The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Relating to the size of solids.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The motion of air currents.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
The contamination of indoor air.
Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
The act of BREATHING out.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The act of BREATHING in.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (1/2617)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (2/2617)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (3/2617)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/2617)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. (5/2617)

We examined the measurement error in inhaled and exhaled aerosol concentration resulting from the bolus delivery system when small volumes of monodisperse aerosols are inspired to different lung depths. A laser photometer that illuminated approximately 75% of the breathing path cross section recorded low inhaled bolus half-widths (42 ml) and negative deposition values for shallow bolus inhalation when the inhalation path of a 60-ml aerosol was straight and unobstructed. We attributed these results to incomplete mixing of the inhaled aerosol bolus over the breathing path cross section, on the basis of simultaneous recordings of the photometer with a particle-counter sampling from either the center or the edge of the breathing path. Inserting a 90 degrees bend into the inhaled bolus path increased the photometer measurement of inhaled bolus half-width to 57 ml and yielded positive deposition values. Dispersion, which is predominantly affected by exhaled bolus half-width, was not significantly altered by the 90 degrees bend. We conclude that aerosol bolus-delivery systems should ensure adequate mixing of the inhaled bolus to avoid error in measurement of bolus deposition.  (+info)

Structural deficiencies in granuloma formation in TNF gene-targeted mice underlie the heightened susceptibility to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which is not compensated for by lymphotoxin. (6/2617)

TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) may act at various stages of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To dissect the effects of TNF independent of LT alpha, we have used C57BL/6 mice with a disruption of the TNF gene alone (TNF-/-). Twenty-one days following aerosol M. tuberculosis infection there was a marked increase in the number of organisms in the lungs of TNF-/- mice, and by 28-35 days all animals had succumbed, with widespread dissemination of M. tuberculosis. In comparison with the localized granulomas containing activated macrophages and T cells in lungs and livers of C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) mice, cellular infiltrates in TNF-/- mice were poorly formed, with extensive regions of necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration of the alveoli. Phenotypic analysis of lung homogenates demonstrated similar numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in TNF-/- and wt mice, but in TNF-deficient mice the lymphocytes were restricted to perivascular and peribronchial areas rather than colocated with macrophages in granulomas. T cells from TNF-/- mice retained proliferative and cytokine responses to purified protein derivative, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative was demonstrable. Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and levels of serum nitrite were comparable. Thus, the enhanced susceptibility of TNF-/- is not compensated for by the presence of LT alpha, and the critical role of TNF is not in the activation of T cells and macrophages but in the local organization of granulomas.  (+info)

Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. (7/2617)

RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice.  (+info)

Particle deposition in the trachea: in vivo and in hollow casts. (8/2617)

The pattern of deposition within the respiratory tract of potentially harmful particulates is a major factor in assessing any risk from individual and community exposures. Although the trachea is the most easily observed of the conductive airways, very little information concerning its particle collection characteristics is available, information which is essential for a complete and realistic description of particle deposition patterns within the entire respiratory tract. Data on tracheal deposition are also needed for development of accurate predictive models for particle deposition. The pattern of particle deposition in the trachea, and its relation to air flow, was studied in a hollow cast of the human larynx-tracheobronchial tree. Results were compared with data obtained in humans in vivo and from previous studies in hollow casts. In addition, the relevance of tracheal deposition in the hollow cast test system to deposition in vivo was examined by a direct comparison of deposition in a cast prepared from the lungs of donkeys previously studied in a series of in vivo tests. The disturbance of the air flow within the trachea caused by the larynx promoted the deposition of suspended particulates throughout the length of the trachea, and especially in proximal regions. This proximal deposition was due both to direct impaction from the air jet coming from the glottis and to effects of the tubulent flow. Turbulence produced inhomogenous deposition patterns within the trachea for particles of all sizes, although its effect was more pronounced as size decreased. Tracheal deposition in the human cast was within the range of normal in vivo tracheal depostion only when a larynx was used during cast test exposures; this emphasizes the need for the use of realistic experimental test systems for the study of particle deposition patterns. The relative patterns of deposition in casts of the donkey trachea and in the same tracheas in vivo were similar.  (+info)

See Federal Register notice and regulatory docket. This Federal proposal is driven mainly by the large quantities of aerosol cans coming from the retail sector, which are likely to contain much of their original contained material. The comment deadline is May 15, 2018. Currently, four states (CA, CO, NM, and UT) include aerosol cans in their state Universal Waste programs, and two more states (MN and OH) have proposed to do so. This Federal proposal is intended to be consistent with those programs and to be adopted by the other states. As proposed, Federal Universal Waste aerosol cans include all discarded, intact, non-empty hazardous waste aerosol cans, regardless of size, but do not include compressed gas canisters and cylinders and similar containers. While this definition may be clear for aerosol cans from the retail sector (e.g., returned cans that cannot be resold), it is not necessarily clear for empty aerosol cans sent to recycling facilities because of the definitions of discarded ...
There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has been associated with infections and deaths among health-care workers. This Viewpoint of infectious aerosols is intended to inform appropriate infection control measures to protect health-care workers. Studies of cough aerosols and of exhaled breath from patients with various respiratory infections have shown striking similarities in aerosol size distributions, with a predominance of pathogens in small particles (,5 µm). These are immediately respirable, suggesting the need for personal respiratory protection (respirators) for individuals in close proximity to patients with potentially virulent pathogens. There is no evidence that some pathogens are carried only in large droplets. Surgical masks might offer some respiratory protection from inhalation of infectious aerosols, but not as much as respirators. However, surgical masks worn by patients reduce exposures to infectious aerosols to health-care workers and other individuals. The variability of infectious ...
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Aerosol Can is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist Pharrell Williams. Williams co-wrote the song with Major Lazer member Diplo. The song was released as a single on 14 February 2014 and features on Major Lazers 2014 extended play Apocalypse Soon. It became a top 40 single in Australia peaking at #37. It was featured in the soundtrack for the video games NBA 2K15 and Watch Dogs 2. A remix contest was held for the track in April, in which the winner was announced in the end of May. iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer. iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014. Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest :: Beatport Play - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can. ARIA Top 50 Singles. - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can (in Dutch). Ultratip. - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - ...
Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13−800) were collected over a oneyear- period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33-39 %), Aitken (39-49 %) and accumulation mode (18-22 %) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. Performing clustering analysis on hourly size distributions, nine K-means DMPS clusters were identified and, by directional association, diurnal variation and relationship to meteorological and pollution variables, four typical aerosol size distribution scenarios were identified: traffic (69% of the time), dilution (15% of the time), summer background conditions (4% of the time) and regional pollution (12% of the time). According to the results of PMF, vehicle exhausts are estimated to contribute at ...
1. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that dyspnoea could be mediated by unmyelinated vagal sensory nerve endings (type J receptors) situated at alveolar level in the lung.. 2. A modified jet nebulizer was used to generate an aerosol of local anaesthetic in particles small enough to allow alveolar deposition. Lignocaine (2% and 5%) produced aerosols with an arithmetic mean diameter (+sd) of 1.5+0.3 and 1.2+0.6 μm respectively, the mass median diameters being 1.7 (geometric standard deviation = 1.2) and 2.5 (geometric standard deviation = 1.7) μm respectively.. 3. In experimental animal models a vagally mediated tachypnoea may be induced acutely by pulmonary microembolism. This response is known to be mediated by unmyelinated pulmonary afferent nerves in the vagus. Local anaesthetic agents administered as small particles, but not as large particles, obtunded this response, which suggests that the aerosol was capable of penetration to alveolar level.. 4. Upon this background, a ...
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OBJECTIVE: In the era of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infectious airborne aerosol generation during otolaryngologic procedures has been an area of increasing concern. The objective of this investigation was to quantify airborne aerosol production under clinical and surgical conditions and examine efficacy of mask mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quantification of airborne aerosol generation during surgical and clinical simulation. SETTING: Cadaver laboratory and clinical examination room. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Airborne aerosol quantification with an optical particle sizer was performed in real time during cadaveric simulated endoscopic surgical conditions, including hand instrumentation, microdebrider use, high-speed drilling, and cautery. Aerosol sampling was additionally performed in simulated clinical and diagnostic settings. All clinical and surgical procedures were evaluated for propensity for significant airborne aerosol generation. RESULTS: Hand instrumentation and ...
According to the subject invention, dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based compositions are provided, including methods for their manufacture and dry powder dispersion devices. A dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based composition is one having a moisture content of less than about 10% by weight (% w) water, usually below about 5% w and preferably less than about 3% w; a particle size of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median diameter (MMD), usually 1.0-4.0 μm MMD, and preferably 1.0-3.0 μm MMD; a delivered dose of about |30%, usually |40%, preferably |50%, and most preferred |60%; and an aerosol particle size distribution of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), usually 1.5-4.5 μm MMAD, and preferably 1.5-4.0 MMAD. Such composition are of pharmaceutical grade purity.
A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
Urban environments influence precipitation formation via response to dynamic effects, while aerosols are intrinsically necessary for rainfall formation; however, the partial contributions of each on urban coastal precipitation are not yet known.Here, the authors use aerosol particle size distributions derived from the NASA aerosol robotic network (AERONET) to estimate submicron cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and supermicron CCN (GCCN) for ingestion in the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS). High resolution land data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were assimilated into RAMS to provide modern land cover and land use (LCLU).Thefirst two of eight total simulationswere month long runs for July 2007, one with constant PSDvalues and the second with AERONET PSDs updated at times consistent with observations. The third and fourth runs mirrored the first two simulations for
How is Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor abbreviated? VAIM stands for Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor. VAIM is defined as Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor very rarely.
Development of an aerosol mass spectrometer for size and composition analysis of submicron particles, J.T. Jayne, D.C. Leard, X. Zhang, P. Davidovits, K.A. Smith, C.E. Kolb, and D.R. Worsnop, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33, 49-70, 2000.. Ambient Aerosol Sampling with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, J. L. Jimenez, J. T. Jayne, Q. Shi, C.E. Kolb, D.R. Worsnop, I. Yourshaw, J.H. Seinfeld, R.C. Flagan, X. Zhang, K.A. Smith, J. Morris, and P. Davidovits, J. Geophys. Res. - Atmospheres, 108, (D7), 8425, doi:10.1029/2001JD001213, 2003.. A new Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) - Instrument Description and First Field Deployment, F. Drewnick, S.S. Hings, P.F. DeCarlo, J.T. Jayne, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, S. Weimer, J.L. Jimenez, K.L. Demerjian, S. Borrmann, D.R. Worsnop. Aer. Sci. Technol., 39, 637-658, 2005.. A Field-Deployable High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, P. F. DeCarlo, J.R. Kimmel, A. Trimborn, M.J. Northway, J.T. Jayne, A.C. Aiken, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, T. Horvath, ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles are linked to visibility reduction and adverse health effects, and radiation balance of the Earth- directly by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by influencing the cloud properties and processes and, possibly, by changing the heterogeneous chemistry of reactive gaseous species. Atmospheric aerosols are the most uncertain driver of global climate change. The South‒Asian region has been increasingly recognized as one of the global hotspots of aerosols; and Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) is one among them with complex geography, heterogeneity in sources and varying atmospheric dynamics. These factors make IGPs aerosol and pollution very difficult to characterize. So far, long-term regional observations of aerosol properties have been scarce in this region, but argued necessary in order to bring the knowledge of regional and global distribution of aerosols further. In this context, regional studies of aerosol properties their dynamics and ...
Just like any other metal container, aluminum and steel aerosol cans are recyclable. For the last decade, Ball worked with customers and other partners (such as the Consumer Aerosol Products Council in the U.S. or the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association in the United Kingdom) to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans. While challenges remain with accurate data on recycling rates and consumer access to recycling, we have made significant progress. For example, the U.K.s consumer education program MetalMatters, which Ball developed and supports, was instrumental in doubling the number of local authorities that accept aerosols in their recycling schemes from 2011 to 2015 and achieves a 96 percent acceptance rate. Also, a 2016 study on access to recycling in the U.S. showed that recycling availability for aluminum aerosol stands at 72 percent and steel aerosol containers at 69 percent, making aerosol cans a widely recyclable container in the U.S. ...
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The distribution of nano/micron inorganic main ions in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer-autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges D(p) LT = 0.49 mu m, 0.49 LT = D(p) LT = 0.95 mu m, 0.95 LT = D(p) LT = 1.5 mu m, 1.5 LT = D(p) LT = 3.0 mu m, 3.0 LT = D(p) LT = 7.2 mu m and D(p) ,= 7.2 mu m was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (m(GM)) and, analyzed by ion chromatography for Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-). The mean random uncertainties associated with the determinations of Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) were assessed. The absolute highest concentration is found for SO(4)(2-) (1555.8 +/- 97...3.6 ng m(-3)) in ...
ABSTRACTDuring the World Exposition 2010, which ran from May to October, emission control measures were implemented in Shanghai and surrounding areas to improve the air quality. This study evaluated the effects of regional transport on aerosol characteristics under these controlled local emission conditions using a month’s worth of observations of the aerosol number size distributions (10 nm–10 μm) and the chemical compositions of the aerosols. Back-trajectories and a Lagrangian dispersion model were combined to analyze the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution and the related mechanisms. Two classes of aerosols were identified and compared. Class I was a clear air condition with ocean-oriented air masses. Particle counts in this class were dominated by particles in the size range 20–40 nm, and NH4+ was mainly present in the form of (NH4)2SO4. A strong peak at noontime indicated that the particle formation or growth process was promoted by the photochemical
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025, the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
This thesis presents a new technique to identify a 2D mask showing the extent of particulate aerosol distributions in satellite imagery. This technique uses a supervised texture classication approach, and utilises data from two distinct satellite sources. The vertical feature mask (VFM) product from the CALIPSO lidar, provides an accurate description of the aerosol content of the atmosphere but has a limited footprint and coverage. The CALIPSO VFM is used to provide training data in order to for classiers to be applied to other imagery, namely data from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) on the MSG satellite. The output from the classication is a 2D mask representing the locations of the particulate aerosol of interest within the SEVIRI image. This approach has been demonstrated on test cases over land and ocean, and shows a good agreement with other techniques for the detection of particulate aerosol. However, the supervised texture approach provides outputs at a higher ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles play a critical role in Earths radiation budget, act to limit visibility through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and represent a significant respiratory health hazard in urban environments. However, the existing network of aerosol particle measurements is significantly sparse, and unable to capture the strong heterogeneity in particles that exists in urban locations. In addition, current 24-hour air quality standards of particulate matter are based solely on the total mass of particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm, and do not account for variations in particle size or total number. As a result, air quality assessments and local and regional modeling efforts are: 1) limited by a paucity of data, and 2) unconstrained by routine observations of particle number and size, which are both critical metrics for assessing the impact of aerosol particles on visibility and human health.. ...
This service provides low vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm10 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Mace Head, Ireland (20120610 - 20130209). The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database ( ...
This service provides high vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm2p5 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Schauinsland, Germany (20131231 - 20161231). The observations contain level 2 data. The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database ( ...
A new IITRI poster presented at the recent ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases 2016 meeting is now available. In this poster, Winston Lin and colleagues describe the development of an aerosol model of infection for _B anthracis_ in rabbits using a modified 64-port inhalation nose-only exposure chamber with nebulizers. This platform produced consistent spray factors across concentrations. And, with capability for up to 8 rabbits, the platform potentially reduces variability in aerosol concentration delivery and minimizes the number of runs needed for a therapeutic or vaccine study.
The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol ...
Aerosol particles have important effects on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related activities, and organic compounds are known to constitute a significant fraction of ambient aerosol mass in many locations. Yet, large uncertainties remain in quantifying the chemical composition and atmospheric transformations of these aerosols, especially with respect to organic particulate matter. Particularly lacking are real-time, size-resolved, quantitative instruments for the identification, speciation, and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols. An innovative thermal desorption, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer recently has been developed with capabilities that can fill a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition data on aerosol particles. This project will develop and demonstrate a light scattering module for this instrument, which will enable full characterization of ...
The present invention relates to an aerosol formulation containing: a) a liquefied propellant gas or propellant gas mixture from the group of alternative propellant gases which contain no chlorine atoms which can be split off; b) a non-ionic surfactant from the group of monoacetylated or diacetylated monoglycerides of the MYVACET series; c) a pharmaceutical agent or a combination of agents and, if necessary, d) other conventional pharmaceutical ancillary substances which are suitable for aerosol formulations. The aerosol formulation can be used, in particular, in inhalation therapy for the treatment of diseases of the upper airways such as asthma or rhinitis.
Author(s): Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W | Abstract: Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also
Publication: McMurry, P. H., H. Takano and G. R. Anderson, 1983, A Study of the Ammonia (Gas)-Sulfuric Acid (Aerosol) Reaction Rate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 17:347-351. Mozurkewich, M., P.H. McMurry, A. Gupta, and J.G. Calvert, 1987, Measurements of HO2 Mass Accommodation Coefficients on Moist Aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 92:4163-4170. Tao, Ye and P.H. McMurry, 1989, Vapor Pressures and Surface Free Energies of C14-C18 Monocarboxylic Acids and C5 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23:1519-1523 Kelly, W.P. and P.H. McMurry, 1992,Measurement of Particle Density by Inertial Classification of DMA-generated Monodisperse Aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 17: 199-121. Gupta, A., D. Tang, and P.H. McMurry, 1995 Growth of Monodisperse, Submicron Aerosol Particles Exposed to SO2, H2O2, and NH3, J. Atmospheric Chemistry, 20:117-139. Ziemann, P. J. and P. H. McMurry, 1998, Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles, Aerosol ...
US EPA - Label Review Manual - Chapter 9: Physical or ...- aerosol can insecticide mexico pdf free ,Sep 09, 2012·Flashback occurs when the flame is drawn back toward the aerosol can by the stream of propellant. This would indicate an extremely flammable product. The products flash point is shown on the Confidential Statement of Formula (CSF) and should be expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and the equivalent in degrees Celsius (°C).Dy-Mark Line Marking All Colours AerosolP211 Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source. P251 Pressurized container: Do not pierce or burn, even after use. P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. P261 Avoid breathing mist/vapours/spray. P273 Avoid release to the environment. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aerosol-induced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E unresponsiveness to ovalbumin does not require CD8+ or T cell receptor (TCR)-γ/δ+ T cells or interferon (IFN)-γ in a murine model of allergen sensitization. AU - Seymour, Brian W P. AU - Gershwin, Laurel J. AU - Coffman, Robert L.. PY - 1998/3/2. Y1 - 1998/3/2. N2 - Mice expressed for 20 min daily to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) for 10 d at concentrations from 1 to 0.01% OVA made greatly reduced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E responses to subsequent immunogenic OVA challenges, given either intraperitoneally or aerosol. This IgE-specific unresponsiveness lasted for at least four months. However, these aerosol-treated mice were primed for larger OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses. The specific reduction in IgE responses was not due to preferential induction of a T helper (Th)-1 response as aerosol OVA-primed mice made greatly reduced Th2 and no detectable Th1 response after rechallenge in vitro. Consistent with this, the increase in circulating ...
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Aerosol paint and cleaning products can certainly make at-home projects easier to deal with, but these products are often highly flammable and can create unexpected hazards around your home.
As material costs continue to rise, companies need to reduce operating costs while maintaining high quality standards. To ensure that every aerosol can produced is within specifications, it is important to use accurate and repeatable measurement instruments that can monitor the product quality, locate any potential problems, record the measurement data and predict future trends.. Analog-based testers are no longer sufficient in todays competitive environment. These gauges wont tell you which side of the can buckled first, and they cant monitor all three pressure points in one run (the two buckling pressures and the burst pressure). If you want to record and analyze the data, you need to write down each measurement and enter the data manually in to an SPC program.. Quality By Visions new Aerosol Buckle & Burst Tester is an accurate, user friendly and affordable system that automatically measures, analyzes and records all pressure points on any size aerosol can. The system displays the ...
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More realistic device testing in the lab can save valuable time on clinical trials. A research team at Virginia Commonwealth University s School of Pharmacy led by Peter Byron and Michael Hindle is using realistic mouth, throat, and airway models, coupled with the realistic breathing profiles of the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator to investigate the relationship between in vitro experimental aerosol drug deposition and in vivo drug deposition behavior in patients. Read the full story.. ...
Earths radiation budget is affected by new particle formation (NPF) and the growth of these nanometre-scale particles to larger sizes where they can directly scatter light or act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of nucleation (less than 10 nm diameter) and Aitken (10- 60 nm diameter) mode particles. Acquiring size-distribution measurements of these particles over large regions of the free troposphere is most easily accomplished with research aircraft.. We report on the design and performance of an airborne instrument, the nucleation mode aerosol size spectrometer (NMASS), which provides size-selected aerosol concentration measurements that can be differenced to identify aerosol properties and processes or inverted to obtain a full size distribution between 3 and 60 nm. By maintaining constant downstream pressure the instrument operates reliably over a large range of ambient pressures and during rapid changes in ...
Boy with aerosol inhaler. Male child demonstrating the correct use of an inhaler device. The pressurised aerosol inhaler is as effective and convenient method of giving a bronchodilator for mild to moderate asthma. The drug is delivered to the lungs, where it widens the airways. The technique is to inhale slowly and hold the breath for 10 seconds before breathing out. A good seal must be made around the nozzle with the lips. The patient needs to be well co-ordinated and compliant. The device is not suitable for achildren under the age of eighteen months. - Stock Image M109/0029
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR ( The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol particles are produced from natural and anthropogenic sources, through a variety of different process that include; wind-blown suspension, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. Due to this complexity the instrumentation used to analysis these particles must have the ability to separate based on size and in real-time provide information on their chemical composition. To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability ...
Abstract. This study evaluates the potential of using aerosol optical depth (τa) measurements to characterise the microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. With this aim, we used the recently developed GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) code for numerical testing of six different aerosol models with different aerosol loads. The direct numerical simulations (self-consistency tests) indicate that the GRASP-AOD retrieval provides modal aerosol optical depths (fine and coarse) to within 0.01 of the input values. The retrieval of the fine-mode radius, width and volume concentration are stable and precise if the real part of the refractive index is known. The coarse-mode properties are less accurate, but they are significantly improved when additional a priori information is available. The tests with random simulated errors show that the uncertainty in the bimodal log-normal size distribution parameters increases as the aerosol load decreases. ...
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Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources from pollution, dust, and biomass burning. The 8-year, global averaged total aerosol optical depth (τ ), absorption optical depth (τa ), and single scattering albedo (ω) at 550 nm are estimated at 0.14, 0.0086, and 0.95, respectively, with sulfate making the largest fraction of τ (37%), followed by dust (30%), sea salt (16%), organic matter (OM) (13%), and black carbon (BC) (4%). BC and dust account for 43% and 53% of τa , respectively. From a model experiment with tagged sources, natural aerosols are estimated to be 58% of τ and 53% of τa , with pollution and biomass burning aerosols to share the rest. Comparing with data from the surface sunphotometer network AERONET, the model tends to reproduce much better the AERONET direct measured data of τ and the Angström exponent ...
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Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particle matter (PM) with significant effects on the global radiation budget and on human health. The soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) has been developed and deployed for real-time ambient measurements of refractory carbon particles. In the SP-AMS, black carbon or metallic particles are vaporized through absorption of 1064 nm light from a CW Nd:YAG laser. This scheme allows for continuous soft vaporization of both core and coating materials. The main focus of this work is to characterize the extent to which this vaporization scheme provides enhanced chemical composition information about aerosol particles. This information is difficult to extract from standard SP-AMS mass spectra because they are complicated by extensive fragmentation from the harsh 70 eV EI ionization scheme that is typically used in these instruments. Thus, in this work synchotron-generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light in the 8-14 eV range is ...
Theme: Basic processes. Start date: Cohort 1: 2019. Supervisors: Dr Bryan Bzdek (Bristol) and Dr Matthew Watson (Bristol). The surface tension of atmospheric aerosols impacts their ability to serve as cloud droplet seeds and affect climate. This project will develop approaches to measure droplet surface tensions and better resolve dynamics at the particle surface, working closely with modellers.. Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by direct scattering or absorption of solar radiation and indirectly, by serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and forming cloud droplets. Atmospheric aerosols provide the largest negative radiative forcing, whilst remaining as the contribution with the largest uncertainty. The surface properties of atmospheric aerosol are crucial due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, whilst determining the fraction of atmospheric aerosol that may form cloud droplets. Most climate models still assume that activating CCN have a surface tension equivalent to pure ...
Abstract. Carbon cycling in the Amazon is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity, were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance, f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) ...
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|p|The LPS 01820 is a solvent degreaser with a container type of aerosol can.|/p||b|The LPS 01820 Features: |/b||br||ul||li|Heavy-duty solvent|/li||li|Instant degreasing action|/li||li|Quickly removes grease and oil|/li||li|Power blast spray|/li||li|Fast evaporating|/li||li|Safe to use on most surfaces|/li||li|Ideal for cleaning metals and most plastics|/li||li|No residue|/li||li|Non-chlorinated|/li||li|NEW-Environmentally friendly aerosol can contains greater than 50% recycled steel|br||/ul||b|The LPS 01820 Specifications: |/b||br||ul||li| Brand: EFX®|li| Product Type: Degreaser|li| Color: Colorless|li| Primary Color: Clear|li| Physical Form: Liquid|li| Container Size: 15oz|li| Container Type: Aerosol Can|li| Chemical Composition: Heptane, Acetone, Isopropanol, Carbon Dioxide|li| Material Compatibility: Metal Plastic|li| Odor: Characteristic|li| Solubility (Yes/No): Yes|li| Removes: Grease Oil|li| Flash Point: 21.2°F|li| Specific Gravity: 0.65 to 0.68|li| Viscosity: |3cSt|li| VOCs Content: 100%|li|
Hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols is essential to understand effect of aerosols on cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which leads to climate change with cloud albedo effect. Also, hygroscopic property of particles is important to determine their transport behaviors and fates in the ambient atmosphere and to understnd their deposition pattern in the human respiratory system when they were inhaled. This book describes a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system in details to measure hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols in real time by measuring particle size change at an increased relative humidity. (Imprint: Novinka). ...
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An optimization algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water cloud properties including cloud optical depth (COD), droplet size distribution and cloud top height (CTH), and above-cloud aerosol properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo, and microphysical properties from sweep-mode observations by Jet Propulsion Laboratorys Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) instrument. The retrieval is composed of three major steps: (1) initial estimate of the mean droplet size distribution across the entire image of 80-100 km along track by 10-25 km across track from polarimetric cloudbow observations, (2) coupled retrieval of image-scale cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties by fitting the polarimetric data at all observation angles, and (3) iterative retrieval of 1-D radiative transfer-based COD and droplet size distribution at pixel scale (25 m) by establishing relationships between COD and droplet size and fitting the total radiance measurements. ...
1 Aerosol Can of Matched Honda Cloud Silver PPG DBC Paint. This is a 2-stage paint and will require clear over the top. This particular color was used on many of the Honda SL Motorsport series bikes and also on the CT70 and Z50 Wheels. Also used on early Honda Scrambler Fenders and Tanks. Over the years, I have matched many of the original colors from Vintage Motorcycles and I have the process to put a high quality automotive grade paint into an aerosol can. Many of these colors are true Candy and will require a base color as the Candy Dye is Semi-Transparent and uses the base color to create the effect. This is exactly the same paint products that we utilize in our paint shop. I create the cans of paint upon order and if you order by end of day on Friday I ship the following week. This ensures that the paint is fresh and ready to shoot.. Unfortunately I have no way to ship paint supplies out of the country. It is illegal to ship them with the USPS.. DISCLAIMER: I have bought many NOS parts ...
Eighteen children suffering from hay fever were treated with intra-nasal beclomethasone dipropionate (400 mug/day) and an identical placebo aerosol in a double-blind cross-over trial. 17 of the children preferred the intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate, one had no preference, none preferred the placebo. The effect on the nasal symptoms was impressive. Symptom scores decreased, on average, to 12% and the number of antihistamine tablets taken to 18% of the pretreatment amount. Some beneficial effect on eye symptoms was also discernible, possibly due to an indirect influence from the nasal mucosa via the nasolacrimal reflex. Adrenal function was not affected. It was concluded that 400 mug beclomethasone dipropionate given intranasally daily for some weeks is an effective and safe treatment for hay fever in children.. ...
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Nano particles have been sized based on their electrical mobility. This is not efficient because most of the nano particles are electrically neutral. Measuring the particle size distribution typically consist of detecting size selected particles with an aerosol particle detector such as Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). This is also the working principle of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The particles are first neutralized to a known charge distribution, then they are selected according to their electrical mobility after which they are counted with a CPC. From the electrical mobility one can calculate so called mobility diameter of the particle.. Measuring the sub 5 nm particle size distribution is really challenging. In the resent years the CPC technology has been developed really intensively and thus the detection of particles as small as 1 nm in diameter is now possible (Iida et al. 2009, Vanhanen et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2011). The most challenging part of the size distributions ...
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0054] The following parameters of the particles emitted by a pressurized MDI may be determined: [0055] i) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) is the diameter around which the mass aerodynamic diameters of the emitted particles are distributed equally; [0056] ii) delivered dose is calculated from the cumulative deposition in the ACI, divided by the number of actuations per experiment; [0057] iii) respirable dose (fine particle dose=FPD) is obtained from the deposition from Stages 3 (S3) to filter (AF) of the ACI, corresponding to particles of diameter ≦4.7 microns, divided by the number of actuations per experiment; [0058] iv) respirable fraction (fine particle fraction=FPF) which is the percent ratio between the respirable dose and the delivered dose; and [0059] v) superfine dose is obtained from the deposition from Stages 6 (S6) to filter, corresponding to particles of diameter 1.1 microns, divided by the number of actuations per experiment ...
In the context of the international experimental campaign Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD, 15 May to 22 June 2014), dry aerosol size distributions were measured at Demokritos station (DEM) using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) in the size range from 10 to 550 nm (electrical mobility diameter), and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC model Grimm 107 operating at the laser wavelength of 660 nm) to acquire the particle size distribution in the size range of 250 nm to 2.5 μm optical diameter. This work describes a method that was developed to align size distributions in the overlapping range of the SMPS and the OPC, thus allowing us to retrieve the real part of the aerosol equivalent refractive index (ERI). The objective is to show that size distribution data acquired at in situ measurement stations can provide an insight to the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles, leading to better understanding of aerosol impact on human health and earth radiative balance. The
VERMA, S.; BOUCHER, O.; UPADHYAYA, H. C. and SHARMA, O. P.. Variations in sulphate aerosols concentration during winter monsoon season for two consecutive years using a general circulation model. Atmósfera [online]. 2013, vol.26, n.3, pp.359-367. ISSN 0187-6236.. During the field cruises of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) extensive measurements on the atmospheric chemical and aerosol composition are undertaken to study the long-range transport of air pollution from south and southeast Asia towards the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in 1998 and 1999. The present paper discusses the temporal and spatial variations in aerosols and aerosol forcing during the winter monsoon season (January-March) for INDOEX first field phase (FFP) in 1998 and INDOEX intensive field phase (IFP) in 1999. An interactive chemistry/aerosol model (LMDZ.3.3) is used to investigate the variation in the spatial distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosols during 1998 and 1999. The model results depict ...
Aitken, J.: XVI - The Sun as a Fog Producer, P. R. Soc. Edin., 32, 183-215,, 1912. Cai, R. and Jiang, J.: A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659-12675,, 2017. Cai, R., Chen, D.-R., Hao, J., and Jiang, J.: A miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer for sub-3 nm particle sizing, J. Aerosol Sci., 106, 111-119,, 2017a. Cai, R., Yang, D., Fu, Y., Wang, X., Li, X., Ma, Y., Hao, J., Zheng, J., and Jiang, J.: Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327-12340,, 2017b. Chandra, I., Kim, S., Seto, T., Otani, Y., Takami, A., Yoshino, A., Irei, S., Park, K., Takamura, T., Kaneyasu, N., and Hatakeyama, S.: New particle formation under the ...
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Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We
AZT prolongs survival in patients with AIDS and decreases the occurrence of opportunistic infections such as PCP. However, PCP recurs in about 43 percent of patients receiving AZT, indicating a need for other treatments to reduce the relapse rate.. The two medications to be tested in this study, SMX/TMP and aerosolized PEN, have also been partially effective in preventing recurrence of PCP. It is hoped that the combination of AZT with these medications will be more effective than AZT or one of the medications alone.. Patients receive the standard dose of AZT at study entry. Low body weight patients receive AZT at a lower dose. Patients are randomly assigned to one of two medications intended to prevent the recurrence of PCP. Patients assigned to SMX/TMP will take 1 capsule which contains both drugs once a day for 1 year. Patients assigned to PEN will have 1 aerosol treatment every 4 weeks for 1 year. Blood will be drawn at intervals in order to estimate blood levels of the drugs and to detect ...
AZT prolongs survival in patients with AIDS and decreases the occurrence of opportunistic infections such as PCP. However, PCP recurs in about 43 percent of patients receiving AZT, indicating a need for other treatments to reduce the relapse rate.. The two medications to be tested in this study, SMX/TMP and aerosolized PEN, have also been partially effective in preventing recurrence of PCP. It is hoped that the combination of AZT with these medications will be more effective than AZT or one of the medications alone.. Patients receive the standard dose of AZT at study entry. Low body weight patients receive AZT at a lower dose. Patients are randomly assigned to one of two medications intended to prevent the recurrence of PCP. Patients assigned to SMX/TMP will take 1 capsule which contains both drugs once a day for 1 year. Patients assigned to PEN will have 1 aerosol treatment every 4 weeks for 1 year. Blood will be drawn at intervals in order to estimate blood levels of the drugs and to detect ...
An in-line heater for an aerosol delivery system has an elongated tubular electrically insulated plastic body having first and second ends coaxially aligned along the major axis of the tubular body. The first and second ends contain an aerosol inlet and outlet, respectively. The plastic body has an unrestricted flow passage therein from the first to the second end and a self supporting electrically conductive spiral mesh heating element loosely fills the flow passageway within the body. The mesh heating element has a very low mass so as to be almost instantaneously responsive and extends across the space between the side walls of the flow passage to maximize the surface area thereof exposed to the aerosol mixture flowing through the passage. First and second terminals are adjacent the first and second housing ends, respectively, and are connected to the ends of the spiral mesh heating elements by a pair of crimped connector plates. Each terminal is disposed in a terminal housing having an internally
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Solid oxide fuel cells need a diffusion barrier layer to protect the zirconia-based electrolyte if a cobalt-containing cathode material like lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) is used. This protective layer must prevent the direct contact and interdiffusion of both components while still retaining the oxygen ion transport. Gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) meets these requirements. However, for a favorable cell performance, oxide ion conducting films that are thin yet dense are required. Films with a thickness in the sub-micrometer to micrometer range were produced by the dry room temperature spray-coating technique, aerosol deposition. Since commercially available GDC powders are usually optimized for the sintering of screen printed films or pressed bulk samples, their particle morphology is nanocrystalline with a high surface area that is not suitable for aerosol deposition. Therefore, different thermal and mechanical powder pretreatment procedures were investigated and linked to the ...
Ocean color remote sensing is an important tool to monitor water quality and biogeochemical conditions of ocean. Atmospheric correction, which obtains water-leaving radiance from the total radiance measured by satellite-borne or airborne sensors, remains a challenging task for coastal waters due to the complex optical properties of aerosols and ocean waters. In this paper, we report a research algorithm on aerosol and ocean color retrieval with emphasis on coastal waters, which uses coupled atmosphere and ocean radiative transfer model to fit polarized radiance measurements at multiple viewing angles and multiple wavelengths. Ocean optical properties are characterized by a generalized bio-optical model with direct accounting for the absorption and scattering of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles (NAP). Our retrieval algorithm can accurately determine the water-leaving radiance and aerosol properties for coastal waters, and may be used to improve the ...
Aerosol particles strongly influence global climate by modifying the properties of clouds. An accurate assessment of the aerosol impact on climate requires knowledge of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), a subset of aerosol particles that can activate and form cloud droplets in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particles typically consist of a myriad of organic species, which frequently dominate the particle composition. As a result, CCN concentration is often a strong function of the hygroscopicity of organics in the particles. Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases nearly linearly with oxidation level. Such an increase in hygroscopicity is conventionally attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for the majority of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, for droplet activation, the ...
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The TSI AeroTrak® Remote Particle Counter Model 7301 offers the most features and flexibility out of any remote particle counter on the market today. Integration is easy using either Ethernet (TCP/IP) or Serial Modbus RTU communications. The instrument can be powered over its Ethernet connection (Power-over-Ethernet) to simplify installation, or via a local power supply. Configuration can be done locally with a PC or via a web browser.. This particle counter can also store up to 3,000 sample records providing data redundancy. The instrument reports up to 4 particle sizes simultaneously and other key information such as laser current, background light level, date of last calibration, serial number, and date of manufacture for easy warranty management.. Digital calibration allows for consistency when managing a large number of instruments. With the optional Temp/RH sensor, users can save cabling and powering a separate sensor into a monitoring or building automation system. The AeroTrak Remote ...
Data & statistics on Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels: Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels., Particle size distribution (PSD) for different fuels at 7.0 MPa (a) and 10.2 MPa (b) injection pressure. Averaged over run times and time span when particle is detectable., Relative effects of a thermodenuder and different temperature conditions on the size-number 12 distribution (ELPI - greased sintered plates - sample from the CVS - secondary dilution ( x 10 ) with N2) of Diesel exhaust particles as measured over an hot NEDC test cycle ( Euro 3 - Common Rail Turbocharged Diesel car - Fuel : 270 ppm S ). The total particle numbers are drastically affected by the 13 presence ......
The most versatile of TSI Particle Counters, AeroTrak® Portable Particle Counters are designed to save time and money. They provide real-time cleanroom particle counting in an easy-to-use, reliable instrument. Built-in global regulatory guidance and international standards, such as ISO-14644-1, EU GMP Annex 1, and FS209E, make cleanroom classification testing simple.. All TSI AeroTrak Portable Particle Counters include:. ...
Aerosolization of mist from metalworking fluids (MWFs) has been well characterized in previous studies. Much less is known about the aerosolization of microorganisms, although airborne microbial exposures at MWF sites have been associated with occupational respiratory symptoms and diseases. In this study, the effects of fluid type, microorganism concentration in the liquid, and the microbial species on the aerosolization of microorganisms from MWFs were tested. Three microorganisms were employed to represent different size and surface characteristics:Bacillus subtilisbacterial endospores (hydrophobic particles with aerodynamic diameter=0.9ìm),Pseudomonas fluorescensbacterial vegetative cells (hydrophilic, 0.8ìm), andPenicillium meliniifungal spores (hydrophobic, 3.1ìm). The testing was first performed using a Collison nebulizer to aerosolize microorganisms from three fluids: water, semisynthetic MWF, and soluble oil. No significant difference in the aerosolization ratio (microbial ...
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Stop squeaks, remove adhesives, loosen rust and do so much more with this multipurpose lubricant. Permanently attached Smart Straw® enables you to protect, clean and lubricate thousands of items without losing the straw. Multi-action nozzle delivers either a precision stream or regular spray. Application: Gears; Hinges; Moving Parts; Sliding Doors; Tools; Applicable Material: Glass; Metal; Plastic; Rubber; Wood; Capacity (Volume): 12 oz; Packing Type: Aerosol Can.
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Aerosols scatter light, which affects the appearance of the sky and of sunsets. Changing the concentration of aerosols in the ... However, they are mostly talking about tropospheric aerosol. The aerosols have a role in the destruction of ozone due to ... showing that it is a major atmospheric aerosol absorber. Aerosols, natural and anthropogenic, can affect the climate by ... dominates the production of stratospheric sulfur aerosol. The chemistry of stratospheric sulfur aerosols varies significantly ...
... is a key property used to characterise aerosols. Aerosols vary in their dispersity. A monodisperse aerosol, producible in the ... Aerosol is defined as a suspension system of solid or liquid particles in a gas. An aerosol includes both the particles and the ... An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or ... Aerosols interact with the Earth's energy budget in two ways, directly and indirectly. E.g., a direct effect is that aerosols ...
The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) is an instrument currently in development to support an investigation aimed at ... "Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols". NASA JPL. Retrieved 6 August 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is ... The MAIA instrument measures the radiance and polarization of sunlight scattered by atmospheric aerosols, from which the ... to Launch NASA's Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols Mission". General Atomics (Press release). 18 February 2021. Retrieved 18 ...
An aerosol burn is an injury to the body caused by the pressurized gas within an aerosol spray cooling quickly, with the sudden ... In rarer cases aerosol burns are reported to have been caused by air fresheners and other compressed aerosol canisters ... Some aerosol burns are intentionally self-inflicted, the reasons being emotional/psychological. Household aerosol products such ... List of cutaneous conditions Deodorant Aerosol spray Freeze spray Frostbite Burn "Brrrr! Aerosol sprays are a silly way to get ...
A dental aerosol is an aerosol that is produced from dental instrument, dental handpieces, three-way syringes, and other high- ... These aerosols may remain suspended in the clinical environment. Dental aerosols can pose risks to the clinician, staff, and ... SARS-CoV-2 remains stable in aerosols for several hours. The virus is viable for hours in aerosols and for few days on surfaces ... Dental aerosols contain a wide range of particles with the majority being less than 50 µm. The smaller particles with size ...
Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can". ARIA Top 50 Singles. "Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can" (in Dutch). Ultratip ... "Aerosol Can" is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist ... "iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer". iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014 ... Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest Archived 2014-11-09 at the Wayback Machine :: Beatport Play " ...
In the physics of aerosols, aerosol impaction is the process in which particles are removed from an air stream by forcing the ... Deposition (aerosol physics) Cascade impactor Inertial Impaction, Size and Time Archived April 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ... The most clear and important advantage of impaction, as opposed to filtration, is that two key aerosol parameters, size and ...
The United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) is a community Chemistry-Aerosol-Climate model which are research runs of the ... United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) Model UKCA: A community chemistry-climate model (Cambridge) UKCA Wiki v t e (Air ...
Aerosol Science and Technology. 48: i-iv. doi:10.1080/02786826.2013.877121. (Aerosols, Aerosol measurement). ... Aerodynamic Aerosol Classifier (AAC) is a measurement technique for classifying aerosol particles according to their ... "Generation of a Monodisperse Size-Classified Aerosol Independent of Particle Charge". ...
Electrical aerosol spectrometry (EAS) is a technique for measurement of the number-size distribution of aerosol using a ... 1998). "Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University". Journal of Aerosol Science. 29: S427-S428. Bibcode:1998JAerS..29S ... The technique is particularly appropriate for situations where aerosol concentrations are changing on a timescale of 1 s or ... 2002). "Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University". Atmospheric Research. 62 (3-4): 315-324. Bibcode:2002AtmRe..62.. ...
An aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) is a medical or health-care procedure that a public health agency such as the World ... The AGPs studied generate less aerosols than a cough or even just breathing, so some AGPs may not increase the risk from ... Tran K, Cimon K, Severn M, Pessoa-Silva CL, Conly J (April 2012). "Aerosol generating procedures and risk of transmission of ... The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted research to measure the aerosols produced by patients during some AGPs including tracheal ...
... has also found its way into the field of pharmaceutical aerosol analysis, due to its ability to ... Aerosol science and measurements field, especially aerosol mass spectrometry has grown a lot over the last couple decades. Its ... Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to the analysis of the composition of aerosol particles. ... the single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), and laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer ( ...
Within aerosol computer models aerosols and cloud droplets are mostly treated separately so that nucleation represents a loss ... In the physics of aerosols, deposition is the process by which aerosol particles collect or deposit themselves on solid ... This is where aerosol particles get into cloud droplets or cloud ice crystals through working as cloud nuclei, or being ... Condensation in aerosol dynamics Particle collection in wet scrubbers Van der Waals force Seinfeld, John; Spyros Pandis (2006 ...
Certain efficacy issues are specific to stratospheric aerosols. Lifespan of aerosols: Tropospheric sulfur aerosols are short- ... Aerosol delivery: There are two proposals for how to create a stratospheric sulfate aerosol cloud, either through the release ... Primary aerosol formation, also known as homogeneous aerosol formation, results when gaseous SO 2 combines with oxygen and ... Secondary or heterogeneous aerosol formation occurs when H2SO4 vapor condenses onto existing aerosol particles. Existing ...
Measurement of the aggregate charge of aerosol particles using a filter/electrometer. The CAD like other aerosol detectors, can ... Corona Veo Charged Aerosol Detector and Corona Veo RS Charged Aerosol Detector and Thermo Scientific Vanquish Charged Aerosol ... The Charged Aerosol Detector (CAD) is a detector used in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ... Aerosol conditioning to remove large droplets. Evaporation of solvent from the droplets to form dried particles. Particle ...
In contrast to primary organic aerosols, which are emitted directly from the biosphere, secondary organic aerosols are either ... SOAs represent a significant proportion of aerosols contained in the troposphere. A common misconception is that the aerosol ... A secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a molecule produced via oxidation over several generations of a parent organic molecule. ... v t e v t e (Aerosols, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric dynamics, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs, Atmospheric ...
ISBN 0 7043 8036 6. The Aerosol Grey Machine at Van der Graaf Generator - The Aerosol Grey Machine ( ... The Aerosol Grey Machine is the debut studio album by English progressive rock band Van der Graaf Generator. It was first ... The Aerosol Grey Machine was released in September 1969 by Mercury, in the US only. An initial edition contained the song " ... When the band signed with Charisma Records, a deal was worked out whereby The Aerosol Grey Machine would be released under the ...
The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in ... A primary sensor for the Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE II) was the two SuperDARN CUTLASS radars that view the ocean ... Night Time Artificial Cloud Study Using NASA Sounding Rocket, NASA An Update on theCharged Aerosol Release ExperimentCARE v t e ... "The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) Program". 37Th Cospar Scientific Assembly. Astrophysics Data System. 37: 261. ...
"Cloud-Aerosol Transport System on ISS (CATS on ISS)". 28 Oct 2019. Archived from the original on 23 November ... The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) was a light detection and ranging remote sensing instrument designed to measure the ... CATS was disposed of on SpaceX CRS-17 when it was replaced by OCO-3. "Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)". cats.gsfc.nasa. ... "Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) 1064 nm calibration and validation". Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 12 (11): 6241- ...
... BAMA: Recycle more FEA - European Aerosol Federation Sue Rogers in April 2011 ... "Contact us". British Aerosol Manufacturers' Association. Retrieved 5 August 2012. "Household recycling". British Aerosol ... households and businesses on recycling aerosols. BAMA's aims are to: Promote the aerosol and encourage innovation Set high ... The British Aerosol Manufacturers' Association (BAMA) is a UK trade association based in Stevenage representing companies ...
The portable condensed aerosol device is typically designed to disperse aerosol in a 360° spray pattern, forming a large ... Condensed aerosol devices are designed to provide a controlled discharge. The aerosol-forming compound is installed inside of ... The flames are suppressed as long as the aerosol retains sufficient density. If the aerosol fails to achieve sufficient density ... The extinguishing performance of condensed aerosol fire suppressants is dependent on the density of aerosol particulates in the ...
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a series of remote sensing satellite instruments used to study the ... SAGE data has been used to study the atmospheres aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and other trace gases. There has been 4 series ... Specifically, SAGE has been used to study the Earth's ozone layer and aerosols at the troposphere through the stratosphere. The ... Aerosol measurement, All stub articles, United States spacecraft stubs). ...
... aerosols, and pollutants. Aerosols, clouds, and phytoplankton can also affect one another. PACE will measure atmospheric ... Aerosols are small solid or liquid particles suspended in the air that affect climate directly through interaction with solar ... Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) is a NASA Earth-observing satellite mission that will continue and advance ... Improved characterization of aerosol particles will enable quantifying their impact on marine biology and ocean chemistry, as ...
The e-cigarette aerosol looks like cigarette smoke to some extent. E-cigarettes do not produce aerosol between puffs. The e- ... and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette aerosols vary greatly. The yield of chemicals found in the e-cigarette aerosol varies ... The aerosol (mist) produced by an e-cigarette is commonly but inaccurately called vapor. In physics, a vapor is a substance in ... The aerosol (mist) produced by an e-cigarette is commonly but inaccurately called vapor. E-cigarettes simulate the action of ...
"KPS Capital Partners to acquire aerosol, food packaging business from Crown". World Aerosols. Retrieved 2021-04-18. McNulty, ...
Aerosols are diluted creams dispensed from pressurized cans with the aid of hydrocarbon propellants (up to about 10%). The ... Aerosol shaving creams are basically lather shaving cream in liquid form with propellants, vegetable waxes, and various oils ... Different types of shaving creams include aerosol shaving cream (also known as shaving foam), latherless shaving cream (also ... "Cost and Emission Reduction Analysis of HFC Emissions from Aerosols in the United States" (PDF). United States Environmental ...
Boucher, Olivier (2015). "Stratospheric Aerosols". Atmospheric Aerosols. Springer Netherlands. p. 279. doi:10.1007/978-94-017- ... Ash and aerosols might have impacted humans and corals at large distances from the eruption. There are several estimates of the ... Such sulfate aerosols in the case of the Samalas eruption may have remained at high concentrations for about three years ... The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, causing a volcanic winter ...
These coagulate with stratospheric aerosols. Coagulation is more extensive in the troposphere, and, at ground level, most ... ISBN 978-0-683-04481-2. Constantin Papastefanou (2008). Radioactive Aerosols. Elsevier. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-08-044075-0. Lawrence ... primarily the fission products and other weapon debris aerosols, and are usually dispersed by the wind, though weather patterns ...
"Asian Young Aerosol Scientist Award". Asian Aerosol Research Assembly. 2016. "Weekly Report for the Week of December 17, 2007 ... Three awards reached him in 2007, Asian Young Aerosol Scientist Award of the Asian Aerosol Research Assembly (AARA), SCOPUS ... "Aerosols polluting skies over Indian Ocean?". The Hindu. 6 May 2000.[dead link] "The play of environmental politics". Frontline ... He is known for his studies on atmospheric aerosols and is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies ...
Clouds and aerosols continue to contribute the largest uncertainty to estimates and interpretations of the Earth's changing ... "Clouds and Aerosols. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth ...
Q. Are vaccinated and boosted people more susceptible to infection or disease with the omicron variant than unvaccinated people?. A. No. Getting vaccinated increases your protection against COVID-19. Sometimes, certain raw data can suggest otherwise, but that information cannot be used to determine how well a vaccine works.. ...
The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of tiny particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or ... Aerosols and Health Effects. Aerosol 101: Helpful Tutorials. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols). Aerosol ... Journal of Aerosol Research, Japan. Journal of Aerosol Science. Journal of Aerosols in Medicine. Journal of the Air Waste ... NIOSH Aerosol Research. NIOSH Aerosol Research Overview. Provides an overview of ongoing aerosol-related research projects in ...
"The first [component of the aerosol] is a colloid, an extremely tiny insoluble particle or molecule…. The second part of the ...
Transmission of Viruses in Droplets and Aerosols in the Built Environment. *Home ... can contribute to efforts to understand and slow the spread of COVID-19 by applying fundamental knowledge about how aerosols ...
The right-hand panel of each image pair is a map of retrieved aerosol amount, parameterized by a quantity called aerosol ... This resulted in elevated aerosol levels, particularly in the month of July. The abundance of aerosol over Greece and the ... Higher amounts of aerosol within the total column of the atmosphere are indicated by green, yellow or orange pixels, and ... In the natural-color images (the left-hand panel of each pair), it is apparent that aerosol particles are more abundant over ...
Healthcare workers may be exposed to infectious amounts of influenza virus in small-particle aerosols up to 6 feet from ... And the implication of the study is that small-particle aerosols do at least project virus into the environment, but they dont ... Bischoff noted that a limitation of the study was that it measured only exposure to influenza aerosols and did not evaluate ... During the sampling, patients were not using face masks or oxygen masks, and no aerosol-generating procedures were performed. ...
Aerosol scientists bring a Read More ,. Posted on August 13, 2020. by William G. Lindsley, PhD; Francoise M. Blachere, MSc; ... Categories Aerosols, Engineering Control, Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil and Gas, Personal Protective Equipment, Respiratory Health ... Categories Aerosols, Exposure, Healthcare, Infectious Disease Resources, Influenza, Personal Protective Equipment, Women ... Research Questions for Aerosol Scientists Addressing COVID-19 and the Workplace. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ...
An increase in the amount of water inside liquid-phase clouds induced by aerosols, through the suppression of rain formation, ... We estimate that the observed decrease in cloud water offsets 29% of the global climate-cooling effect caused by aerosol- ... Here we provide direct observational evidence that, instead of a strong increase, aerosols cause a relatively weak average ... wildfires and ships-reveal that aerosol-induced cloud-water increases, caused by suppressed rain formation, and decreases, ...
Pesticides, antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread by raindrop aerosols. 1/14/2016 - Rain storms naturally produce ... documented how raindrops hit a surface of the Earth and create aerosols that can be carried through the wind. The aroma- ...
Reservoir captures aerosol during expiratory phase for next inspiratory phase. • PEP Therapy during treatment. • One way valve ...
Aerosol expert Alex Huffman says time, ventilation, and proximity have a big impact on whether coronavirus droplets can spread ... If it was a small room, a large room, a medium-sized room and then estimate the amount of risk that would be from aerosol," ... "The closer you are increases the chances of that, but aerosols can come out of your mouth and mix into the room. The longer ... "When you breathe and talk, the louder you talk, droplets and aerosols come out of your mouth. So, traditionally, droplets are ...
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Aerosol absorption; Aerosol backscattered radiation; Aerosol optical properties; Aerosol scattering; Hygroscopic growth. OSTI ... ARM: Derived: Hourly Averages of Aerosol intensive properties from AOS, Delene and Ogren et al, 2001. United States: N. p., ... ARM: Derived: Hourly Averages of Aerosol intensive properties from AOS, Delene and Ogren et al, 2001. United States. doi:https ... ARM: Derived: Aerosol intensive properties from AOS, Delene and Ogren et al, 2001 Dataset Koontz, Annette ; Flynn, Connor ...
... and Cox expand on the idea that uncertainty in climate sensitivity is directly related to uncertainty in present day aerosol ... Thus it seems to me that either the influence of sulphate aerosols is overestimated, or the influence of soot aerosols ... play into the sulfur aerosol issue or is it simply averaged out by the bulk effect of all the aerosol particles present in the ... aerosols a little), SW absorbers (aerosols) etc.) changes in any of these trace constituents change the underlying ...
99-2000 K&N All In One Cleaner, 13oz Aerosol Spray. $. 7.99. USD ... HOME/99-2000 K&N ALL IN ONE CLEANER, 13OZ AEROSOL SPRAY. ...
Spravy - The Aerosol Gravy. Spray-on gravy from a can!. (+50, -7) [vote for,. against] ... Now we all know that gases heat up when you compress them (thats how a jet engine works), and the only reason that an aerosol ... From the makers of Roll-on Hollandaise comes Spravy, the aerosol gravy in a can. Simply spray it on any food to give that ... Obviously conventional aerosol alternatives using hand pumping action would not have enough oomph for this so I would suggest ...
Aerosols reflect and absorb radiation from the sun. Thus a large concentration of most aerosol types will tend to scatter ... Changes in aerosol can therefore lead to changes in cloud properties. For example, an increase in aerosol concentration in a ... Primary aerosols are generated or emitted as solid particles, for example Saharan dust, sea salt or soot. Secondary aerosols ... This is interesting for climate change, because since aerosols cool climate, a reduction in aerosols in order to improve air ...
Find atmospheric aerosol research articles , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Sampling errors in the study of acid gases and anion species in atmospheric aerosols Atmospheric acid aerosols were sampled by ... Oi`ganics, and Inorganic Aerosol Components 5 Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research. University of Toronto ... Atmospheric Aerosol Research - Case study Our PC-2H Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) multistage real-time cascade impactor and ...
In this research line we plan to advance the understanding of the aerosol radiative forcing and the effects of the aerosol- ... Additionally, global aerosol forecasts are provided to the International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction (ICAP) initiative. ... Most aerosols scatter solar radiation, cooling the atmosphere. However, black carbon, mineral dust and brown carbon (organic ... Aerosols interact with the atmospheric system scattering and absorbing solar radiation, with a significant impact on ...
Monte Carlo simulation of aerosol processes. The Monte Carlo method has also been used in the study of aerosol dynamics. Kaplan ... Thus, for Brownian coagulating aerosols, the state of the aerosol at any time could be characterized by only two parameters, ... monodisperse aerosols. However, when the evolution of the aerosol is being watched for long periods of time, a sectionalization ... each with a probability that is completely uninfluenced by the history of the aerosol. Therefore, the evolution of the aerosol ...
... And to think some people call climate ... Says NASA: This portrait of global aerosols was produced by a GEOS-5 simulation at a 10-kilometer resolution. Dust (red) is ... and shows the global distribution of aerosols. ...
When it comes to Dental Aerosols and Overspray Industrial-Grade Negative Air Machines, you can count on Grainger. Supplies and ... and liquid aerosols. HEPA filters restrict airflow less than ULPA filters, but they are less efficient at removing airborne ...
... Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 20;9(1):2348. doi: ...
For those of us who, for years, have been researching these aerosol toxins that continue to be sprayed on us, it was a day to ... This gives a brilliant overview and shows these connections from the aerosol assault to which we are exposed all the time.. ... I would refer all readers to Clifford Carnicom s Aerosols and Morgellons: A Systems Perspective. March 23, 2009: ... 2. Two DVD documentaries have been produced: Chemtrails: Aerosol Crimes available at; and What in the World ...
The Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Khlystov, A. Y., Wyers, G., Ten Brink, H., The Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC), ...
Febreze Air Effects Violet Bloom Aerosol found at Hannaford Supermarket. Add to online shopping list or grocery cart for ...
Reihenuntersuchung des natürlichen Aerosols mittels Elektronenmikroskops
Aerosol expert Alex Huffman says time, ventilation, and proximity have a big impact on whether coronavirus droplets can spread ... If it was a small room, a large room, a medium-sized room and then estimate the amount of risk that would be from aerosol," ... "The closer you are increases the chances of that, but aerosols can come out of your mouth and mix into the room. The longer ... "When you breathe and talk, the louder you talk, droplets and aerosols come out of your mouth. So, traditionally, droplets are ...
  • The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of tiny particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or fumes. (
  • In the natural-color images (the left-hand panel of each pair), it is apparent that aerosol particles are more abundant over the region on the two dates in July than in either June or August. (
  • During the 2010-2011 influenza season, they studied the spatial distribution of influenza aerosols generated by symptomatic patients in their tertiary care teaching hospital to identify features associated with the release of high levels of particles containing the virus. (
  • Portable air filtration units, or air cleaners, remove airborne particles (called aerosols) from the air indoors. (
  • 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosol particles shed by experimental- most were concentrated in the 2.1-4.7-mm bin (Figure, ly infected cynomolgus monkeys. (
  • However the tiny particles that are present in the atmosphere, or aerosols, also play crucial roles in weather and climate. (
  • Primary aerosols are generated or emitted as solid particles, for example Saharan dust, sea salt or soot. (
  • Although little is known quantitatively about the accommodation coefficient of aerosol particles, their low kinetic energies make bounce-off unlikely. (
  • For a monodisperse aerosol with N particles per unit volume, the collision frequency simplifies to Z = ΒN 2 /2. (
  • It can also be interpreted as the time required to halve the particle concentration of an initially monodisperse aerosol by coagulation, or the time to double the volume of the particles. (
  • removes at least 99.97% of airborne particles as small as 0.3 microns from the air, including pollen, dust, bacteria, viruses, and liquid aerosols. (
  • When an infected person breathes out, talks, sings, and/or coughs, they exhale aerosols and droplets containing millions of viral particles into the air. (
  • Portable high efficiency particle air (HEPA) cleaners and masking can significantly reduce exposure to SARS-CoV-2 aerosol particles. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention briefly posted new guidance to its website stating that the coronavirus can commonly be transmitted through aerosol particles, which can be produced by activities like singing. (
  • Over the weekend, the CDC page " How COVID-19 Spreads " included among the most common modes of transmission "respiratory droplets or small particles, such as those in aerosols, produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, sings, talks, or breathes. (
  • What's the difference between respiratory droplets and aerosol particles? (
  • Aerosol particles are smaller and can linger in the air, moving with air currents from which they can be inhaled. (
  • Aerosol sprays are any metal, glass or plastic cans for single use that contain pressurised, liquefied or dissolved gas, with or without liquid, paste or powder, and which are equipped with a valve enabling the content to spray out in the form of solid or liquid particles in gas suspension as a foam, paste or liquefied powder. (
  • There are millions of tiny particles floating in the air that can provide this surface, and these particles are called aerosols . (
  • These tiny particles are called aerosols or particulates. (
  • Aerosols are tiny particles that float around in the air. (
  • Aerosols are microscopic liquid and solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. (
  • Aerosol particles are everywhere and have a large effect on both health and the climate . (
  • When aerosol particles interact with light, a portion of the light is absorbed but the rest reflects and scatters off of the particles. (
  • For most types of aerosol particles, the amount being absorbed is negligible. (
  • Some aerosol particles, however, are coloured, which means they are absorbing some light . (
  • Aerosol particles from smoke contain brown carbon. (
  • This is because temperature and humidity change the viscosity of aerosol particles. (
  • We conclude that the presence of dissolved ions, the concomitant formation of smaller nanoparticles and the absence of particles in stained lung sections immediately postexposure (inferring either translocation or more dispersed aerosol distribution) contributed to the increased inflammation observed in copper nanoparticle-exposed mice. (
  • Civil and environmental engineers can contribute to efforts to understand and slow the spread of COVID-19 by applying fundamental knowledge about how aerosols and droplets behave in the built environment. (
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization currently recommend fit-tested respirator masks only during aerosol-generating procedures such as bronchoscopies because influenza transmission is thought to occur mainly by large-particle respiratory droplets that face masks can block. (
  • We estimate that the observed decrease in cloud water offsets 29% of the global climate-cooling effect caused by aerosol-induced increases in the concentration of cloud droplets. (
  • When you breathe and talk, the louder you talk, droplets and aerosols come out of your mouth. (
  • Cloud droplets require an initial "seed" to start the condensation of water - this is provided by aerosols. (
  • For example, an increase in aerosol concentration in a cloudy region might mean more seeds for the water to condense on, therefore the available water is spread over a larger number of droplets and each individual droplet is smaller. (
  • Smaller droplets reflect more light, and this "indirect effect" of aerosol on cloud can lead to a cooling of the Earth's surface. (
  • Droplets and aerosols are the main modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. (
  • If there is a high number of aerosols in the atmosphere, then a high number of cloud droplets can form. (
  • Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARIs is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. (
  • Dark gray pixels indicate places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval. (
  • The cooling of the Earth's climate through the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds offsets an unknown fraction of greenhouse gas warming. (
  • An increase in the amount of water inside liquid-phase clouds induced by aerosols, through the suppression of rain formation, has been postulated to lead to substantial cooling, which would imply that the Earth's surface temperature is highly sensitive to anthropogenic forcing. (
  • Here we provide direct observational evidence that, instead of a strong increase, aerosols cause a relatively weak average decrease in the amount of water in liquid-phase clouds compared with unpolluted clouds. (
  • Measurements of polluted clouds downwind of various anthropogenic sources-such as oil refineries, smelters, coal-fired power plants, cities, wildfires and ships-reveal that aerosol-induced cloud-water increases, caused by suppressed rain formation, and decreases, caused by enhanced evaporation of cloud water, partially cancel each other out. (
  • Clouds and aerosols. (
  • Aerosols are also responsible for clouds, and rainfall. (
  • Aerosols have also been proposed as a means of mitigating greenhouse gas warming (geo-engineering), either by using them near the Earth's surface to make extra clouds, or by injecting them into the stratosphere to reflect the sun's radiation to space. (
  • Furthermore, aerosols alter the formation and precipitation efficiency of liquid-water, ice and mixed-phase clouds. (
  • There is significant uncertainty in the strength of these aerosol-cloud interactions in analyses of observational data, partly due to the difficulty in separating aerosol effects on clouds from correlations generated by local meteorology. (
  • be misinterpreted as an aerosol influence on clouds [Yuan et al. (
  • Space-based evaluation of interactions between aerosols and low-level Arctic clouds during the Spring and Summer of 2008. (
  • Uncertainty estimates are important when retrieving properties of clouds and aerosols from satellites measurements. (
  • if the aerosol spray includes separate instructions for use, they shall also show such warnings about the product's function. (
  • The presto range of products, together with the spray paints mady by European Aerosols, is the perfect repair system and thus offers a highly competent assortment for pre-treatment, underbody coating, cleaning, protection and car up to lacquers - everything from once source. (
  • All Ferro metal laser marking aerosol products are formulated to deliver permanent, high-contrast and high-resolution marks for laser marking on metal using a spray application process. (
  • Equipped with a universal spray actuator, AirWorks Metered Aerosol Air Fresheners fit most metered spray dispensers. (
  • This work casts doubts on the degree of progress that can be made solely through advances in the understanding of anthropogenic aerosols and suggests that we need to discover more about the workings of the pre-industrial environment, when natural aerosols were predominant. (
  • These studies compared ATROVENT HFA Inhalation Aerosol, ATROVENT CFC Inhalation Aerosol, and placebo (in one study only) in 1010 COPD patients. (
  • This page provides links to a variety of information regarding the measurement, control, exposure characterization and health effects associated with aerosols in the workplace. (
  • Dr. Bischoff noted that a limitation of the study was that it measured only exposure to influenza aerosols and did not evaluate transmission of disease. (
  • Air filtration units were widely used during large wildfire outbreaks in the western United States,[1] and their use surged nationwide during the COVID-19 pandemic as a way to reduce exposure to aerosols containing the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • MISR retrieves information on aerosol amount and particle properties by using the changes in scene brightness and contrast at nine widely-spaced view angles and four spectral bands. (
  • SAN DIEGO, California - Healthcare workers may be exposed to infectious amounts of influenza virus in small-particle aerosols as far as 6 feet from patients. (
  • During this work, only coagulation due to Brownian motion is considered as this is the dominant mechanism for particle interactions in aerosols. (
  • In the present study, we characterized the variability in mass concentration and particle size distribution associated with the aerosol generation of different devices and e-liquid compositions in an experimental setup. (
  • They find that only 34 per cent of the variance in aerosol forcing since pre-industrial times (around 1750) is associated with anthropogenic emissions, with 45 per cent of the variance linked to natural emissions of volcanic sulphur dioxide, marine dimethylsulphide and other natural sources. (
  • Certain testing procedures for individual types of aerosol sprays have also been determined. (
  • 2020) Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. (
  • Pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine and disodium hexachloroplatinate (Na2PtCl6) aerosols in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). (
  • Higher amounts of aerosol within the total column of the atmosphere are indicated by green, yellow or orange pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by purple and blue pixels. (
  • Secondary aerosols are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions, for example ammonium sulphate aerosols are formed from the gases sulphur dioxide and ammonia, whilst organic aerosols are formed by chemical reactions acting on chemicals such as isoprene which is emitted by vegetation. (
  • Once in the atmosphere, aerosols can have a variety of impacts. (
  • Unlike several of the greenhouse gases, aerosols have a short lifetime in the lowest part of the atmosphere as they are washed out by rainfall. (
  • In the framework of the cross-border EU INTERREG IIIA activity, the joint Anglo-French project, ATTMA, has been commissioned to study Aerosol Transport in the atmosphere of the Cross-Channel, or 'Trans-Manche' region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France) and Kent (Great Britain). (
  • Most aerosols scatter solar radiation, cooling the atmosphere. (
  • However, black carbon, mineral dust and brown carbon (organic aerosol with radiation absorbing properties) absorb solar radiation and warm the atmosphere. (
  • This is interesting for climate change, because since aerosols cool climate, a reduction in aerosols in order to improve air quality, could lead to an extra warming of climate. (
  • Atmospheric aerosols significantly affect the earth's radiation balance by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, leading to a decrease in atmospheric visibility and contributing to climate change. (
  • Aerosols and the lung : clinical and experimental aspects / edited by Stewart W. Clarke and Demetri Pavia. (
  • In this research line we plan to advance the understanding of the aerosol radiative forcing and the effects of the aerosol-radiation interactions (ARI) upon meteorology. (
  • During the sampling, patients were not using face masks or oxygen masks, and no aerosol-generating procedures were performed. (
  • It solves the fate of global relevant aerosols and the atmospheric chemistry following an online approach. (
  • A major research area in atmospheric chemistry focuses on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which contains a large variety of low-volatility organic compounds when generated by the ozonolysis of monoterpenes. (
  • The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised many questions about the transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, including the possibility of aerosol transmission. (
  • The virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is stable for several hours to days in aerosols and on surfaces, according to a new study from National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • The scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detectable in aerosols for up to three hours, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention posted guidance Friday evening saying that aerosol transmission might be one of the "most common" ways the coronavirus is spreading - and then took the guidance down on Monday. (
  • In July, the World Health Organization updated its guidance on aerosols after more than 200 scientists urged it to do so. (
  • I have therefore re-calculated their Figure 1, including the terms for the other forcings and their uncertainties along with the aerosol forcing estimates, and using the ocean heat content changes from Hansen et al (2005) (around 0.85 W/m 2 - a smaller value for the ocean heat imbalance moves the curve even further to the right). (
  • The DRUM aerosol samples were analyzed for mass, optical absorption, and elemental content in 3 h time resolution to allow separation of day and night. (
  • Aerosol-cloud interactions have the potential to modify many different cloud properties. (
  • Garnier Fructis Style Full Control Non-Aerosol Ultra Strong Hairspray - 8.5 Fl. (
  • Dove Style+Care Non Aerosol Hairspray Extra Hold - 9.25 Fl. (
  • Inorganic and organic constituents of aerosols from a major railyard and repair facility were characterized to develop a profile of emissions from railyard activities. (
  • 0.1 μm) aerosols associated with diesel exhaust such as mass, organic matter, transition metals, and sulfur, the latter 3.3% of the mass since locomotive diesel fuel still contained sulfur. (
  • While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in Settings during the particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the Covid-19 Pandemic patient's mouth as wel as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. (
  • care is severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, The Challenges of Infection Risk from Aerosols in due to the close proximity of the dental team to Dentistry patient's mouth and the formation of aerosols by Aerosol-generating procedures are at the centre of most dental treatment procedures3. (
  • Researchers recently determined that while potentially health-damaging aerosols are relatively evenly distributed throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein, some potentially dangerous compounds in the aerosols tend to cluster near cities. (
  • They are mainly involved in airborne transmission of a virus and even minimal movements of air such as a small breeze can help carry away the aerosols containing viruses. (
  • However, healthcare settings are also vulnerable to the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols and on surfaces likely contributes to transmission of the virus in healthcare settings. (
  • For a few days, researchers who have suspected aerosol transmission for months cheered the update as a long-overdue acknowledgment of accumulating evidence for how the virus transmits, particularly in indoor spaces. (
  • The page makes no mention of aerosol transmission. (
  • In these outbreaks, aerosol transmission, particularly in these indoor locations where there are crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces where infected persons spend long periods of time with others, cannot be ruled out. (
  • Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting high-risk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. (
  • Airborne transmission might take place during Case identification aerosol-generating procedures. (
  • Versatile aerosol lubricant endures high temps and extreme pressures. (
  • Aerosols can also be a problem for air quality, and so emissions have reduced in Europe and the US in recent decades. (
  • Now Ken Carslaw and colleagues present an analysis of 28 parameters representing aerosol and precursor gas emissions and other factors that could influence cloud brightness. (
  • Thus a large concentration of most aerosol types will tend to scatter sunlight back to space, preventing the direct beam reaching the Earth's surface. (
  • These results and those of Roseville Railyard Aerosol Monitoring Project (RRAMP) largely confirm earlier California Air Resources Board's (ARB) model estimates of health impacts downwind of the railyard based on diesel exhaust, while adding data on very fine transition metals and contaminated soils, potentially important to human health. (
  • This social media video material (4 seconds) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies the potential harmful substances in e-cigarette aerosol. (
  • Suggested post copy: E-cigarette aerosol can contain harmful substances that can be inhaled deep into the lungs. (
  • It is well accepted that aerosols contribute to the radiative forcing of climate. (
  • The ratio between the downwind versus upwind sites at night was as high as 21.9 (NO, RRAMP) and 6.4 (optical absorption, DRUM) but many species had ratios greater than 2, demonstrating which aerosols arose from railyard activities. (
  • There were also coarse soil aerosols contaminated with anthropogenic metals and petroleum-derived n-alkanes. (
  • Laser-bonded marks created with Ferro's laser marking aerosols produce permanent, high-resolution marks on a wide range of metals. (
  • High aerosol concentrations can improve plant productivity, until other effects such as temperature or plant physiological issues become dominant. (
  • The overall degree of warming or cooling is still not clear due to model uncertainties in aerosol emission, dynamics, chemical composition, optical properties, and cloud processes. (
  • Chew Stop™ Aerosol will deter chewing and destructive behavior in horses to save your wooden structures and horse clothing. (
  • Gold Seal Touch-Up Aerosols are the ideal touch-up products for small areas with minor blemishes. (
  • The two impacted products are the Suave 24-Hour Protection Aerosol Antiperspirant Powder in the 4 and 6 oz. sizes, and the 6 oz. (
  • Police said the results of a blood test showed the presence of difluoroethane, which is commonly used in aerosol products. (
  • Simple Green® Heavy-Duty BBQ & Grill Cleaner - Aerosol has not been reviewed yet. (
  • Aerosols reflect and absorb radiation from the sun. (
  • Aerosols interact with the atmospheric system scattering and absorbing solar radiation, with a significant impact on atmospheric energy and hydrologic processes. (
  • The relationship between aerosol and cloud fraction (CF) is particularly important to determine, due to the strong correlation of CF to other cloud properties and its large impact on radiation. (
  • The result is significantly different when we put this new, longer-lasting brown carbon into an atmospheric model that simulates the transport of aerosols around the planet and how they interact with solar radiation. (
  • Some aerosols have mainly natural origins (dust, sea salt, volcanic ash and volcanic sulphates), whilst others result at least partly from human activities (some soot, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate). (
  • Now we all know that gases heat up when you compress them (that's how a jet engine works), and the only reason that an aerosol is cold is because of the hydrocarbon propellant which evaporates on exit from the can (indeed it is the pressure of the compressed propellant which drives the aerosol). (
  • ERA-Interim data are available from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) archive, . (
  • 5 'Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research. (
  • This work presents a new method to analyze the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and CF. By including information about the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), the impact of the meteorological covariations is significantly reduced. (
  • Many atmospheric aerosols have the ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), influencing the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). (
  • Evaluation of a prototype inhalable sampler: metal aerosols. (
  • Atmospheric aerosols can be either solid or liquid, with diameters of a few nanometers to tens of microns. (