The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Relating to the size of solids.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The motion of air currents.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
The contamination of indoor air.
Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
The act of BREATHING out.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The act of BREATHING in.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (1/2617)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (2/2617)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (3/2617)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/2617)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. (5/2617)

We examined the measurement error in inhaled and exhaled aerosol concentration resulting from the bolus delivery system when small volumes of monodisperse aerosols are inspired to different lung depths. A laser photometer that illuminated approximately 75% of the breathing path cross section recorded low inhaled bolus half-widths (42 ml) and negative deposition values for shallow bolus inhalation when the inhalation path of a 60-ml aerosol was straight and unobstructed. We attributed these results to incomplete mixing of the inhaled aerosol bolus over the breathing path cross section, on the basis of simultaneous recordings of the photometer with a particle-counter sampling from either the center or the edge of the breathing path. Inserting a 90 degrees bend into the inhaled bolus path increased the photometer measurement of inhaled bolus half-width to 57 ml and yielded positive deposition values. Dispersion, which is predominantly affected by exhaled bolus half-width, was not significantly altered by the 90 degrees bend. We conclude that aerosol bolus-delivery systems should ensure adequate mixing of the inhaled bolus to avoid error in measurement of bolus deposition.  (+info)

Structural deficiencies in granuloma formation in TNF gene-targeted mice underlie the heightened susceptibility to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which is not compensated for by lymphotoxin. (6/2617)

TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) may act at various stages of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To dissect the effects of TNF independent of LT alpha, we have used C57BL/6 mice with a disruption of the TNF gene alone (TNF-/-). Twenty-one days following aerosol M. tuberculosis infection there was a marked increase in the number of organisms in the lungs of TNF-/- mice, and by 28-35 days all animals had succumbed, with widespread dissemination of M. tuberculosis. In comparison with the localized granulomas containing activated macrophages and T cells in lungs and livers of C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) mice, cellular infiltrates in TNF-/- mice were poorly formed, with extensive regions of necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration of the alveoli. Phenotypic analysis of lung homogenates demonstrated similar numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in TNF-/- and wt mice, but in TNF-deficient mice the lymphocytes were restricted to perivascular and peribronchial areas rather than colocated with macrophages in granulomas. T cells from TNF-/- mice retained proliferative and cytokine responses to purified protein derivative, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative was demonstrable. Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and levels of serum nitrite were comparable. Thus, the enhanced susceptibility of TNF-/- is not compensated for by the presence of LT alpha, and the critical role of TNF is not in the activation of T cells and macrophages but in the local organization of granulomas.  (+info)

Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. (7/2617)

RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice.  (+info)

Particle deposition in the trachea: in vivo and in hollow casts. (8/2617)

The pattern of deposition within the respiratory tract of potentially harmful particulates is a major factor in assessing any risk from individual and community exposures. Although the trachea is the most easily observed of the conductive airways, very little information concerning its particle collection characteristics is available, information which is essential for a complete and realistic description of particle deposition patterns within the entire respiratory tract. Data on tracheal deposition are also needed for development of accurate predictive models for particle deposition. The pattern of particle deposition in the trachea, and its relation to air flow, was studied in a hollow cast of the human larynx-tracheobronchial tree. Results were compared with data obtained in humans in vivo and from previous studies in hollow casts. In addition, the relevance of tracheal deposition in the hollow cast test system to deposition in vivo was examined by a direct comparison of deposition in a cast prepared from the lungs of donkeys previously studied in a series of in vivo tests. The disturbance of the air flow within the trachea caused by the larynx promoted the deposition of suspended particulates throughout the length of the trachea, and especially in proximal regions. This proximal deposition was due both to direct impaction from the air jet coming from the glottis and to effects of the tubulent flow. Turbulence produced inhomogenous deposition patterns within the trachea for particles of all sizes, although its effect was more pronounced as size decreased. Tracheal deposition in the human cast was within the range of normal in vivo tracheal depostion only when a larynx was used during cast test exposures; this emphasizes the need for the use of realistic experimental test systems for the study of particle deposition patterns. The relative patterns of deposition in casts of the donkey trachea and in the same tracheas in vivo were similar.  (+info)

See Federal Register notice and regulatory docket. This Federal proposal is driven mainly by the large quantities of aerosol cans coming from the retail sector, which are likely to contain much of their original contained material. The comment deadline is May 15, 2018. Currently, four states (CA, CO, NM, and UT) include aerosol cans in their state Universal Waste programs, and two more states (MN and OH) have proposed to do so. This Federal proposal is intended to be consistent with those programs and to be adopted by the other states. As proposed, Federal Universal Waste aerosol cans include all discarded, intact, non-empty hazardous waste aerosol cans, regardless of size, but do not include compressed gas canisters and cylinders and similar containers. While this definition may be clear for aerosol cans from the retail sector (e.g., returned cans that cannot be resold), it is not necessarily clear for empty aerosol cans sent to recycling facilities because of the definitions of discarded ...
There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has been associated with infections and deaths among health-care workers. This Viewpoint of infectious aerosols is intended to inform appropriate infection control measures to protect health-care workers. Studies of cough aerosols and of exhaled breath from patients with various respiratory infections have shown striking similarities in aerosol size distributions, with a predominance of pathogens in small particles (,5 µm). These are immediately respirable, suggesting the need for personal respiratory protection (respirators) for individuals in close proximity to patients with potentially virulent pathogens. There is no evidence that some pathogens are carried only in large droplets. Surgical masks might offer some respiratory protection from inhalation of infectious aerosols, but not as much as respirators. However, surgical masks worn by patients reduce exposures to infectious aerosols to health-care workers and other individuals. The variability of infectious ...
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Aerosol Can is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist Pharrell Williams. Williams co-wrote the song with Major Lazer member Diplo. The song was released as a single on 14 February 2014 and features on Major Lazers 2014 extended play Apocalypse Soon. It became a top 40 single in Australia peaking at #37. It was featured in the soundtrack for the video games NBA 2K15 and Watch Dogs 2. A remix contest was held for the track in April, in which the winner was announced in the end of May. iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer. iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014. Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest :: Beatport Play - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can. ARIA Top 50 Singles. - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can (in Dutch). Ultratip. - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - ...
Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13−800) were collected over a oneyear- period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33-39 %), Aitken (39-49 %) and accumulation mode (18-22 %) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. Performing clustering analysis on hourly size distributions, nine K-means DMPS clusters were identified and, by directional association, diurnal variation and relationship to meteorological and pollution variables, four typical aerosol size distribution scenarios were identified: traffic (69% of the time), dilution (15% of the time), summer background conditions (4% of the time) and regional pollution (12% of the time). According to the results of PMF, vehicle exhausts are estimated to contribute at ...
1. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that dyspnoea could be mediated by unmyelinated vagal sensory nerve endings (type J receptors) situated at alveolar level in the lung.. 2. A modified jet nebulizer was used to generate an aerosol of local anaesthetic in particles small enough to allow alveolar deposition. Lignocaine (2% and 5%) produced aerosols with an arithmetic mean diameter (+sd) of 1.5+0.3 and 1.2+0.6 μm respectively, the mass median diameters being 1.7 (geometric standard deviation = 1.2) and 2.5 (geometric standard deviation = 1.7) μm respectively.. 3. In experimental animal models a vagally mediated tachypnoea may be induced acutely by pulmonary microembolism. This response is known to be mediated by unmyelinated pulmonary afferent nerves in the vagus. Local anaesthetic agents administered as small particles, but not as large particles, obtunded this response, which suggests that the aerosol was capable of penetration to alveolar level.. 4. Upon this background, a ...
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OBJECTIVE: In the era of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infectious airborne aerosol generation during otolaryngologic procedures has been an area of increasing concern. The objective of this investigation was to quantify airborne aerosol production under clinical and surgical conditions and examine efficacy of mask mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quantification of airborne aerosol generation during surgical and clinical simulation. SETTING: Cadaver laboratory and clinical examination room. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Airborne aerosol quantification with an optical particle sizer was performed in real time during cadaveric simulated endoscopic surgical conditions, including hand instrumentation, microdebrider use, high-speed drilling, and cautery. Aerosol sampling was additionally performed in simulated clinical and diagnostic settings. All clinical and surgical procedures were evaluated for propensity for significant airborne aerosol generation. RESULTS: Hand instrumentation and ...
According to the subject invention, dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based compositions are provided, including methods for their manufacture and dry powder dispersion devices. A dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based composition is one having a moisture content of less than about 10% by weight (% w) water, usually below about 5% w and preferably less than about 3% w; a particle size of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median diameter (MMD), usually 1.0-4.0 μm MMD, and preferably 1.0-3.0 μm MMD; a delivered dose of about |30%, usually |40%, preferably |50%, and most preferred |60%; and an aerosol particle size distribution of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), usually 1.5-4.5 μm MMAD, and preferably 1.5-4.0 MMAD. Such composition are of pharmaceutical grade purity.
A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
Urban environments influence precipitation formation via response to dynamic effects, while aerosols are intrinsically necessary for rainfall formation; however, the partial contributions of each on urban coastal precipitation are not yet known.Here, the authors use aerosol particle size distributions derived from the NASA aerosol robotic network (AERONET) to estimate submicron cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and supermicron CCN (GCCN) for ingestion in the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS). High resolution land data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were assimilated into RAMS to provide modern land cover and land use (LCLU).Thefirst two of eight total simulationswere month long runs for July 2007, one with constant PSDvalues and the second with AERONET PSDs updated at times consistent with observations. The third and fourth runs mirrored the first two simulations for
How is Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor abbreviated? VAIM stands for Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor. VAIM is defined as Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor very rarely.
Development of an aerosol mass spectrometer for size and composition analysis of submicron particles, J.T. Jayne, D.C. Leard, X. Zhang, P. Davidovits, K.A. Smith, C.E. Kolb, and D.R. Worsnop, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33, 49-70, 2000.. Ambient Aerosol Sampling with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, J. L. Jimenez, J. T. Jayne, Q. Shi, C.E. Kolb, D.R. Worsnop, I. Yourshaw, J.H. Seinfeld, R.C. Flagan, X. Zhang, K.A. Smith, J. Morris, and P. Davidovits, J. Geophys. Res. - Atmospheres, 108, (D7), 8425, doi:10.1029/2001JD001213, 2003.. A new Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS) - Instrument Description and First Field Deployment, F. Drewnick, S.S. Hings, P.F. DeCarlo, J.T. Jayne, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, S. Weimer, J.L. Jimenez, K.L. Demerjian, S. Borrmann, D.R. Worsnop. Aer. Sci. Technol., 39, 637-658, 2005.. A Field-Deployable High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, P. F. DeCarlo, J.R. Kimmel, A. Trimborn, M.J. Northway, J.T. Jayne, A.C. Aiken, M. Gonin, K. Fuhrer, T. Horvath, ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles are linked to visibility reduction and adverse health effects, and radiation balance of the Earth- directly by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by influencing the cloud properties and processes and, possibly, by changing the heterogeneous chemistry of reactive gaseous species. Atmospheric aerosols are the most uncertain driver of global climate change. The South‒Asian region has been increasingly recognized as one of the global hotspots of aerosols; and Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) is one among them with complex geography, heterogeneity in sources and varying atmospheric dynamics. These factors make IGPs aerosol and pollution very difficult to characterize. So far, long-term regional observations of aerosol properties have been scarce in this region, but argued necessary in order to bring the knowledge of regional and global distribution of aerosols further. In this context, regional studies of aerosol properties their dynamics and ...
Just like any other metal container, aluminum and steel aerosol cans are recyclable. For the last decade, Ball worked with customers and other partners (such as the Consumer Aerosol Products Council in the U.S. or the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association in the United Kingdom) to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans. While challenges remain with accurate data on recycling rates and consumer access to recycling, we have made significant progress. For example, the U.K.s consumer education program MetalMatters, which Ball developed and supports, was instrumental in doubling the number of local authorities that accept aerosols in their recycling schemes from 2011 to 2015 and achieves a 96 percent acceptance rate. Also, a 2016 study on access to recycling in the U.S. showed that recycling availability for aluminum aerosol stands at 72 percent and steel aerosol containers at 69 percent, making aerosol cans a widely recyclable container in the U.S. ...
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The distribution of nano/micron inorganic main ions in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer-autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges D(p) LT = 0.49 mu m, 0.49 LT = D(p) LT = 0.95 mu m, 0.95 LT = D(p) LT = 1.5 mu m, 1.5 LT = D(p) LT = 3.0 mu m, 3.0 LT = D(p) LT = 7.2 mu m and D(p) ,= 7.2 mu m was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (m(GM)) and, analyzed by ion chromatography for Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-). The mean random uncertainties associated with the determinations of Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) were assessed. The absolute highest concentration is found for SO(4)(2-) (1555.8 +/- 97...3.6 ng m(-3)) in ...
ABSTRACTDuring the World Exposition 2010, which ran from May to October, emission control measures were implemented in Shanghai and surrounding areas to improve the air quality. This study evaluated the effects of regional transport on aerosol characteristics under these controlled local emission conditions using a month’s worth of observations of the aerosol number size distributions (10 nm–10 μm) and the chemical compositions of the aerosols. Back-trajectories and a Lagrangian dispersion model were combined to analyze the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution and the related mechanisms. Two classes of aerosols were identified and compared. Class I was a clear air condition with ocean-oriented air masses. Particle counts in this class were dominated by particles in the size range 20–40 nm, and NH4+ was mainly present in the form of (NH4)2SO4. A strong peak at noontime indicated that the particle formation or growth process was promoted by the photochemical
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025, the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
This thesis presents a new technique to identify a 2D mask showing the extent of particulate aerosol distributions in satellite imagery. This technique uses a supervised texture classication approach, and utilises data from two distinct satellite sources. The vertical feature mask (VFM) product from the CALIPSO lidar, provides an accurate description of the aerosol content of the atmosphere but has a limited footprint and coverage. The CALIPSO VFM is used to provide training data in order to for classiers to be applied to other imagery, namely data from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) on the MSG satellite. The output from the classication is a 2D mask representing the locations of the particulate aerosol of interest within the SEVIRI image. This approach has been demonstrated on test cases over land and ocean, and shows a good agreement with other techniques for the detection of particulate aerosol. However, the supervised texture approach provides outputs at a higher ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles play a critical role in Earths radiation budget, act to limit visibility through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and represent a significant respiratory health hazard in urban environments. However, the existing network of aerosol particle measurements is significantly sparse, and unable to capture the strong heterogeneity in particles that exists in urban locations. In addition, current 24-hour air quality standards of particulate matter are based solely on the total mass of particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm, and do not account for variations in particle size or total number. As a result, air quality assessments and local and regional modeling efforts are: 1) limited by a paucity of data, and 2) unconstrained by routine observations of particle number and size, which are both critical metrics for assessing the impact of aerosol particles on visibility and human health.. ...
This service provides low vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm10 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Mace Head, Ireland (20120610 - 20130209). The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database ( ...
This service provides high vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm2p5 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Schauinsland, Germany (20131231 - 20161231). The observations contain level 2 data. The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database ( ...
A new IITRI poster presented at the recent ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases 2016 meeting is now available. In this poster, Winston Lin and colleagues describe the development of an aerosol model of infection for _B anthracis_ in rabbits using a modified 64-port inhalation nose-only exposure chamber with nebulizers. This platform produced consistent spray factors across concentrations. And, with capability for up to 8 rabbits, the platform potentially reduces variability in aerosol concentration delivery and minimizes the number of runs needed for a therapeutic or vaccine study.
The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol ...
Aerosol particles have important effects on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related activities, and organic compounds are known to constitute a significant fraction of ambient aerosol mass in many locations. Yet, large uncertainties remain in quantifying the chemical composition and atmospheric transformations of these aerosols, especially with respect to organic particulate matter. Particularly lacking are real-time, size-resolved, quantitative instruments for the identification, speciation, and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols. An innovative thermal desorption, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer recently has been developed with capabilities that can fill a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition data on aerosol particles. This project will develop and demonstrate a light scattering module for this instrument, which will enable full characterization of ...
The present invention relates to an aerosol formulation containing: a) a liquefied propellant gas or propellant gas mixture from the group of alternative propellant gases which contain no chlorine atoms which can be split off; b) a non-ionic surfactant from the group of monoacetylated or diacetylated monoglycerides of the MYVACET series; c) a pharmaceutical agent or a combination of agents and, if necessary, d) other conventional pharmaceutical ancillary substances which are suitable for aerosol formulations. The aerosol formulation can be used, in particular, in inhalation therapy for the treatment of diseases of the upper airways such as asthma or rhinitis.
Author(s): Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W | Abstract: Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also
Publication: McMurry, P. H., H. Takano and G. R. Anderson, 1983, A Study of the Ammonia (Gas)-Sulfuric Acid (Aerosol) Reaction Rate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 17:347-351. Mozurkewich, M., P.H. McMurry, A. Gupta, and J.G. Calvert, 1987, Measurements of HO2 Mass Accommodation Coefficients on Moist Aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 92:4163-4170. Tao, Ye and P.H. McMurry, 1989, Vapor Pressures and Surface Free Energies of C14-C18 Monocarboxylic Acids and C5 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23:1519-1523 Kelly, W.P. and P.H. McMurry, 1992,Measurement of Particle Density by Inertial Classification of DMA-generated Monodisperse Aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 17: 199-121. Gupta, A., D. Tang, and P.H. McMurry, 1995 Growth of Monodisperse, Submicron Aerosol Particles Exposed to SO2, H2O2, and NH3, J. Atmospheric Chemistry, 20:117-139. Ziemann, P. J. and P. H. McMurry, 1998, Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles, Aerosol ...
US EPA - Label Review Manual - Chapter 9: Physical or ...- aerosol can insecticide mexico pdf free ,Sep 09, 2012·Flashback occurs when the flame is drawn back toward the aerosol can by the stream of propellant. This would indicate an extremely flammable product. The products flash point is shown on the Confidential Statement of Formula (CSF) and should be expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and the equivalent in degrees Celsius (°C).Dy-Mark Line Marking All Colours AerosolP211 Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source. P251 Pressurized container: Do not pierce or burn, even after use. P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. P261 Avoid breathing mist/vapours/spray. P273 Avoid release to the environment. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aerosol-induced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E unresponsiveness to ovalbumin does not require CD8+ or T cell receptor (TCR)-γ/δ+ T cells or interferon (IFN)-γ in a murine model of allergen sensitization. AU - Seymour, Brian W P. AU - Gershwin, Laurel J. AU - Coffman, Robert L.. PY - 1998/3/2. Y1 - 1998/3/2. N2 - Mice expressed for 20 min daily to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) for 10 d at concentrations from 1 to 0.01% OVA made greatly reduced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E responses to subsequent immunogenic OVA challenges, given either intraperitoneally or aerosol. This IgE-specific unresponsiveness lasted for at least four months. However, these aerosol-treated mice were primed for larger OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses. The specific reduction in IgE responses was not due to preferential induction of a T helper (Th)-1 response as aerosol OVA-primed mice made greatly reduced Th2 and no detectable Th1 response after rechallenge in vitro. Consistent with this, the increase in circulating ...
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Aerosol paint and cleaning products can certainly make at-home projects easier to deal with, but these products are often highly flammable and can create unexpected hazards around your home.
As material costs continue to rise, companies need to reduce operating costs while maintaining high quality standards. To ensure that every aerosol can produced is within specifications, it is important to use accurate and repeatable measurement instruments that can monitor the product quality, locate any potential problems, record the measurement data and predict future trends.. Analog-based testers are no longer sufficient in todays competitive environment. These gauges wont tell you which side of the can buckled first, and they cant monitor all three pressure points in one run (the two buckling pressures and the burst pressure). If you want to record and analyze the data, you need to write down each measurement and enter the data manually in to an SPC program.. Quality By Visions new Aerosol Buckle & Burst Tester is an accurate, user friendly and affordable system that automatically measures, analyzes and records all pressure points on any size aerosol can. The system displays the ...
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More realistic device testing in the lab can save valuable time on clinical trials. A research team at Virginia Commonwealth University s School of Pharmacy led by Peter Byron and Michael Hindle is using realistic mouth, throat, and airway models, coupled with the realistic breathing profiles of the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator to investigate the relationship between in vitro experimental aerosol drug deposition and in vivo drug deposition behavior in patients. Read the full story.. ...
Earths radiation budget is affected by new particle formation (NPF) and the growth of these nanometre-scale particles to larger sizes where they can directly scatter light or act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of nucleation (less than 10 nm diameter) and Aitken (10- 60 nm diameter) mode particles. Acquiring size-distribution measurements of these particles over large regions of the free troposphere is most easily accomplished with research aircraft.. We report on the design and performance of an airborne instrument, the nucleation mode aerosol size spectrometer (NMASS), which provides size-selected aerosol concentration measurements that can be differenced to identify aerosol properties and processes or inverted to obtain a full size distribution between 3 and 60 nm. By maintaining constant downstream pressure the instrument operates reliably over a large range of ambient pressures and during rapid changes in ...
Boy with aerosol inhaler. Male child demonstrating the correct use of an inhaler device. The pressurised aerosol inhaler is as effective and convenient method of giving a bronchodilator for mild to moderate asthma. The drug is delivered to the lungs, where it widens the airways. The technique is to inhale slowly and hold the breath for 10 seconds before breathing out. A good seal must be made around the nozzle with the lips. The patient needs to be well co-ordinated and compliant. The device is not suitable for achildren under the age of eighteen months. - Stock Image M109/0029
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR ( The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol particles are produced from natural and anthropogenic sources, through a variety of different process that include; wind-blown suspension, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. Due to this complexity the instrumentation used to analysis these particles must have the ability to separate based on size and in real-time provide information on their chemical composition. To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability ...
Abstract. This study evaluates the potential of using aerosol optical depth (τa) measurements to characterise the microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. With this aim, we used the recently developed GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) code for numerical testing of six different aerosol models with different aerosol loads. The direct numerical simulations (self-consistency tests) indicate that the GRASP-AOD retrieval provides modal aerosol optical depths (fine and coarse) to within 0.01 of the input values. The retrieval of the fine-mode radius, width and volume concentration are stable and precise if the real part of the refractive index is known. The coarse-mode properties are less accurate, but they are significantly improved when additional a priori information is available. The tests with random simulated errors show that the uncertainty in the bimodal log-normal size distribution parameters increases as the aerosol load decreases. ...
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Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources from pollution, dust, and biomass burning. The 8-year, global averaged total aerosol optical depth (τ ), absorption optical depth (τa ), and single scattering albedo (ω) at 550 nm are estimated at 0.14, 0.0086, and 0.95, respectively, with sulfate making the largest fraction of τ (37%), followed by dust (30%), sea salt (16%), organic matter (OM) (13%), and black carbon (BC) (4%). BC and dust account for 43% and 53% of τa , respectively. From a model experiment with tagged sources, natural aerosols are estimated to be 58% of τ and 53% of τa , with pollution and biomass burning aerosols to share the rest. Comparing with data from the surface sunphotometer network AERONET, the model tends to reproduce much better the AERONET direct measured data of τ and the Angström exponent ...
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Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particle matter (PM) with significant effects on the global radiation budget and on human health. The soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) has been developed and deployed for real-time ambient measurements of refractory carbon particles. In the SP-AMS, black carbon or metallic particles are vaporized through absorption of 1064 nm light from a CW Nd:YAG laser. This scheme allows for continuous soft vaporization of both core and coating materials. The main focus of this work is to characterize the extent to which this vaporization scheme provides enhanced chemical composition information about aerosol particles. This information is difficult to extract from standard SP-AMS mass spectra because they are complicated by extensive fragmentation from the harsh 70 eV EI ionization scheme that is typically used in these instruments. Thus, in this work synchotron-generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light in the 8-14 eV range is ...
Theme: Basic processes. Start date: Cohort 1: 2019. Supervisors: Dr Bryan Bzdek (Bristol) and Dr Matthew Watson (Bristol). The surface tension of atmospheric aerosols impacts their ability to serve as cloud droplet seeds and affect climate. This project will develop approaches to measure droplet surface tensions and better resolve dynamics at the particle surface, working closely with modellers.. Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by direct scattering or absorption of solar radiation and indirectly, by serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and forming cloud droplets. Atmospheric aerosols provide the largest negative radiative forcing, whilst remaining as the contribution with the largest uncertainty. The surface properties of atmospheric aerosol are crucial due to their high surface-to-volume ratios, whilst determining the fraction of atmospheric aerosol that may form cloud droplets. Most climate models still assume that activating CCN have a surface tension equivalent to pure ...
Abstract. Carbon cycling in the Amazon is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity, were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance, f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) ...
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|p|The LPS 01820 is a solvent degreaser with a container type of aerosol can.|/p||b|The LPS 01820 Features: |/b||br||ul||li|Heavy-duty solvent|/li||li|Instant degreasing action|/li||li|Quickly removes grease and oil|/li||li|Power blast spray|/li||li|Fast evaporating|/li||li|Safe to use on most surfaces|/li||li|Ideal for cleaning metals and most plastics|/li||li|No residue|/li||li|Non-chlorinated|/li||li|NEW-Environmentally friendly aerosol can contains greater than 50% recycled steel|br||/ul||b|The LPS 01820 Specifications: |/b||br||ul||li| Brand: EFX®|li| Product Type: Degreaser|li| Color: Colorless|li| Primary Color: Clear|li| Physical Form: Liquid|li| Container Size: 15oz|li| Container Type: Aerosol Can|li| Chemical Composition: Heptane, Acetone, Isopropanol, Carbon Dioxide|li| Material Compatibility: Metal Plastic|li| Odor: Characteristic|li| Solubility (Yes/No): Yes|li| Removes: Grease Oil|li| Flash Point: 21.2°F|li| Specific Gravity: 0.65 to 0.68|li| Viscosity: |3cSt|li| VOCs Content: 100%|li|
Hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols is essential to understand effect of aerosols on cloud formation by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which leads to climate change with cloud albedo effect. Also, hygroscopic property of particles is important to determine their transport behaviors and fates in the ambient atmosphere and to understnd their deposition pattern in the human respiratory system when they were inhaled. This book describes a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system in details to measure hygroscopic property of atmospheric aerosols in real time by measuring particle size change at an increased relative humidity. (Imprint: Novinka). ...
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An optimization algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water cloud properties including cloud optical depth (COD), droplet size distribution and cloud top height (CTH), and above-cloud aerosol properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo, and microphysical properties from sweep-mode observations by Jet Propulsion Laboratorys Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) instrument. The retrieval is composed of three major steps: (1) initial estimate of the mean droplet size distribution across the entire image of 80-100 km along track by 10-25 km across track from polarimetric cloudbow observations, (2) coupled retrieval of image-scale cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties by fitting the polarimetric data at all observation angles, and (3) iterative retrieval of 1-D radiative transfer-based COD and droplet size distribution at pixel scale (25 m) by establishing relationships between COD and droplet size and fitting the total radiance measurements. ...
1 Aerosol Can of Matched Honda Cloud Silver PPG DBC Paint. This is a 2-stage paint and will require clear over the top. This particular color was used on many of the Honda SL Motorsport series bikes and also on the CT70 and Z50 Wheels. Also used on early Honda Scrambler Fenders and Tanks. Over the years, I have matched many of the original colors from Vintage Motorcycles and I have the process to put a high quality automotive grade paint into an aerosol can. Many of these colors are true Candy and will require a base color as the Candy Dye is Semi-Transparent and uses the base color to create the effect. This is exactly the same paint products that we utilize in our paint shop. I create the cans of paint upon order and if you order by end of day on Friday I ship the following week. This ensures that the paint is fresh and ready to shoot.. Unfortunately I have no way to ship paint supplies out of the country. It is illegal to ship them with the USPS.. DISCLAIMER: I have bought many NOS parts ...
Eighteen children suffering from hay fever were treated with intra-nasal beclomethasone dipropionate (400 mug/day) and an identical placebo aerosol in a double-blind cross-over trial. 17 of the children preferred the intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate, one had no preference, none preferred the placebo. The effect on the nasal symptoms was impressive. Symptom scores decreased, on average, to 12% and the number of antihistamine tablets taken to 18% of the pretreatment amount. Some beneficial effect on eye symptoms was also discernible, possibly due to an indirect influence from the nasal mucosa via the nasolacrimal reflex. Adrenal function was not affected. It was concluded that 400 mug beclomethasone dipropionate given intranasally daily for some weeks is an effective and safe treatment for hay fever in children.. ...
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Nano particles have been sized based on their electrical mobility. This is not efficient because most of the nano particles are electrically neutral. Measuring the particle size distribution typically consist of detecting size selected particles with an aerosol particle detector such as Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). This is also the working principle of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The particles are first neutralized to a known charge distribution, then they are selected according to their electrical mobility after which they are counted with a CPC. From the electrical mobility one can calculate so called mobility diameter of the particle.. Measuring the sub 5 nm particle size distribution is really challenging. In the resent years the CPC technology has been developed really intensively and thus the detection of particles as small as 1 nm in diameter is now possible (Iida et al. 2009, Vanhanen et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2011). The most challenging part of the size distributions ...
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0054] The following parameters of the particles emitted by a pressurized MDI may be determined: [0055] i) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) is the diameter around which the mass aerodynamic diameters of the emitted particles are distributed equally; [0056] ii) delivered dose is calculated from the cumulative deposition in the ACI, divided by the number of actuations per experiment; [0057] iii) respirable dose (fine particle dose=FPD) is obtained from the deposition from Stages 3 (S3) to filter (AF) of the ACI, corresponding to particles of diameter ≦4.7 microns, divided by the number of actuations per experiment; [0058] iv) respirable fraction (fine particle fraction=FPF) which is the percent ratio between the respirable dose and the delivered dose; and [0059] v) superfine dose is obtained from the deposition from Stages 6 (S6) to filter, corresponding to particles of diameter 1.1 microns, divided by the number of actuations per experiment ...
In the context of the international experimental campaign Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD, 15 May to 22 June 2014), dry aerosol size distributions were measured at Demokritos station (DEM) using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) in the size range from 10 to 550 nm (electrical mobility diameter), and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC model Grimm 107 operating at the laser wavelength of 660 nm) to acquire the particle size distribution in the size range of 250 nm to 2.5 μm optical diameter. This work describes a method that was developed to align size distributions in the overlapping range of the SMPS and the OPC, thus allowing us to retrieve the real part of the aerosol equivalent refractive index (ERI). The objective is to show that size distribution data acquired at in situ measurement stations can provide an insight to the physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles, leading to better understanding of aerosol impact on human health and earth radiative balance. The
VERMA, S.; BOUCHER, O.; UPADHYAYA, H. C. and SHARMA, O. P.. Variations in sulphate aerosols concentration during winter monsoon season for two consecutive years using a general circulation model. Atmósfera [online]. 2013, vol.26, n.3, pp.359-367. ISSN 0187-6236.. During the field cruises of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) extensive measurements on the atmospheric chemical and aerosol composition are undertaken to study the long-range transport of air pollution from south and southeast Asia towards the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in 1998 and 1999. The present paper discusses the temporal and spatial variations in aerosols and aerosol forcing during the winter monsoon season (January-March) for INDOEX first field phase (FFP) in 1998 and INDOEX intensive field phase (IFP) in 1999. An interactive chemistry/aerosol model (LMDZ.3.3) is used to investigate the variation in the spatial distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosols during 1998 and 1999. The model results depict ...
Aitken, J.: XVI - The Sun as a Fog Producer, P. R. Soc. Edin., 32, 183-215,, 1912. Cai, R. and Jiang, J.: A new balance formula to estimate new particle formation rate: reevaluating the effect of coagulation scavenging, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659-12675,, 2017. Cai, R., Chen, D.-R., Hao, J., and Jiang, J.: A miniature cylindrical differential mobility analyzer for sub-3 nm particle sizing, J. Aerosol Sci., 106, 111-119,, 2017a. Cai, R., Yang, D., Fu, Y., Wang, X., Li, X., Ma, Y., Hao, J., Zheng, J., and Jiang, J.: Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327-12340,, 2017b. Chandra, I., Kim, S., Seto, T., Otani, Y., Takami, A., Yoshino, A., Irei, S., Park, K., Takamura, T., Kaneyasu, N., and Hatakeyama, S.: New particle formation under the ...
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Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We
AZT prolongs survival in patients with AIDS and decreases the occurrence of opportunistic infections such as PCP. However, PCP recurs in about 43 percent of patients receiving AZT, indicating a need for other treatments to reduce the relapse rate.. The two medications to be tested in this study, SMX/TMP and aerosolized PEN, have also been partially effective in preventing recurrence of PCP. It is hoped that the combination of AZT with these medications will be more effective than AZT or one of the medications alone.. Patients receive the standard dose of AZT at study entry. Low body weight patients receive AZT at a lower dose. Patients are randomly assigned to one of two medications intended to prevent the recurrence of PCP. Patients assigned to SMX/TMP will take 1 capsule which contains both drugs once a day for 1 year. Patients assigned to PEN will have 1 aerosol treatment every 4 weeks for 1 year. Blood will be drawn at intervals in order to estimate blood levels of the drugs and to detect ...
AZT prolongs survival in patients with AIDS and decreases the occurrence of opportunistic infections such as PCP. However, PCP recurs in about 43 percent of patients receiving AZT, indicating a need for other treatments to reduce the relapse rate.. The two medications to be tested in this study, SMX/TMP and aerosolized PEN, have also been partially effective in preventing recurrence of PCP. It is hoped that the combination of AZT with these medications will be more effective than AZT or one of the medications alone.. Patients receive the standard dose of AZT at study entry. Low body weight patients receive AZT at a lower dose. Patients are randomly assigned to one of two medications intended to prevent the recurrence of PCP. Patients assigned to SMX/TMP will take 1 capsule which contains both drugs once a day for 1 year. Patients assigned to PEN will have 1 aerosol treatment every 4 weeks for 1 year. Blood will be drawn at intervals in order to estimate blood levels of the drugs and to detect ...
An in-line heater for an aerosol delivery system has an elongated tubular electrically insulated plastic body having first and second ends coaxially aligned along the major axis of the tubular body. The first and second ends contain an aerosol inlet and outlet, respectively. The plastic body has an unrestricted flow passage therein from the first to the second end and a self supporting electrically conductive spiral mesh heating element loosely fills the flow passageway within the body. The mesh heating element has a very low mass so as to be almost instantaneously responsive and extends across the space between the side walls of the flow passage to maximize the surface area thereof exposed to the aerosol mixture flowing through the passage. First and second terminals are adjacent the first and second housing ends, respectively, and are connected to the ends of the spiral mesh heating elements by a pair of crimped connector plates. Each terminal is disposed in a terminal housing having an internally
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Solid oxide fuel cells need a diffusion barrier layer to protect the zirconia-based electrolyte if a cobalt-containing cathode material like lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) is used. This protective layer must prevent the direct contact and interdiffusion of both components while still retaining the oxygen ion transport. Gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) meets these requirements. However, for a favorable cell performance, oxide ion conducting films that are thin yet dense are required. Films with a thickness in the sub-micrometer to micrometer range were produced by the dry room temperature spray-coating technique, aerosol deposition. Since commercially available GDC powders are usually optimized for the sintering of screen printed films or pressed bulk samples, their particle morphology is nanocrystalline with a high surface area that is not suitable for aerosol deposition. Therefore, different thermal and mechanical powder pretreatment procedures were investigated and linked to the ...
Ocean color remote sensing is an important tool to monitor water quality and biogeochemical conditions of ocean. Atmospheric correction, which obtains water-leaving radiance from the total radiance measured by satellite-borne or airborne sensors, remains a challenging task for coastal waters due to the complex optical properties of aerosols and ocean waters. In this paper, we report a research algorithm on aerosol and ocean color retrieval with emphasis on coastal waters, which uses coupled atmosphere and ocean radiative transfer model to fit polarized radiance measurements at multiple viewing angles and multiple wavelengths. Ocean optical properties are characterized by a generalized bio-optical model with direct accounting for the absorption and scattering of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles (NAP). Our retrieval algorithm can accurately determine the water-leaving radiance and aerosol properties for coastal waters, and may be used to improve the ...
Aerosol particles strongly influence global climate by modifying the properties of clouds. An accurate assessment of the aerosol impact on climate requires knowledge of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), a subset of aerosol particles that can activate and form cloud droplets in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particles typically consist of a myriad of organic species, which frequently dominate the particle composition. As a result, CCN concentration is often a strong function of the hygroscopicity of organics in the particles. Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases nearly linearly with oxidation level. Such an increase in hygroscopicity is conventionally attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for the majority of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, for droplet activation, the ...
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The TSI AeroTrak® Remote Particle Counter Model 7301 offers the most features and flexibility out of any remote particle counter on the market today. Integration is easy using either Ethernet (TCP/IP) or Serial Modbus RTU communications. The instrument can be powered over its Ethernet connection (Power-over-Ethernet) to simplify installation, or via a local power supply. Configuration can be done locally with a PC or via a web browser.. This particle counter can also store up to 3,000 sample records providing data redundancy. The instrument reports up to 4 particle sizes simultaneously and other key information such as laser current, background light level, date of last calibration, serial number, and date of manufacture for easy warranty management.. Digital calibration allows for consistency when managing a large number of instruments. With the optional Temp/RH sensor, users can save cabling and powering a separate sensor into a monitoring or building automation system. The AeroTrak Remote ...
Data & statistics on Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels: Particle size distributions of two different particle size fuels., Particle size distribution (PSD) for different fuels at 7.0 MPa (a) and 10.2 MPa (b) injection pressure. Averaged over run times and time span when particle is detectable., Relative effects of a thermodenuder and different temperature conditions on the size-number 12 distribution (ELPI - greased sintered plates - sample from the CVS - secondary dilution ( x 10 ) with N2) of Diesel exhaust particles as measured over an hot NEDC test cycle ( Euro 3 - Common Rail Turbocharged Diesel car - Fuel : 270 ppm S ). The total particle numbers are drastically affected by the 13 presence ......
The most versatile of TSI Particle Counters, AeroTrak® Portable Particle Counters are designed to save time and money. They provide real-time cleanroom particle counting in an easy-to-use, reliable instrument. Built-in global regulatory guidance and international standards, such as ISO-14644-1, EU GMP Annex 1, and FS209E, make cleanroom classification testing simple.. All TSI AeroTrak Portable Particle Counters include:. ...
Aerosolization of mist from metalworking fluids (MWFs) has been well characterized in previous studies. Much less is known about the aerosolization of microorganisms, although airborne microbial exposures at MWF sites have been associated with occupational respiratory symptoms and diseases. In this study, the effects of fluid type, microorganism concentration in the liquid, and the microbial species on the aerosolization of microorganisms from MWFs were tested. Three microorganisms were employed to represent different size and surface characteristics:Bacillus subtilisbacterial endospores (hydrophobic particles with aerodynamic diameter=0.9ìm),Pseudomonas fluorescensbacterial vegetative cells (hydrophilic, 0.8ìm), andPenicillium meliniifungal spores (hydrophobic, 3.1ìm). The testing was first performed using a Collison nebulizer to aerosolize microorganisms from three fluids: water, semisynthetic MWF, and soluble oil. No significant difference in the aerosolization ratio (microbial ...
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Stop squeaks, remove adhesives, loosen rust and do so much more with this multipurpose lubricant. Permanently attached Smart Straw® enables you to protect, clean and lubricate thousands of items without losing the straw. Multi-action nozzle delivers either a precision stream or regular spray. Application: Gears; Hinges; Moving Parts; Sliding Doors; Tools; Applicable Material: Glass; Metal; Plastic; Rubber; Wood; Capacity (Volume): 12 oz; Packing Type: Aerosol Can.
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Stratospheric sulfate aerosols[edit]. Caldeira and Wood analysed the effect of climate engineering in the Arctic using ... In addition, other solar radiation management climate engineering techniques, such as stratospheric sulfate aerosols[2] have ... stratospheric sulfate aerosols.[13] This technique is not specific to the Arctic region. He found that At high latitudes, there ...
Aerosol cans[edit]. This chart compares the greatest sources of plastic waste, with packaging largely at the forefront of the ... Products that are packaged in aerosol cans contain a chemical known as propellant gas.[11] Almost always, this propellant gas ... The EPA cautions against buying anything with packaging that utilizes aerosol sprays or wasteful abundance of packaging.[7] ... As aforementioned, products packaged in aerosol cans currently contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which damages the ozone ...
... it can nucleate aerosol particles and provide a surface for aerosol growth via condensation and coagulation with other water- ... sulfuric acid aerosols. This results in the stratospheric aerosol layer.[24] Extraterrestrial sulfuric acid[edit]. The ... Stratospheric aerosol[edit]. In the stratosphere, the atmosphere's second layer that is generally between 10 and 50 km above ... Heat generated in this thin layer of water can boil, leading to the dispersal of a sulfuric acid aerosol or worse, an explosion ...
Aerosols are diluted creams dispensed from pressurized cans with the aid of hydrocarbon propellants (up to about 10%). The ... Aerosol shaving creams are basically lather shaving cream in liquid form with propellants, vegetable waxes, and various oils ... Different types of shaving creams include aerosol shaving cream (also known as shaving foam), latherless shaving cream (also ... "Cost and Emission Reduction Analysis of HFC Emissions from Aerosols in the United States" (PDF). United States Environmental ...
Boucher, Olivier (2015). "Stratospheric Aerosols". Atmospheric Aerosols. Springer Netherlands. p. 279. doi:10.1007/978-94-017- ... Ash and aerosols might have impacted humans and corals at large distances from the eruption. There are several estimates of the ... Such sulfate aerosols in the case of the Samalas eruption may have remained at high concentrations for about three years ... The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, cooling the atmosphere for ...
"Asian Young Aerosol Scientist Award". Asian Aerosol Research Assembly. 2016. "Weekly Report for the Week of December 17, 2007 ... Three awards reached him in 2007, Asian Young Aerosol Scientist Award of the Asian Aerosol Research Assembly (AARA), Japan, ... "Aerosols polluting skies over Indian Ocean?". The Hindu. 6 May 2000.[dead link] "The play of environmental politics". Frontline ... He is known for his studies on atmospheric aerosols and is an elected fellow of all the three major Indian science academies ...
Clouds and aerosols continue to contribute the largest uncertainty to estimates and interpretations of the Earth's changing ... "Clouds and Aerosols. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth ...
The aerosols boundary. The ocean acidification boundary. The ozone layer boundary. Rockström, J; Steffen, WL; et al. (2009), " ...
Kellogg, William W. (1980). "Aerosols and Climate." In Interactions of Energy and Climate, edited by W. Bach et al., pp. 281-96 ... 1975). "Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on the Global Climate." In Proceedings of the WMO/IAMAP Symposium on Long-Term ...
Johnson, G. R.; Morawska, L. (2009). "The Mechanism of Breath Aerosol Formation". Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary ... "Microbe-laden aerosols" (PDF). Microbiology Today (November 2005). Archived from the original (PDF 217 KB) on 2007-10-14. ... Dusty materials tend to produce aerosols with high number concentrations, which poses higher exposure risks to the workers who ... Tang, J. W.; Settles, G. S. (2008). "Coughing and Aerosols". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (15): e19. doi:10.1056/ ...
McGraw, R. (1997). "Description of Aerosol Dynamics by the Quadrature Method of Moments". Aerosol Sci. Technol. 27 (2): 255-265 ... Agranovski, Igor (2011). Aerosols: Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 492. ISBN 978-3527632084. Danov, Krassimir D ... Aerosol Sci. 36 (1): 43-73. Bibcode:2005JAerS..36...43M. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.07.009. Yu, M.; Lin, J.; Chan, T. (2008 ... coalescence of aerosols, emulsication, flocculation. The distribution of particle size changes in time according to the ...
... but they also release sulphates that enter the atmosphere as aerosols. These aerosols can cause the atmosphere to cool by ... "Just 5 questions: Aerosols". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved 2020-01-17. Snedden, Robert (2012). The ... Unger has studied the role of ozone and aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance, and the feedback between air quality and ... Whilst these two processes cause global warming, isoprene can also produce aerosol particles that block sunlight, resulting in ...
ISBN 978-3-540-67420-7. R. Sinreich; U. Frieß; T. Wagner; S. Yilmaz; U. Platt (2008). "Retrieval of Aerosol Distributions by ... Multi-Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)". Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols. pp. 1145-1149. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Aerosol Physics & Environmental Physics » Black and Brown Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols". Retrieved ... Aerosols are one of the most important contributors to climate change in the atmosphere. Many of the particles suspended in the ... Light absorbing aerosols have become an interest of study because of its effects on atmospheric warming. While the function of ... Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. A lot of these nanoparticles cause severe health effects in addition ...
Among common marine aerosols, pure sea salt aerosols are the major component of marine aerosols with an annual global emission ... anthropogenic aerosols-those made by human activities-currently account for about 10 percent of the total mass of aerosols in ... The majority of marine aerosols are created through the bubble bursting of breaking waves and capillary action on the ocean ... Through interactions with water, many marine aerosols help to scatter light, and aid in cloud condensation and ice nuclei (IN ...
Renner, Rebecca (June 2008). "Aerosols complicate PFOA picture". Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (11): 3908. Bibcode:2008EnST... ...
Means for sampling and analyses of aerosols. Radioactive aerosols in lungs]. Preprint 06-6 (in Russian). Chernobyl: National ... The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 led to an urgent need for protection of workers from radioactive aerosols. Approximately ... Janssen, Larry; Bidwell, Jeanne (2007). "Performance of a Full Facepiece, Air-Purifying Respirator Against Lead Aerosols in a ... Ogorodnikov, Boris; Pasukhin, Edward (2006). "[Respiratory protective devices]" (PDF). [Radioactive aerosols of the object " ...
... s (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into ...
In 1978, a first ban on CFC-based aerosols in spray cans was issued in the United States. The actual production did however not ... Barringer, Felicity (March 12, 2012). "F. Sherwood Rowland, 84, Dies; Raised Alarm Over Aerosols". The New York Times. ...
E. K. Athanassiou, Evagelos K.; R. N. Grass; W. J. Stark (2010). "Chemical Aerosol Engineering as a Novel Tool for Material ... Science: From Oxides to Salt and Metal Nanoparticles". Aerosol. Sci. Tech. 44 (2): 161-72. Bibcode:2010AerST..44..161A. doi: ...
... to aerosols, which are small particles or droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Key sources to which anthropogenic aerosols are ... Geerts, B. "Aerosols and Climate".[verification needed] "CO 2 is making Earth greener-for now". NASA. Retrieved 28 February ... Aerosols produced are primarily black carbon. industrial air pollution, which produces soot and airborne sulfates, nitrates, ... Other human effects are relevant-for example, sulphate aerosols are believed to have a cooling effect. Natural factors also ...
... they could still be used to validate global aerosol climatologies. They found that most aerosol climatologies underestimated ... Much of the arctic aerosol comes from south Asia. Countries such as the United States and Russia have a lower contribution than ... This is because CO2 warming is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted with fossil fuel burning and because at that time non ... Menon, S., J.E. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo (2002). "Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India" (PDF). ...
Rare transmission (aerosols, food, water). No illness presented in people who were/are not exposed to "common ventilation ... First, it forms hardy spores, perfect for dispersal aerosols. Second, this organism is not considered transmissible from person ...
... and Vertical Distribution of the Sea-Salt Aerosol". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 338 (1 Aerosols): 330-347. ... Sea spray contains both organic matter and inorganic salts that form sea salt aerosol (SSA). SSA has the ability to form cloud ... Sea spray refers to aerosol particles that are formed directly from the ocean, mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by ... Gantt, Brett; Meskhidze, Nicholas (2013). "The physical and chemical characteristics of marine primary organic aerosol: a ...
"Are aerosols reducing coastal drizzle and increasing cloud cover?". 2005-06-30. Retrieved 2013-08-25.. ... ISBN 978-1-4053-8461-2. "Can Aerosols Influence Weather Patterns?". Texas A&M Today. 2018-01-22. Retrieved 2019-05-24. " ... that the representation of the chemical and physical processes needed to accurately simulate the interaction between aerosols, ...
She hypothesised that aerosol coagulation and division permitted organics to form a surfactant layer on top of the aerosol and ... She is an expert in environmental chemistry and aerosols. Vaida was born in Bucharest. Her parents were from Transylvania and ... Her group began to study organic films at aerosol water-air interfaces, using surface reflection infrared spectroscopy to ... Ellison, G. Barney; Tuck, Adrian F.; Vaida, Veronica (1999). "Atmospheric processing of organic aerosols". Journal of ...
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Rubin BK (1996). "Therapeutic aerosols and airway secretions". Journal of Aerosol Medicine. 9 (1 ...
"The charging of radioactive aerosols". Journal of Aerosol Science. 23 (5): 481-504. Bibcode:1992JAerS..23..481C. doi:10.1016/ ...
Other names for cream sold in an aerosol can are as squirty cream, spray cream, or aerosol cream. A common brand in the United ... Aerosol Cream". Staple Food Group. Retrieved 2020-11-21. "Aerosol Cream". CooksInfo. Retrieved 2020-11-21. Jules Gouffée et al ... It may be sold frozen in plastic tubs (e.g., Cool Whip), or in aerosol containers or in liquid form in cartons, reminiscent of ... Whipped cream may also be made instantly in a aerosol can or in a whipping siphon with a whipped-cream charger. A gas dissolves ...
2005). "A prototype prophylactic anti-influenza preparation in aerosol form on the basis of Abies sibirica polyprenols". J. ... Aerosol. Med. 18 (1): 55-62. doi:10.1089/jam.2005.18.55. PMID 15741774. Eggens I.; Elmberger P.G. (1990). "Studies of the ...
The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of tiny particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or ... Aerosols and Health Effects. Aerosol 101: Helpful Tutorials. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols)pdf icon. ... Journal of Aerosol Research, Japanexternal icon. Journal of Aerosol Scienceexternal icon. Journal of Aerosols in Medicine ... Aerosol-related links page.. Aerosol Calculatorexternal icon. A downloadable spreadsheet for calculating aerosol properties and ...
... can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade.. Some aerosols, particularly sulfate aerosols from fossil fuel ... Aerosols have a great effect on climate but little is known about them. What are aerosols? In this case they are tiny particles ... To better understand aerosols role in climate, the DOEs climate research program studies how aerosol particles in the air ... From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate ...
Aerosol Measurement Research. Project Officer: Paul Baron. *Co-edited a book entitled Aerosol Measurements: Principles, ... Estimation of the relationship between aerosol mass and surface area during ultrafine aerosol generation ... Tracer gas or aerosol experiments are being performed in a room sized chamber to obtain concentration fields for comparison ... This sampler meets the ACGIH/CEN/ISO respirable aerosol sampling convention and has a sampling rate of nearly two and a half ...
What do aerosols do to climate?. Aerosols influence climate in two primary ways: by changing the amount of heat that gets in or ... What are aerosols?. The term aerosol is a catch-all for many kinds of little bits of stuff that end up suspended in the ... Spray paint cans like these use aerosols to propel the paint from the nozzle. Such human-made aerosols have complicated effects ... They happen because of aerosols, tiny particles that float in the air. Aerosols can be tiny droplets, dust particles, bits of ...
These aerosols caused acid rain and other environmental problems in the U.S. before factories in the 1970s were required to ... These aerosols also reflect incoming sunlight and so have a cooling effect on the surface in the industrial middle-latitudes ... These stratospheric aerosols dramatically change the reflectivity, and absorption profile of the upper atmosphere, causing the ... As a result, the projected disappearance of cooling aerosols in the decades ahead produces an especially large amount of ...
Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Aerosols play an important role in Earths climate. Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by ... Although most aerosols reflect sunlight, some also absorb it. An aerosols effect on light depends primarily on the composition ... Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up ...
Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Measuring Aerosols. Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to ... Values for most aerosols range from about 0.7 for very absorbing particles to 1 for aerosols that only scatter light. ... Aerosol optical depth is the fundamental measurement of quantity and distribution of aerosols. This map shows the average ...
... and dynamics of atmospheric aerosols, and the role of aerosols in climate. He is considered one of the founders of the field of ... Aerosols and Climate This video was recorded at MIT World Series: Hoyt C. Hottel Lecture Series. Professor Seinfeld is widely ... Aerosols and Climate is categorized in the following disciplines: * Science and Technology/Agriculture and Environmental ... You just viewed Aerosols and Climate. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosoler, definite plural ... From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosolar, definite plural ... Catalan: aerosol m. *Chinese: Mandarin: 氣霧劑 (zh), 气雾剂 (zh) (qìwùjì), 氣溶膠 (zh), 气溶胶 (zh) (qìróngjiāo), 煙霧質 (zh), 烟雾质 (zh) ( ... aerosol (plural aerosols). *A mixture of fine solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of ...
An aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) is a medical or health-care procedure that results in the production of airborne ... Aerosol-generating procedures include positive-pressure mechanical ventilation including BiPAP and continuous positive airway ... have been made that quantified the amount of aerosols produced by some AGPs and found that some AGPs generate less aerosols ... "What Is an Aerosol-Generating Procedure?". JAMA Surgery. 156 (2): 113. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.6643. ISSN 2168-6254.. ...
In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere (see above Aerosols), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain ... Consequently, aerosols from explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to affect Earths climate. Less-explosive eruptions ... Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions ... Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere. ...
Studying aerosols has not been easy. Because they are short-lived, they do not mix homogeneously around the planet, and so ... A THICK SOUP OF AEROSOL PARTICLESamong them sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon and fly ashfills the skies over ... According to a report that used INDOEX data and was published last month in Science, aerosols from man-made pollution may also ... "So as aerosols cut down sunlight by large amounts," Ramanathan explains, "they may be spinning down the hydrological cycle of ...
Learn more about our range of Fruity Aerosols ... Get quality Fruity Aerosols at Tesco. Shop in store or online. ... Add Airwick Air Freshener Aerosol Pure Cherry 250 Ml. Addadd Airwick Air Freshener Aerosol Pure Cherry 250 Ml to basket. ...
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Aerosol container, any package, usually a metal can or plastic bottle, designed to dispense its liquid contents as a mist or ... aerosol canAerosol can being sprayed.. © aida ricciardiello/ The most common type of aerosol container ... Aerosol propellants typically are compressed, liquefied volatile gases. Other aerosol ingredients are either suspended or ... Aerosol container, any package, usually a metal can or plastic bottle, designed to dispense its liquid contents as a mist or ...
aerosol dispenser, device designed to produce a fine spray of liquid or solid particles that can be suspended in a gas such as ... Freon was the most common aerosol propellant, but its use has been banned because it is believed to contribute to destruction ... These devices are more properly termed spray dispensers rather than aerosol dispensers because the particles of the dispersed ... substance are usually larger than the particles of a true aerosol (see colloid), such as a fog or a smoke. ...
The study of the mechanisms of formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols is of... ... Atmospheric aerosol is one of the most important factors affecting the Earths climatic and weather conditions. ... Ion-aerosol attachment coefficients and the steady-state charge distribution on aerosols in a bipolar ion environment. Aerosol ... Lushnikov, A.A., Kulmala, M.: Foreign aerosols in nucleating vapor. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 651 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. The timing of this paper is excellent, says Greg Carmichael, a ... Aerosols' complicated influence on our climate just got more threatening: they could make methane a more potent greenhouse ... Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's ... But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is ...
Purpose of Review We assess the current understanding of the state and behaviour of aerosols under pre-industrial conditions ... we need to understand whether low aerosol concentrations in the PI affected aerosol removal and hence fed back on the aerosol ... Natural aerosol emissions are a major source of uncertainty in PI aerosols [6], and we cannot assume they were the same as ... Aerosol Emissions in the Pre-industrial. Aerosol emissions in the PI would have been influenced by three factors: (i) natural ...
... ^ , January 10, 2013 , BEN JACKSON Posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:17 AM PST by ... KEYWORDS: aerosols; china; climatechange; globalwarming; globalwarminghoax; uk 1 posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:23 AM PST by Berlin_ ...
But sulphate aerosols are not the major aerosol component by particle mass or number. The lagest sources of aerosol mass are ... Aerosols are not smog: First they confuse aerosols with photochemical smog. Both are pollutants, but the first is dominated by ... The carbonaceous aerosol component typically dominants PM1 aerosol mass, see for example:. Zhang, Q. et al., Ubiquity and ... Your statement that "aerosols are not smog" is not correct. Aerosols are an important component of photochemical smog, forming ...
Thank you for this consideration to recognize the rationale of the diode laser as non-aerosol-generating and beneficial for ... The accompanying document, Rationale for Consideration of a Diode Laser for Adjunctive Non-Aerosol Management, and references ... We are communicating with you to provide solutions to aerosol production that can occur in the dental environment. ... Current devices utilized in dental operatories can create aerosols, with ultrasonics and high- speed handpieces producing more ...
NASA paints compelling picture of Earths aerosols. Posted Nov. 20 - Using satellite data collected over eight months, NASA ...
Aerosol Arts Spray Paint murals, tutorials, how to videos. Making the world a more colorful place and creating fun by utilizing ... Aerosol Arts Spray Paint murals, tutorials, how to videos. Making the world a more colorful place and creating fun by utilizing ...
"Nestosyl" Aerosol. Br Med J 1959; 2 doi: (Published 05 September 1959) Cite this as: ...
Maintenance and repair aerosol cleaning View all products In your world, execution is everything. Machines need to run smoothly ... 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners not only give you highly advanced cleaning technology, but theyre also flexible enough to meet new ... Every Novec aerosol cleaning product contains over 95% active solvent - for more cleaning power and more cleans per can - and ... All 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners are based on proprietary 3M solvent technology that pairs exceptional performance with a wide ...
High concentrations of aerosol particles are primarily to blame for the cloud. In addition to aerosols, the cloud contains ... Pollution Cloud Blamed on Aerosol. Spray cans may be helping to build something big over the Indian Ocean: a massive cloud of ... National Science Foundation-sponsored research project investigating how aerosol particles are transported through the ...
Thermodynamics, Aerosol, Clouds in the Arctic Atmosphere. Climate change is most pronounced in the Arctic. Long term ...
Aerosol science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the ... Aerosols Page Content. ​An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Examples of ... In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar ... Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and ...
  • A sneeze can carry the coronavirus pathogen in droplets and in aerosols - and they could land on a surface, making it a fomite. (
  • The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of tiny particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or fumes. (
  • Aerosols can be tiny droplets, dust particles, bits of fine black carbon, and other things, and as they float through the atmosphere they change the whole energy balance of the planet. (
  • Secondary" aerosols form when different things floating in the atmosphere-like organic compounds released by plants, liquid acid droplets, or other materials-crash together, culminating in a chemical or physical reaction. (
  • An aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) is a medical or health-care procedure that results in the production of airborne particles ( aerosols ) or respiratory droplets , which may be pathogenic . (
  • An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. (
  • We estimate that the observed decrease in cloud water offsets 29% of the global climate-cooling effect caused by aerosol-induced increases in the concentration of cloud droplets. (
  • By serving as seeds for cloud droplets, aerosols not only enhance the brightness of clouds, but may also alter their longevity and, locally, the precipitation they produce. (
  • The volatile propellant breaks up into droplets which then evaporate, creating an aerosol containing micronized drug that is inhaled into the lungs. (
  • One of the main ways the COVID-19 virus spreads is via respiratory aerosols and droplets. (
  • Humans produce aerosols and droplets by actions such as coughing, sneezing, shouting, and singing. (
  • While droplets fall out of the air quickly, aerosols can remain suspended in the air, travelling on air currents. (
  • In an aerosol, tiny particles act as small nuclei on which cloud droplets can form. (
  • Diseases can also spread by means of small droplets in the breath, also called aerosols (or sometimes bioaerosols). (
  • Its images reveal what is hidden to the naked eye: amounts and types of aerosols as well as the size of water droplets and ice particles inside clouds. (
  • Scientists have found that in addition to clearing out whatever business you've left behind, flushing a toilet can generate a cloud of aerosol droplets that rises nearly three feet. (
  • These vortices move upward and the centrifugal force pushes out about 6,000 tiny droplets and even tinier aerosol particles. (
  • Since these molecules are water soluble they may be administered directly to the lungs as aerosol droplets delivered by nebulizer. (
  • Aerosol transmission refers to the mixing of the virus with droplets in the air to form aerosols, which causes infection after inhalation, according to medical experts," Zeng Qun, deputy head of the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau, told China Daily on Saturday. (
  • Aerosols play an important role in Earth's climate. (
  • Climatologists describe these scattering and absorbing properties as the "direct effect" of aerosols on Earth's radiation field. (
  • Dark aerosols dramatically change the reflectivity of the Earth's surface when they land on snow. (
  • Satellites provide a critical global perspective for understanding how aerosols affect Earth's climate, but they are far from the only source of information. (
  • Consequently, aerosols from explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to affect Earth's climate . (
  • While in the stratosphere, volcanic sulfate aerosol actually absorbs longwave radiation emitted by Earth's surface, and absorption in the stratosphere tends to result in a cooling of the troposphere below. (
  • Atmospheric aerosol is one of the most important factors affecting the Earth's climatic and weather conditions. (
  • We hope that this short overview of the modern state of art in aerosol science will be of use to all those who are involved to the study of atmospheric processes that form the Earth's climate. (
  • The cooling of the Earth's climate through the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds offsets an unknown fraction of greenhouse gas warming. (
  • An increase in the amount of water inside liquid-phase clouds induced by aerosols, through the suppression of rain formation, has been postulated to lead to substantial cooling, which would imply that the Earth's surface temperature is highly sensitive to anthropogenic forcing. (
  • EarthCARE carries an instrument package, which includes a high-spectral resolution atmospheric lidar, to acquire vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols as well as radiances at the top of the atmosphere to improve our understanding of Earth's radiative balance. (
  • Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion and air quality. (
  • Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • As sunlight passes through the atmosphere, some aerosols scatter light back into space, cooling Earth's surface. (
  • Studying the hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles offers insights into their effect on the earth's radiative balance. (
  • The term aerosol is a catch-all for many kinds of little bits of stuff that end up suspended in the atmosphere, from the surface of the planet all the way to the edges of space. (
  • The key quantity they report is aerosol optical depth (AOD), a measure of the amount of light that aerosols scatter and absorb in the atmosphere (and generally prevent from reaching the surface). (
  • Satellite instruments such as CALIPSO can measure the distribution of aerosols in a vertical slice of the atmosphere. (
  • Through both experimental and theoretical studies, he has made numerous contributions to the knowledge of the chemistry of the urban atmosphere, the formation, growth, and dynamics of atmospheric aerosols, and the role of aerosols in climate. (
  • Some crude calculations in the early 1990s (based mainly on sulfates, because the only sufficient data available came from studies of acid rain) showed that aerosols could cool the atmosphere by back-scattering incoming solar radiation. (
  • But later studies suggested that aerosols could also warm the atmosphere through their effects on cloud cover and the behavior of less well studied components of pollution, such as soot. (
  • aerosol dispenser, device designed to produce a fine spray of liquid or solid particles that can be suspended in a gas such as the atmosphere. (
  • Studies show that the magnitude of anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing over the industrial period calculated by climate models is strongly affected by the abundance and properties of aerosols in the pre-industrial atmosphere. (
  • We review what is known about the microphysical, chemical, and radiative properties of aerosols in the pre-industrial atmosphere and the processes that control them. (
  • Although aerosol concentrations were lower in the pre-industrial atmosphere than today, model simulations show that relatively high aerosol concentrations could have been maintained over continental regions due to biogenically controlled new particle formation and wildfires. (
  • The abundance, properties, and distribution of aerosols in the pre-industrial (PI) atmosphere are important for climate for two reasons. (
  • With such a lack of observational constraint on models, it is important for simulations to be based on reliable information about aerosol and precursor gas emissions, as well as a comprehensive understanding of aerosol chemical and physical processes in the natural atmosphere. (
  • The scientists are members of INDOEX, a US$25 million, National Science Foundation-sponsored research project investigating how aerosol particles are transported through the atmosphere and how they affect climate change. (
  • It is now generally recognized that aerosols have substantial impact on the energy budget of the atmosphere, the formation of clouds and precipitation. (
  • Measuring the turbidity (or the reduction in the incoming light from the sun which is reported as a Aerosol Optical Depth) of the atmosphere above to estimate the aerosol mass from the surface to the top of the atmosphere is another widely used method. (
  • A rogue nation or corporation or really rich person or large volcano could release large amounts of sulfate aerosols into the upper atmosphere causing global cooling by many degrees leading to a mass extinction. (
  • The layer of the atmosphere in which they exist is known as the Junge layer, or simply the stratospheric aerosol layer. (
  • The formation of the aerosols and their effects on the atmosphere can also be studied in the lab. (
  • Aerosols can influence climate directly by either reflecting or absorbing the sun's radiation as it moves through the atmosphere. (
  • A new study, led by climate scientist Drew Shindell of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, used a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to investigate how sensitive different regional climates are to changes in levels of carbon dioxide, ozone, and aerosols. (
  • Precipitation, which normally flushes aerosols out of the atmosphere, is minimal there, so the particles remain in the air longer and have a stronger impact than in other parts of the world. (
  • At right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the amount of aerosol present in the atmosphere and one of several key variables used to characterize their climatic and environmental influence. (
  • Aerosols are tiny liquid and solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. (
  • It would have enabled researchers to distinguish between the types and amounts of different aerosols in the atmosphere. (
  • When the sun rises or sets, its rays strike the atmosphere at an angle-forcing the light to travel farther and filter through more particles known as aerosols . (
  • The cooling effect of fragrant terpene aerosols from coniferous boreal forests was decreasing, and aeolian accumulations of dust on the Loess Plateau indicated that human existence did not coincide with a high-carbon atmosphere until 1965. (
  • Advair HFA Inhalation Aerosol is an environmentally-friendly formulation, developed in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on the use of propellants, and contains hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-134a) to propel the medication out of the canister rather than a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellant that has been linked to ozone depletion in the atmosphere. (
  • The tiny satellite sent back its very first image over Europe with bright splashes of colors labeling clouds and aerosols, tiny particles in the atmosphere. (
  • Aerosols generated by human activities reflect infrared light generated by reflected sunlight, thereby trapping it in the atmosphere. (
  • These results allowus to derive the direct aerosol ef- fect of absorbing aerosols in cloudy scenes, with the effect of cloudy-scene aerosol absorption in the tropical- and subtrop- ical Atlantic contributing (+21.211.1)103Wm2 to the global top of the atmosphere radiative forcing. (
  • The researchers at PNNL and UCI are continuing to answer questions about the properties of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. (
  • From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate. (
  • Human activity produces many different types of aerosols. (
  • The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter's measurements help us better understand how clouds and aerosols impact weather, climate, and air quality. (
  • Developed with funds from the Earth Science Division's In-Space Validation of Earth Science Technologies (InVEST) Program, HARP could pave the way for future NASA missions involving a constellation of little satellites peering down at clouds and aerosols, Martins said. (
  • Spray paint cans like these use aerosols to propel the paint from the nozzle. (
  • Aerosol cans come in handy but can cause serious damage if exposed to high temperatures or flames. (
  • If you are storing aerosol cans with flammable materials, use caution regarding where and how the cans are stored to prevent accidental injury or even death from fires. (
  • Store flammable aerosol cans at or below room temperature, which is around 65 degrees Fahrenheit. (
  • Do your best to separate the aerosol cans from other storage materials as well as from any fixtures that feature high temperatures or flames. (
  • Never store flammable aerosol cans in a basement or similar area that features hot water heaters, gas heaters, fireplaces, boilers or any other type of intense heat. (
  • While the cans themselves protect the flammable aerosol product from exposure to such temperatures and sparks, a leak or sudden flame could cause a catastrophic fire. (
  • Many companies sell safety cabinets designed to handle aerosols, which might be a worthwhile investment if you keep a lot of paint or chemicals on hand in these cans. (
  • All of your tins, cans and aerosols can be put in your recycling bin. (
  • Remember to recycle your paper, cardboard and plastic bottles in your recycling bin with your tins, cans and aerosols. (
  • The drink takes seconds to make, while using aerosol cans helps ensure consistent taste, as the tea is protected from outside contaminants. (
  • Fire crews were met with a series of small explosions when they arrived, believed to be caused by aerosol cans, according to 7 News. (
  • Completely empty aerosol containers and empty paint containers may often be recycled at the curb along with other materials such as paper, bottles and cans. (
  • The Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) regulations ( Title 22, California Code of Regulations, Section 66261.7 ), cover the recycling/disposal of full or partially full aerosol containers and paint cans. (
  • See also the DTSC web page for guidance on disposing aerosol cans . (
  • Despite the importance of pre-industrial aerosols for historical climate change, the relevant processes and emissions are given relatively little consideration in climate models, and there have been very few attempts to evaluate them. (
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (
  • One of the greatest uncertainties in the forcing of climate change is the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on radiation and clouds. (
  • Motivated by climate change and adverse health effects of traffic-related air pollution, aerosol research has intensified over the past couple of decades, and recent scientific advances offer an improved understanding of the mechanisms and factors controlling the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. (
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 regards stratospheric sulfate aerosols as having a low level of scientific understanding. (
  • Larger image Though greenhouse gases are invariably at the center of discussions about global climate change, new NASA research suggests that much of the atmospheric warming observed in the Arctic since 1976 may be due to changes in tiny airborne particles called aerosols. (
  • Though there are several varieties of aerosols, previous research has shown that two types -- sulfates and black carbon -- play an especially critical role in regulating climate change. (
  • Of the 25 computer climate models included in a report in 2007 by scientists advising the U.N. on climate change, only a handful considered the role of aerosols other than sulphates, a well-studied category from volcanic eruptions and coal burning. (
  • Our aerosols team usually measure environmental aerosols related to air quality and climate change in a range of locations around Australia, and in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica aboard research vessels. (
  • The air we breathe contains gases and tiny aerosol particles that contribute to respiratory problems and climate change. (
  • they have been working on the contribution of aerosols to climate change in India and China. (
  • Recent studies have identified aerosol emission, particularly black carbon emission from industrializing countries like India and China, as emission control targets for mitigating climate change. (
  • So the researchers have found that these small airborne particles called aerosols (for example, black carbon particles in diesel exhaust and sulfate particles produced by coal burning) in India and China may indirectly contribute to climate change. (
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (
  • So now more than 60 scientists from a dozen institutions have converged on this California urban area to study how tiny particles called aerosols affect the climate. (
  • Scientists think that on balance, the whole budget of aerosols ends up cooling the planet slightly. (
  • Scientists believe the cooling from sulfates and other reflective aerosols overwhelms the warming effect of black carbon and other absorbing aerosols over the planet. (
  • Today scientists use an array of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based instruments to monitor aerosols. (
  • Starting in 2011, the Glory mission will enable scientists to better characterize the types and distribution of aerosols. (
  • At 3M, our scientists have carefully formulated our revolutionary, non-flammable 3M™ Novec™ Aerosol Cleaners with the exact features and compatibility your business demands - without compromising worker safety or environmental protection. (
  • Our scientists intentionally developed 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners with high dielectric strength making them effective for use on energized components (less than 25 kV) and on a range of materials, including most plastics, metals, circuitry, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and more. (
  • Reflecting ancient mythology, scientists in southeast Europe have used the name Livas to describe their effort in providing aerosol and cloud data as a reference for these upcoming missions. (
  • Scientists and technicians responsible for the data use another copy of CPD3 on their desktop or laptop computers to review the data for quality and completeness, flag or remove contaminated or invalid data, reformat and export the data for analysis with other software, and submit the data for archiving and public access at the WMO World Data Center for Aerosols (WDCA). (
  • It is caused by aerosol particles, but scientists don't know all the details of the complex chemistry involved. (
  • While Dr. Wang acknowledged that scientists had yet to look at toilet aerosols in real-world situations involving the new coronavirus, other research has shown that viral RNA was found in shared toilet areas at one hospital in Wuhan, China. (
  • Today's climate models regard organic aerosols as static carbon-based molecules, but scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) showed that the particles are very dynamic. (
  • Secondly, it has been suggested that the global mean climate sensitivity may depend on the sea-surface temperature pattern [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], which to a large degree will be controlled by the very uncertain distribution of natural aerosols. (
  • Natural aerosols explain seasonal and spatial patterns of Southern Ocean cloud albedo. (
  • Examples of natural aerosols are fog or mist, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam. (
  • Aerosols from burning biomass to clear land are smaller than natural aerosols. (
  • In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere ( see above Aerosols ), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain for several years before settling out, because of the relative absence of turbulent motions there. (
  • The low concentration of aerosol particles under relatively pristine conditions means that global mean cloud albedo may have been twice as sensitive to changes in natural aerosol emissions under pre-industrial conditions compared to present-day conditions. (
  • Consequently, the discovery of new aerosol formation processes and revisions to aerosol emissions have large effects on simulated historical aerosol radiative forcing. (
  • Aerosol properties were controlled by a combination of natural emissions, modification of the natural emissions by human activities such as land-use change, and anthropogenic emissions from biofuel combustion and early industrial processes. (
  • During the same period, emissions laws in the industrialized West reduced aerosol pollution. (
  • Atmospheric aerosols originate from naturally occurring processes, such as volcanic emissions, sea spray and mineral dust emissions, or from anthropogenic activity such as industry and combustion processes. (
  • The two highly industrialized regions have produced most of the world's aerosol emissions over the last century, and some of those aerosols drift northward and collect in the Arctic. (
  • It is worth pointing out here that there has been very little study of the contribution of aerosol emissions from India and China to radiative forcing. (
  • Coal burning is one of the key contributors to aerosol emissions. (
  • To find out the situation in India and China, the researchers examined emissions from the most important aerosol sources in the two neighbouring countries and estimated the net radiative forcing from each source, both locally and globally. (
  • 1998 was the strongest El Niño in a century, and 2008 was a strong La Niña year), declining solar activity (the end of this period saw the longest solar minimum in a century), and increased human aerosol emissions primarily from China's expansion of coal combustion as a power source. (
  • With the advent of ever more comprehensive representations of aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models, the potential effects of anthropogenic aerosols on atmospheric circulation are increasingly being recognised. (
  • In urban environments, aerosol particles can affect human health through their inhalation. (
  • The particle size distribution and shape of the delivered dose is more critical for inhalation aerosols than for most other conventional drug products because these factors greatly influence the deposition profile in the lungs of the patient. (
  • The optimum aerodynamic particle size distribution for most inhalation aerosols has generally been recognized as being in the range of 1-5 µm. (
  • Advair HFA Inhalation Aerosol, a new formulation combining fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) delivery device, is now available in pharmacies nationwide. (
  • This invention relates to aerosol inhalation drug formulations comprising one or more drugs and one or more soluble surfactants in propellant 134a. (
  • 1. An aerosol inhalation drug formulation consisting essentially of a physiologically effective amount of a micronized inhalation drug and a 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane-soluble, perfluoronated surfactant in suspension in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. (
  • 10. A method of improving the stability of a micronized, aerosol inhalation drug suspension in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane consisting essentially of the addition of a 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane-soluble, perfluoronated surfactant to said suspension. (
  • Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to establish the magnitude of such effects-or even whether specific aerosol types warm or cool the surface-were lacking. (
  • Published chemical transport models for aerosols or for specific aerosol species such as sulfate, especially those that are driven by monthly mean winds from climatology, exhibit smooth contours. (
  • Performing additional simulations in which anthropogenic aerosols were removed, they show that variations in anthropogenic aerosol levels were largely responsible for the simulated variations in tropical storm activity over the twentieth century, such that strong increases in anthropogenic aerosols before 1990 were associated with low levels of storm activity, and decreased aerosol levels after 1990 were associated with more intense activity ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Thus far, most if not all estimates of anthropogenic aerosol forcing have been made using general circulation model (GCM) climatologies. (
  • These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models. (
  • We present a method for deriving the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in cloudy scenes from satel- lite retrievals only. (
  • The Asian-Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), which took place during last year's dust storms, is the third in a series of experiments designed to investigate different aspects of aerosol behavior in different locales around the world. (
  • Drew Shindell, at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and colleagues ran a range of computerized models to show that methane's global warming potential is greater when combined with aerosols -- atmospheric particles such as dust, sea salt, sulphates and black carbon. (
  • These components - specifically aerosols (particulates in the air - dust, soot, sulphates, nitrates, pollen etc.) and atmospheric chemistry (ozone, methane) - are both affected by climate and affect climate, since aerosols and ozone can interact, absorb, reflect or scatter solar and thermal radiation. (
  • Examples of aerosols include haze, dust, particulate air pollutants and smoke. (
  • This situation, together with the highly nonuniform distribution of sources of anthropogenic and dust aerosols, leads to a highly heterogeneous distribution of aerosol loadings (in great contrast to the rather smooth distribution of the long-lived greenhouse gases). (
  • The radiative energy balance of the planet is sensitive to the amount, size, and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from natural [ 1 , 2 ] and anthropogenic sources. (
  • The Sahelian drought may be due to a combination of natural variability and atmospheric aerosol. (
  • In the Arctic especially, aerosols from wildfires and industrial pollution are likely hastening the melting of ice. (
  • According to a report that used INDOEX data and was published last month in Science, aerosols from man-made pollution may also play a role in weakening the planet's water supply. (
  • The short-lived pollution particles, known as aerosols, didn't have to travel to Africa to have an effect. (
  • Air pollution problems, especially those relating to particulate matter (aerosols), are complex due to the number of sources (e.g. vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust, industry, power generation, domestic fuel burning, construction activities, etc) and atmospheric reactions. (
  • Sulfur aerosols are common in the troposphere as a result of pollution with sulfur dioxide from burning coal, and from natural processes. (
  • The MISR aerosol data help provide a context into which the particulate pollution sources, the monitoring site observations, and locations downwind, can all be placed. (
  • HARP aims to help identify air pollution, aerosols and clouds. (
  • What's more, according to Tim Bates of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), "there's a very wide range of sizes [for aerosol particles], and the effect that the particle is going to have on climate is going to be very dependent on its size, which makes it trickier. (
  • It is a study on the differential deposition of aerosols in the maxillary sinus of human cadavers by particle size. (
  • MISR uses the changes in the atmosphere's ability to transmit light and the variation in scene brightness at different viewing angles to retrieve aerosol optical depth, and to deduce some information about particle properties, such as size, shape and composition. (
  • secondary aerosols form through gas-to-particle conversion. (
  • Particle size has a major influence on particle properties, and the aerosol particle radius or diameter (dp) is a key property used to characterise aerosols. (
  • For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number-the particle diameter-suffices to describe the size of the particles. (
  • However, more complicated particle-size distributions describe the sizes of the particles in a polydisperse aerosol. (
  • The normal distribution usually does not suitably describe particle size distributions in aerosols because of the skewness associated a long tail of larger particles. (
  • The team found that IEPOX is a major player in producing aerosols from isoprene and that particle size, certain coatings, and acidity influence how IEPOX behaves. (
  • Knowing this vertical profile of aerosols is critical for understanding the impact of aerosols on weather and climate. (
  • However, much less is known about the impact of aerosols on the climate. (
  • In fact, the range of uncertainty associated with the climate impact of aerosols may be as much as three or four times that of mainstream greenhouse gases. (
  • HARP will be able to provide much more information about the microphysical properties of aerosols than was previously available," said Henrique Barbosa, a professor and scientist with the University of São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil, who is collaborating with Martins on HARP and other projects. (
  • The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation. (
  • Aerosol optical depth is the fundamental measurement of quantity and distribution of aerosols. (
  • This map shows the average distribution of aerosols from June 2000 through May 2010, measured by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). (
  • The short residence times of tropospheric aerosols are comparable to the time scale of variability in synoptic scale winds and precipitation that control the distribution of aerosols. (
  • The study shows how real-world conditions affect the chemistry induced by sulfate-containing aerosols caused by anthropogenic activities. (
  • This page provides links to a variety of information regarding the measurement, control, exposure characterization and health effects associated with aerosols in the workplace. (
  • The Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols workshop will take place at the Congress Centre Smolenice SAS, Slovak Republic in November 5-7 2013. (
  • AirHARP was part of the Lake Michigan Ozone Measurements campaign, which involved a NASA UC12 plane, and the NASA Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar campaign, which obtained aerosol and clouds measurements over the U.S. from the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. (
  • Some aerosols, particularly sulfate aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, exert a cooling influence (by the reflection or absorption of sunlight before it reaches the earth) on the climate which partly counteracts the warming induced by greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (
  • The team of researchers will take daily measurements of trace gases and aerosols the city emits (known as the Sacramento urban plume) under relatively well defined and regular weather conditions. (
  • Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases since the 1880s. (
  • However, unlike many greenhouse gases, aerosols are not distributed evenly around the planet, so their impacts are most strongly felt on a regional scale. (
  • Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. (
  • Or equivalently, since the aerosols are anthropogenic, that European temperatures had been subdued due to the cooling effects of the aerosols - and since they are now decreasing, the full effects of the greenhouse gases are starting to be felt. (
  • In addition to aerosols, the cloud contains relatively high concentrations of gases, including carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. (
  • It has been established that emission of precursor gases for sulfur aerosols is the principal mechanism by which volcanoes cause episodic global cooling. (
  • Earth 911 provides a handy search tool for locating local facilities accepting HHW and other items, including aerosol and paint containers. (
  • Black carbon aerosols, similar to the soot in a chimney, absorb sunlight rather than reflecting it. (
  • Smoke from the Amazon fires includes soot and aerosols, which can all impact weather and climate. (
  • Secondary aerosols, for example-make the haze that gives the U.S.'s Great Smoky Mountains their name . (
  • The aerosol particles form a whitish haze in the sky. (
  • A dispersion of fine particles of a solid or liquid in a pressurized or liquefied gas propellant for release as an aerosol spray. (
  • Chlorofluorocarbons , often called Freons, were used extensively as propellants in aerosol-spray products manufactured in the United States until 1978, when the federal government banned most uses of those compounds because of their potentially harmful environmental effect. (
  • These devices are more properly termed spray dispensers rather than aerosol dispensers because the particles of the dispersed substance are usually larger than the particles of a true aerosol (see colloid ), such as a fog or a smoke. (
  • Aerosol Arts Spray Paint murals, tutorials, how to videos. (
  • In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. (
  • Ultrathon(TM) Insect Repellent Aerosol Spray, 6 oz. (
  • The Ultrathon™ Insect Repellent Aerosol Spray delivers the protection of Ultrathon™ Insect Repellent with the convenience of a spray. (
  • Give yourself and your family trusted protection with Ultrathon™ Insect Repellent Aerosol Spray. (
  • This Recharger Kit comes with a 204 milliliter aerosol spray can of oil and a 355 milliliter K&N pump bottle of Power Kleen air filter cleaner. (
  • Rotstayn focuses on an indirect effect of aerosols that is really hard to quantify,' said Philip Rasch, senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. (
  • This will run timeslices parallel to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( CMIP5 ) integrations with sophisticated gas and aerosol chemistry to quantify the forcings from short-lived species, and also to quantify the impacts on air quality. (
  • The goal of this project is to identify and quantify the metal content of e-cigarette aerosols generated by a variety of products and designs, to examine the cytoxicity (i.e. toxicity to cells) and genotoxicity (i.e., toxicity to genetic information within cells) of aerosols with metal content, and to examine biomarkers of metal exposure and effects in users. (
  • This situation may be turned to advantage, because the inherent spatial and temporal variability of aerosol loading allows the possibility of experiments that can discern and quantify the aerosol influences, by comparisons between high and low loading situations. (
  • But simply trying to couple ozone chemistry and aerosol chemistry like this is an advance, says Dentener. (
  • 4. Organic Aerosols. (
  • Current atmospheric computer models do not consider the evolving chemistry of the organic aerosols. (
  • In a series of experiments, the team synthesized organic aerosols. (
  • In yet another example, methane's reaction with hydroxyl reduces the amount of that chemical available to create cooling sulphate aerosols. (
  • The effects on climate are very different: ozone is a greenhouse gas, so increases cause a warming, while sulphate aerosols are reflective, and so increases cause a cooling. (
  • NASA co-sponsors a global network of ground sensors called the Aerosols Robotic Network, or AERONET, which is comprised of more than 200 carefully calibrated sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth around the world. (
  • HARP, as the first multiangle wide field-of-view cloud-aerosol CubeSat mission, is a great example of how a creative and innovative team can advance new technologies for atmospheric science observations," said Charles Norton, special advisor for small spacecraft missions at NASA Headquarters in Washington. (
  • These cleaners make excellent replacements for high global warming potential (GWP) and toxic aerosol cleaners because they are fast-drying and have low toxicity and favorable environmental profiles - with low GWPs and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP). (
  • 7. Stratospheric Chemistry: aerosols and the ozone layer. (
  • They then ran through various scenarios of how temperatures would change as the levels of ozone and aerosols -- including sulfates and black carbon -- varied in different regions of the world. (
  • Recovery from the holes and thinning caused by aerosol chemicals has progressed at a rate of about 1% to 3% a decade since 2000, meaning the ozone layer over the northern hemisphere and mid-latitudes should heal completely by the 2030s, if current rates are sustained. (
  • Carrying an innovative Doppler wind lidar, ADM-Aeolus will provide timely and accurate profiles of the world's winds along with information on aerosols and clouds. (
  • The Earth-facing side of the spacecraft was carrying the world's most advanced aerosol sensor. (
  • Frederick G. Donnan presumably first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air. (
  • Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space. (
  • Different aerosols scatter or absorb sunlight to varying degrees, depending on their physical properties. (
  • Although most aerosols reflect sunlight, some also absorb it. (
  • AVHRR, a passive radiometer, measured the intensity of sunlight as it reflected off aerosols, using the dark ocean as the background. (
  • The MAIA instrument measures the radiance and polarization of sunlight scattered by atmospheric aerosols, from which the abundance and characteristics of ground-level particulate matter (PM) are derived. (
  • Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight and by modifying clouds. (
  • Exposure to sunlight transforms the aerosol composition drastically. (
  • Newer radiometers such as the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomer (MODIS) are capable of viewing aerosols at many more angles and wavelengths, providing more accurate results. (
  • These MISR views portray Houston and Galveston Bay on September 12, 2002, and display data from three of MISR's nine cameras along with a map of retrieved aerosol optical thickness. (
  • To better understand aerosols' role in climate, the DOE's climate research program studies how aerosol particles in the air scatter and absorb the sun's radiation, and how much of it hits Earth. (
  • Darker aerosols can absorb significant amounts of light. (
  • Other aerosols absorb some of the light and have a warming effect. (
  • March 1997) developed a detailed data set of stratospheric aerosol properties and distribution for the 2-year period following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption and produced heating rates and fluxes from the data, using the Max Planck Institute ECHAM-4 GCM. (
  • Optical depths above 2 or 3 represent very high concentrations of aerosols. (
  • Red indicates high concentrations of aerosols, beige indicates low concentrations. (
  • High concentrations of aerosol particles are primarily to blame for the cloud. (
  • Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. (
  • Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. (
  • Aerosols present pathways for reactions, transport, and deposition that would not occur in the gas phase alone. (
  • Additive 3D printing capabilities include both Aerosol Jet and Inkjet platforms providing versatility in terms of materials and inks available, range of viscosity, and post deposition cure by UV or IR photonic cure. (
  • An open letter signed by 239 researchers addressed to the World Health Organization, published Monday in Clinical Infectious Diseases , calls for attention and guidance around a third route of transmission: tiny respiratory particles that float in the air and are called aerosols and that, the researchers state, could be responsible for infecting someone who comes along and breathes them in. (
  • The most vibrant sunsets, cloud-choked skies, and cough-inducing days all have something in common: They happen because of aerosols, tiny particles that float in the air. (
  • The relatively simple instruments deduce the amount and type of aerosol in the sky by measuring the intensity of light under cloud-free conditions. (
  • The most common type of aerosol container consists of a shell, a valve, a "dip tube" that extends from the valve to the liquid product, and a liquefied-gas propellant under pressure. (
  • Aerosols, particularly black carbon, can alter reflectivity by depositing a layer of dark residue on ice and other bright surfaces. (
  • Long-term accumulation of black carbon aerosols in the Arctic and Himalaya is leading to increased melting of snow. (
  • A THICK SOUP OF AEROSOL PARTICLES among them sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon and fly ashfills the skies over northern India in this image. (
  • Rafil Kroll-zaidi, Harper's magazine , "Findings," 25 Nov. 2019 Those vessels will likely release black carbon, an aerosol formed by diesel engines. (
  • Large volcanic eruptions may lift sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, which usually cools the global climate for the following year or two. (
  • Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere . (
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (
  • Aerosols can have a major impact on climate when they scatter light. (
  • Values for most aerosols range from about 0.7 for very absorbing particles to 1 for aerosols that only scatter light. (
  • As part of the MAIA investigation, researchers will combine MAIA measurements with population health records to better understand the connections between aerosol pollutants and health problems such as adverse birth outcomes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and premature deaths. (
  • The researchers found that the mid and high latitudes are especially responsive to changes in the level of aerosols. (
  • CLOUD MACHINE Researchers created climate-cooling, cloud-seeding aerosols inside a cloud chamber without the sulfuric acid spewed by fossil fuel burning. (
  • Recent Examples on the Web Over the course of several weeks, the researchers collected samples of seawater and aerosols suspended about 20 meters (66 feet) above the ship. (
  • Shindell also thinks climate policy-makers need to pay much more attention to restricting short-lived pollutants, such as methane, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosols. (
  • Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's models could capture. (
  • Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are particulate air pollutants and smoke. (
  • The Sahelian drought may be due to a combination of natural variability and atmospheric aerosols,' said Mr. Rotstayn, of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, a government research agency in Australia. (
  • This can be used to show trends in parameters relevant to climate, such as cloud cover and variability of aerosols from natural sources and from human activity. (
  • Graph by Robert Simmon, based on aerosol data from GISS and temperature data from the UAE CRU. (
  • The Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observer (CALIPSO) uses a laser-based technology that provides detailed vertical profiles of aerosol plumes and clouds. (
  • Reference: Micropulse Lidar-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology at ARM Sites Worldwide, Durga Kafle and Richard Coulter, Journal of Geophysical Research , doi:10.1002/jgrd.50536). (
  • Livas, which, in this case stands for 'lidar climatology of vertical aerosol structures', is a collaborative effort between the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) in Greece and two world leaders in lidar research: the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research in Germany and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis in Italy. (
  • All are members of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, Earlinet. (
  • A method of defending against a warfare cloud of toxic aerosol utilizes a charged defensive aerosol which is sprayed into the cloud. (
  • The charge should be at least several thousands of volts with respect to ground so that particles of the defensive aerosol combine and coagulate with particles of the toxic aerosol to neutralize and cause rapid settling of the warfare cloud. (
  • 1. A method of defending against a warfare cloud of toxic aerosol comprising charging a defensive aerosol to at least 10,000 volts and spraying the aerosol into the warfare cloud. (
  • 2. A method according to claim 1 including using a neutralizing agent to form the defensive aerosol which chemically neutralizes the toxic aerosol. (
  • Accordingly an object of the present invention is to provide a method of defending against a warfare cloud of toxic aerosol comprising charging a defensive aerosol to at least 10,000 volts and spraying the charged aerosol into the warfare cloud whereby particles of the defensive aerosol combine with particles of the toxic aerosol. (
  • A further object of the invention is to charge the defensive aerosol to at least 100,000 volts and to include in this aerosol neutralizing agents which either neutralize a chemical toxic aerosol or neutralize or kill a biological toxic aerosol. (
  • While it would be true that if global aerosol levels declined it would lead to increased global warming, aerosol trends in Asia are increasing strongly, even while those in the US and Europe are dropping. (
  • Looking to the future, once data from ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE are incorporated, Livas will offer a unique dataset of global aerosol and vertical cloud distributions. (
  • In 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines ejected more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide-a gas that reacts with other substances to produce sulfate aerosol-as high as 60 kilometers (37 miles) above the surface, creating particles in the stratosphere. (
  • The effect on regional climate from desertification and overgrazing is much larger than the effect on regional climate from sulfate aerosol,' he said. (
  • Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation compiles recent advances in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation remote sensing from new satellite observations. (
  • Contributors are experts conducting state-of-the-art research in atmospheric remote sensing using space, airborne, and ground-based datasets, focusing on supporting earth observation satellite missions for aerosol, cloud, and precipitation studies. (
  • The absence of large particles in the current leaving the jar is very advantageous, because the presence of large drops in the aerosols intended to be inhaled would cause the precipitation of the aerosols in the upper respiratory passages and would thus greatly reduce or even eliminate the useful efiect the treatment is intended to provide. (
  • The present invention relates in general to aerosols and in particular to a new and useful method of neutralizing a toxic or otherwise dangerous target aerosol using a defensive barrier comprising a highly charged defensive aerosol. (
  • Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. (
  • misc{etde_5263110, title = {Facility of aerosol filtration} author = {Duverger de Cuy, G, and Regnier, J} abstractNote = {Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. (