterize schizophrenia and other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. (nih.gov)
  • There is debate whether schizoaffective disorder is a separate illness or is part of the continuum of schizophrenia and mood disorder spectrum. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • 15. Comparisons of Voxel-Based Morphometric Brain Volumes of Individuals with Methamphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls. (nih.gov)
  • that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder such as bipolar disorder or depression. (nih.gov)
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that significantly worsens the personal, professional and social life of patients [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • Use of atypical neuroleptics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, quetiapine, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone) as first-line drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia increased not only their tolerance (reduced incidence of extrapyramidal disturbances) but also the effectiveness of elimination of deficits as well as affective and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. (termedia.pl)
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that the life expectancy of patients suffering from schizophrenia is 15-25 years shorter than in the general population, which at least partially may be due to metabolic disorders induced by pharmacotherapy. (termedia.pl)
  • It is alleged that the woman, who has been diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder, fatally stabbed her 53-year-old father and 15-year-old sister in a psychotic rage at the family's Revesby home. (culteducation.com)
  • On 9 April 2003, respondent was hospitalized and diagnosed with "schizo affective disorder, bipolar, type M" as well as "early or full remission for alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine dependence. (case.law)
  • Other forms of depression include psychotic depression, postmenopausal depression, and seasonal affective disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons. (nih.gov)
  • Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by the onset of depression during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. (forteggz.nl)
  • Winter depression, typically accompanied by social withdrawal, increased sleep, and weight gain, predictably returns every year in seasonal affective disorder. (forteggz.nl)
  • Also called seasonal affective disorder (SAD), seasonal depression usually emerges during winter months, or seasons where there is there is less natural light throughout the day. (neurology-clinics.com)
  • Forte GGZ heeft in 2024 geen contract met Menzis en de bijbehorende labels (Anderzorg, Hema en VinkVink). (forteggz.nl)
  • 4. Morphometric brain characterization of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: diffeomorphic anatomic registration using exponentiated Lie algebra. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Error-related brain activity as a transdiagnostic endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and substance use disorder. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Common abnormality of gray matter integrity in substance use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative voxel-based meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Gray matter differences between pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and high-risk siblings: a preliminary voxel-based morphometry study. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Modality-specific overlaps in brain structure and function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Multimodal meta-analysis of case-control MRI studies. (nih.gov)
  • 16. White matter structural alterations in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: relation to symptom dimensions. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent depressive disorder (also called dysthymia) is a depressed mood that lasts for at least two years. (forteggz.nl)
  • Those who were once diagnosed with dysthymia are now diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder. (neurology-clinics.com)
  • Besides offering a detailed look at the application of TFP to severe personality disorders, this book also examines the practice of TFP itself, tackling controversial issues regarding the supervision of psychoanalysis and its derived psychotherapies, the challenges for the future of psychoanalysis, and innovations that may serve to strengthen its role as a profession, a treatment approach and a social organization within mental health sciences. (appi.org)
  • Otto F. Kernberg, M.D. , is Director of the Personality Disorders Institute at New York Presbyterian Hospital, Westchester Division, a Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, and a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research in New York. (appi.org)
  • In this most recent book of his, Kernberg skillfully synthesizes mentalization-based approaches, neurobiological observations, and psychoanalytic object relations theory with his widely recognized paradigm of TFP ( Transference Focused Therapy) for the treatment of severe personality disorders. (appi.org)
  • We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. (us.es)
  • As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point) and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point). (us.es)
  • The Finnish cohort included 7655 patients treated for schizoaffective disorder, based on inpatient care as recorded in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The Swedish cohort included 7525 individuals aged 16 to 64 years with schizoaffective disorder who were identified based on inpatient registers, specialized outpatient registers, disability pensions, and a social insurance agency register. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Some areas to cover include whether the traveler previously experienced, was treated for, or was diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, including any associated with prior travel, and the type of treatment (inpatient, outpatient, or medications) involved, if any. (cdc.gov)
  • He delineates useful strategies for the inpatient management of patients with such disorders and extends his insights to malignant regressions at the societal, large group levels. (appi.org)
  • Examples of other types of depressive disorders newly added to the diagnostic classification of DSM-5 include disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (diagnosed in children and adolescents) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). (forteggz.nl)
  • In PMDD, emotional instability (affective lability), irritability, depressed mood, and anxiety appear approximately a week before the onset of menstruation. (neurology-clinics.com)
  • Which Pharmacotherapies Are Most Effective for Schizoaffective Disorder? (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • 1-3 ICD-11 aims to improve the diagnostic accuracy and differential diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Only paliperidone has an approved treatment indication specifically for schizoaffective disorder. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • To explore the efficacy of pharmacotherapies for schizoaffective disorder, Lintunen and colleagues 6 looked at 2 nationwide cohorts. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Subsequent relapses are a cause of increasing dysfunction, reduced periods of remission and longer duration of psychotic disorders [4]. (termedia.pl)
  • New research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) found disparities in psychotic disorder diagnoses and showed that such diagnoses are associated with a range of negative health outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Psychotic disorder diagnoses were stable (for some groups) over time. (nih.gov)
  • Psychotic disorder diagnoses differed between racial and ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • The data suggested disparities in diagnoses for psychotic disorders based on race and ethnicity. (nih.gov)
  • At any given time, the higher prevalence of neurobehavioral disorders may largely be accounted for by patients with medically intractable epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Low levels of serotonin can then create dysthymia or major depressive disorder, among other conditions. (neurology-clinics.com)
  • Eating disorders, particularly those with binge-eating and night-eating features, have documented nonnormative circadian eating and mood patterns, suggesting that bright light therapy may be an efficacious stand-alone or adjunctive intervention. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The purpose of this systematic literature review, using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, was (1) to evaluate the state of the empirical treatment outcome literature on bright light therapy for eating disorders and (2) to explore the timing of eating behavior, mood, and sleep-related symptom change so as to understand potential mechanisms of bright light therapy action in the context of eating disorder treatment. (psychiatrist.com)
  • A comprehensive literature search using PsycInfo and PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted in April 2016 with no date restrictions to identify studies published using bright light therapy as a treatment for eating disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Future research should systematically control for placebo response, assess symptom change frequently and across a broad range of systems, and evaluate the longer-term efficacy of bright light therapy for eating disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • C ircadian rhythm, or the variation in physiology and behavior that corresponds approximately to a 24-hour cycle, 1 is disrupted in a variety of behavioral health conditions including mood disorders, 2,3 sleep-wake disorders, 4,5 and eating disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a genetic condition characterized by intellectual disability, speech and language deficits, hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although undoubtedly important in the care of the patient with epilepsy, advances in neurologic diagnosis and treatment tended to obscure the behavioral manifestations of epilepsy until Gibbs drew attention to the high incidence of behavioral disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers led by Winston Chung, M.D. , at Kaiser Permanente and Kathleen Merikangas, Ph.D. , and Diana Paksarian, Ph.D., in the NIMH Intramural Research Program examined trends in the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in the United States from 2009 to 2019. (nih.gov)
  • For nonaffective psychotic disorders, Black and American Indian or Alaskan Native participants had a higher likelihood of a diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • For affective psychotic disorders, the likelihood of a diagnosis was again higher for Black and American Indian or Alaskan Native participants as well as for Hispanic participants. (nih.gov)
  • The woman nevertheless consulted a private psychiatrist and a psychologist after her diagnosis and was prescribed anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medication that she took until January this year. (culteducation.com)
  • ˌskɪtsəˈfriːniə ), from the Greek roots "schizein" (σχίζειν, "to split") and "phrēn", "phren-" (φρήν, φρεν-, " mind ") is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality . (en-academic.com)
  • This includes the absence of substance abuse histories, learning disabilities and all DSM IV disorders. (nih.gov)
  • History of any (excepting nicotine-related) DSM5-defined moderate to severe substance use disorder (or DSM-IV-defined substance dependence). (nih.gov)
  • Cumulative lifetime history of any (excepting nicotine-related) DSM5-defined mild substance use disorder (or any DSM-IV-defined substance abuse), either in excess of 5 years total or not in remission for at least 6 months. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, ask travelers about current or past use of illicit substances and whether they have a formally diagnosed substance use disorder or if health care providers, friends, or family have suggested that the traveler might be using alcohol or other substances to excess. (cdc.gov)
  • Results suggest that bright light therapy is potentially effective at improving both disordered-eating behavior and mood acutely, although the timing of symptom response and the duration of treatment effects remain unknown. (psychiatrist.com)
  • During 2017-2019, 52.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons were related to a diagnosed mental health disorder (MHD) in the United States per year. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to use brain imaging technology to compare differences in brain structure, chemistry, and functioning in individuals with brain and mental disorders compared to healthy volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • Subjects consisted of 70 patients with mood disorders and suicidal behavior, 128 patients with mood disorders without suicidal behavior (mood disorders control, MC), and 145 health control (HC) individuals. (researchsquare.com)
  • Rates of affective psychotic disorders were consistent for all groups over time. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, there is a general agreement that the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders is higher in patients with epilepsy than in the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Experience in patients with acute mania is promising, but the value of oxcarbazepine in managing affective disorders, particularly as a prophylactic agent, is not established. (nih.gov)
  • Significant differences were found in GMVs of the left and right middle frontal gyrus among the patients with mood disorders and suicidal behavior, MC, and HC. (researchsquare.com)
  • Therefore, understanding the suicide risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders is important and necessary for suicide prevention strategies. (researchsquare.com)
  • 3. The volumetric and shape changes of the putamen and thalamus in first episode, untreated major depressive disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Nonaffective psychotic disorders decreased significantly among White and Asian participants over time, whereas they significantly increased for participants whose racial and ethnic group was "other. (nih.gov)
  • Bright light therapy is a noninvasive biological intervention for disorders with nonnormative circadian features. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The eating disorder with the most prominent circadian dyssynchrony is night eating syndrome, 11 characterized by a circadian delay of food intake manifested by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal awakening and ingestion of food. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Many people with this disorder may self-harm or experience suicidal ideation. (neurology-clinics.com)
  • Finding neural features for suicidal behavior, including suicide attempts (SAs) and suicidal ideation (SI), in mood disorders may be helpful in preventing suicidal behavior. (researchsquare.com)
  • With treatment, most people with mood disorders can lead productive lives. (nih.gov)
  • Previous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that abnormalities in gray matter volumes (GMVs) were associated with suicidal behavior in mood disorders. (researchsquare.com)
  • Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. (nih.gov)