Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.ManikinsSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedOxocins: Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Respiratory Transport: The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Mice, Inbred BALB CAircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Respiratory Tract DiseasesBronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.WeldingNedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PaintAllergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.HydrocarbonsToxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

The effect of route of immunization on the lapine immune response to killed Pasteurella haemolytica and the influence of aerosol challenge with the live organism. (1/2617)

Appearance of anti-Pasteurella haemolytica antibody in the serum and broncho-alveolar washings of rabbits is independent of the route of immunization and is similar in both locations. The most influential factor in development of a humoral response is exposure to live P. haemolytica and prior exposure to the killed bacterium has no significant effect upon titre determined following aerosol challenge with live organisms.  (+info)

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (2/2617)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (3/2617)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/2617)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. (5/2617)

We examined the measurement error in inhaled and exhaled aerosol concentration resulting from the bolus delivery system when small volumes of monodisperse aerosols are inspired to different lung depths. A laser photometer that illuminated approximately 75% of the breathing path cross section recorded low inhaled bolus half-widths (42 ml) and negative deposition values for shallow bolus inhalation when the inhalation path of a 60-ml aerosol was straight and unobstructed. We attributed these results to incomplete mixing of the inhaled aerosol bolus over the breathing path cross section, on the basis of simultaneous recordings of the photometer with a particle-counter sampling from either the center or the edge of the breathing path. Inserting a 90 degrees bend into the inhaled bolus path increased the photometer measurement of inhaled bolus half-width to 57 ml and yielded positive deposition values. Dispersion, which is predominantly affected by exhaled bolus half-width, was not significantly altered by the 90 degrees bend. We conclude that aerosol bolus-delivery systems should ensure adequate mixing of the inhaled bolus to avoid error in measurement of bolus deposition.  (+info)

Structural deficiencies in granuloma formation in TNF gene-targeted mice underlie the heightened susceptibility to aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, which is not compensated for by lymphotoxin. (6/2617)

TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha) may act at various stages of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To dissect the effects of TNF independent of LT alpha, we have used C57BL/6 mice with a disruption of the TNF gene alone (TNF-/-). Twenty-one days following aerosol M. tuberculosis infection there was a marked increase in the number of organisms in the lungs of TNF-/- mice, and by 28-35 days all animals had succumbed, with widespread dissemination of M. tuberculosis. In comparison with the localized granulomas containing activated macrophages and T cells in lungs and livers of C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) mice, cellular infiltrates in TNF-/- mice were poorly formed, with extensive regions of necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration of the alveoli. Phenotypic analysis of lung homogenates demonstrated similar numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in TNF-/- and wt mice, but in TNF-deficient mice the lymphocytes were restricted to perivascular and peribronchial areas rather than colocated with macrophages in granulomas. T cells from TNF-/- mice retained proliferative and cytokine responses to purified protein derivative, and delayed-type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative was demonstrable. Macrophages within the lungs of TNF-/- and wt mice showed similar levels of MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and levels of serum nitrite were comparable. Thus, the enhanced susceptibility of TNF-/- is not compensated for by the presence of LT alpha, and the critical role of TNF is not in the activation of T cells and macrophages but in the local organization of granulomas.  (+info)

Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. (7/2617)

RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice.  (+info)

Particle deposition in the trachea: in vivo and in hollow casts. (8/2617)

The pattern of deposition within the respiratory tract of potentially harmful particulates is a major factor in assessing any risk from individual and community exposures. Although the trachea is the most easily observed of the conductive airways, very little information concerning its particle collection characteristics is available, information which is essential for a complete and realistic description of particle deposition patterns within the entire respiratory tract. Data on tracheal deposition are also needed for development of accurate predictive models for particle deposition. The pattern of particle deposition in the trachea, and its relation to air flow, was studied in a hollow cast of the human larynx-tracheobronchial tree. Results were compared with data obtained in humans in vivo and from previous studies in hollow casts. In addition, the relevance of tracheal deposition in the hollow cast test system to deposition in vivo was examined by a direct comparison of deposition in a cast prepared from the lungs of donkeys previously studied in a series of in vivo tests. The disturbance of the air flow within the trachea caused by the larynx promoted the deposition of suspended particulates throughout the length of the trachea, and especially in proximal regions. This proximal deposition was due both to direct impaction from the air jet coming from the glottis and to effects of the tubulent flow. Turbulence produced inhomogenous deposition patterns within the trachea for particles of all sizes, although its effect was more pronounced as size decreased. Tracheal deposition in the human cast was within the range of normal in vivo tracheal depostion only when a larynx was used during cast test exposures; this emphasizes the need for the use of realistic experimental test systems for the study of particle deposition patterns. The relative patterns of deposition in casts of the donkey trachea and in the same tracheas in vivo were similar.  (+info)

See Federal Register notice and regulatory docket. This Federal proposal is driven mainly by the large quantities of aerosol cans coming from the retail sector, which are likely to contain much of their original contained material. The comment deadline is May 15, 2018. Currently, four states (CA, CO, NM, and UT) include aerosol cans in their state Universal Waste programs, and two more states (MN and OH) have proposed to do so. This Federal proposal is intended to be consistent with those programs and to be adopted by the other states. As proposed, Federal Universal Waste aerosol cans include "all discarded, intact, non-empty hazardous waste aerosol cans", regardless of size, but do not include compressed gas canisters and cylinders and similar containers. While this definition may be clear for aerosol cans from the retail sector (e.g., returned cans that cannot be resold), it is not necessarily clear for empty aerosol cans sent to recycling facilities because of the definitions of "discarded" ...
There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious
The global pandemic of COVID-19 has been associated with infections and deaths among health-care workers. This Viewpoint of infectious aerosols is intended to inform appropriate infection control measures to protect health-care workers. Studies of cough aerosols and of exhaled breath from patients with various respiratory infections have shown striking similarities in aerosol size distributions, with a predominance of pathogens in small particles (,5 µm). These are immediately respirable, suggesting the need for personal respiratory protection (respirators) for individuals in close proximity to patients with potentially virulent pathogens. There is no evidence that some pathogens are carried only in large droplets. Surgical masks might offer some respiratory protection from inhalation of infectious aerosols, but not as much as respirators. However, surgical masks worn by patients reduce exposures to infectious aerosols to health-care workers and other individuals. The variability of infectious ...
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Aerosol Can" is a song produced and performed by American electronic music group Major Lazer and American recording artist Pharrell Williams. Williams co-wrote the song with Major Lazer member Diplo. The song was released as a single on 14 February 2014 and features on Major Lazers 2014 extended play Apocalypse Soon. It became a top 40 single in Australia peaking at #37. It was featured in the soundtrack for the video games "NBA 2K15" and "Watch Dogs 2". A remix contest was held for the track in April, in which the winner was announced in the end of May. "iTunes - Music - Aerosol Can (feat. Pharrell Williams) - Single by Major Lazer". iTunes Store (AU). Apple Inc. 14 February 2014. Major Lazer - Aerosol Can Feat Pharrell Williams Remix Contest :: Beatport Play "Australian-charts.com - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can". ARIA Top 50 Singles. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - Aerosol Can" (in Dutch). Ultratip. "Ultratop.be - Major Lazer feat. Pharrell Williams - ...
Differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) aerosol concentrations (N13−800) were collected over a oneyear- period (2004) at an urban background site in Barcelona, North-Eastern Spain. Quantitative contributions to particle number concentrations of the nucleation (33-39 %), Aitken (39-49 %) and accumulation mode (18-22 %) were estimated. We examined the source and time variability of atmospheric aerosol particles by using both K-means clustering and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. Performing clustering analysis on hourly size distributions, nine K-means DMPS clusters were identified and, by directional association, diurnal variation and relationship to meteorological and pollution variables, four typical aerosol size distribution scenarios were identified: traffic (69% of the time), dilution (15% of the time), summer background conditions (4% of the time) and regional pollution (12% of the time). According to the results of PMF, vehicle exhausts are estimated to contribute at ...
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OBJECTIVE: In the era of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infectious airborne aerosol generation during otolaryngologic procedures has been an area of increasing concern. The objective of this investigation was to quantify airborne aerosol production under clinical and surgical conditions and examine efficacy of mask mitigation strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective quantification of airborne aerosol generation during surgical and clinical simulation. SETTING: Cadaver laboratory and clinical examination room. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Airborne aerosol quantification with an optical particle sizer was performed in real time during cadaveric simulated endoscopic surgical conditions, including hand instrumentation, microdebrider use, high-speed drilling, and cautery. Aerosol sampling was additionally performed in simulated clinical and diagnostic settings. All clinical and surgical procedures were evaluated for propensity for significant airborne aerosol generation. RESULTS: Hand instrumentation and ...
According to the subject invention, dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based compositions are provided, including methods for their manufacture and dry powder dispersion devices. A dispersible dry powder pharmaceutical-based composition is one having a moisture content of less than about 10% by weight (% w) water, usually below about 5% w and preferably less than about 3% w; a particle size of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median diameter (MMD), usually 1.0-4.0 μm MMD, and preferably 1.0-3.0 μm MMD; a delivered dose of about |30%, usually |40%, preferably |50%, and most preferred |60%; and an aerosol particle size distribution of about 1.0-5.0 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), usually 1.5-4.5 μm MMAD, and preferably 1.5-4.0 MMAD. Such composition are of pharmaceutical grade purity.
A mobile whole-body exposure system was developed for exposing mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). Each 20-L exposure cage was designed to hold 9 mice within individual compartments. This allowed for transport and subsequent exposure. Airflow mixing and the potential for stagnant areas within the compartments were modeled using computational fluid dynamic modeling (CFD). CFD analysis showed no stagnant areas and good mixing throughout the exposure cage. The actual performance of the exposure system was determined for 0.5 to 2.0 microm diameter aerosols by measuring (1) uniformity of aerosol distribution and (2) particle deposition in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary regions of mice exposed in the system. A 0.6-microm MMAD (GSD=2.0) cigarette smoke aerosol was used to experimentally measure the uniformity of aerosol distribution to the nine individual compartments. The average data from three runs showed no statistically
Atmospheric aerosol particles are linked to visibility reduction and adverse health effects, and radiation balance of the Earth- directly by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by influencing the cloud properties and processes and, possibly, by changing the heterogeneous chemistry of reactive gaseous species. Atmospheric aerosols are the most uncertain driver of global climate change. The South‒Asian region has been increasingly recognized as one of the global hotspots of aerosols; and Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP) is one among them with complex geography, heterogeneity in sources and varying atmospheric dynamics. These factors make IGPs aerosol and pollution very difficult to characterize. So far, long-term regional observations of aerosol properties have been scarce in this region, but argued necessary in order to bring the knowledge of regional and global distribution of aerosols further. In this context, regional studies of aerosol properties their dynamics and ...
Just like any other metal container, aluminum and steel aerosol cans are recyclable. For the last decade, Ball worked with customers and other partners (such as the Consumer Aerosol Products Council in the U.S. or the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association in the United Kingdom) to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans. While challenges remain with accurate data on recycling rates and consumer access to recycling, we have made significant progress. For example, the U.K.s consumer education program MetalMatters, which Ball developed and supports, was instrumental in doubling the number of local authorities that accept aerosols in their recycling schemes from 2011 to 2015 and achieves a 96 percent acceptance rate. Also, a 2016 study on access to recycling in the U.S. showed that recycling availability for aluminum aerosol stands at 72 percent and steel aerosol containers at 69 percent, making aerosol cans a widely recyclable container in the U.S. ...
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The distribution of nano/micron inorganic main ions in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer-autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges D(p) LT = 0.49 mu m, 0.49 LT = D(p) LT = 0.95 mu m, 0.95 LT = D(p) LT = 1.5 mu m, 1.5 LT = D(p) LT = 3.0 mu m, 3.0 LT = D(p) LT = 7.2 mu m and D(p) ,= 7.2 mu m was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (m(GM)) and, analyzed by ion chromatography for Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-). The mean random uncertainties associated with the determinations of Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) were assessed. The absolute highest concentration is found for SO(4)(2-) (1555.8 +/- 97...3.6 ng m(-3)) in ...
ABSTRACTDuring the World Exposition 2010, which ran from May to October, emission control measures were implemented in Shanghai and surrounding areas to improve the air quality. This study evaluated the effects of regional transport on aerosol characteristics under these controlled local emission conditions using a month’s worth of observations of the aerosol number size distributions (10 nm–10 μm) and the chemical compositions of the aerosols. Back-trajectories and a Lagrangian dispersion model were combined to analyze the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution and the related mechanisms. Two classes of aerosols were identified and compared. Class I was a clear air condition with ocean-oriented air masses. Particle counts in this class were dominated by particles in the size range 20–40 nm, and NH4+ was mainly present in the form of (NH4)2SO4. A strong peak at noontime indicated that the particle formation or growth process was promoted by the photochemical
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Global Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025," the Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices market was valued at USD 134.6 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach USD 218.6 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Pulmonary Drug Delivery Devices Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/pulmonary-drug-delivery-devices-market. Market Insights. Increasing demand for noninvasive drug administration for respiratory diseases through pulmonary route is expected to boost the market of such devices. According to market experts the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery devices is high because lungs possess ability to provide large absorptive surface area (up to 100 m2 ) but extremely thin (0.1 µm - 0.2 µm) absorptive mucosal membrane and ample ...
This thesis presents a new technique to identify a 2D mask showing the extent of particulate aerosol distributions in satellite imagery. This technique uses a supervised texture classication approach, and utilises data from two distinct satellite sources. The vertical feature mask (VFM) product from the CALIPSO lidar, provides an accurate description of the aerosol content of the atmosphere but has a limited footprint and coverage. The CALIPSO VFM is used to provide training data in order to for classiers to be applied to other imagery, namely data from the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI) on the MSG satellite. The output from the classication is a 2D mask representing the locations of the particulate aerosol of interest within the SEVIRI image. This approach has been demonstrated on test cases over land and ocean, and shows a good agreement with other techniques for the detection of particulate aerosol. However, the supervised texture approach provides outputs at a higher ...
Atmospheric aerosol particles play a critical role in Earths radiation budget, act to limit visibility through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and represent a significant respiratory health hazard in urban environments. However, the existing network of aerosol particle measurements is significantly sparse, and unable to capture the strong heterogeneity in particles that exists in urban locations. In addition, current 24-hour air quality standards of particulate matter are based solely on the total mass of particles with diameters less than 2.5 μm, and do not account for variations in particle size or total number. As a result, air quality assessments and local and regional modeling efforts are: 1) limited by a paucity of data, and 2) unconstrained by routine observations of particle number and size, which are both critical metrics for assessing the impact of aerosol particles on visibility and human health.. ...
This service provides low vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm10 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Mace Head, Ireland (20120610 - 20130209). The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database (http://ebas.nilu.no/). ...
This service provides high vol sampler measurements of mass concentration of pm2p5 ambient aerosol particles in air observed at Schauinsland, Germany (20131231 - 20161231). The observations contain level 2 data. The time resolution is 1d. The observations are stored in the EBAS database (http://ebas.nilu.no/). ...
A new IITRI poster presented at the recent ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases 2016 meeting is now available. In this poster, Winston Lin and colleagues describe the development of an aerosol model of infection for _B anthracis_ in rabbits using a modified 64-port inhalation nose-only exposure chamber with nebulizers. This platform produced consistent spray factors across concentrations. And, with capability for up to 8 rabbits, the platform potentially reduces variability in aerosol concentration delivery and minimizes the number of runs needed for a therapeutic or vaccine study.
The results allowed us to identify different aerosol cycling mechanisms. In the simulated non-precipitating warm-phase cloud, aerosol mass is incorporated into cloud droplets by activation scavenging and released back to the atmosphere upon cloud droplet evaporation. In the mixed-phase cloud, a first cycle comprises cloud droplet activation and evaporation via the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. A second cycle includes below-cloud scavenging by precipitating snow particles and snow sublimation and is connected to the first cycle via the riming process which transfers aerosol mass from cloud droplets to snowflakes. In the simulated mixed-phase cloud, only a negligible part of the total aerosol mass is incorporated into ice crystals. Sedimenting snowflakes reaching the surface remove aerosol mass from the atmosphere. The results show that aerosol processing and regeneration lead to a vertical redistribution of aerosol mass and number. Thereby, the processes impact the total aerosol ...
Aerosol particles have important effects on visibility, acid deposition, climate, and human health. A large fraction of the anthropogenic aerosol is generated from energy-related activities, and organic compounds are known to constitute a significant fraction of ambient aerosol mass in many locations. Yet, large uncertainties remain in quantifying the chemical composition and atmospheric transformations of these aerosols, especially with respect to organic particulate matter. Particularly lacking are real-time, size-resolved, quantitative instruments for the identification, speciation, and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols. An innovative thermal desorption, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer recently has been developed with capabilities that can fill a critical need for size-resolved, quantitative chemical composition data on aerosol particles. This project will develop and demonstrate a light scattering module for this instrument, which will enable full characterization of ...
The present invention relates to an aerosol formulation containing: a) a liquefied propellant gas or propellant gas mixture from the group of alternative propellant gases which contain no chlorine atoms which can be split off; b) a non-ionic surfactant from the group of monoacetylated or diacetylated monoglycerides of the MYVACET series; c) a pharmaceutical agent or a combination of agents and, if necessary, d) other conventional pharmaceutical ancillary substances which are suitable for aerosol formulations. The aerosol formulation can be used, in particular, in inhalation therapy for the treatment of diseases of the upper airways such as asthma or rhinitis.
Author(s): Bhangar, Seema; Adams, Rachel I; Pasut, Wilmer; Huffman, Alex; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Tom D; Nazaroff, William W | Abstract: Humans are a prominent source of airborne biological particles in occupied indoor spaces, but few studies have quantified human bioaerosol emissions. The chamber investigation reported here employs a fluorescence-based technique to evaluate bioaerosols with high temporal and particle size resolution. In a 75-m3 chamber, occupant emission rates of coarse (2.5-10 μm) fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) under seated, simulated office-work conditions averaged 0.9 ± 0.3 million particles per person-h. Walking was associated with a 5-6× increase in the emission rate. During both walking and sitting, 60-70% or more of emissions originated from the floor. The increase in emissions during walking (vs. while sitting) was mainly attributable to release of particles from the floor; the associated increased vigor of upper body movements also
Publication: McMurry, P. H., H. Takano and G. R. Anderson, 1983, "A Study of the Ammonia (Gas)-Sulfuric Acid (Aerosol) Reaction Rate," Environ. Sci. Technol., 17:347-351. Mozurkewich, M., P.H. McMurry, A. Gupta, and J.G. Calvert, 1987, "Measurements of HO2 Mass Accommodation Coefficients on Moist Aerosols," J. Geophys. Res., 92:4163-4170. Tao, Ye and P.H. McMurry, 1989, "Vapor Pressures and Surface Free Energies of C14-C18 Monocarboxylic Acids and C5 and C6 Dicarboxylic Acids," Environ. Sci. Technol., 23:1519-1523 Kelly, W.P. and P.H. McMurry, 1992,"Measurement of Particle Density by Inertial Classification of DMA-generated Monodisperse Aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol., 17: 199-121. Gupta, A., D. Tang, and P.H. McMurry, 1995 "Growth of Monodisperse, Submicron Aerosol Particles Exposed to SO2, H2O2, and NH3," J. Atmospheric Chemistry, 20:117-139. Ziemann, P. J. and P. H. McMurry, 1998, "Secondary electron yield measurements as a means for probing organic films on aerosol particles," Aerosol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aerosol-induced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E unresponsiveness to ovalbumin does not require CD8+ or T cell receptor (TCR)-γ/δ+ T cells or interferon (IFN)-γ in a murine model of allergen sensitization. AU - Seymour, Brian W P. AU - Gershwin, Laurel J. AU - Coffman, Robert L.. PY - 1998/3/2. Y1 - 1998/3/2. N2 - Mice expressed for 20 min daily to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) for 10 d at concentrations from 1 to 0.01% OVA made greatly reduced immunoglobulin (Ig)-E responses to subsequent immunogenic OVA challenges, given either intraperitoneally or aerosol. This IgE-specific unresponsiveness lasted for at least four months. However, these aerosol-treated mice were primed for larger OVA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses. The specific reduction in IgE responses was not due to preferential induction of a T helper (Th)-1 response as aerosol OVA-primed mice made greatly reduced Th2 and no detectable Th1 response after rechallenge in vitro. Consistent with this, the increase in circulating ...
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Do your best to separate the aerosol cans from other storage materials as well as from any fixtures that feature high temperatures or flames. Never store flammable aerosol cans in a basement or similar area that features hot water heaters, gas heaters, fireplaces, boilers or any other type of intense heat. You should also keep them away from high voltage areas or anywhere that an unexpected spark could ignite. While the cans themselves protect the flammable aerosol product from exposure to such temperatures and sparks, a leak or sudden flame could cause a catastrophic fire. And keep them away from any pointed edges or corners even if its only furniture with sharp edges. These points will puncture a can and can result in a dangerous spray of flammable liquid.. ...
As material costs continue to rise, companies need to reduce operating costs while maintaining high quality standards. To ensure that every aerosol can produced is within specifications, it is important to use accurate and repeatable measurement instruments that can monitor the product quality, locate any potential problems, record the measurement data and predict future trends.. Analog-based testers are no longer sufficient in todays competitive environment. These gauges wont tell you which side of the can buckled first, and they cant monitor all three pressure points in one run (the two buckling pressures and the burst pressure). If you want to record and analyze the data, you need to write down each measurement and enter the data manually in to an SPC program.. Quality By Visions new Aerosol Buckle & Burst Tester is an accurate, user friendly and affordable system that automatically measures, analyzes and records all pressure points on any size aerosol can. The system displays the ...
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More realistic device testing in the lab can save valuable time on clinical trials. A research team at Virginia Commonwealth University s School of Pharmacy led by Peter Byron and Michael Hindle is using realistic mouth, throat, and airway models, coupled with the realistic breathing profiles of the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator to investigate the relationship between in vitro experimental aerosol drug deposition and in vivo drug deposition behavior in patients. Read the full story.. ...
Boy with aerosol inhaler. Male child demonstrating the correct use of an inhaler device. The pressurised aerosol inhaler is as effective and convenient method of giving a bronchodilator for mild to moderate asthma. The drug is delivered to the lungs, where it widens the airways. The technique is to inhale slowly and hold the breath for 10 seconds before breathing out. A good seal must be made around the nozzle with the lips. The patient needs to be well co-ordinated and compliant. The device is not suitable for achildren under the age of eighteen months. - Stock Image M109/0029
article{5c279b19-b4cf-4757-b11a-9043da898f3c, abstract = {A new hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) has been constructed at Lund University within the frameworks of the EU FP6 Infrastructure Project EUSAAR (www.eusaar.org). The aim of this coordinated H-TDMA development is to design and evaluate a new generation of H-TDMAs that are capable of conducting long term measurements of the hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles at the EUSAAR aerosol super-sites across Europe. The H-TDMA constructed for this project has been validated with respect to hygroscopic growth factor, stability of relative humidity (RH), temperature stability and its ability to operate unattended for longer periods of time. When measuring growth factors of ammonium sulphate, the new H-TDMA system was found to measure within a growth factor deviation of +/- 0.05 compared to previously recorded data by Tang et al. (1994). The long term RH of the system has ...
Aerosol mass spectrometry is the application of mass spectrometry to aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are defined as suspended solid and liquid particles with size range of 3 nm to 100 μm in diameter. Aerosol particles are produced from natural and anthropogenic sources, through a variety of different process that include; wind-blown suspension, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Analysis of aerosol particles is important because of their major impacts on the global climate change, visibility, regional air pollution and human health. Aerosol particles are very complex in structure and can contain thousand of different chemical compounds within a single particle. Due to this complexity the instrumentation used to analysis these particles must have the ability to separate based on size and in real-time provide information on their chemical composition. To meet these requirements for analysis, mass spectrometry instrumentation is used and they provide high sensitivity and the ability ...
Abstract. This study evaluates the potential of using aerosol optical depth (τa) measurements to characterise the microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. With this aim, we used the recently developed GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) code for numerical testing of six different aerosol models with different aerosol loads. The direct numerical simulations (self-consistency tests) indicate that the GRASP-AOD retrieval provides modal aerosol optical depths (fine and coarse) to within 0.01 of the input values. The retrieval of the fine-mode radius, width and volume concentration are stable and precise if the real part of the refractive index is known. The coarse-mode properties are less accurate, but they are significantly improved when additional a priori information is available. The tests with random simulated errors show that the uncertainty in the bimodal log-normal size distribution parameters increases as the aerosol load decreases. ...
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Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources from pollution, dust, and biomass burning. The 8-year, global averaged total aerosol optical depth (τ ), absorption optical depth (τa ), and single scattering albedo (ω) at 550 nm are estimated at 0.14, 0.0086, and 0.95, respectively, with sulfate making the largest fraction of τ (37%), followed by dust (30%), sea salt (16%), organic matter (OM) (13%), and black carbon (BC) (4%). BC and dust account for 43% and 53% of τa , respectively. From a model experiment with "tagged" sources, natural aerosols are estimated to be 58% of τ and 53% of τa , with pollution and biomass burning aerosols to share the rest. Comparing with data from the surface sunphotometer network AERONET, the model tends to reproduce much better the AERONET direct measured data of τ and the Angström exponent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor. AU - Ahlberg, Erik. AU - Falk, John. AU - Eriksson, Axel. AU - Holst, Thomas. AU - Brune, William Henry. AU - Kristensson, Adam. AU - Roldin, Pontus. AU - Svenningsson, Birgitta. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
a Maximum limits represented by ninety-eight percentile (98%) values not to be exceed more than once a year.. b Arithmetic mean c SO2 and Suspended Particulate matter are sampled once every six days when using the manual methods. A minimum of twelve sampling days per quarter of forty-eight sampling days each year is required for these methods. Daily sampling may be done in the future once continuous analyzers are procured and become available. d Limits for Total Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 25-50 um. e Annual Geometric Mean f Provisional limits for Suspended Particulate Matter with mass median diameter less than 10 microns and below until sufficient monitoring data are gathered to base a proper guideline. g Evaluation of this guideline is carried out for 24-hour averaging time and averaged over three moving calendar months. The monitored average value for any three months shall not exceed the guideline value.. ...
The size distribution and chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol at the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Republic of Maldives was determined during the winter northeast monsoon season to aid in determining the light scattering and light absorption properties of the aerosol particles in that region. These experiments were conducted over 8 two-day periods during February 11-26, 1999, using filter-based samplers and cascade impactors operated at ambient relative humidity which was in the range of 80-89% relative humidity over 83% of the period sampled. Fine particle concentrations (D_a,1.8 μm) averaged 17.7(±0.22) μg m^(−3) and varied between 8.4(±0.33)-24.7(±0.21) μg m^(−3) over the period studied. Sulfate ion and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle mass concentration, accounting for 33-37% and 26-27% of the fine mass, respectively. Calcium carbonate contributes 3% of the mass measured on the impactor stages. Ammonium, nitrate, and ...
We combine optical remote sensing with computed tomography to determine simultaneously (a) the concentration and (b) the size distribution of particles at every pixel in a plane that slices through an aerosol. Light-extinction measurements are made along intersecting paths that pass through the plane. The spatial distribution of extinction coefficients at multiple wavelengths is obtained by an algebraic image-reconstruction technique (ART3). The size distribution of the aerosol at every pixel in the plane is obtained by inversion of the Fredholm integral equation. Computer simulations of this procedure were conducted. Extinction coefficients were found at all pixels in the plane at multiple wavelengths. Aerosol size distributions were retrieved at four pixels. Results of this analysis show that four projection angles were sufficient for reconstruction of extinction coefficient distributions in the plane. The technique can tolerate up to 10% random, normally distributed noise in the measurements. ...
A disposable shielded device for producing aerosol having particles less than 2 microns in size from an aqueous colloidal suspension obtained from human serum albumen and labelled with 99m Technetium for use in scintigraphic imaging of pulmonary function. The device includes a nebulizing chamber having a membrane of 0.1 mm to about 0.01 mm in thickness and 40 mm to about 50 mm in diameter which nebulizes the labelled substance in response to ultrasound waves transmitted thereto.
An apparatus for generating respirable aerosol internal to a selected one of a plurality of medicament receptacles (40) containing pre-measured amounts of powdered medicament is disclosed herein. The medicament receptacles (40) are disposed in a medicament carrier (38) contained within a housing (10), and are sealed from exposure to the outside environment. The medicament carrier (38) is preferably a ring-shaped member detachably coupled to a carriage (24) which can be rotated to any one of a plurality of selected positions. A pair of aerosolization conduits (54, 56) having ends capable of puncturing the seal (44) covering the medicament receptacle (40) selected by the patient are also provided. Compression of the cover (12) and the carriage (24) pushes the selected medicament receptacle (40) against the edges of the aerosolization conduits (54, 56) causing the aerosolization conduits to puncture the seal (44) and penetrate the medicament receptacle (40). The medicament is entrained in air drawn in
Stratospheric sulfate aerosols[edit]. Caldeira and Wood analysed the effect of climate engineering in the Arctic using ... In addition, other solar radiation management climate engineering techniques, such as stratospheric sulfate aerosols[2] have ... stratospheric sulfate aerosols.[13] This technique is not specific to the Arctic region. He found that At high latitudes, there ...
This results in the stratospheric aerosol layer.[23] Extraterrestrial sulfuric acid[edit]. Venus[edit]. Sulfuric acid is ... it can nucleate aerosol particles and provide a surface for aerosol growth via condensation and coagulation with other water- ... Stratospheric aerosol[edit]. In the stratosphere, the atmosphere's second layer that is generally between 10 and 50 km above ... Heat generated in this thin layer of water can boil, leading to the dispersal of a sulfuric acid aerosol or worse, an explosion ...
Boucher, Olivier (19 May 2015). "Stratospheric Aerosols". Atmospheric Aerosols. Springer Netherlands. p. 279. doi:10.1007/978- ... The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which cooled the atmosphere ... When large scale volcanic eruptions inject aerosols into the atmosphere, they can form stratospheric veils, which reduce the ... one explanation is that climate models tend to assume that aerosol optical depth increases linearly with the quantity of ...
Aerosol particlesEdit. One of the biggest uncertainties for climate change is the importance of aerosol direct and indirect ... When aerosols are used as tracers, the strength of the return signal depends upon the aerosol load in the atmosphere and this ... Networks of aerosol lidars such as the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) [19] were established to investigate ... Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from aerosol robotic network (aeronet) sun and sky radiance ...
The aerosols boundary. The ocean acidification boundary. The ozone layer boundary. Rockström, J; Steffen, WL; et al. (2009), " ...
Kellogg, William W. (1980). "Aerosols and Climate." In Interactions of Energy and Climate, edited by W. Bach et al., pp. 281-96 ... 1975). "Effect of Anthropogenic Aerosols on the Global Climate." In Proceedings of the WMO/IAMAP Symposium on Long-Term ...
Johnson, G. R.; Morawska, L. (2009). "The Mechanism of Breath Aerosol Formation". Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary ... "Microbe-laden aerosols" (PDF). Microbiology Today (November 2005). Archived from the original (PDF 217 KB) on 2007-10-14. ... Dusty materials tend to produce aerosols with high number concentrations, which poses higher exposure risks to the workers who ... into an aerosol. Aerosolization refers to a process of intentionally oxidatively converting and suspending particles or a ...
... aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and this leads to greater numbers of smaller droplets of water. Lots of ... This aerosol exerts a cooling effect on climate during its 1-2 year lifetime in the stratosphere. ... Main article: Stratospheric sulfur aerosols. The main direct effect of sulfates on the climate involves the scattering of light ... Sulfates occur as microscopic particles (aerosols) resulting from fossil fuel and biomass combustion. They increase the acidity ...
Historical data on residence times of aerosols, albeit a different mixture of aerosols, in this case stratospheric sulfur ... aerosols into the stratosphere but the longevity of this slew of aerosols was a major unknown. Independent of the team that ... Aerosol removal timescaleEdit. Smoke rising in Lochcarron, Scotland, is stopped by an overlying natural low-level inversion ... "GACP: Global Aerosol Climatology Project". gacp.giss.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2011-04-15. ...
McGraw, R. (1997). "Description of Aerosol Dynamics by the Quadrature Method of Moments". Aerosol Sci. Technol. 27 (2): 255-265 ... Agranovski, Igor (2011). Aerosols: Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 492. ISBN 3527632085. Danov, Krassimir D.; ... Aerosol Sci. 36 (1): 43-73. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.07.009. Yu, M.; Lin, J.; Chan, T. (2008). "A New Moment Method for ... coalescence of aerosols, emulsication, flocculation. The distribution of particle size change in time according to the ...
ISBN 978-3-540-67420-7. R. Sinreich; U. Frieß; T. Wagner; S. Yilmaz; U. Platt (2008). "Retrieval of Aerosol Distributions by ... Multi-Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS)". Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols. pp. 1145-1149. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Aerosol Physics & Environmental Physics » Black and Brown Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols". aerosols.univie.ac.at. Retrieved ... Aerosols in are one of the most importance contributors to climate change in the atmosphere. Many of the particles suspended in ... Light absorbing aerosols have become an interest of study because of its effects on atmospheric warming. While the function of ... Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. A lot of these nanoparticles cause severe health effects in addition ...
In 1978, a first ban on CFC-based aerosols in spray cans was issued in the United States. The actual production did however not ... Barringer, Felicity (March 12, 2012). "F. Sherwood Rowland, 84, Dies; Raised Alarm Over Aerosols". The New York Times. ...
"Chemical Aerosol Engineering as a Novel Tool for Material Science: From Oxides to Salt and Metal Nanoparticles". Aerosol. Sci. ...
Aerosol, cloud water vapor, ozone MxD10A1 MxD10A2 - - - - 500 m SIN Terra, Aqua Snow cover ...
2 and sulphate aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL01686. *^ a b Oppenheimer, M. (1998) Global warming ...
An aerosol spray propellant. A potential renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines with a cetane rating as high as 56-57. ...
Use as an aerosolEdit. As 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile is a solid at room temperature, not a gas, a variety of techniques have ... The effect of CS on a person will depend on whether it is packaged as a solution or used as an aerosol. The size of solution ... The CS spray used by police forces is in the form of a hand-held aerosol canister containing a 5% solution of CS dissolved in ... CS gas is an aerosol of a volatile solvent (a substance that dissolves other active substances and that easily evaporates) and ...
... to aerosols, which are small particles or droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Key sources to which anthropogenic aerosols are ... Geerts, B. "Aerosols and Climate". [verification needed] UCAR FAQ: How much has global temp. risen over the past 100 years? ... Aerosols produced are primarily black carbon. industrial air pollution, which produces soot and airborne sulfates, nitrates, ... Other human effects are relevant-for example, sulphate aerosols are believed to have a cooling effect. Natural factors also ...
He is one of the top aerosol research scientists in the world with one of the best and most well-equipped aerosol labs in the ... Louis, 2012 David Sinclair Award, American Association for Aerosol Research, 2013 International Aerosol Research Assembly (IARA ... At Washington University he has assembled a strong group of aerosol researchers who collectively work on a range of topics in ... Biswas' expertise is in the area of Aerosol Science and Technology. Specifically, it is in the area of understanding particle ...
... they could still be used to validate global aerosol climatologies. They found that most aerosol climatologies underestimated ... Much of the arctic aerosol comes from south Asia. Countries such as the United States and Russia have a lower contribution than ... This is because CO2 warming is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted with fossil fuel burning and because at that time non ... Menon, S., J.E. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo (2002). "Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India" (PDF). ...
Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Rubin, B. K. (1996). "Therapeutic aerosols and airway secretions". Journal of Aerosol Medicine. ...
Radioactive Aerosols Archived 2016-05-19 at the Wayback Machine. by Constantin Papastefanou, Elsevier, 2008 ISBN 0-08-044075-4 ... These coagulate with stratospheric aerosols. Coagulation is more extensive in the troposphere, and, at ground level, most ... primarily the fission products and other weapon debris aerosols, and are usually dispersed by the wind, though weather patterns ...
Rev Mineral Geochem 75:183-229 Clement, C.F; Harrison, R.G (July 1992). "The charging of radioactive aerosols". Journal of ... Aerosol Science. 23 (5): 481-504. doi:10.1016/0021-8502(92)90019-R. Gebauer, Dieter; Williams, Ian S.; Compston, William; ...
Means for sampling and analyses of aerosols. Radioactive aerosols in lungs] (PDF). Preprint 06-6 (in Russian). Chernobyl: ... The results of research in Chernobyl and in the United States were similar: the filter material is well caught a fine aerosol, ... The workers were exposed to the lead aerosol. (1995) The author carried out a statistical analysis of the results of all ... The report describes the measurement of the effectiveness of respirators that workers used to protect against aerosols of ...
Northwestern Medicine offers a wide range of classes, events and support groups throughout the year - in your local community - to help you live a healthier, happier and more informed life.. ...
DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY Price. DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY price list keep fluctuating, however the price of DERMOPLAST AEROSOL ... BUY DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB, S.A PRICE & SIDE EFFECTS. BUY DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB ... Buy DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY. is available in Canada and sold at almost every medical store, you can not buy DERMOPLAST AEROSOL ... DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY itself is a brand name.. What is DERMOPLAST AEROSOL SPRAY generic name ?. The active ingredients of ...
Inhalation Aerosol: ,12 years: 2 to 3 inhalations every 3 to 4 hours, up to 12 inhalations in 24 hours. ...
Industries, factories, vehicles, aerosol cans, etc are all causes for "acid rain". This is because all of these things increase ...
How Is COVID-19 Transmitted? What We Know About Droplets, Aerosols And Fomites : Goats and Soda A letter from over 200 ... Aerosol. What it is: A microscopic virus-packed particle thats also expelled from an infected persons mouth when breathing, ... "Aerosols probably have some contribution toward spread, but we dont know to what extent and what situations are most relevant ... A sneeze can carry the coronavirus pathogen in droplets and in aerosols - and they could land on a surface, making it a fomite. ...
The definition of an aerosol, as used here, is a suspension of tiny particles or droplets in the air, such as dusts, mists, or ... Aerosols and Health Effects. Aerosol 101: Helpful Tutorials. Generation and Behavior of Airborne Particles (Aerosols)pdf icon. ... Journal of Aerosol Research, Japanexternal icon. Journal of Aerosol Scienceexternal icon. Journal of Aerosols in Medicine ... Aerosol-related links page.. Aerosol Calculatorexternal icon. A downloadable spreadsheet for calculating aerosol properties and ...
... can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade.. Some aerosols, particularly sulfate aerosols from fossil fuel ... Aerosols have a great effect on climate but little is known about them. What are aerosols? In this case they are tiny particles ... To better understand aerosols role in climate, the DOEs climate research program studies how aerosol particles in the air ... From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate ...
Aerosol Measurement Research. Project Officer: Paul Baron. *Co-edited a book entitled Aerosol Measurements: Principles, ... Estimation of the relationship between aerosol mass and surface area during ultrafine aerosol generation ... Tracer gas or aerosol experiments are being performed in a room sized chamber to obtain concentration fields for comparison ... This sampler meets the ACGIH/CEN/ISO respirable aerosol sampling convention and has a sampling rate of nearly two and a half ...
You may freely download and copy the material contained on this website for your personal, non-commercial use, without any right to resell, redistribute, compile or create derivative works therefrom, subject to more specific restrictions that may apply to specific materials.. ...
What do aerosols do to climate?. Aerosols influence climate in two primary ways: by changing the amount of heat that gets in or ... What are aerosols?. The term aerosol is a catch-all for many kinds of little bits of stuff that end up suspended in the ... Spray paint cans like these use aerosols to propel the paint from the nozzle. Such human-made aerosols have complicated effects ... They happen because of aerosols, tiny particles that float in the air. Aerosols can be tiny droplets, dust particles, bits of ...
Airy Aerosols. Aerosols are tiny dust, soot and other particles that float in the atmosphere, where they tend to absorb, ... In 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted, spewing some 15 billion kilograms (33 billion pounds) of aerosols-mostly ... called aerosols, reflect and absorb light and heat coming into and leaving our planet. ...
These aerosols caused acid rain and other environmental problems in the U.S. before factories in the 1970s were required to ... These aerosols also reflect incoming sunlight and so have a cooling effect on the surface in the industrial middle-latitudes ... These stratospheric aerosols dramatically change the reflectivity, and absorption profile of the upper atmosphere, causing the ... As a result, the projected disappearance of cooling aerosols in the decades ahead produces an especially large amount of ...
Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Aerosols play an important role in Earths climate. Most aerosols are brighter than land or ocean, and cool the Earth by ... Although most aerosols reflect sunlight, some also absorb it. An aerosols effect on light depends primarily on the composition ... Models estimate that aerosols have had a cooling effect that has counteracted about half of the warming caused by the build-up ...
Tiny aerosol particles can be found over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice sheets, and every ecosystem in between. They ... Measuring Aerosols. Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to ... Values for most aerosols range from about 0.7 for very absorbing particles to 1 for aerosols that only scatter light. ... Aerosol optical depth is the fundamental measurement of quantity and distribution of aerosols. This map shows the average ...
What are aerosols made from?. Around 60% of aerosols are made from tinplated steel and approx 40% are made from aluminium. Both ... Aerosols also contain some small plastic and rubber components including the lid, valve and dip tube which are extracted in the ... Do not pierce, crush or flatten aerosol cans *Detach any loose or easily removable parts, such as the lid, and dispose of them ... How to recycle aerosols. *Ensure aerosols are completely empty before recycling. * ...
From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosoler, definite plural ... From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosolar, definite plural ... Catalan: aerosol m. *Chinese: Mandarin: 氣霧劑 (zh), 气雾剂 (zh) (qìwùjì), 氣溶膠 (zh), 气溶胶 (zh) (qìróngjiāo), 煙霧質 (zh), 烟雾质 (zh) ( ... aerosol (plural aerosols). *A mixture of fine solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of ...
In contrast to aerosol emissions in the lower troposphere (see above Aerosols), aerosols that enter the stratosphere may remain ... Consequently, aerosols from explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to affect Earths climate. Less-explosive eruptions ... Furthermore, because of large-scale circulation patterns within the stratosphere, aerosols injected within tropical regions ... Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere. ...
Studying aerosols has not been easy. Because they are short-lived, they do not mix homogeneously around the planet, and so ... A THICK SOUP OF AEROSOL PARTICLESamong them sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon and fly ashfills the skies over ... According to a report that used INDOEX data and was published last month in Science, aerosols from man-made pollution may also ... "So as aerosols cut down sunlight by large amounts," Ramanathan explains, "they may be spinning down the hydrological cycle of ...
This entry was posted in Meeting Announcements and tagged aerosol composition, aerosol optical modeling, atmospheric aerosols, ... Tag Archives: atmospheric aerosols. Optical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols The Optical Characterization of ... Atmospheric Aerosols workshop will take place at the Congress Centre Smolenice SAS, Slovak Republic in November 5-7 2013. The ...
Aerosol container, any package, usually a metal can or plastic bottle, designed to dispense its liquid contents as a mist or ... aerosol canAerosol can being sprayed.. © aida ricciardiello/Shutterstock.com. The most common type of aerosol container ... Aerosol propellants typically are compressed, liquefied volatile gases. Other aerosol ingredients are either suspended or ... Aerosol container, any package, usually a metal can or plastic bottle, designed to dispense its liquid contents as a mist or ...
The study of the mechanisms of formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols is of... ... Atmospheric aerosol is one of the most important factors affecting the Earths climatic and weather conditions. ... Ion-aerosol attachment coefficients and the steady-state charge distribution on aerosols in a bipolar ion environment. Aerosol ... Lushnikov, A.A., Kulmala, M.: Foreign aerosols in nucleating vapor. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, 651 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Aerosols and short-lived gases aren't totally ignored. The timing of this paper is excellent, says Greg Carmichael, a ... Aerosols' complicated influence on our climate just got more threatening: they could make methane a more potent greenhouse ... Methane, aerosols and other short-lived pollutants have a complicated chemical relationship, only some of which Shindell's ... But the interaction with aerosols bumps up methane's relative global warming potential (GWP) to about 33, though there is ...
Purpose of Review We assess the current understanding of the state and behaviour of aerosols under pre-industrial conditions ... we need to understand whether low aerosol concentrations in the PI affected aerosol removal and hence fed back on the aerosol ... Natural aerosol emissions are a major source of uncertainty in PI aerosols [6], and we cannot assume they were the same as ... Aerosol Emissions in the Pre-industrial. Aerosol emissions in the PI would have been influenced by three factors: (i) natural ...
Research in Norway says the aerosols are likely to counter only about 10% of the greenhouse gas effects in our atmosphere. ... New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting greenhouse gases. ... Aerosols may not be so helpful. New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting ... New research indicates atmospheric aerosols are not going to be a big help in combatting greenhouse gases. Research in Norway ...
... thesun.co.uk ^ , January 10, 2013 , BEN JACKSON Posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:17 AM PST by ... KEYWORDS: aerosols; china; climatechange; globalwarming; globalwarminghoax; uk 1 posted on 01/10/2013 2:43:23 AM PST by Berlin_ ...
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate. (enn.com)
  • Scientists think that on balance, the whole budget of aerosols ends up cooling the planet slightly. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Scientists believe the cooling from sulfates and other reflective aerosols overwhelms the warming effect of black carbon and other absorbing aerosols over the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • Today scientists use an array of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based instruments to monitor aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Starting in 2011, the Glory mission will enable scientists to better characterize the types and distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • At 3M, our scientists have carefully formulated our revolutionary, non-flammable 3M™ Novec™ Aerosol Cleaners with the exact features and compatibility your business demands - without compromising worker safety or environmental protection. (3m.com)
  • Our scientists intentionally developed 3M Novec Aerosol Cleaners with high dielectric strength making them effective for use on energized components (less than 25 kV) and on a range of materials, including most plastics, metals, circuitry, printed circuit boards (PCBs) and more. (3m.com)
  • Reflecting ancient mythology, scientists in southeast Europe have used the name Livas to describe their effort in providing aerosol and cloud data as a reference for these upcoming missions. (esa.int)
  • Scientists and technicians responsible for the data use another copy of CPD3 on their desktop or laptop computers to review the data for quality and completeness, flag or remove contaminated or invalid data, reformat and export the data for analysis with other software, and submit the data for archiving and public access at the WMO World Data Center for Aerosols (WDCA). (noaa.gov)
  • It is caused by aerosol particles, but scientists don't know all the details of the complex chemistry involved. (enn.com)
  • While Dr. Wang acknowledged that scientists had yet to look at toilet aerosols in real-world situations involving the new coronavirus, other research has shown that viral RNA was found in shared toilet areas at one hospital in Wuhan, China. (nytimes.com)
  • Today's climate models regard organic aerosols as static carbon-based molecules, but scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) showed that the particles are very dynamic. (eponline.com)
  • The scientists could therefore trace how the aerosol particles changed while the cloud was forming. (mpg.de)
  • In this article we are saying that perhaps an even bigger impact of aerosols is on the water budget of the planet," said Scripps professor V. Ramanathan, who along with professor Paul Crutzen, a coauthor of the new study, led the INDOEX science team as co-chief scientists. (ens-newswire.com)
  • Although it became clear about 40 years ago that aerosols could affect climate, the measurements needed to establish the magnitude of such effects-or even whether specific aerosol types warm or cool the surface-were lacking. (nasa.gov)
  • Published chemical transport models for aerosols or for specific aerosol species such as sulfate, especially those that are driven by monthly mean winds from climatology, exhibit smooth contours. (nasa.gov)
  • These results will aid the scientific community in understanding aerosol properties and boundary layer dynamics and in improving the incorporation of aerosol radiative effects into global climate models. (anl.gov)
  • We present a method for deriving the radiative effects of absorbing aerosols in cloudy scenes from satel- lite retrievals only. (mendeley.com)
  • Our main Science Topics, as defined within PACES Research Unit 1a deal with the quantification of different factors affecting Arctic climate change like changing synoptic patterns, increasing long wave radiation, boundary layer processes, or seasonal aerosol forcing. (awi.de)
  • Understanding the ways in which aerosols behave, evolve, and exert these effects requires knowledge of their formation and removal mechanism, transport processes, as well as their physical and chemical characteristics. (wiley.com)
  • HARP's data can also be combined with ground-based observations and experiments to better extrapolate those results and reveal aerosol processes across a wider region, Barbosa said. (nasa.gov)
  • His main research interests are the physical and chemical processes involving atmospheric aerosols and clouds and their effects on atmospheric composition change, climate, ecosystems and human health. (ebooks.com)
  • Secondary Organic Aerosol or SOA are molecules produced via multigeneration oxidation of a parent organic molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lifetime estimates using extrapolated ethyl peroxy absorption cross sections and the actinic flux near 310 nm show that peroxy radical photochemistry can play a significant role in defining the product spectrum of secondary organic aerosol in pristine (low-NOx) environments. (nist.gov)
  • Earth 911 provides a handy search tool for locating local facilities accepting HHW and other items, including aerosol and paint containers. (ca.gov)
  • The Asian-Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), which took place during last year's dust storms, is the third in a series of experiments designed to investigate different aspects of aerosol behavior in different locales around the world. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Drew Shindell, at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, and colleagues ran a range of computerized models to show that methane's global warming potential is greater when combined with aerosols -- atmospheric particles such as dust, sea salt, sulphates and black carbon. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Examples of aerosols include haze, dust, particulate air pollutants and smoke. (aiha.org)
  • The aerosols, typically in the submicrometer- to micrometer-size range, were a mixture of sulfates, nitrates, organic particles, fly ash, and mineral dust, formed by fossil fuel combustion and burning of forests and other biomass. (ens-newswire.com)
  • But simply trying to couple ozone chemistry and aerosol chemistry like this is an advance, says Dentener. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These cleaners make excellent replacements for high global warming potential (GWP) and toxic aerosol cleaners because they are fast-drying and have low toxicity and favorable environmental profiles - with low GWPs and zero ozone depletion potential (ODP). (3m.com)
  • 7. Stratospheric Chemistry: aerosols and the ozone layer. (wiley.com)
  • They then ran through various scenarios of how temperatures would change as the levels of ozone and aerosols -- including sulfates and black carbon -- varied in different regions of the world. (nasa.gov)
  • AirHARP was part of the Lake Michigan Ozone Measurements campaign, which involved a NASA UC12 plane, and the NASA Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeter and Lidar campaign, which obtained aerosol and clouds measurements over the U.S. from the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. (nasa.gov)
  • Recovery from the holes and thinning caused by aerosol chemicals has progressed at a rate of about 1% to 3% a decade since 2000, meaning the ozone layer over the northern hemisphere and mid-latitudes should heal completely by the 2030s, if current rates are sustained. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Knowing this vertical profile of aerosols is critical for understanding the impact of aerosols on weather and climate. (anl.gov)
  • HARP will be able to provide much more information about the microphysical properties of aerosols than was previously available," said Henrique Barbosa, a professor and scientist with the University of São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil, who is collaborating with Martins on HARP and other projects. (nasa.gov)
  • The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation. (ebooks.com)
  • Aerosol optical depth is the fundamental measurement of quantity and distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • This map shows the average distribution of aerosols from June 2000 through May 2010, measured by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). (nasa.gov)
  • The short residence times of tropospheric aerosols are comparable to the time scale of variability in synoptic scale winds and precipitation that control the distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Optical depths above 2 or 3 represent very high concentrations of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • Red indicates high concentrations of aerosols, beige indicates low concentrations. (nasa.gov)
  • Students use real satellite data to determine 1) where the greatest concentrations of aerosols are located during the course of a year in the tropical Atlantic region and 2) their source of origin. (climate.gov)
  • Rotstayn focuses on an indirect effect of aerosols that is really hard to quantify,' said Philip Rasch, senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This will run timeslices parallel to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ( CMIP5 ) integrations with sophisticated gas and aerosol chemistry to quantify the forcings from short-lived species, and also to quantify the impacts on air quality. (metoffice.gov.uk)
  • The goal of this project is to identify and quantify the metal content of e-cigarette aerosols generated by a variety of products and designs, to examine the cytoxicity (i.e. toxicity to cells) and genotoxicity (i.e., toxicity to genetic information within cells) of aerosols with metal content, and to examine biomarkers of metal exposure and effects in users. (fda.gov)
  • This situation may be turned to advantage, because the inherent spatial and temporal variability of aerosol loading allows the possibility of experiments that can discern and quantify the aerosol influences, by comparisons between high and low loading situations. (nasa.gov)
  • Secondly, it has been suggested that the global mean climate sensitivity may depend on the sea-surface temperature pattern [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], which to a large degree will be controlled by the very uncertain distribution of natural aerosols. (springer.com)
  • Aerosols from burning biomass to clear land are smaller than natural aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • NASA co-sponsors a global network of ground sensors called the Aerosols Robotic Network, or AERONET, which is comprised of more than 200 carefully calibrated sun photometers measuring aerosol optical depth around the world. (nasa.gov)
  • These provide local, national and international perspectives on the physical and chemical composition of aerosols. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • MISR uses the changes in the atmosphere's ability to transmit light and the variation in scene brightness at different viewing angles to retrieve aerosol optical depth, and to deduce some information about particle properties, such as size, shape and composition. (nasa.gov)
  • The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. (osti.gov)
  • Within the clouds, however, the chemical composition of these aerosol particles changes. (mpg.de)
  • 252-305 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A pressurized aerosol container in which is included a substantially anhydrous aerosol foaming composition adapted to produce a quick breaking foam and comprising a foamable liquid and a silicone resin as foaming agent. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to a clear, substantially nonaqueous, stable quick breaking" aerosol foaming composition contained in an aerosol dispenser. (google.es)
  • In anhydrous applications of aerosol technology water is detrimental to its end purpose and must be substantially eliminated from the composition for any of a number of reasons. (google.es)
  • Newer radiometers such as the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomer (MODIS) are capable of viewing aerosols at many more angles and wavelengths, providing more accurate results. (nasa.gov)
  • These MISR views portray Houston and Galveston Bay on September 12, 2002, and display data from three of MISR's nine cameras along with a map of retrieved aerosol optical thickness. (nasa.gov)
  • Aerosols can be natural such as volcanic in source or manmade. (enn.com)
  • Large volcanic eruptions may lift sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, which usually cools the global climate for the following year or two. (nasa.gov)
  • Explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to inject substantial amounts of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere . (britannica.com)
  • Natural sulfur aerosols are formed in vast quantities from the SO2 ejected by volcanoes, which may be injected directly into the stratosphere during very large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI, of 4 or greater) eruptions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IPCC AR4 says explosive volcanic events are episodic, but the stratospheric aerosols resulting from them yield substantial transitory perturbations to the radiative energy balance of the planet, with both shortwave and longwave effects sensitive to the microphysical characteristics of the aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • During periods lacking volcanic activity (and thus direct injection of SO2 into the stratosphere), oxidation of COS (carbonyl sulfide) dominates the production of stratospheric sulfur aerosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to estimate accurately, for example, whether the presence of ash and water vapour is important for aerosol formation from volcanic products, and whether high or low atmospheric concentrations of precursor chemicals (such as SO2 and H2S) are optimal for aerosol formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particulate fraction is only a small part of the whole-smoke aerosol, which also comprises a vapour phase and contains more than 6000 chemicals, including volatile or insoluble components and short-lived products of combustion. (eurekalert.org)
  • As we have documented, geoengineering programs based around the premise of artificial aerosols were already in operation years ago, including at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, S.C, which in 2009 began conducting studies which involved shooting huge amounts of particulate matter, in this case "porous-walled glass microspheres," into the stratosphere. (infowars.com)
  • March 1997) developed a detailed data set of stratospheric aerosol properties and distribution for the 2-year period following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption and produced heating rates and fluxes from the data, using the Max Planck Institute ECHAM-4 GCM. (nasa.gov)
  • Thus far, most if not all estimates of anthropogenic aerosol forcing have been made using general circulation model (GCM) climatologies. (nasa.gov)
  • Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. (aiha.org)
  • It is a study on the differential deposition of aerosols in the maxillary sinus of human cadavers by particle size. (articlealley.com)
  • Aerosols present pathways for reactions, transport, and deposition that would not occur in the gas phase alone. (wiley.com)
  • Additive 3D printing capabilities include both Aerosol Jet and Inkjet platforms providing versatility in terms of materials and inks available, range of viscosity, and post deposition cure by UV or IR photonic cure. (umass.edu)
  • The simultaneous measurements from ground, plane and balloon will provide a comprehensive view of the atmospheric aerosols. (enn.com)
  • The first satellite instrument capable of crudely monitoring aerosol optical depth from space-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-retrieved optical depth from measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, beginning in the late 1970s. (nasa.gov)
  • As part of the MAIA investigation, researchers will combine MAIA measurements with population health records to better understand the connections between aerosol pollutants and health problems such as adverse birth outcomes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and premature deaths. (nasa.gov)
  • The Aerosol Science Team specialises in highly time-resolved measurements of aerosol physical and chemical characteristics, as well as detailed measurements of gas concentrations, to better understand the influence of these sources. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The Dekati High Pressure Diluter DEED-300 is a two-stage dilution device for taking aerosol samples from high pressure conditions, such as in pre-DPF tailpipe measurements. (environmental-expert.com)
  • What's more, according to Tim Bates of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), "there's a very wide range of sizes [for aerosol particles], and the effect that the particle is going to have on climate is going to be very dependent on its size, which makes it trickier. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The team found that IEPOX is a major player in producing aerosols from isoprene and that particle size, certain coatings, and acidity influence how IEPOX behaves. (enn.com)
  • An open letter signed by 239 researchers addressed to the World Health Organization, published Monday in Clinical Infectious Diseases , calls for attention and guidance around a third route of transmission: tiny respiratory particles that float in the air and are called aerosols and that, the researchers state, could be responsible for infecting someone who comes along and breathes them in. (npr.org)
  • Reference: Micropulse Lidar-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology at ARM Sites Worldwide, Durga Kafle and Richard Coulter, Journal of Geophysical Research , doi:10.1002/jgrd.50536). (anl.gov)
  • Livas, which, in this case stands for 'lidar climatology of vertical aerosol structures', is a collaborative effort between the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) in Greece and two world leaders in lidar research: the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research in Germany and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis in Italy. (esa.int)
  • All are members of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, Earlinet. (esa.int)