Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Rod-Cone Interaction: Reciprocal action of two vertebrate photoreceptor cells (RODS AND CONES). Rod-cone interaction occurs during MESOPIC VISION in which both rods and cones are active in light transduction to the VISUAL CORTEX. Such interaction can influence visual sensitivity and luminous efficiency.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.ManikinsSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedOxocins: Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Respiratory Transport: The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Maxillary Osteotomy: Surgery of the upper jaw bone usually performed to correct upper and lower jaw misalignment.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Mice, Inbred BALB CTuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Respiratory Tract DiseasesBronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.WeldingNedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PaintAllergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.HydrocarbonsToxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.FormocresolsVolatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (1/2617)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (2/2617)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (3/2617)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/2617)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. (5/2617)

We examined the measurement error in inhaled and exhaled aerosol concentration resulting from the bolus delivery system when small volumes of monodisperse aerosols are inspired to different lung depths. A laser photometer that illuminated approximately 75% of the breathing path cross section recorded low inhaled bolus half-widths (42 ml) and negative deposition values for shallow bolus inhalation when the inhalation path of a 60-ml aerosol was straight and unobstructed. We attributed these results to incomplete mixing of the inhaled aerosol bolus over the breathing path cross section, on the basis of simultaneous recordings of the photometer with a particle-counter sampling from either the center or the edge of the breathing path. Inserting a 90 degrees bend into the inhaled bolus path increased the photometer measurement of inhaled bolus half-width to 57 ml and yielded positive deposition values. Dispersion, which is predominantly affected by exhaled bolus half-width, was not significantly altered by the 90 degrees bend. We conclude that aerosol bolus-delivery systems should ensure adequate mixing of the inhaled bolus to avoid error in measurement of bolus deposition.  (+info)

Structural deficiencies in granuloma formation in TNF gene-targeted mice underlie the heightened susceptibility to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which is not compensated for by lymphotoxin. (6/2617)

TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) may act at various stages of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To dissect the effects of TNF independent of LT alpha, we have used C57BL/6 mice with a disruption of the TNF gene alone (TNF-/-). Twenty-one days following aerosol M. tuberculosis infection there was a marked increase in the number of organisms in the lungs of TNF-/- mice, and by 28-35 days all animals had succumbed, with widespread dissemination of M. tuberculosis. In comparison with the localized granulomas containing activated macrophages and T cells in lungs and livers of C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) mice, cellular infiltrates in TNF-/- mice were poorly formed, with extensive regions of necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration of the alveoli. Phenotypic analysis of lung homogenates demonstrated similar numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in TNF-/- and wt mice, but in TNF-deficient mice the lymphocytes were restricted to perivascular and peribronchial areas rather than colocated with macrophages in granulomas. T cells from TNF-/- mice retained proliferative and cytokine responses to purified protein derivative, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative was demonstrable. Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and levels of serum nitrite were comparable. Thus, the enhanced susceptibility of TNF-/- is not compensated for by the presence of LT alpha, and the critical role of TNF is not in the activation of T cells and macrophages but in the local organization of granulomas.  (+info)

Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. (7/2617)

RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice.  (+info)

Particle deposition in the trachea: in vivo and in hollow casts. (8/2617)

The pattern of deposition within the respiratory tract of potentially harmful particulates is a major factor in assessing any risk from individual and community exposures. Although the trachea is the most easily observed of the conductive airways, very little information concerning its particle collection characteristics is available, information which is essential for a complete and realistic description of particle deposition patterns within the entire respiratory tract. Data on tracheal deposition are also needed for development of accurate predictive models for particle deposition. The pattern of particle deposition in the trachea, and its relation to air flow, was studied in a hollow cast of the human larynx-tracheobronchial tree. Results were compared with data obtained in humans in vivo and from previous studies in hollow casts. In addition, the relevance of tracheal deposition in the hollow cast test system to deposition in vivo was examined by a direct comparison of deposition in a cast prepared from the lungs of donkeys previously studied in a series of in vivo tests. The disturbance of the air flow within the trachea caused by the larynx promoted the deposition of suspended particulates throughout the length of the trachea, and especially in proximal regions. This proximal deposition was due both to direct impaction from the air jet coming from the glottis and to effects of the tubulent flow. Turbulence produced inhomogenous deposition patterns within the trachea for particles of all sizes, although its effect was more pronounced as size decreased. Tracheal deposition in the human cast was within the range of normal in vivo tracheal depostion only when a larynx was used during cast test exposures; this emphasizes the need for the use of realistic experimental test systems for the study of particle deposition patterns. The relative patterns of deposition in casts of the donkey trachea and in the same tracheas in vivo were similar.  (+info)

*Scanning mobility particle sizer

Lev Solomonovich Ruzer; Naomi H. Harley (2013). Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects (Second ed.). CRC ... Burtscher, H. (2005). "Physical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: a review". Journal of Aerosol ... is an analytical instrument that measures the size and number concentration of aerosol particles with diameters from 2.5 nm to ...

*Particulates

Aerosol particles of natural origin (such as windblown dust) tend to have a larger radius than human-produced aerosols such as ... Another important aerosol type is elemental carbon (EC, also known as black carbon, BC): this aerosol type includes strongly ... "Aerosols and Climate Change". "Primary and Secondary Sources of Aerosols: Soil dust". Climate Change 2001: Working Group 1. ... The converse is true of absorbing aerosol, with the greatest radiative forcing arising from a highly absorbing aerosol over a ...

*Eruption column

Stratospheric injection of aerosols by volcanoes is a major cause of short-term climate change. A common occurrence in ... Ash and aerosols in the troposphere are quickly removed by rain and other precipitation, but material injected into the ... Eruption columns over 10-15 km (6.2-9.3 mi) high break through the tropopause and inject ash and aerosols into the stratosphere ...

*Inhaler

2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Nick Baumann (July-August 2011). "Why You're ... On activation, the metered-dose inhaler releases a fixed dose of medication in aerosol form. The correct procedure for using an ... Nebulizers - supply the medication as an aerosol created from an aqueous formulation. Nasal inhalers contain decongestant drugs ... Basics aspects of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols Recent advances in spray medication technology Discrete simulation of powder ...

*Particle-size distribution

The log-normal distribution is often used to approximate the particle size distribution of aerosols, aquatic particles and ...

*Nebulizer

"Delivery and retention of an insulin aerosol produced by a new jet nebulizer". Journal of Aerosol Medicine. 8 (3): 243-254. doi ... An aerosol is a mixture of gas and solid or liquid particles. Various asthma guidelines, such as the Global Initiative for ... As they create aerosols from ultrasonic vibration instead of using a heavy air compressor, they only have a weight around 170 ... Ultrasonic wave nebulizers are also used in humidifiers, to spray out water aerosols to moisten dry air in buildings. Some of ...

*Particle counter

Aerosol particle counters are used to test and classify a cleanroom to ensure its performance is up to a specific cleanroom ... Modified aerosol portable particle counter that has been attached to a sequencing sampling system. The sequencing sampling ... A common controlled environment aerosol particle counters are used in is a cleanroom. Cleanrooms are used extensively in ... There are several direct-reading instruments for measuring aerosol particle emissions. The condensation particle counter and ...

*Stratospheric sulfur aerosols

"Sulfate Aerosols". Mathera, T.A., C. Oppenheimer, A.G. Allen and A.J.S. McGonigle (2004). "Aerosol chemistry of emissions from ... Aerosols scatter light, which affects the appearance of the sky and of sunsets. Changing the concentration of aerosols in the ... However, they are mostly talking about tropospheric aerosol. The aerosols have a role in the destruction of ozone due to ... showing that it is a major atmospheric aerosol absorber. Aerosols, natural and anthropogenic, can affect the climate by ...

*Secondary organic aerosols

Secondary Organic Aerosol or SOA are molecules produced via multigeneration oxidation of a parent organic molecule. Yee, ... "Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Low-NOx Photooxidation of Dodecane: Evolution of Multigeneration Gas-Phase Chemistry ... and Aerosol Composition". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 116 (24): 6211-6230. doi:10.1021/jp211531h. ISSN 1089-5639. ...

*Aerosol

... science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the ... is a key property used to characterise aerosols. Aerosols vary in their dispersity. A monodisperse aerosol, producible in the ... An aerosol is defined as a colloidal system of solid or liquid particles in a gas. An aerosol includes both the particles and ... An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquiddroplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or ...

*Sulfate aerosol

These aerosols can cause a cooling effect on earth. However the UNFCCC has noted that sulfate aerosols remain in the atmosphere ... The term sulfate aerosols is used for a suspension of fine solid particles of a sulfate or tiny droplets of a solution of a ... Other side effects of sulfate aerosols in the environment include poor air quality. CLAW hypothesis Cloud condensation nuclei ... Sulfur cycle Stratospheric sulfur aerosols http://unfccc.int/essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/climate_ ...

*Aerosol burn

An aerosol burn is an injury to the skin caused by the pressurized gas within an aerosol spray cooling quickly, with the sudden ... In rare cases aerosol-induced burns can be severe enough to necessitate skin grafting. The most common cause of aerosol burns ... In rarer cases aerosol burns are reported to have been caused by air fresheners and other compressed aerosol canisters ... Some aerosol burns are intentionally self-inflicted, the reasons being emotional/psychological. Household aerosol products such ...

*Aerosol spray

"Paint & Aerosol Safety". uvm.edu. The University of Vermont. Retrieved 20 July 2015. Consumer Aerosol Products Council Aerosol ... The concepts of aerosol probably go as far back as 1790. The first aerosol spray can patent was granted in Oslo in 1927 to Erik ... Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or ... Aerosol burn injuries can be caused by the spraying of aerosol directly onto the skin, in a practice sometimes called "frosting ...

*Aerosol bomb

In World War II soldiers used 40 million aerosol bombs against insects. In 1946, when aerosol bombs first came on the general ... An Aerosol bomb (a bug bomb) is a hand-sized steel can charged with a liquefied gas under 75 pounds of pressure and a product ... Aerosol bombs were developed in 1941 by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan of the United States Bureau of Entomology and ... 413,474) for an aerosol "dispensing apparatus", filed by Lyle D. Goodhue and William N. Sullivan on October 3, 1941 (including ...

*Aerosol paint

The Plain Man's Guide to Aerosols CAPCO is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing accurate information about aerosol ... Like many household chemicals and aerosols, aerosol paint vapor and propellant can be misused as an inhalant. Graffiti ... Most aerosol paints also have a metal, glass or plastic ball called a pea inside of the can, which is used to mix the paint ... When aerosol paint is used, care must be taken to cover or mask areas where paint is not wanted. A stencil can be used to ...

*Aerosol impaction

... is the process in which particles are removed from an air stream by forcing the gases to make a sharp bend. ... Deposition (Aerosol physics) Inertial Impaction, Size and Time Archived April 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. ... The most clear and important advantage of impaction, as opposed to filtration, is that two key aerosol parameters, size and ...

*United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols model

The United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) is a community Chemistry-Aerosol-Climate model which are research runs of the ... United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) Model UKCA: A community chemistry-climate model (Cambridge) UKCA Wiki. ...

*Electrical aerosol spectrometer

Electrical aerosol spectrometry (EAS) is a technique for measurement of the number-size distribution of aerosol using a ... 1998). "Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University". Journal of Aerosol Science. 29: S427-S428. doi:10.1016/S0021-8502 ... The technique is particularly appropriate for situations where aerosol concentrations are changing on a timescale of 1 s or ... 2002). "Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University". Atmospheric Research. 62 (3-4): 315-324. Bibcode:2002AtmRe..62.. ...

*Sea salt aerosol

... , which originally comes from sea spray, is one of the most widely distributed natural aerosols. Sea salt ... Correspondingly, sea salt aerosols have a wide range of atmospheric lifetimes. As the sea salt aerosols are hygroscopic, their ... How do aerosols affect precipitation? Science, 321, 1309-1313 Johnson, D.B., 1982: The Role of Giant and Ultragiant Aerosol ... Sea salt aerosols influence the sulfate aerosol formation in different ways due to the different sizes. Very small sea salt ...

*Aerosol mass spectrometry

... is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as ... Aerosol mass spectrometry has also found its way into the field of pharmaceutical aerosol analysis, due to its ability to ... Aerosol science and measurements field, especially aerosol mass spectrometry has grown a lot over the last couple decades. Its ... Beginning in the 1920s aerosol measurements became more common place because the negative health effects of industrial aerosols ...

*Deposition (aerosol physics)

In aerosol physics, deposition is the process by which aerosol particles collect or deposit themselves on solid surfaces, ... Within aerosol computer models aerosols and cloud droplets are mostly treated separately so that nucleation represents a loss ... This is where aerosol particles get into cloud droplets or cloud ice crystals through working as cloud nuclei, or being ... Condensation in aerosol dynamics Particle collection in wet scrubbers Seinfeld, John; Spyros Pandis (2006). Atmospheric ...

*Charged aerosol detector

Measurement of the aggregate charge of aerosol particles using a filter/electrometer. The CAD like other aerosol detectors, can ... RS Charged Aerosol Detector and Thermo Scientific Vanquish™ Charged Aerosol Detectors. The general detection scheme involves: ... Pneumatic nebulization of mobile phase from the analytical column forming an aerosol. Aerosol conditioning to remove large ... The Charged Aerosol Detector (CAD) is a universal detector used in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography ( ...

*Condensed aerosol fire suppression

The portable condensed aerosol device is typically designed to disperse aerosol in a 360° spray pattern, forming a large ... Condensed aerosol devices are designed to provide a controlled discharge. The aerosol-forming compound is installed inside of ... The flames are suppressed as long as the aerosol retains sufficient density. If the aerosol fails to achieve sufficient density ... The extinguishing performance of condensed aerosol fire suppressants is dependent on the density of aerosol particulates in the ...

*Charged Aerosol Release Experiment

The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in ... Night Time Artificial Cloud Study Using NASA Sounding Rocket, NASA An Update on theCharged Aerosol Release ExperimentCARE. ... "The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment (CARE) Program". Astrophysics Data System. Bibcode:2008cosp...37..261B. Retrieved 2009- ...

*The Aerosol Grey Machine

... (1969) album releases & credits at Discogs.com Van der Graaf Generator - The Aerosol Grey Machine ( ... The Aerosol Grey Machine is the debut studio album by English progressive rock band Van der Graaf Generator. It was released in ... The Aerosol Grey Machine was released in September 1969 by record label Mercury. The initial edition contained the song "Giant ... When the band signed with Charisma Records, a deal was worked out whereby The Aerosol Grey Machine would be released under the ...
Current interest in the pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has resulted in a need for an aerosol generation system that is capable of consistently producing a CNT aerosol at a desired concentration level. This two-part study was designed to: (1) assess the properties of a commercially-available aerosol generator when producing an aerosol from a purchased powder supply of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs); and (2) assess the pulmonary sub-acute toxicity of DWCNTs in a murine model during a 5-day (4 h/day) whole-body exposure. The aerosol generator, consisting of a novel dustfeed mechanism and venturi ejector was determined to be capable of producing a DWCNT consistently over a 4 h exposure period at an average level of 10.8 mg/m3. The count median diameter was 121 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 2.04. The estimated deposited dose was 32 µg/mouse. The total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was significantly (p < 0.01) increased in exposed mice compared
See Federal Register notice and regulatory docket. This Federal proposal is driven mainly by the large quantities of aerosol cans coming from the retail sector, which are likely to contain much of their original contained material. The comment deadline is May 15, 2018. Currently, four states (CA, CO, NM, and UT) include aerosol cans in their state Universal Waste programs, and two more states (MN and OH) have proposed to do so. This Federal proposal is intended to be consistent with those programs and to be adopted by the other states. As proposed, Federal Universal Waste aerosol cans include "all discarded, intact, non-empty hazardous waste aerosol cans", regardless of size, but do not include compressed gas canisters and cylinders and similar containers. While this definition may be clear for aerosol cans from the retail sector (e.g., returned cans that cannot be resold), it is not necessarily clear for empty aerosol cans sent to recycling facilities because of the definitions of "discarded" ...
There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious
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Aerosol Can" is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist Pharrell Williams. Williams co-wrote the song with Major Lazer member Diplo. The song was released as a single on 14 February 2014 and features on Major Lazers 2014 extended play Apocalypse Soon. It became a top 40 single in Australia peaking at #37. It was featured in the soundtrack for the video games "NBA 2K15" and "Watch Dogs 2". A remix contest was held for the track in April, in which the winner was announced in the end of May. "iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer". iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014. Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest :: Beatport Play "Australian-charts.com - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can". ARIA Top 50 Singles. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can" (in Dutch). Ultratip. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - ...
Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13−800) were collected over a oneyear- period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33-39 %), Aitken (39-49 %) and accumulation mode (18-22 %) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. Performing clustering analysis on hourly size distributions, nine K-means DMPS clusters were identified and, by directional association, diurnal variation and relationship to meteorological and pollution variables, four typical aerosol size distribution scenarios were identified: traffic (69% of the time), dilution (15% of the time), summer background conditions (4% of the time) and regional pollution (12% of the time). According to the results of PMF, vehicle exhausts are estimated to contribute at ...
Results for aerosol generation (aerosol monitoring) equipment from AeroFid, Aerosol Jet, Aerosol Nebulizer and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on (air and climate) - Environmental XPRT
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Purpose: Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs.. Methods: A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using ...
According to the subject invention, dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based compositions are provided, including methods for their manufacture and dry powder dispersion devices. A dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based composition is one having a moisture content of less than about 10% by weight (% w) water, usually below about 5% w and preferably less than about 3% w; a particle size of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median diameter (MMD), usually 1.0-4.0 μm MMD, and preferably 1.0-3.0 μm MMD; a delivered dose of about |30%, usually |40%, preferably |50%, and most preferred |60%; and an aerosol particle size distribution of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), usually 1.5-4.5 μm MMAD, and preferably 1.5-4.0 MMAD. Such composition are of pharmaceutical grade purity.
Consumer information about the medication BRONCHODILATOR - AEROSOL ORAL INHALER , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug BRONCHODILATOR - AEROSOL ORAL INHALER.
A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
Just like any other metal container, aluminum and steel aerosol cans are recyclable. For the last decade, Ball worked with customers and other partners (such as the Consumer Aerosol Products Council in the U.S. or the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association in the United Kingdom) to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans. While challenges remain with accurate data on recycling rates and consumer access to recycling, we have made significant progress. For example, the U.K.s consumer education program MetalMatters, which Ball developed and supports, was instrumental in doubling the number of local authorities that accept aerosols in their recycling schemes from 2011 to 2015 and achieves a 96 percent acceptance rate. Also, a 2016 study on access to recycling in the U.S. showed that recycling availability for aluminum aerosol stands at 72 percent and steel aerosol containers at 69 percent, making aerosol cans a widely recyclable container in the U.S. ...
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The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025," the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/pulmonary-drug-delivery-devices-market. Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
This thesis presents a new technique to identify a 2D mask showing the extent of particulate aerosol distributions in satellite imagery. This technique uses a supervised texture classication approach, and utilises data from two distinct satellite sources. The vertical feature mask (VFM) product from the CALIPSO lidar, provides an accurate description of the aerosol content of the atmosphere but has a limited footprint and coverage. The CALIPSO VFM is used to provide training data in order to for classiers to be applied to other imagery, namely data from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) on the MSG satellite. The output from the classication is a 2D mask representing the locations of the particulate aerosol of interest within the SEVIRI image. This approach has been demonstrated on test cases over land and ocean, and shows a good agreement with other techniques for the detection of particulate aerosol. However, the supervised texture approach provides outputs at a higher ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles play a critical role in Earths radiation budget, act to limit visibility through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and represent a significant respiratory health hazard in urban environments. However, the existing network of aerosol particle measurements is significantly sparse, and unable to capture the strong heterogeneity in particles that exists in urban locations. In addition, current 24-hour air quality standards of particulate matter are based solely on the total mass of particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm, and do not account for variations in particle size or total number. As a result, air quality assessments and local and regional modeling efforts are: 1) limited by a paucity of data, and 2) unconstrained by routine observations of particle number and size, which are both critical metrics for assessing the impact of aerosol particles on visibility and human health.. ...
A new IITRI poster presented at the recent ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases 2016 meeting is now available. In this poster, Winston Lin and colleagues describe the development of an aerosol model of infection for _B anthracis_ in rabbits using a modified 64-port inhalation nose-only exposure chamber with nebulizers. This platform produced consistent spray factors across concentrations. And, with capability for up to 8 rabbits, the platform potentially reduces variability in aerosol concentration delivery and minimizes the number of runs needed for a therapeutic or vaccine study.
The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol ...
Aerosol particles have important effects on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related activities, and organic compounds are known to constitute a significant fraction of ambient aerosol mass in many locations. Yet, large uncertainties remain in quantifying the chemical composition and atmospheric transformations of these aerosols, especially with respect to organic particulate matter. Particularly lacking are real-time, size-resolved, quantitative instruments for the identification, speciation, and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols. An innovative thermal desorption, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer recently has been developed with capabilities that can fill a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition data on aerosol particles. This project will develop and demonstrate a light scattering module for this instrument, which will enable full characterization of ...
The present invention relates to an aerosol formulation containing: a) a liquefied propellant gas or propellant gas mixture from the group of alternative propellant gases which contain no chlorine atoms which can be split off; b) a non-ionic surfactant from the group of monoacetylated or diacetylated monoglycerides of the MYVACET series; c) a pharmaceutical agent or a combination of agents and, if necessary, d) other conventional pharmaceutical ancillary substances which are suitable for aerosol formulations. The aerosol formulation can be used, in particular, in inhalation therapy for the treatment of diseases of the upper airways such as asthma or rhinitis.
Author(s): Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W | Abstract: Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also
Publication: McMurry, P. H., H. Takano and G. R. Anderson, 1983, "A Study of the Ammonia (Gas)-Sulfuric Acid (Aerosol) Reaction Rate," Environ. Sci. Technol., 17:347-351. Mozurkewich, M., P.H. McMurry, A. Gupta, and J.G. Calvert, 1987, "Measurements of HO2 Mass Accommodation Coefficients on Moist Aerosols," J. Geophys. Res., 92:4163-4170. Tao, Ye and P.H. McMurry, 1989, "Vapor Pressures and Surface Free Energies of C14-C18 Monocarboxylic Acids and C5 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids," Environ. Sci. Technol., 23:1519-1523 Kelly, W.P. and P.H. McMurry, 1992,"Measurement of Particle Density by Inertial Classification of DMA-generated Monodisperse Aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol., 17: 199-121. Gupta, A., D. Tang, and P.H. McMurry, 1995 "Growth of Monodisperse, Submicron Aerosol Particles Exposed to SO2, H2O2, and NH3," J. Atmospheric Chemistry, 20:117-139. Ziemann, P. J. and P. H. McMurry, 1998, "Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles," Aerosol ...
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Do your best to separate the aerosol cans from other storage materials as well as from any fixtures that feature high temperatures or flames. Never store flammable aerosol cans in a basement or similar area that features hot water heaters, gas heaters, fireplaces, boilers or any other type of intense heat. You should also keep them away from high voltage areas or anywhere that an unexpected spark could ignite. While the cans themselves protect the flammable aerosol product from exposure to such temperatures and sparks, a leak or sudden flame could cause a catastrophic fire. And keep them away from any pointed edges or corners even if its only furniture with sharp edges. These points will puncture a can and can result in a dangerous spray of flammable liquid.. ...
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A method for controlling the supply of liquid to an aerosol generator comprises operating a liquid supply system to supply a liquid to a vibratable aperture plate of an aerosol generator which senses an amount of liquid adhering to the vibratable aperture plate, and controls operation of the liquid supply system to adjust the amount of liquid adhering to the vibratable aperture plate.
A method for controlling the supply of liquid to an aerosol generator comprises operating a liquid supply system to supply a liquid to a vibratable aperture plate of an aerosol generator which senses an amount of liquid adhering to the vibratable aperture plate, and controls operation of the liquid supply system to adjust the amount of liquid adhering to the vibratable aperture plate.
SHAVING CREAM MCKESSON FOAMY AEROSOL CAN (VARIOUS SIZES) Features McKesson Shaving Cream Aerosol Can Conditions and protects skin while shaving.
More realistic device testing in the lab can save valuable time on clinical trials. A research team at Virginia Commonwealth University s School of Pharmacy led by Peter Byron and Michael Hindle is using realistic mouth, throat, and airway models, coupled with the realistic breathing profiles of the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator to investigate the relationship between in vitro experimental aerosol drug deposition and in vivo drug deposition behavior in patients. Read the full story.. ...
Inhalable dust fraction determination requires aerodynamic size information for large aerosol particles. Operation of cascade impactors at flows that collect these particles leads to jet Reynolds numbers outside the range of established impactor performance. Horizontal elutriators, designed to match earlier respirable dust curves at a single flow rate, may be used to provide aerodynamic size infor
Boy with aerosol inhaler. Male child demonstrating the correct use of an inhaler device. The pressurised aerosol inhaler is as effective and convenient method of giving a bronchodilator for mild to moderate asthma. The drug is delivered to the lungs, where it widens the airways. The technique is to inhale slowly and hold the breath for 10 seconds before breathing out. A good seal must be made around the nozzle with the lips. The patient needs to be well co-ordinated and compliant. The device is not suitable for achildren under the age of eighteen months. - Stock Image M109/0029
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR (www.eusaar.org). The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol particles are produced from natural and anthropogenic sources, through a variety of different process that include; wind-blown suspension, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. Due to this complexity the instrumentation used to analysis these particles must have the ability to separate based on size and in real-time provide information on their chemical composition. To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability ...
Download Terand Aerosol - Model CP-920 - Adhesive Spray - MSDS on Agriculture XPRT. General Purpose Pressure Sensitive Adhesive is recommended for decorative laminate to particleboard and MDF (medium-density fiberboard) substrates, metals and plywood...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor. AU - Ahlberg, Erik. AU - Falk, John. AU - Eriksson, Axel. AU - Holst, Thomas. AU - Brune, William Henry. AU - Kristensson, Adam. AU - Roldin, Pontus. AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
a Maximum limits represented by ninety-eight percentile (98%) values not to be exceed more than once a year.. b Arithmetic mean c SO2 and Suspended Particulate matter are sampled once every six days when using the manual methods. A minimum of twelve sampling days per quarter of forty-eight sampling days each year is required for these methods. Daily sampling may be done in the future once continuous analyzers are procured and become available. d Limits for Total Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 25-50 um. e Annual Geometric Mean f Provisional limits for Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 10 microns and below until sufficient monitoring data are gathered to base a proper guideline. g Evaluation of this guideline is carried out for 24-hour averaging time and averaged over three moving calendar months. The monitored average value for any three months shall not exceed the guideline value.. ...
The size distribution and chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol at the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Republic of Maldives was determined during the winter northeast monsoon season to aid in determining the light scattering and light absorption properties of the aerosol particles in that region. These experiments were conducted over 8 two-day periods during February 11-26, 1999, using filter-based samplers and cascade impactors operated at ambient relative humidity which was in the range of 80-89% relative humidity over 83% of the period sampled. Fine particle concentrations (D_a,1.8 μm) averaged 17.7(±0.22) μg m^(−3) and varied between 8.4(±0.33)-24.7(±0.21) μg m^(−3) over the period studied. Sulfate ion and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle mass concentration, accounting for 33-37% and 26-27% of the fine mass, respectively. Calcium carbonate contributes 3% of the mass measured on the impactor stages. Ammonium, nitrate, and ...
We combine optical remote sensing with computed tomography to determine simultaneously (a) the concentration and (b) the size distribution of particles at every pixel in a plane that slices through an aerosol. Light-extinction measurements are made along intersecting paths that pass through the plane. The spatial distribution of extinction coefficients at multiple wavelengths is obtained by an algebraic image-reconstruction technique (ART3). The size distribution of the aerosol at every pixel in the plane is obtained by inversion of the Fredholm integral equation. Computer simulations of this procedure were conducted. Extinction coefficients were found at all pixels in the plane at multiple wavelengths. Aerosol size distributions were retrieved at four pixels. Results of this analysis show that four projection angles were sufficient for reconstruction of extinction coefficient distributions in the plane. The technique can tolerate up to 10% random, normally distributed noise in the measurements. ...
An apparatus for generating respirable aerosol internal to a selected one of a plurality of medicament receptacles (40) containing pre-measured amounts of powdered medicament is disclosed herein. The medicament receptacles (40) are disposed in a medicament carrier (38) contained within a housing (10), and are sealed from exposure to the outside environment. The medicament carrier (38) is preferably a ring-shaped member detachably coupled to a carriage (24) which can be rotated to any one of a plurality of selected positions. A pair of aerosolization conduits (54, 56) having ends capable of puncturing the seal (44) covering the medicament receptacle (40) selected by the patient are also provided. Compression of the cover (12) and the carriage (24) pushes the selected medicament receptacle (40) against the edges of the aerosolization conduits (54, 56) causing the aerosolization conduits to puncture the seal (44) and penetrate the medicament receptacle (40). The medicament is entrained in air drawn in
Abstract. We briefly present in this short paper a new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model (SIREAM) which simulates the evolution of atmospheric aerosol by solving the General Dynamic Equation (GDE). SIREAM segregates the aerosol size distribution into sections and solves the GDE by splitting coagulation and condensation/evaporation-nucleation. A quasi-stationary sectional approach is used to describe the size distribution change due to condensation/evaporation, and a hybrid equilibrium/dynamical mass-transfer method has been developed to lower the computational burden. SIREAM uses the same physical parameterizations as those used in the Modal Aerosol Model, MAM Sartelet et al. (2006). It is hosted in the modeling system Polyphemus Mallet et al., 2007, but can be linked to any other three-dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model. ...
The World Health Organisation estimates that 100 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Pulmonary drug delivery is widely accepted as the firstchoice method for the treatment of respiratory diseases by glucocorticosteroids. Delivering these drugs to the lung by inhalation has many advantages in comparison to the same drug delivered orally. These include rapid onset of action, reduced dose and minimised side effects such as adrenal suppression, electrolyte imbalance, muscle weakness and growth retardation in children. Pulmonary drug delivery is also increasingly used for pain-controlling therapies and for administration of medications which are difficult to formulate orally such as proteins and peptides. The advantages of delivering drugs to the lung are undisputed, however, there are practical challenges still remaining to achieve repeatable and accurate dose delivery to the deep lung. An enabling ...
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Within the framework of nuclear accident scenarios, the initial contamination of continental hydrosystems is essentially from surface deposition of atmospheric aerosols. Whereas the deposition velocities were recently widely studied for meadows, forest and urban forest canopies, the aerosol deposits on hydrosystems need more specific investigations. The present work concerns the first step of a study on the mechanisms of dry deposition of sub-micro aerosol on continental hydrosystems (rivers, lakes and wetlands). As the spectrum of aerosols emitted during a nuclear accident is estimated to be centred around sub-micro particles, the objective of this work is to analyse dry deposition mechanisms on surface water, initially for particles close to 0.2μm. ...
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This monograph will be included in a future ACGIH® Signature Publication that will be entitled: Air Sampling Technologies: Principles and Applications. This monograph discusses the important field of aerosol sampling as it is applied to the measurement of aerosols encountered in both workplace and ambient environmental scenarios.. Member - $ ...
Scientists involved with aerosol measurements have available to them a diversity of aerosol monitors, ranging from sample collection on a filter for later analysis to complex direct-reading instruments, which detect the airborne particles in real time and display the concentration of airborne particles as a function of aerodynamic diameter. The use of the simplest or most complex device may introd
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This comprehensive book combines all that is known about aerosol sampling about the science and across a wide range of applications to benefit researchers and practitioners in occupational and environmental health and hygiene, aerosol scientists and engineers, as well as graduate students in these fields.
VUV ionization. The single particle aerosol mass spectrometer that we recently developed incorporates VUV ionization and an ion trap for mass analysis. We have incorporated a new, high-powered, fully tunable VUV source (6.5-11 eV ionization energy). To generate VUV, UV light from a dye laser and visible or IR light from an OPO is focused into a rare gas cell. The UV and visible/IR light are separated from the generated VUV by an off-axis MgF2 lens and blocked by a ceramic beam dump. The VUV light is refocused into the center of an ion trap mass spectrometer by a parabolic mirror. Aerosols are focused into a collimated stream by an aerodynamic lens and detected by scattering from two 532 nm CW Nd:YAG lasers. When a particle reaches the center of the ion trap a CO2 laser is fired to vaporize it, followed by single photon ionization.. ...
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Misty Glass & Mirror Cleaner w/Ammonia, 19 oz. Aerosol Can, 12/Carton Professional formula lifts dirt and grime and leaves a pleasant fragrance. Effective against fingerprints, smudges, dust, lipstick, oil, grease, bugs and more. No streaking, hazing, smearing or residue. Use on glass doors, windows, mirrors, showcases, windshields and headlights. Cleaner/Detergent Type: Material; Application: Glass Counters; Mirrors; Windshields; Applicable Material: Glass; Chemical Compound: Ammonia.
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BWAYs aerosol cans meet not only rigorous industry requirements, but also the needs of your customers who purchase household, personal care, industrial and other products every day.. Customers benefit from our continuous investment in the latest production and processing technology, ensuring innovative and reliable product solutions. Our creative design capabilities give top brands the shelf presence they deserve.. BWAY isnt just an aerosol can supplier, however. We also provide extensive training that helps customers understand the aerosol can manufacturing process and how formula changes to their products may affect the cans.. Click below to learn more about BWAYs aerosol cans.. ...
As you can see in the diagram below, the actual can design in this liquefied-gas system is exactly the same as in the compressed-gas system. But things work a little bit differently when you press down the button.. -. - When the valve is open, the pressure on the liquid propellant is instantly reduced. With less pressure, it can begin to boil. Particles break free, forming a gas layer at the top of the can. This pressurized gas layer pushes the liquid product, as well as some of the liquid propellant, up the tube to the nozzle. Some cans, such as spray-paint cans, have a ball bearing inside. If you shake the can, the rattling ball bearing helps to mix up the propellant and the product, so the product is pushed out in a fine mist.. When the liquid flows through the nozzle, the propellant rapidly expands into gas. In some aerosol cans, this action helps to atomize the product, forming an extremely fine spray. In other designs, the evaporating propellant forms bubbles in the product, creating a ...
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Recycles glass and plastic #1 - #7 bottles and jars, tin and aluminum cans (rinse out), aerosol cans (completely empty), cardboard (flattened), corrugated cardboard, non-corrugated boxes (such as cereal boxes and other chipboard), egg cartons, packing, wrapping/tissue paper, low-grade paper, office paper, already-shredded paper, brown paper bags, junk mail, magazines, soft-bound manuals and books, telephone books, catalogs, non-metallic greeting cards, manilla folders, mailing tubes and more. While this site accepts paper that has already been shredded, PLEASE NOTE - THIS SITE DOES NOT OFFER SHREDDING ...
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Introduction. Helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures are known to facilitate breathing due to their low density compared to air, and therefore, may be valuable to treat obstructive lung diseases such as asthma.. Objectives. The objective is to study the effect of air vs. He/O2 on the aerosol deposition of a nebulized radiolabel in stable, moderate asthmatic subjects.. Methods. 16 evaluable male subjects (6 asthmatics, 10 healthy volunteers) were studied. Each subject performed two inhalations which differed by a single controlled parameter (particle size, ventilation, or carrier gas). 2 of the asthmatics inhaled aerosols with either air or He/O2 (78%He/22%O2), and aerosol deposition was imaged with 3D-SPECT.. To characterize the sites of aerosol deposition, the 3D Central to Peripheral ratios, C/P, were calculated for right and left lungs.. Results. The effect of He/O2 on aerosol deposition was very visible for one of the asthmatic subjects (A06) with a large decrease in central deposition (Right ...
In an aerosol inhaler it is proposed that a thermal sensor 5 be arranged in the region of the atomization nozzle 4, which sensor, following the actuation of an actuating element and the triggering of
Easy to read patient leaflet for Fluticasone HFA Aerosol Inhaler. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project addresses the need for improved monitoring technologies for continuous particulate mass and chemical speciation of ambient aerosols. Aerodyne Research, Inc. will develop a prototype Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACMS) that measures ambient aerosol mass and chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol particles in real-time, providing quantitative measurements of particulate ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and organics. The ACSM will be designed to run autonomously for extended periods of time and will need no expensive post-processing analysis. The ACSM will be based on technology developed for Aerodyne¿s Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) instrument, including the inlet for efficient particle sampling and the mass spectrometric detection for quantitative mass measurements. The AMS has been successfully deployed in over twenty national and international field campaigns and has participated in several ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Aerobid aerosol inhaler. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Easy to read patient leaflet for Flovent aerosol inhaler. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
The Anritsu KW9627AP00 is designed specifically for aerosol inhaler checkweighing. Be sure products are accurately filled and contact us today to learn more
The VC Aero range of systems produces a consistent aerosol particle size and distribution throughout a wide range of pressures and are ideal for challenging HEPA filters to EN-ISO 14644-3 SectC.6.3 in the nuclear, pharmaceutical and clean room industries.. The units can be configured to use Ondina EL (Concept SO 135), Ondina 919, Emery 3004 / Durasyn 164.. The VC Aero incorporates a digital microprocessor controller with dual, 2 colour digital temperature (actual and target) display and PID control, self diagnostic testing, switching via a solid state relay for optimum controllability and reliability.. Aerosol from the VC Aeros can be passed through flexible ducting if required using optional ducting adaptors (25mm, 50mm and 75mm available) and positive pressure fans if required. All units are supplied with a remote control.. * excludes cylinder and regulator. ...
The MicroSprayer® Aerosolizer - Model IA-1B-R is designed for fast, targeted intratracheal aerosol administration to rat. The device can be used to administer a precisely quantifiable, highly-concentrated, air-free plume of liquid aerosol directly into the lungs or other locations. It may also be used for intranasal or in vitro applications. It can aerosolize a wide range of liquids or particle solutions/suspensions, including pharmaceutical and biologic formulations, contrast/imaging agents and toxicological materials. (It does not administer dry powders.). For intrapulmonary applications, the tip of the device is gently inserted down the trachea of the anesthetized animal - near to, but not touching the carina (first bifurcation). The portion that is inserted into the trachea measures 2″. The Model IA-1B operates with either a 0.5 ml precision glass syringe or a 1 ml commercial polycarbonate syringe.. ...
RESEARCH Airborne particles affect human health and play an important role in weather and climate change processes. We need a better understanding of the action of aerosol particles and clouds in the Earth system to improve our predictions of future climate. We also need to reduce the environmental impact of air pollution on urban and regional scales. The research interests of Jan Pettersson include heterogeneous processes on aerosol particles, cloud droplet processes, and the chemical analysis of single aerosol particles. The methods used range from detailed laboratory experiments and computer simulations to field studies of aerosol and cloud processes.. The fundamental laboratory-based and theoretical studies aim at an improved conceptual understanding of key aerosol processes, including formation of particles, formation of cloud droplets and ice particles, and heterogeneous chemistry taking place on these particles. New types of aerosol mass spectrometers are being developed and applied in ...
Clouds in clean air have low aerosol concentration and are composed of a small number of large droplets. They do not scatter light well and are somewhat dark and translucent. Much of the Suns radiation passes through these clouds and reaches the surface.. Clouds in polluted air have much higher aerosol concentration. As aerosol concentration increases within a cloud, the water in the cloud is divided into a larger number of smaller droplets, scattering more light and becoming more reflective. These clouds appear brighter which blocks sunlight from reaching the Earths surface, shading the planet and producing net cooling. This is the "cloud albedo effect." These clouds also last longer since smaller cloud droplets are less likely to fall out of the atmosphere as rain. Both effects increase the amount of radiation from the Sun that is reflected to space without reaching the surface.. According to NASA, aerosols and the clouds seeded by them reflect about 25% of the Suns radiation back to space. ...
A. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, O. Torres, C. Ahn, and R. Spurr, "Using Rotational Raman Scattering in the Atmosphere for Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties," in Imaging and Applied Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA20 ...
Ralph Kahn). John Ogren (as Facilitator). Regarding the link between models and observations: (1) Observations provide estimates of aerosol properties, their variability and uncertainties. (2) Models provide sensitivity of climate to aerosol properties. So the two communities must interact.. Steve Schwartz. Aerosol properties and amounts vary on the space and time scales of synoptic meteorology, which governs aerosol transports. "Averaged" values, (e.g., smoothed contours) eliminate the peaks and valleys, and are inadequate to represent aerosol non-linear effects, such as those involved in aerosol interactions with clouds. Both models and observations must capture aerosol variability on synoptic scales.. Steve Ghan. Satellite observations of radiance are usually converted to aerosol properties, which are used in a model to generate radiative forcing. This procedure involves a set of assumptions that can be avoided if model-produced radiances are compared directly to satellite-derived radiances. ...
Determining the viscosity of aerosol particles is challenging since the viscosities can range from 10-2 to 1012 Pa·s as relative humidity changes. In addition, the amount of aerosol particles that can be collected in the atmosphere or environmental chambers is only a few milligrams. Currently only a few methods exist for determining viscosities of aerosol particles. We developed two such methods:. Bead-mobility technique. Aerosol particles consisting of 20 - 50 µm in diameter are deposited on a hydrophobic substrate. Insoluble melamine beads (~1 µm) are then incorporated into the supermicron particles. The hydrophobic substrate with the particles is then placed inside a flow-cell with relative humidity control. A continuous flow of N2/H2O gas is passed over the supermicron particles, leading to a shear stress on the surface of the particles and internal circulation of beads within the particles. We observe the velocity of the beads in the particles using a light-transmitting microscope. The ...
Can Global Warming be completely eliminated? Is it possible to restore the normal climate? These are some highly debated questions that we frequently ponder
Project Leader: Dr Zita-Rose Manjaly-Thomas, Clinical DPhil Student During her ACF, Zita was involved in a trial where the candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A was delivered to humans by aerosol for the first time. The data from this pilot trial suggests that the aerosol route of vaccination is promising and also that combining different routes of vaccination could possibly make boosting with the same vaccine more potent. The initial pilot trial has now been published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases ...
Aerosol particles and cloud droplets are not static entities but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment and therefore changing in their properties [1]. Also, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so water vapor or other trace gases fluctuate in space and time. Aerosol properties such as number concentration, chemical composition and size influence many cloud properties including the clouds probability for precipitation and hence their lifetime. Also, an increase in the number of aerosol particles can lead to an increase in cloud droplet number and decrease the effective droplet radius, which results in an increase in a clouds albedo for a constant liquid water path. In response, clouds serve as a dominant removal mechanism for intermediate sized aerosol particles while other sizes are removed via other loss processes such as settling and diffusion. This feedback between aerosol and cloud is the process of cloud cleansing through which cloudy, polluted air from a continent is slowly
Rahul K. Verma, Mariam Ibrahim, and Lucila Garcia-Contreras. 1.1 Introduction 2. 1.2 Anatomy and Physiology of Lungs 2. 1.2.1 Macro- and Microstructure of the Airways and Alveoli as It Pertains to Drug Delivery 2. 1.2.2 Lung Surfactant 4. 1.2.3 Pulmonary Blood Circulation 5. 1.3 Mechanisms of Aerosol Deposition 5. 1.3.1 Impaction 6. 1.3.2 Sedimentation 6. 1.3.3 Interception 6. 1.3.4 Diffusion 7. 1.4 Drug Absorption 7. 1.4.1 Mechanisms of Drug Absorption from the Lungs 7. 1.5 Physiological Factors Affecting the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Drugs Delivered by the Pulmonary Route 8. 1.5.1 Airway Geometry 8. 1.5.2 Inhalation Mode 8. 1.5.3 Airflow Rate 9. 1.5.4 Mechanism of Particle Clearance 9. 1.5.5 Lung Receptors 10. 1.5.6 Disease States 11. 1.5.7 Effect of Age and Gender Difference 11. 1.6 Computer Simulations to Describe Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease 11. 1.6.1 Semiempirical Models 12. 1.6.2 Deterministic Models 12. 1.6.3 Trumpet Models (One-Dimensional) 12. 1.6.4 Stochastic, ...
A pressure-assisted breathing system comprises a flow generator, a circuit connecting the flow generator to a patients respiratory system and an aerosol generator for emitting aerosol particles into the circuit, wherein the circuit defines a path for the emitted aerosol particles having a change in angle no greater than 15 .
I took him in Friday morning and his sats were 85-87…EEK! I had just given a breathing treatment an hour before we got there too! They did two back to back treatments and he came up to 91. Reids baseline is usually 94-96. The decision was made to be admitted and catch things early since this guy get pneumonia so easily. I asked that the also test for RSV since that combo did such a number on him last time. SCARY! They did the RSV test and x rays when we got to the hospital. Both were great news. Negative for RSV and there didnt appear to be any pneumonia by looking at the scans. Yay! They gave him a continuous aerosol treatment and then followed with neb treatments every two hours. He is also on an antibiotic and steroid now. He improved while we were there and we came home yesterday. Rico and I are used to keeping him on the oxygen during the day when hes sick and giving around the clock neb treatments. Usually, we continue this pattern for about a week before hes keeping his sats up and ...
The Collison brothers Silicon Valley start-up Stripe has rolled out the first update to its e-commerce checkout service and the revamped tool now includes separate billing and shipping addresses and instant billing verification.
Aerosols are tiny suspended particles that play a multi-faceted role in the atmosphere. They act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) during cloud formation by providing a platform for water vapor to condense. In addition, some aerosols may reflect solar radiation back into space, while others have the ability to absorb solar radiation. Clouds have the ability to reflect, absorb, transmit, and emit both terrestrial and solar radiation depending on the type of cloud (liquid, ice, or mixed), the cloud thickness, and its altitude in the atmosphere. Aerosols can also interact with clouds in a variety of ways that modify their properties such as the cloud drop number concentration, the cloud lifetime, and precipitation. The outcomes of these interactions are dependent upon the aerosol type (absorbing, reflecting, or mixed), aerosol amount (high or low concentration), and where the aerosol is located with respect to the clouds (above, below, or mixed within the cloud layer). Because of these processes, ...
The DustTrak™ II Aerosol Monitor 8530 is a desktop battery-operated, data-logging, light-scattering laser photometer that gives you real-time aerosol mass readings. It uses a sheath air system that isolates the aerosol in the optics chamber to keep the optics clean for improved reliability and low maintenance ...
The group conducts theoretical, experimental, and modeling research to understand atmospheric aerosol and cloud physics that pertain to the needs of the U.S. Navy, including: the effect of aerosol properties (i.e. size distribution and chemical composition) on electromagnetic propagation through the atmosphere the effect of aerosols on microphysical characteristics of clouds, fogs, and hazes in the marine and coastal environments
Aerosol product containers are made either from steel (about 75%) or aluminum (about 25%). Post-consumer metal cans (food, beverage, paint and aerosol products) are in demand because they are made of steel or aluminum, both of which are valuable and can be recycled infinitely without the metal breaking-down or compromising the quality. In fact, todays steel aerosol cans contain an average of 35 percent recycled content.. Check with your local recycling coordinator, local municipality or aluminum collection site for details in your area. Many recyclers and community recycling officials are simply not aware that the U.S. EPA recommends that all aerosol containers (including pesticide containers) be recycled once they are empty.. ...
China Lighter Butane Gas Tin Can Foam Aerosol Can, Find details about China Aerosol Can, Empty Aerosol Can from Lighter Butane Gas Tin Can Foam Aerosol Can - Sailon Tinplate Printing & Can Making Co., Ltd.
1. A dry powder formulation for use in a dry powder inhaler, comprising: (a) a fraction of fine particles made of a mixture comprising 90 to 99.5 percent by weight of particles of a physiologically acceptable excipient and 0.5 to 10 percent by weight of magnesium stearate, said mixture having a mass median diameter lower than 20 microns; (b) a fraction of coarse particles comprising a physiologically acceptable excipient having a mass median diameter equal to or higher than 100 microns, wherein the weight ratio between said fine particles and said coarse particles is 1:99 to 30:70 percent by weight; and (c) formoterol fumarate dihydrate in combination with beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) as active ingredients both in the form of micronized particles; wherein: (i) no more than 10% of said BDP particles have a volume diameter lower than 0.6 microns; (ii) no more than 50% of said BDP particles have a volume diameter of 1.5 microns to 2.0 microns; and (iii) at least 90% of said BDP particles have a ...
The research objectives of this report are: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure during remediation. This personal monitor is a miniaturization and modification of the area {sup 222}Rn monitor that has proven accuracy and precision. (2) To develop a personal aerosol particle size sampler, based on the principles of the novel sampler the author has developed. The sampler measures not only {sup 222}Rn decay product aerosol size but long lived nuclides. There are, as yet, no size distribution data on the aerosol particle size distribution of these nuclides during remediation, yet the aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample for {sup 228,230,232}Th, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 234,235,238}U and {sup 210}Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry to accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment. To obtain historic and present radiochemical data ...
Patients with influenza release aerosol particles containing the virus into their environment. However, the importance of airborne transmission in the spread of influenza is unclear, in part because of a lack of information about the infectivity of the airborne virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of viable influenza A virus that was expelled by patients in aerosol particles while coughing. Sixty-four symptomatic adult volunteer outpatients were asked to cough 6 times into a cough aerosol collection system. Seventeen of these participants tested positive for influenza A virus by viral plaque assay (VPA) with confirmation by viral replication assay (VRA). Viable influenza A virus was detected in the cough aerosol particles from 7 of these 17 test subjects (41%). Viable influenza A virus was found in the smallest particle size fraction (0.3 μm to 8 μm), with a mean of 142 plaque-forming units (SD 215) expelled during the 6 coughs in particles of this size. These results ...
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BACKGROUND Aerosolized medications that have been used in infants receiving ventilatory support have not been shown to be effective clinically among the smallest patients. The aim of this study was to characterize the delivery of aerosolized albuterol sulfate in vitro under simulated neonatal ventilatory conditions using a novel ventilator circuit/patient interface connector. METHODS A Babylog(®) ventilator (VN500(®); Draeger), a novel ventilator circuit/patient interface (VC) connector (Afectair(®); Discovery Laboratories, Inc.), a TwinStar(®) HME (Draeger) low-volume filter, and either a test lung (Draeger) or lung simulator ASL 5000(®) (IngmarMed) were used. Intermittent mandatory ventilation conditions were set to replicate the most typical ventilation conditions for premature infants. Continuous positive airway pressure was also used to measure aerosol delivery with active respiratory drive from the patient. Albuterol sulfate (0.5 mg/mL) was loaded into the drug reservoir of a Misty Finity(
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrier particle size on properties of dry powder and its effect on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance. Commercial α-lactose-monohydrate, a commonly used carrier in DPI formulations, was carefully sieved to obtain different lactose size fractions, namely Lac A (90-125μm), Lac B (63-90μm), Lac C (45-63μm), Lac D (20-45μm), and Lac E (<20μm). The lactose samples were analysed in terms of size, shape, solid state, density, and flowability. Lactose particles were blended with budesonide (<5μm) powder to generate five different formulations. These formulations were then evaluated in terms of budesonide-lactose adhesion properties, drug content homogeneity, and in vitro aerosolisation performance. The results demonstrated that lactose samples with smaller particle volume mean diameter have higher amorphous lactose content, higher true density (linear, r 2=0.9932), higher surface smoothness (linear, r 2=0.8752), smaller angularity ...
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ACID RAIN: September 2013ACID RAIN: September 2013

Industries, factories, vehicles, aerosol cans, etc are all causes for "acid rain". This is because all of these things increase ...
more infohttp://worldacidrainsecrets.blogspot.ca/2013/09/

Aerosols | New ScientistAerosols | New Scientist

Aerosols. *. News21 January 2014. Made in China: Up to a quarter of California smog. The US has outsourced many of its ... The skies might change colour if geoengineers inject light-scattering aerosols into the upper atmosphere to combat global ...
more infohttps://www.newscientist.com/article-topic/aerosols/

AerosolsAerosols

... can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade.. Some aerosols, particularly sulfate aerosols from fossil fuel ... Aerosols have a great effect on climate but little is known about them. What are aerosols? In this case they are tiny particles ... To better understand aerosols role in climate, the DOEs climate research program studies how aerosol particles in the air ... From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate ...
more infohttps://www.enn.com/articles/41409

Clouds and AerosolsClouds and Aerosols

... called aerosols, reflect and absorb light and heat coming into and leaving our planet. ... Airy Aerosols. Aerosols are tiny dust, soot and other particles that float in the atmosphere, where they tend to absorb, ... Clouds and Aerosols. You may not know it, but clouds help control temperatures on Earth. Droplets of water or ice particles ... In 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted, spewing some 15 billion kilograms (33 billion pounds) of aerosols-mostly ...
more infohttps://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/climate-change/changing-atmosphere/clouds-and-aerosols

AerosolsAerosols

These aerosols caused acid rain and other environmental problems in the U.S. before factories in the 1970s were required to ... These aerosols also reflect incoming sunlight and so have a cooling effect on the surface in the industrial middle-latitudes ... These stratospheric aerosols dramatically change the reflectivity, and absorption profile of the upper atmosphere, causing the ... As a result, the projected disappearance of cooling aerosols in the decades ahead produces an especially large amount of ...
more infohttp://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/category/climate-science/aerosols/

Aerosols | Recycle NowAerosols | Recycle Now

What are aerosols made from?. Around 60% of aerosols are made from tinplated steel and approx 40% are made from aluminium. Both ... Aerosols also contain some small plastic and rubber components including the lid, valve and dip tube which are extracted in the ... Do not pierce, crush or flatten aerosol cans *Detach any loose or easily removable parts, such as the lid, and dispose of them ... How to recycle aerosols. *Ensure aerosols are completely empty before recycling. * ...
more infohttps://www.recyclenow.com/what-to-do-with/aerosols-0

AerosolsAerosols

Aerosol science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the ... Aerosols Page Content. ​An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Examples of ... In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar ... Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and ...
more infohttps://www.aiha.org/publications-and-resources/TopicsofInterest/Hazards/Pages/Aerosols.aspx

Aerosols: Tiny Particles, Big ImpactAerosols: Tiny Particles, Big Impact

Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Measuring Aerosols. Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to ... Values for most aerosols range from about 0.7 for very absorbing particles to 1 for aerosols that only scatter light. ... Aerosol optical depth is the fundamental measurement of quantity and distribution of aerosols. This map shows the average ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/Aerosols/page5.php

atmospheric aerosolsatmospheric aerosols

This entry was posted in Meeting Announcements and tagged aerosol composition, aerosol optical modeling, atmospheric aerosols, ... Tag Archives: atmospheric aerosols. Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols The Optical Characterization of ... Atmospheric Aerosols workshop will take place at the Congress Centre Smolenice SAS, Slovak Republic in November 5-7 2013. The ...
more infohttps://www.lpi.usra.edu/planetary_news/tag/atmospheric-aerosols/

Aerosols: Tiny Particles, Big ImpactAerosols: Tiny Particles, Big Impact

Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Aerosols play an important role in Earths climate. Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by ... Although most aerosols reflect sunlight, some also absorb it. An aerosols effect on light depends primarily on the composition ... Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols/page3.php

aerosol - Wiktionaryaerosol - Wiktionary

From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosoler, definite plural ... From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosolar, definite plural ... Catalan: aerosol m. *Chinese: Mandarin: 氣霧劑 (zh), 气雾剂 (zh) (qìwùjì), 氣溶膠 (zh), 气溶胶 (zh) (qìróngjiāo), 煙霧質 (zh), 烟雾质 (zh) ( ... aerosol (plural aerosols). *A mixture of fine solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aerosol

Aerosols | MSDSonlineAerosols | MSDSonline

Aerosols. Any non-refillable receptacles made of metal, glass or plastics and containing a gas compressed, liquefied or ...
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Aerosols & Clouds - AWIAerosols & Clouds - AWI

Thermodynamics, Aerosol, Clouds in the Arctic Atmosphere. Climate change is most pronounced in the Arctic. Long term ...
more infohttps://www.awi.de/en/science/climate-sciences/atmospheric-physics/aerosols-clouds.html

aerosols Archives - Discoblog  : Discoblogaerosols Archives - Discoblog : Discoblog

Tag: aerosols. Vuvuzelas Spray Millions of Spit Particles, Reaching A New Level of Annoying (& Virulent?). By Veronique ...
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Aerosols, Chemistry and Climate «  RealClimateAerosols, Chemistry and Climate « RealClimate

But sulphate aerosols are not the major aerosol component by particle mass or number. The lagest sources of aerosol mass are ... Aerosols are not smog: First they confuse aerosols with photochemical smog. Both are pollutants, but the first is dominated by ... The carbonaceous aerosol component typically dominants PM1 aerosol mass, see for example:. Zhang, Q. et al., Ubiquity and ... Your statement that "aerosols are not smog" is not correct. Aerosols are an important component of photochemical smog, forming ...
more infohttp://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2008/07/aerosols-chemistry-and-climate/?wpmp_switcher=mobile&attest=true&wpmp_tp=0

Aerosol (military) - WikiLeaksAerosol (military) - WikiLeaks

aerosol A liquid or solid composed of finely divided particles suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of common aerosols are ...
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Aerosols | ISAC - CNRAerosols | ISAC - CNR

A field campaign to elucidate the impact of biogenic aerosols on clouds and climate, Petäjä, T., OConnor E.J., Moisseev D., ... A field campaign to elucidate the impact of biogenic aerosols on clouds and climate. ... Read more about A field campaign to elucidate the impact of biogenic aerosols on clouds and climate ...
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Global warming - Volcanic aerosols | Britannica.comGlobal warming - Volcanic aerosols | Britannica.com

In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere (see above Aerosols), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain ... Consequently, aerosols from explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to affect Earths climate. Less-explosive eruptions ... Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions ... Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/global-warming/Volcanic-aerosols

Chinese aerosols stop global warmingChinese aerosols stop global warming

... thesun.co.uk ^ , January 10, 2013 , BEN JACKSON Posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:17 AM PST by ... KEYWORDS: aerosols; china; climatechange; globalwarming; globalwarminghoax; uk 1 posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:23 AM PST by Berlin_ ...
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Articles, tagged with aerosolsArticles, tagged with "aerosols"

It is a study on the differential deposition of aerosols in the maxillary sinus of human cadavers by particle size. It ...
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Profiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National LaboratoryProfiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National Laboratory

Knowing this vertical profile of aerosols is critical for understanding the impact of aerosols on weather and climate. ... Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth ( ... Most aerosols were found to be confined to 0-2 km from the ground surface (approximately the planetary boundary layer region) ... However, it has always been a problem to predict how the concentration of these aerosols changes as we go up from the ground to ...
more infohttps://www.anl.gov/articles/profiling-atmospheric-aerosols

Aerosols make methane more potent - Scientific AmericanAerosols make methane more potent - Scientific American

Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. The timing of this paper is excellent, says Greg Carmichael, a ... Aerosols' complicated influence on our climate just got more threatening: they could make methane a more potent greenhouse ... Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's ... But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/aerosols-make-methane-more-pot/

Aerosols may not be so helpful | ZDNetAerosols may not be so helpful | ZDNet

Research in Norway says the aerosols are likely to counter only about 10% of the greenhouse gas effects in our atmosphere. ... New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting greenhouse gases. ... Aerosols may not be so helpful. New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting ... New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting greenhouse gases. Research in Norway ...
more infohttps://www.zdnet.com/article/aerosols-may-not-be-so-helpful/

Recycling tins, cans and aerosolsRecycling tins, cans and aerosols

If its a tin, can or aerosol, you can recycle it!. All of your tins, cans and aerosols can be put in your recycling bin. ... Aerosols marked with a black skull and crossbones or black cross on an orange background should be put in your general waste ... Remember to recycle your paper, cardboard and plastic bottles in your recycling bin with your tins, cans and aerosols. ...
more infohttp://www.southampton.gov.uk/bins-recycling/recycling/recycling-tins-cans-aerosols.aspx

Aerosols in the Pre-industrial Atmosphere | SpringerLinkAerosols in the Pre-industrial Atmosphere | SpringerLink

Purpose of Review We assess the current understanding of the state and behaviour of aerosols under pre-industrial conditions ... we need to understand whether low aerosol concentrations in the PI affected aerosol removal and hence fed back on the aerosol ... Natural aerosol emissions are a major source of uncertainty in PI aerosols [6], and we cannot assume they were the same as ... Aerosol Emissions in the Pre-industrial. Aerosol emissions in the PI would have been influenced by three factors: (i) natural ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40641-017-0061-2
  • In 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines ejected more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide-a gas that reacts with other substances to produce sulfate aerosol-as high as 60 kilometers (37 miles) above the surface, creating particles in the stratosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere ( see above Aerosols ), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain for several years before settling out, because of the relative absence of turbulent motions there. (britannica.com)
  • Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions tend to spread out over the globe, whereas aerosols injected within midlatitude and polar regions tend to remain confined to the middle and high latitudes of that hemisphere. (britannica.com)
  • Natural sulfur aerosols are formed in vast quantities from the SO2 ejected by volcanoes, which may be injected directly into the stratosphere during very large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI, of 4 or greater) eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • During periods lacking volcanic activity (and thus direct injection of SO2 into the stratosphere), oxidation of COS (carbonyl sulfide) dominates the production of stratospheric sulfur aerosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (awi.de)
  • Despite the importance of pre-industrial aerosols for historical climate change, the relevant processes and emissions are given relatively little consideration in climate models, and there have been very few attempts to evaluate them. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • The aerosol particles form a whitish haze in the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low concentration of aerosol particles under relatively pristine conditions means that global mean cloud albedo may have been twice as sensitive to changes in natural aerosol emissions under pre-industrial conditions compared to present-day conditions. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, the discovery of new aerosol formation processes and revisions to aerosol emissions have large effects on simulated historical aerosol radiative forcing. (springer.com)
  • This map shows the average distribution of aerosols from June 2000 through May 2010, measured by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). (nasa.gov)
  • The team of researchers will take daily measurements of trace gases and aerosols the city emits (known as the Sacramento urban plume) under relatively well defined and regular weather conditions. (enn.com)
  • Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up of greenhouse gases since the 1880s. (nasa.gov)
  • However, unlike many greenhouse gases, aerosols are not distributed evenly around the planet, so their impacts are most strongly felt on a regional scale. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. (scientificamerican.com)
  • New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting greenhouse gases. (zdnet.com)
  • It has been established that emission of precursor gases for sulfur aerosols is the principal mechanism by which volcanoes cause episodic global cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. (aiha.org)
  • These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models. (anl.gov)
  • Enter your postcode below to check if you can recycle aerosols at home. (recyclenow.com)
  • If it's a tin, can or aerosol, you can recycle it! (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Remember to recycle your paper, cardboard and plastic bottles in your recycling bin with your tins, cans and aerosols. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • In the Arctic especially, aerosols from wildfires and industrial pollution are likely hastening the melting of ice. (nasa.gov)
  • The IPCC AR4 says explosive volcanic events are episodic, but the stratospheric aerosols resulting from them yield substantial transitory perturbations to the radiative energy balance of the planet, with both shortwave and longwave effects sensitive to the microphysical characteristics of the aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur aerosols are common in the troposphere as a result of pollution with sulfur dioxide from burning coal, and from natural processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creating stratospheric sulfur aerosols deliberately is a proposed geoengineering technique which offers a possible solution to some of the problems caused by global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactions affecting both the formation and elimination of sulfur aerosols are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • This uncertainty makes it difficult to determine a viable approach for geoengineering uses of sulfur aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists believe the cooling from sulfates and other reflective aerosols overwhelms the warming effect of black carbon and other absorbing aerosols over the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • All of your tins, cans and aerosols can be put in your recycling bin. (southampton.gov.uk)
  • Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to establish the magnitude of such effects-or even whether specific aerosol types warm or cool the surface-were lacking. (nasa.gov)
  • These cleaners make excellent replacements for high global warming potential (GWP) and toxic aerosol cleaners because they are fast-drying and have low toxicity and favorable environmental profiles - with low GWPs and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP). (3m.com)
  • We assess the current understanding of the state and behaviour of aerosols under pre-industrial conditions and the importance for climate. (springer.com)
  • Computer models can be used to understand the behaviour of aerosol particles, and are particularly useful in modelling their effect on global climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a function of altitude. (anl.gov)
  • There is insufficient observational evidence to accurately define the state of atmospheric aerosols in the PI, so we mostly rely on estimates from global climate model simulations. (springer.com)
  • From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate. (enn.com)
  • Today scientists use an array of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based instruments to monitor aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Starting in 2011, the Glory mission will enable scientists to better characterize the types and distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • At 3M, our scientists have carefully formulated our revolutionary, non-flammable 3M™ Novec™ Aerosol Cleaners with the exact features and compatibility your business demands - without compromising worker safety or environmental protection. (3m.com)
  • Our scientists intentionally developed 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners with high dielectric strength making them effective for use on energized components (less than 25 kV) and on a range of materials, including most plastics, metals, circuitry, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and more. (3m.com)
  • Scientists and technicians responsible for the data use another copy of CPD3 on their desktop or laptop computers to review the data for quality and completeness, flag or remove contaminated or invalid data, reformat and export the data for analysis with other software, and submit the data for archiving and public access at the WMO World Data Center for Aerosols (WDCA). (noaa.gov)
  • Aerosols, particularly black carbon, can alter reflectivity by depositing a layer of dark residue on ice and other bright surfaces. (nasa.gov)
  • Long-term accumulation of black carbon aerosols in the Arctic and Himalaya is leading to increased melting of snow. (nasa.gov)
  • But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is a lot of uncertainty around the exact figure. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The uncertainty in model simulations of PI aerosols may not make a large contribution to the calculated forcing uncertainty associated with aerosol-radiation interactions [ 3 , 12 ] because the magnitude of the forcing depends approximately linearly on the aerosol load [ 13 ] (so the perturbation calculated by the model is not strongly dependent on the reference state). (springer.com)
  • This image depicts a representative subset of the atmospheric processes related to aerosol lifecycles, cloud lifecycles, and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions that must be understood to improve future climate predictions. (climate.gov)
  • Examples of common aerosols are mist , fog , and smoke . (wiktionary.org)
  • NASA co-sponsors a global network of ground sensors called the Aerosols Robotic Network, or AERONET, which is comprised of more than 200 carefully calibrated sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth around the world. (nasa.gov)
  • The study of the mechanisms of formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols is of primary importance for predictions of the climatic changes on our planet. (springer.com)
  • AVHRR, a passive radiometer, measured the intensity of sunlight as it reflected off aerosols, using the dark ocean as the background. (nasa.gov)
  • Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space. (nasa.gov)
  • In addition to scattering or absorbing radiation, aerosols can alter the reflectivity, or albedo, of the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • First, Ruckstuhl et al found that as aerosols have decreased in Europe over the last few decades (as a result of environmental standards legislation), the amount of solar radiation at the ground has increased while the amount reflected to space has decreased. (realclimate.org)
  • Over subsequent decades, the instruments have grown more sophisticated and made it possible to study aerosols over the land as well. (nasa.gov)
  • Whether the task at hand is cleaning circuit boards, cleaning electrical contacts, relays and switches, solder cleaning, flux removal, degreasing or applying a contact lubricant, we have developed a Novec aerosol cleaner for the job. (3m.com)
  • Whether you're working in electronics, aerospace, aviation, automotive or transportation, your aerosol cleaning needs are as precise as the objects you work with. (3m.com)
  • Achieve your precise cleaning goals by choosing the right aerosol cleaning strength. (3m.com)
  • We have developed our Novec aerosols in collaboration with industry experts to meet the needs of electronics cleaning, electrical equipment cleaning, aviation, transport, factory equipment and anything requiring precise, complete cleaning. (3m.com)
  • All 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners are based on proprietary 3M solvent technology that pairs exceptional performance with a wide margin of worker safety and excellent environmental characteristics to help preserve our planet. (3m.com)
  • Aerosols are widely recycled in household collection schemes and at recycling points. (recyclenow.com)