Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Cyclothymic Disorder: An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Paranoid Disorders: Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Freudian Theory: Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Color Therapy: A form of phototherapy using color to influence health and to treat various physical or mental disorders. The color rays may be in the visible or invisible spectrum and can be administered through colored lights or applied mentally through suggestion.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.DenmarkSerotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Schizophrenia and Disorders with Psychotic Features: Marked disorders of thought (delusions, hallucinations, or other thought disorder accompanied by disordered affect or behavior), and deterioration from a previous level of functioning.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Stress Disorders, Traumatic: Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)United StatesStartle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis. (1/123)

OBJECTIVE: Gray matter volume and glucose utilization have been reported to be reduced in the left subgenual cingulate of subjects with familial bipolar or unipolar depression. It is unclear whether these findings are secondary to recurrent illness or are part of a familial/genetic syndrome. The authors' goal was to clarify these findings. METHOD: Volumetric analyses were performed by using magnetic resonance imaging in 41 patients experiencing their first episode of affective disorder or schizophrenia and in 20 normal comparison subjects. RESULTS: The left subgenual cingulate volume of the patients with affective disorder who had a family history of affective disorder was smaller than that of patients with affective disorder with no family history of the illness and the normal comparison subjects. Patients with schizophrenia did not differ from comparison subjects in left subgenual cingulate volume. CONCLUSIONS: Left subgenual cingulate abnormalities are present at first hospitalization for psychotic affective disorder in patients who have a family history of affective disorder.  (+info)

The man who claimed to be a paedophile. (2/123)

A psychiatrist recounts a case of a man presenting with severe depression who claimed to have abused children and his pet dog. Clinical management of the case hinged on whether this claim was true, a lie or delusional. The uncertainty over this raised complex ethical dilemmas regarding confidentiality and protection of the public (and animals).  (+info)

Impact of genetic vulnerability and hypoxia on overall intelligence by age 7 in offspring at high risk for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses. (3/123)

Risk factors for schizophrenia, such as genetic vulnerability and obstetric complications, have been associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We tested the association of these risk factors with general intellectual ability in offspring at high risk for psychoses and normal control subjects. Offspring of 182 parents with DSM-IV schizophrenia or affective psychoses were recruited and diagnosed from the Boston and Providence cohorts of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP). Control subjects from the NCPP were selected to be comparable with affected parents based on the parent's age, ethnicity, study site, number of offspring enrolled in the NCPP, and payment status, and on the offspring's age, sex, and history of obstetric complications. Based on data prospectively acquired from pregnancy and events of gestation, labor, delivery, and the neonatal period, we derived a measure of probable hypoxic-ischemic insult. We also report on standardized measures of general intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ]) collected at age 7. General linear mixed models were used to test for the simultaneous effects of genetic vulnerability, defined as parental diagnosis, and probable hypoxic insult on age 7 IQ. Specificity of the effects for schizophrenia compared with affective psychoses and sex effects were also tested. Low IQ at age 7 was significantly associated with genetic vulnerability to psychoses, in particular with schizophrenia.  (+info)

Sixteen-year mortality in patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium. (4/123)

BACKGROUND: Lithium treatment is claimed to reduce mortality in patients with affective disorder, but the evidence is conflicting. AIM: To estimate mortality rates from a cohort of patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium with an observation period of two years and a follow-up after 16 years. METHOD: The mortality rates of patients were compared with those of the general Danish population, standardised for age, gender and calendar time with respect to death from all causes, suicide and death from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Forty of the study's 133 patients died during the 16-year observation period (11 from suicide). Mortality among patients commenced on lithium was twice that of the general population. The statistically significantly elevated mortality was due largely to an excess of suicides; mortality from all other causes was similar to the background populations. Thirty-two patients died after the first two years of observation and were included in the analysis of the association between death and treatment compliance. Suicide occurred more frequently among those patients not complying with treatment. CONCLUSION: Mortality, especially suicide, was significantly increased in unselected patients with affective disorder commenced on lithium relative to the general population.  (+info)

Obstetric complications and affective psychoses. Two case-control studies based on structured obstetric records. (5/123)

BACKGROUND: Unlike schizophrenia, little interest has been taken in the incidence of obstetric complications in affective psychoses. AIMS: To find out whether obstetric complications are more common in affective psychoses than matched controls. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen probands with an in-patient diagnosis of affective psychosis who had been born in Scotland in 1971-74, and a further 84 born in 1975-78, were closely matched with controls and the incidence of obstetric complications in the two compared using obstetric data recorded in a set format shortly after birth. RESULTS: Abnormal presentation of the foetus was the only complication significantly more common in the affective probands in the 1971-74 birth cohort and artificial rupture of the membranes was the only event more common in the probands in the 1975-78 cohort. Both are probably chance findings. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that the incidence of obstetric complications is raised in people with affective psychoses of early onset.  (+info)

Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms. (6/123)

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether outcome in schizoaffective disorders is more similar to schizophrenia or affective disorders. AIMS: To provide longitudinal data on clinical course and outcome in schizoaffective disorders versus schizophrenia and affective disorders, and determine whether mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. METHOD: A total of 210 patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar manic disorders and depression were assessed at hospitalisation and then followed up four times over 10 years. RESULTS: At all four follow-ups, fewer patients with schizoaffective disorders than with schizophrenia showed uniformly poor outcome. Patients with mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms during index hospitalisation showed significantly poorer subsequent outcome (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Schizoaffective outcome was better than schizophrenic outcome and poorer than outcome for psychotic affective disorders. Mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms have negative prognostic implications. The results could fit a symptom dimension view of schizoaffective course.  (+info)

Association of depression and gender with mortality in old age. Results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL). (7/123)

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and increased mortality risk in older persons may depend on the severity of the depressive disorder and gender. AIMS: To investigate the association between major and mild depressive syndromes and excess mortality in community-living elderly men and women. METHOD: Depression (Geriatric Mental State AGECAT) was assessed in 4051 older persons, with a 6-year follow-up of community death registers. The mortality risk of neurotic and psychotic depression was calculated after adjustment for demographic variables, physical illness, cognitive decline and functional disabilities. RESULTS: A total of 75% of men and 41% of women with psychotic depression had diet at follow-up. Psychotic depression was associated with significant excess mortality in both men and women. Neurotic depression was associated with a 1.67-fold higher mortality risk in men only. CONCLUSIONS: In the elderly, major depressive syndromes increase the risk of death in both men and women, but mild depression increases the risk of death only in men.  (+info)

Prefrontal gray matter volume reduction in first episode schizophrenia. (8/123)

Functional measures have consistently shown prefrontal abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of prefrontal volume reduction have been less consistent. In this study, we evaluated prefrontal gray matter volume in first episode (first hospitalized) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, compared with first episode patients diagnosed with affective psychosis and normal comparison subjects, to determine the presence in and specificity of prefrontal abnormalities to schizophrenia. Prefrontal gray and white matter volumes were measured from first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 17), and from gender and parental socio-economic status-matched subjects with affective (mainly manic) psychosis (n = 17) and normal comparison subjects (n = 17), age-matched within a narrow age range (18--29 years). Total (left and right) prefrontal gray matter volume was significantly reduced in first episode schizophrenia compared with first episode affective psychosis and comparison subjects. Follow-up analyses indicated significant left prefrontal gray matter volume reduction and trend level reduction on the right. Schizophrenia patients showed 9.2% reduction on the left and 7.7% reduction on the right compared with comparison subjects. White matter volumes did not differ among groups. These data suggest that prefrontal cortical gray matter volume reduction is selectively present at first hospitalization in schizophrenia but not affective psychosis.  (+info)

Atypical antipsychotics have been found not only to be beneficial in the treatment of psychotic disorders, but even for depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Remarkably, preliminary data suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine has antidepressive properties. Until now, there is limited knowledge concerning the efficacy of quetiapine in major depressive illness and especially in psychotic depression. In our own clinical practice, several patients with psychotic depression were successfully treated with quetiapine as add-on therapy or as monotherapy. On the background of that, the convincing effects of quetiapine in bipolar depression, single-case reports and pilot studies concerning its effectiveness in depressive mood states in psychotic disorders as well as our clinical experiences, it is to assume that a treatment with quetiapine over a 6 weeks period show similar effects in major depressive episode with psychotic features, i.e. psychotic depression. In this pilot study ...
BACKGROUND: The optimal pharmacological treatment of unipolar psychotic depression is uncertain. AIMS: To compare the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for patients with unipolar psychotic depression. METHOD: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. RESULTS: Ten trials were included in the review. We found no evidence that the combination of an antidepressant with an antipsychotic is more effective than an antidepressant alone. This combination was statistically more effective than an antipsychotic alone. CONCLUSIONS: Antidepressant monotherapy and adding an antipsychotic if the patient does not respond, or starting with the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, both appear to be appropriate options for patients with unipolar psychotic depression. However, clinically the balance between risks and benefits may suggest the first option should be preferred for many patients. Starting with an antipsychotic alone appears to be inadequate.
A person with psychotic depression has detached from reality. Psychotic depression symptoms can be frightening, but psychotic depression treatment is available.
Major depression with psychotic features (psychotic depression; PD) is a severe, potentially fatal disorder with a high risk of relapse and recurrence [1, 2]. Older adults are at greatest risk of PD, with up to 45% of older inpatients with major depression having psychotic features [3, 4]. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and pharmacotherapy are each efficacious in the treatment of PD [5, 6]. Several factors influence the choice of treatment, including patient preference, clinical acuity, past history of treatment response, side effect profile, and availability of ECT.. When pharmacotherapy is selected, expert guidelines, supported by meta-analytic evidence, recommend a combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications for acute treatment [7-9]. However, little is known about the continuation and maintenance treatment of PD. Once an episode of major depression responds to antidepressant medication, the antidepressant needs to be continued to prevent relapse and recurrence of depression ...
Background The association between depression and increased mortality risk in older persons may depend on the severity of the depressive disorder and gender.. Aims To investigate the association between major and mild depressive syndromes and excess mortality in community-living elderly men and women.. Method Depression (Geriatric Mental State AGECAT) was assessed in 4051 older persons, with a 6-year follow-up of community death registers. The mortality risk of neurotic and psychotic depression was calculated after adjustment for demographic variables, physical illness, cognitive decline and functional disabilities.. Results A total of 75% of men and 41% of women with psychotic depression had died at follow-up. Psychotic depression was associated with significant excess mortality in both men and women. Neurotic depression was associated with a 1.67-fold higher mortality risk in men only.. Conclusions In the elderly, major depressive syndromes increase the risk of death in both men and women, but ...
GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its new report, Psychotic Depression Therapeutics - Pipeline Assessment and Market Forecasts to 2019. The report is an essential source of information and analysis on the global Psychotic Depression Therapeutics market. The report identifies the key trends shaping and driving the global Psychotic Depression Therapeutics market. The report also provides insights on the prevalent competitive landscape and the emerging players expected to significantly alter the market positioning of the current market leaders. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights on the pipeline products within the global Psychotic Depression Therapeutics sector. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis by GlobalDatas team of industry experts.
Background: High rates of postpartum relapse occur in women with histories of bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. These relapses may be triggered by the postdelivery fall in circulating estrogen through alteration of central neurotransmitter (especially dopaminergic) systems. This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen administration after childbirth would prevent postpartum relapse and would alter dopamine receptor sensitivity. Method: Twenty-nine pregnant women with a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of hypomania (bipolar II), mania (bipolar I), or schizoaffective disorder participated in an open clinical trial. Three transdermal dose regimens of estrogen (17beta-estradiol) were tested. Starting doses were 200 (N = 13), 400 (N = 3), and 800 (N = 13) micrograms/day, beginning within 48 hours after delivery and reduced by one half every 4 days for a total of 12 days. On the fourth day after starting estradiol therapy (before relapse occurred), subjects participated in a neuroendocrine ...
Objective: Functional recovery remains the primary goal following treatment of a psychotic disorder, especially after a first episode. Evidence regarding relative contributions of predictors of functional outcome, including symptoms and cognition, remains equivocal. The objective of the study was to determine the relative contribution of cognition, in particular verbal memory, and symptomatic remission to social and occupational functioning while controlling for established predictors of functioning in a large sample of patients presenting with a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum or affective psychosis.. Method: Patients (aged 14-35 years) met DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum or affective psychosis and had been admitted to the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between 2003 and 2009 for treatment and follow-up for 2 years. Established predictors (duration of untreated psychosis, medication adherence, age at ...
Psychotic depression is often a difficult illness to diagnose and treat. Consider another common scenario. An elderly woman walks into her kitchen and discovers her husband pointing a shotgun at himself. She convinces him to put the gun down and go to see their doctor. She is completely shocked about the suicidal behavior and did not see it coming. They have been married for 40 years. Her husband had no prior history of suicidal behavior or depression. As they talk with his primary care physician, she corroborates that he seemed to have been sleeping well, but seemed less spontaneous and "happy". She was shocked to find out that he had lost about 15 pounds. He is sent to a local hospital where he talks with a psychiatrist and at one point says: "I just could not go on living anymore." Further questioning leads to a discussion of an event that occurred when he was in high school (over 65 years ago) that he was guilty and embarrassed about. His worries about the event continued to build until he ...
DSM-5 Fine-Tunes Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosis, to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 between now and its publication date in May. Keywords: Psychotic.. Criteria for Severity/Psychotic/Remission Specifiers for current (or most recent) Major Depressive Episode. Note: These criteria are coded for in fifth digit of the DSM-IV diagnostic code. Can be applied to the most recent Major Depressive Episode in Major Depressive Disorder and to a Major Depressive Episode in Bipolar I.. They include depression with psychotic features, which occurs when a severe depressive illness is accompanied by some form of psychosis, such as a break with reality, The diagnostic criteria and key defining features of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents are the same as they are for adults. Research.. Hypomania is similar to mania; however, it is not serious enough to cause social or occupational impairment, hospitalization, or psychotic features (American. The criteria is presented for the mood episodes that ...
Amish Study of Major Affective Disorders. Two Tiers of Data Access. The NIGMS Human Genetic Cell Repository has distributed samples from Dr. Janice Egelands studies on bipolar disease in the Old Order Amish since 1982. Samples from approximately 250 subjects have been available with clinical data since the late 1980s. In the last few years Dr. Egeland has collected samples from additional members of the family and submitted additional cell lines prepared by her colleague Dr. Ed Ginns. These cell lines and DNA are now available under limited conditions.. As with any genetic study of a small community or population, there are concerns that the privacy of the extended family might be compromised if the pedigree were openly available on the web catalog. Following discussions with Dr. Egeland and with the input from the NIGMS Scientific Advisory Committee, the Repository has developed a two tier scheme for access to the clinical and pedigree information for the Old Order Amish Major Affective ...
Megalomania is a disorder of mentality at which the consciousness or behavior of the person is seriously broken. It is shown in revaluation of own importance, popularity, wealth, power, significance. The megalomania isnt considered as an individual disease, but as a symptom at maniacal syndrome, paranoia, or as one of inferiority complex types.. Causes of disorder development have not been yet investigated, but it is supposed that megalomania causes are:. - strong stressful situations;. - mental injuries;. - complications of general paralysis;. - affective psychoses;. - paraphrenic schizophrenia.. Symptoms of megalomania:. - revaluation by the patient of the importance, physical and mental abilities;. - narcissism (narcissism);. - hyperactivity, garrulity;. - concentration on own thoughts.. - frequent change of mood;. - lack of interest to the opinion of people around;. - aggression in relation to people around;. - sleeplessness.. Disease is dangerous with possible development of a depression ...
The mystical delirium differs in expressed mystical content of patient experiences, his conviction that there is something mysterious, inexplicable. The mystical delirium includes crazy ideas of religious contents, stories of the patient about the other world.. Religious experience requires consideration of religious and mystical states. Naturally, there are differences between not pathological and pathological mystical phenomena. But differences between them arent obvious. Inspirations, revelations, prophecies, apparitions, ecstatic experiences and obsession are known for many millennia. They are understood ambiguously by psychiatrists; isnt found out when they express religious experience and when relate to psychopathology.. The mystical feeling of release and pleasure pulls together religious and mystical states with a maniacal phase of affective psychosis. Voices, orders, feeling of management of the highest forces are similar to a hallucinatory paranoid syndrome. Leaving from the outside ...
A British study says it provides new evidence that marijuana use may boost the risk that people who struggle with psychosis will relapse. But critics said the e
01-9-2018 Patients who have experienced first-episode psychosis (FEP) appear to have significantly lower levels of folate and vitamin D in their blood compared .... ...
My 16 yr old goes in today for his first ever tune-up. None of us know what to expect. We were (he still is) in a state of shock as to the abruptness of it all but his PFTs are done to 58% after being 103 last Nov. What should we expect for the next 14 days?
Have you seen the show my crazy ex? Feel free to share your stories here. We all have a psychotic ex that we wish we could forget about or you regret dating!... asked under Dating
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the Chinese Adult Population. AU - Chang, Wing Chung. AU - Wong, Corine Sau Man. AU - Chen, Eric Yu Hai. AU - Lam, Linda Chiu Wa. AU - Chan, Wai Chi. AU - Ng, Roger Man Kin. AU - Hung, Se Fong. AU - Cheung, Eric Fuk Chi. AU - Sham, Pak Chung. AU - Chiu, Helen Fung Kum. AU - Lam, Ming. AU - Lee, Edwin Ho Ming. AU - Chiang, Tin Po. AU - Chan, Lap Kei. AU - Lau, Gary Kar Wai. AU - Lee, Allen Ting Chun. AU - Leung, Grace Tak Yu. AU - Leung, Joey Shuk Yan. AU - Lau, Joseph Tak Fai. AU - van Os, Jim. AU - Lewis, Glyn. AU - Bebbington, Paul. PY - 2017/11. Y1 - 2017/11. KW - epidemiology. KW - population surveys. KW - lifetime prevalence. KW - schizophrenia. KW - affective psychoses. KW - NATIONAL-COMORBIDITY-SURVEY. KW - PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS. KW - HONG-KONG. KW - 12-MONTH PREVALENCE. KW - FOLLOW-UP. KW - GENERAL-POPULATION. KW - MENTAL-DISORDERS. KW - GLOBAL ...
Not only are these observations well documented in the scientific literature, but recent observations also suggest that each type of sensitization can show cross-sensitization to the other two types. That is, individuals exposed to repeated stressors are more likely both to experience affective illness episodes and to adopt comorbid substance abuse. In a similar way, episodes of an affective disorder and stressors may also be associated with the relapse into drug administration in those who have been abstinent.. In addition to these mechanisms of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders, the new article reviews the literature showing that the number of affective episodes or the duration of the illness appear to be associated with a variety of other clinical and neurobiological variables.. The number of affective episodes a patient experiences is associated with the degree of cognitive dysfunction present in their bipolar illness, and experiencing more than 4 episodes of unipolar ...
Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in recent onset psychosis patients Schizophr Res. 2018 May; 195:366-371. . View in PubMed. Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in recent onset psychosis patients Schizophr Res. 2018 05; 195:366-371. . View in PubMed. Development and validation of the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE) J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Dec; 95:213-223. . View in PubMed. Predictive capacity of prodromal symptoms in first-episode psychosis of recent onset Early Interv Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 08. . View in PubMed. Randomized control trial to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training compared with a psycho-educational group in people with a recent-onset psychosis Psychol Med. 2017 Jul; 47(9):1573-1584. . View in PubMed. Development and validation of the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE) J Psychiatr Res. 2017 12; 95:213-223. . View in PubMed. Influence of cognition, premorbid adjustment and psychotic symptoms on psycho-social ...
A lack of belief in the value of medication and the number of previous hospitalizations also predict hospitalization in first-episode psychosis.
A concept of an endophenotype, also termed as an internal endophenotype, is used in genetic studies on psychiatric disorders. Neurological soft signs are also considered candidates for endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Neurological soft signs are, objectively measured, non-localizing abnormalities, not related to impairment of a specific brain region, reflecting improper corical-subcorical and intercortical connections. This paper presents the main domains of NSS, methods of measurement of NSS, their neuroanatomical substrate, association of NSS with schizophrenia symptoms the and analysis of the literature in order to check whether NSS meet the criteria of the phenotype. A marker can be considered a phenotype if it meets the following criteria: 1) association with a disease in a population, 2) heritability, 3) state-independence, 4) familial association (the endophenotype is more prevalent in the affected individuals, their affected and non-affected family members in comparison to the normal ...
COGNITION AND EMOTION 2007, 21 (2), Affective asynchrony and the measurement of the affective attitude component Ellen Peters and Paul Slovic Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA How should the affective
The Series in Affective Science is dedicated to publishing the best scholarship and research in the emerging interdisciplinary area of affective scie
This chapter aims to reflect about the importance and challenges of research on the affective dimension in collaborative information seeking (CIS). This is achieved through three major parts. First,...
Michel Mercier, Geneviève Bazier, Hubert Gascon - Le thème de la vie affective, relationnelle et sexuelle nécessite la mise en œuvre de recherches pluridisciplinaires et implique des travaux communs entre chercheurs, praticiens bénéficiaires directs
Objective: The aim of this study was to construct a rating scale to predict long-term outcome on the basis of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics in patients with symptoms of psychosis who seek psychiatric help for the first time. Method: Patients (N = 153) experiencing their first episode of psychosis (DSM-IV schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, brief psychotic episode, delusional disorder, affective psychosis with mood-incongruent delusions, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified or being actively psychotic) were consecutively recruited from 17 psychiatric clinics in Sweden from January 1996 through December 1997 (24 months). Baseline characteristics were assessed with an extensive battery of psychiatric rating scales; duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid characteristics, and cognitive functioning were also assessed. The relationship between baseline characteristics and the 5-year outcome was analyzed using a stepwise logistic regression ...
We investigated these issues in a group of patients with schizophrenia (n=94), affective psychosis (n=63), other psychosis (n=26); their respective first-degree relatives (total n=183) and a control group (n=85). A narrow definition of mixed-handedness was used corresponding to groups 5 and 6 as defined by the Annett Handedness Questionnaire.. We found an excess of mixed-handedness in the schizophrenic group compared with controls (OR=5.2, 1.4-18.6, p,0.006). There was no difference between the other psychotic groups and controls. There was a trend for an excess of mixed-handedness in the first-degree relatives (n=99) of schizophrenic patients (p=0.055), but not in the relatives of affective or other psychotic patients. There was a striking linear trend in the proportion of mixed-handedness between controls, the relatives and the schizophrenic patients (chi2=7.0, p=0.008). There was no association between mixed-handedness and a history of pregnancy or birth complications in the schizophrenic ...
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the structural brain correlates of antisaccade performance. METHOD: Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the volumes of the prefrontal, premotor, sensorimotor, and occipitoparietal cortices as well as the caudate, thalamus, cerebellar vermis, and cerebrum in 20 first-episode psychosis patients and 18 healthy comparison subjects. Antisaccades were recorded by using infrared oculography. RESULTS: Groups significantly differed in terms of antisaccade error rate and amplitude gain and tended to differ in terms of latency but not brain region volumes. Premotor cortex volume predicted antisaccade error rate among comparison subjects. In the patient group, caudate volume was related to latency and amplitude gain. Negative symptoms, independent of structural volumes, predicted error rate. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to altered structure-function relationships in first-episode psychosis.. ...
Description of disease Schizoaffective Disorder. Treatment Schizoaffective Disorder. Symptoms and causes Schizoaffective Disorder Prophylaxis Schizoaffective Disorder
Heretofore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and affective disorder have been unclear. Evidence from family, twin and adoption studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of these diseases. Molecular genetics studies suggest that they may be heterogenous and polygenic diseases. Despite the widely accepted view that schizophrenia and affective disorder represent independent illnesses and have different modes of inheritance, some data in the literature suggest that these diseases may share some genetic susceptibility. Many linkage analyses have suggested that the chromosome 6q region could harbor susceptibility loci to schizophrenia. Recently loci for affective disorder were reported to map in the 6q region. These results suggest that the relationship between chromosome 6q and susceptibility to schizophrenia or affective disorder deserves further study. Craddock et al [4] by meta-analysis and Kohn et al [29] by a topographic approach reviewed all ...
With final diagnoses of bipolar-I (BD-I, n=216), schizoaffective (SzAffD, 71), and major depressive (MDD, 42) disorders, 329 subjects were followed for 4.47 [CI: 4.20-4.47] years. Initial episodes were: mania (41.6%), mixed-states (24.3%), depression (19.5%), or apparent nonaffective psychosis (14.6%). Antecedent morbidity presented 12.7 years before first-episodes (ages: SzAffD≤BD-I,MDD). Long-term %-of-days-ill ranked: SzAffD (83.0%), MDD (57.8%), BD-I (45.0%). Morbidity differed by diagnosis and first-episode types, was predicted by first-episodes, and suggested by antecedent illnesses. Long-term wellness was greater with: BD-I diagnosis, first-episode not mixed or psychotic-nonaffective, rapid-onset, and being older at first antecedents, but not follow-up duration ...
Affective disorders such as for example anxiety, phobia and depression certainly are a leading reason behind disabilities world-wide. al /em ., 2014[61]; Terry em et al /em ., 2013[100]). Searching for an progress within this field of analysis and therapy, we discuss the technological method of affective disorders and their putative human brain correlates. First, we talk about conceptual problems and using equipment as the conceptual space construction (Gardenfors, 2000[32]). Second, we discuss the physical-biological framework (transmitters, modulators, receptors) experimentally linked to the phenomena. Third, we discuss the chance of the integrative style of four simple psychological emotions and related neuromodulators involved with affective disorders. A clarification between neurotransmission and neuromodulation will be to be able before we move forward further. About the neurobiological terminology utilized here, and how exactly we understand it, transmitting of sensory and endogenous ...
Lutgens, D., Malla, A., Joober, R. and Iyer, S. (2015), The impact of caregiver familiarity with mental disorders on timing of intervention in first-episode psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 9: 388-396. doi: 10.1111/eip.12121 ...
Introduction. The term "schizoaffective psychosis" was first introduced by Kasanin (1933) when he described a group of patients with good premorbid functioning who developed acute psychoses with a mixture of psychotic and affective symptoms, but fully recovered after a few months. While Kasanin is credited with introducing the term, it is defined differently now. Schizoaffective disorder is a complex illness whose definition has changed significantly over time. Despite the continued attempts to better define and classify schizoaffective disorder, much controversy and conflicting results remain. Unfortunately, schizoaffective disorders have been poorly investigated. Kahlbaum (1863) is usually considered the first psychiatrist in modern times to describe schizoaffective disorders as a separate group (Angst and Marneros, 2001). As Tsuang and Simpson (1984) reported, empirical findings are often contradictory and have at times supported the idea that schizoaffective disorder is (a) a variant of ...
Schizoaffective disorder is treated with medication. Learn about the various schizoaffective disorder medications and their side effects on HealthyPlace.
Neuroendocrine function has been reported by several workers to be abnormal in affective disorder. It has been shown that neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotinin) are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine function. Several biological hypotheses of affective disorder have imp …
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Table_1_Effect of Genotype and Maternal Affective Disorder on Intronic Methylation of FK506 Binding Protein 5 in Cord Blood DNA.docx
Our Adult Partial Hospitalization Program provides services to adults with a DSM IV Axis 1 diagnosis of schizophrenia or major affective disorder. The goal of this program is to provide services to optimize strengths and abilities to promote self-sufficiency in the patient.. Our treatment goals include:. ...
Abstract. It is proposed that happiness be classified as a psychiatric disorder and be included in future editions of the major diagnostic manuals under the new name: major affective disorder, pleasant type. In a review of the relevant literature it is shown that happiness is statistically abnormal, consists of a discrete cluster of symptoms, is associated with a range of cognitive abnormalities, and probably reflects the abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. One possible objection to this proposal remains-that happiness is not negatively valued. However, this objection is dismissed as scientifically irrelevant.. PMID: 1619629 ...
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Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are distinct but similar psychotic illnesses that can be managed with treatment. Learn more.
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What is Psychosis? The word psychosis is used to describe conditions which affect the mind, where there is some loss of contact with reality. Psychosis varie...
Question - Is there any problem to work who went to psychosis earlier. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Psychosis, Ask a Psychiatrist
Group: Members Posts: 1 Member No.: 463 Joined: 26-May 09 Ok I have tried everything else offline and am now resorting to trying out some different things online in order to get some ...
Psychosis is a general term often used to describe a severe impairment in mental functioning. Usually, this impairment is so substantial that the indi...
Objective: To compare neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients of schizophrenia with onset in childhood (COS), adolescence (AdOS) and adulthood (AOS).. Method: Assessment of NSS in 15 patients of COS and 20 patients each of AdOS and AOS was made using condensed neuropsychiatric examination for NSS.. Results: NSS were significantly more frequent in COS (100%) and AdOS (90%) when compared with AOS (55%) patients. COS patients showed significantly higher scores on temporal and frontal lobe NSS, of which differences between the three groups in temporal lobe NSS disappeared on ancova. Parietal lobe dependent NSS were seen in a few COS patients. The NSS were more in those with lesser IQ, lower education and higher Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores.. Conclusion: Findings indicate that earlier onset types may be more strongly associated with a generalized disruption of brain function. Non-suppression of primitive reflexes with cortical maturation in COS point towards disordered ...
Manic-depressive illnesses (Manic-depressive psychoses). These disorders are marked by severe mood swings and a tendency to remission and recurrence. Patients may be given this diagnosis in the absence of a previous history of affective psychosis if there is no obvious precipitating event. This disorder is divided into three major subtypes: manic type, depressed type, and circular type.. 296.1 Manic-depressive illness, manic type ((Manic-depressive psychosis, manic type)). This disorder consists exclusively of manic episodes. These episodes are characterized by excessive elation, irritability, talkativeness, flight of ideas, and accelerated speech and motor activity. Brief periods of depression sometimes occur, but they are never true depressive epi- sodes.. 296.2 Manic-depressive illness, depressed type ((Manic-depressive psychosis, depressed type)). This disorder consists exclusively of depressive episodes. These episodes are characterized by severely depressed mood and by mental and motor ...
Anxiety disorders, eating disorders, mood disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, ... Mood disorder. Mood disorder: Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving ... Psychotic disorder. Psychotic disorder: Patterns of belief, language use and perception of reality can become dysregulated (e.g ... In the United States the frequency of disorder is: anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder ( ...
... anxiety disorders, psychotic illnesses • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): Secondary Axis II disorders, bipolar affective ... First break episodes of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders • Social Integration: Long-term clients who are relatively ... Skyland Trail treats patients with a primary diagnosis of mental illness with related substance abuse disorders. Dual Diagnosis ... Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis. In the early ...
Her report concluded that he suffered from psychotic schizo-affective disorder and had brain dysfunction. Lewis, along with a ... but Lewis reported diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociative identity disorder, brain damage, and psychomotor ... Most people with this disorder are not violent. And probably abuse alone does not create a grotesquely violent individual. ... She specializes in the study of violent individuals and people with Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly known as Multiple ...
For eight years, Wadeson worked with patients with affective disorders, including mania, psychotic depression, and suicide risk ...
... bipolar or major affective disorder. This unit is a segregation unit for low aggression inmates. William Balfour - murdered ... These offenders are diagnosed as chronically mentally ill with diagnoses including schizophrenia, psychotic, ...
"Gene-based SNP mapping of a psychotic bipolar affective disorder linkage region on 22q12.3: association with HMG2L1 and TOM1". ... "Gene-based SNP mapping of a psychotic bipolar affective disorder linkage region on 22q12.3: association with HMG2L1 and TOM1". ...
... affective disorders, psychotic disorders, degenerative disorders, eating behavior, and sleep behavior. Drugs such as opium, ... The hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), also known as post-psychedelic perception disorder, has been observed ... Prog.) ^ Lewy, A. J., "Circadian Phase Sleep And Mood Disorders", (5th Gen. Prog.) ACNP resources American College of ... Developments in neuropsychopharmacology may directly impact the studies of anxiety disorders, ...
... psychotic, affective, anxiety and substance use). The United States Department of Veterans Affairs commissioned a larger study ... Rifai advocates for screening patients with psychiatric disorders for hepatitis C. In the mid 2000s, Rifai was involved in ... El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kunik, Mark; Richardson, Peter; Rabeneck, Linda (2002). "Psychiatric disorders among veterans with ... MacReady, Norra (2003-01-01). "Psychiatric disorders more likely in HCV patients. (Substance Abuse in 88%)". Clinical ...
MRI volumes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with psychotic patients with first-episode affective disorder ...
... confusion Induction of hypomania or mania in patients suffering from underlying bipolar affective disorder Psychotic symptoms ... Patients with bipolar affective disorder should not receive antidepressants whilst in a manic phase, as antidepressants can ... adolescents and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone ... Coated Tablets, 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, and 75 mg Injectable concentrate, 25 mg Maprotiline may worsen psychotic conditions like ...
... "did not reveal any signs of a current psychotic condition or of any major affective disorder." As part of its post-conviction ...
... psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and conduct disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain ... Disorders affecting children such as ADHD, along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, high functioning autism ... Disorders affecting children such as ADHD, along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, high functioning autism ... A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder" Journal of Affective Disorders 93, 105-15 ...
Psychosis will in general appear as an affective disorder (e.g. psychotic depression), a form of schizophrenia (e.g. catatonic ... Today diagnosis for psychotic patients and mentally or otherwise ill persons are most commonly placed by ICD or DSM criteria. ... During his lifetime he interviewed more than 2000 psychotic patients, latterly with Dr Sieglinde von Trostorff. He died in East ... With Kleist, he created a complex classification of psychotic illnesses called Nosology. His work covered psychology, ...
A 2002 Israeli study found that relapse of major affective and psychotic disorders occurred more frequently when seven or more ... Delayed sleep phase disorder is a medical disorder characterized by delayed sleeping time and a proportionately delayed waking ... "Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag Disorders An American Academy of Sleep ... Delayed sleep phase disorder Sleep deprivation "Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM5" (PDF). American Psychiatric ...
... involving symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorders brief psychotic disorder, or acute/transient psychotic disorder ... schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder affective (mood) disorders, including major depression, and severe depression or ... post-traumatic stress disorder induced delusional disorder Sometimes in obsessive-compulsive disorder Dissociative disorders, ... bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia, and some autism spectrum disorders. It is now known ...
... the non-psychotic symptoms correspond to conversion disorder and histrionic personality disorder in Western classifications. In ... affective disorder, and neurosis. In the West, there was no equivalent experience until the adoption of qigong practices by the ... "Qi-gong psychotic reaction" and classified the disorder as a culture-bound syndrome in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and ... affective disorder, self-consciousness, hallucination, and paranoia. While the Chinese Society of Psychiatry prefers the term " ...
... bipolar affective disorder, current episode manic without psychotic symptoms (F31.1), bipolar affective disorder, current ... In the ICD-10 there are several disorders with the manic syndrome: organic manic disorder (F06.30), mania without psychotic ... Associated disorders[edit]. A single manic episode, in the absence of secondary causes, (i.e., substance use disorder, ... Psychotic Disorders. 2004 May. All Psych Online: Virtual Psychology Classroom. Retrieved October 2, 2007. ...
"Pediatric Bipolar Affective Disorder". 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Leibenluft E, ... "Cannabis-Induced Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: A Case Report". Psychiatry (Edgmont). 6 (12): 44-8. PMC 2811144. ... Bipolar disorder. Synonyms. Bipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic depressive disorder, manic- ... in affective disorders". Journal of Affective Disorders (Review). 224: 32-47. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.034. PMID 28089169.. ...
"Primidone and rapid cycling affective disorders" describing a 62-year-old woman who had rapid-cycling bipolar disorder starting ... Monroe RR, Wise SP (1965). "Combined phenothiazine, chlordiazepoxide and primidone therapy for uncontrolled psychotic patients ... Brown GM; Stone GH; Rathbone MP (October 9, 1993). "Primidone and rapid cycling affective disorders". The Lancet. 342 (8876): ... Hayes, S. G. (March 1993). "Barbiturate anticonvulsants in refractory affective disorders". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 5 (1 ...
... psychotic depression and mixed affective episodes among 14,529 patients with bipolar disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders ... Unlike psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, patients with psychotic depression generally ... "Environmental and familial risk factors for psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 147 ... The prognosis for psychotic depression is not considered to be as poor as for schizoaffective disorders or primary psychotic ...
... and stress is a non-specific but substantial risk factor for affective, anxiety, eating and psychotic disorders, Notaras et al ... meta-analysis of case-control studies confirm association to substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia ... A number of studies have examined the role of this polymorphism in risk of neuropsychiatric disorders , including schizophrenia ... Another 2007 meta-analysis could, however, find no association between the SNP and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Meta- ...
Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 90 (1): 43-7. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2005.10.008. PMID 16324750. Schwemmle, M. and Lipkin, W.I. ( ... "Detection of Borna disease virus p24 RNA in peripheral blood cells from Brazilian mood and psychotic disorder patients". ... Some studies find a significant difference in the prevalence of BDV p24 RNA in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia, ...
... bipolar disorder type II)". When a mood disorder recurs in a seasonal pattern it is described as a seasonal affective disorder ... Results state that the SAD control group had a significant probability of scoring higher on non-psychotic tests than the non- ... Journal of Affective Disorders, 81, 133-139. Lester, D., Frank, M. "Sex differences in the seasonal distribution of suicides ... Intuitively, this makes sense given the existence of seasonal affective disorder and the tendency to associate depression with ...
... "for about a third of cases with non-affective psychotic disorders." Non-affective psychotic disorders are, by definition, not ... Schizoaffective disorder is defined by mood disorder-free psychosis in the context of a long-term psychotic and mood disorder. ... "psychotic" mood disorder, namely either bipolar disorder or major depression). Only when psychotic states persist in a ... psychotic mood disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. People with schizoaffective disorder are likely to have co-occurring ...
Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia, and delusional disorder. Schizoaffective disorder is a category used ... panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Other affective (emotion/mood) ... In the United States the frequency of disorder is: anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder ( ... Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder. Antipsychotics are used for psychotic disorders, notably for positive ...
Occupational characteristics and the occurrence of psychotic disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 26, 273 ... medical wards make greater affective demands on the nurses. In another study, Frese (1985)[125] concluded that objective ... Musculoskeletal disorders[edit]. Main article: Musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) involve injury and ... Mental disorder[edit]. Main article: Mental disorder. Research has found that psychosocial workplace factors are among the risk ...
The term seasonal affective disorder (SAD) describes episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania that regularly occur ... Seasonal affective disorder - Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or ... Seasonal affective disorder: Epidemiology, clinical features, assessment, and diagnosis. Author. David Avery, MD. David Avery, ... Seasonal affective disorder. Am Fam Physician 2006; 74:1521.. *Avery DH, Kouri ME, Monaghan K, et al. Is dawn simulation ...
Cognitive impairment from early to middle adulthood in patients with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders - Josephine ... Journal of Affective Disorders 164, 130-138.. Schatzberg, AF, Posener, JA, DeBattista, C, Kalehzan, BM, Rothschild, AJ and ... but also differences in the profile of cognitive dysfunction in adults with affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders. ... Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 1022 ...
Background There is a lack of information regarding the prevalence and co-occurrence of personality disorders, psychotic ... The prevalence of personality disorders, psychotic disorders and affective disorders amongst the patients seen by a community ... Keown, P., Holloway, F. & Kuipers, E. The prevalence of personality disorders, psychotic disorders and affective disorders ... psychotic disorders and affective disorders amongst patients seen by community mental health teams. This study aims to describe ...
Psychotic and affective disorders each tend to affect a different portion of the musculoskeletal system, with psychotic ... Comparing psychotic and affective disorders by musculoskeletal structural examination Jan Lei Iwata, PharmD,, DO, MS; J. Jerry ... Comparing psychotic and affective disorders by musculoskeletal structural examination You will receive an email whenever this ... Comparing psychotic and affective disorders by musculoskeletal structural examination. The Journal of the American Osteopathic ...
... including schizophrenia and other psychotic and affective symptoms, and the responsible gene/s... ... bipolar disorder (n = 82), major depression (n = 29), psychotic disorder NOS (20), and affective disorder NOS (22). The control ... affective disorders, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity ... and affective disorder only (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). Allelic and haplotypic χ2 tests were conducted to ...
... clinical psychotic symptoms in patients with non-affective psychotic disorder, siblings and healthy control were found in PRIME ... Depressive symptoms are associated with (sub)clinical psychotic symptoms in patients with non-affective psychotic disorder, ... "Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With (sub)clinical Psychotic Symptoms in Patients With Non-affective Psychotic Disorder, ... Depressive symptoms are associated with (sub)clinical psychotic symptoms in patients with non-affective psychotic disorder, ...
Long-Term Morbidity in Major Affective and Schizoaffective Disorders Following Hospitalization in First Psychotic Episodes.. ... clinical treatment of affective and schizoaffective disorder subjects followed from hospitalization for first major psychotic ... from hospitalization for first-lifetime episodes of major affective and schizoaffective disorders with initial psychotic ... International Consortium for Mood & Psychotic Disorders, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, USA. ...
Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ...
Major depressive affective disorder, recurrent episode, severe, without mention of psychotic behavior ... Home > 2015 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Mental Disorders 290-319 > Other Psychoses 295-299 > Episodic mood disorders 296- ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM F33.2 Major depressive disorder, recurrent severe without psychotic features ...
Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the ... Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the ... Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the ... T1 - Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in ...
Our goal is to identify genes that increase risk for affective and psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ... Our goal is to identify genes that increase risk for affective and psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ... 1/3:Pedigree-Based Whole Genome Sequencing of Affective and Psychotic Disorders Glahn, David C. Yale University, New Haven, CT ... Affective and psychotic disorders are major public health burdens with unclear etiologies. By identifying risk genes for ...
Our goal is to identify genes that increase risk for affective and psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ... Our goal is to identify genes that increase risk for affective and psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ... 3/3: Pedigree-Based Whole Genome Sequencing of Affective and Psychotic Disorders Gur, Raquel E. University of Pennsylvania, ... Affective and psychotic disorders are major public health burdens with unclear etiologies. By identifying risk genes for ...
Comparing psychotic and affective disorders by musculoskeletal structural examination PDF Jan Lei Iwata, PharmD,, DO, MS; J. ...
Clinical diagnosis of substance abuse disorder within the last 60 days. *Clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder ... Personality Disorders. Borderline Personality Disorder. Pathologic Processes. Mental Disorders. Anticonvulsants. Calcium ... Study of Lamotrigine Treatment of Affective Instability in Borderline Personality Disorder. The safety and scientific validity ... Affective instability is one of the most prominent symptoms in borderline personality disorder. Currently there are no ...
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). This occurs most often during fall and winter, and disappears during spring and summer. It ... Major depression with psychotic features. This occurs when a person has depression and loss of touch with reality (psychosis). ... Fava M, Østergaard SD, Cassano P. Mood disorders: depressive disorders (major depressive disorder). In: Stern TA, Fava M, ... Depressive disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. ...
Seasonal Affective Disorder. Psychotic Depression. Psychotic depression occurs when psychotic features such as hallucinations ... Seasonal Affective Disorder. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) typically starts in the late fall and early winter and ... What most mood disorders have in common are major depressive episodes. This is also true of bipolar disorder, another type of ... Major Depressive Disorder. People who have major depressive disorder have had at least one major depressive episode (five or ...
Positive, negative, and affective symptoms and neurocognitive function as well as plasma levels of large neutral and large and ... Neurobiology of a Mutation in Glycine Metabolism in Psychotic Disorders. Official Title ICMJE Pilot Study of Glycine ... Neurobiology of a Mutation in Glycine Metabolism in Psychotic Disorders. This study has been completed. ... Rare structural variants in schizophrenia: one disorder, multiple mutations; one mutation, multiple disorders. Trends Genet. ...
Affective Disorders, Psychotic. *Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). *Grief Therapy. *Individual Therapy. *Psychotherapy ...
Affective Disorders, Psychotic. *Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence). *Anxiety. *Anxiety Attack. *Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) ... FL specializing in Major Depressive Disorder, Anxiety. ... Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). *Psychological Disorders ...
Depression and cancer risk: a register-based study of patients hospitalized with affective disorders, Denmark, 1969-1993. * ...
Bipolar affective disorder. *Recurrent psychotic depression. *Alcohol and drug abuse within the past 5 years ... the Sustained Attention to Response Task and the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination Visual Reasoning Test ...
Booij, S. H., Snippe, E., Jeronimus, B. F., Wichers, M. & Wigman, J. T. W. 1-Jan-2018 In : Journal of Affective Disorders. 225 ... Affective reactivity to daily life stress: Relationship to positive psychotic and depressive symptoms in a general population ... Moving From Static to Dynamic Models of the Onset of Mental Disorder A Review. Nelson, B., McGorry, P. D., Wichers, M., Wigman ...
Proteomic enrichment analysis of psychotic and affective disorders reveals common signatures in presynaptic glutamatergic ... Proteomic Enrichment Analysis of Psychotic and Affective Disorders Reveals Common Signatures in Presynaptic Glutamatergic ... Proteomic Enrichment Analysis of Psychotic and Affective Disorders Reveals Common Signatures in Presynaptic Glutamatergic ... Proteomic Enrichment Analysis of Psychotic and Affective Disorders Reveals Common Signatures in Presynaptic Glutamatergic ...
Dec 05Migrants at elevated risk for psychotic disorders, but not for non-psychotic bipolar disorder - new PsyLife paper ... Migrants at elevated risk for psychotic disorders, but not for non-psychotic bipolar disorder - new PsyLife paper ... Moving houses and increased risk of non-affective psychotic disorders in children and adolescents. by Ashild Kummen ... We found that longer distances moved predicted a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with a non-affective psychotic disorder ...
... for psychotic disorder overall, 1.25% for schizophrenia, 0.15% for delusional disorder, 0.38% for psychotic disorder not ... for psychotic disorder overall, 1.25% for schizophrenia, 0.15% for delusional disorder, 0.38% for psychotic disorder not ... Article: Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders ... Lifetime Prevalence and Correlates of Schizophrenia-Spectrum, Affective, and Other Non-affective Psychotic Disorders in the ...
  • Fine mapping of a susceptibility locus for bipolar and genetically related unipolar affective disorders, to a region containing the C21ORF29 and TRPM2 genes on chromosome 21q22.3. (medscape.com)
  • The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong. (hku.hk)
  • Using comprehensive diagnostic assessment involving interview and record data, our results indicate that approximately 2.5% of Chinese adult population had lifetime psychotic disorder which represents a major public health concern. (hku.hk)
  • In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) redefined mental disorders in the DSM-5 as "a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, minimal or peculiar speech, lack of drive to act on one's own behalf, bizarre or primitive (socially inappropriate or immature) behavior, a wooden quality to one's emotions, or near-absent emotionality are also typical psychotic symptoms that may occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We demonstrate that, while T. gondii appears to alter the rats' perception of predation risk turning their innate aversion into a 'suicidal' feline attraction, anti-psychotic drugs prove as efficient as anti- T. gondii drugs in preventing such behavioural alterations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Few randomized, placebo-controlled trials have evaluated the comparative efficacy and tolerability of more than one pharmacological agent for panic disorder. (nih.gov)
  • The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine extended release (ER) with placebo in treating panic disorder. (nih.gov)
  • Key secondary outcomes included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) mean score change and response. (nih.gov)
  • Venlafaxine ER 75 mg/days and 225 mg/days and paroxetine 40 mg/day were both well tolerated and effective for short-term treatment of panic disorder. (nih.gov)
  • non-primary source needed] Outcomes for people with DSM-5 diagnosed schizoaffective disorder depend on data from prospective cohort studies, which haven't been completed yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • A population-based cohort of patients with a recently developed psychotic disorder (n=1000), subjects at risk (brothers/sisters, n=1000), parents (n=1000) and healthy volunteers (n=700) is established. (amc.nl)
  • de Jong M, Belleflamme J, Dale C, Gard T, Gamel C, Mischoulon D, Peeters F. Metabolic Syndrome in Dutch Patients With Bipolar Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study. (harvard.edu)