Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedChlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.

Pharmacokinetics of chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate. (1/62)

AIMS: To compare the pharmacokinetic profile of Beclazone (beclomethasone dipropionate) in its chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based and CFC-free formulations. METHODS: Ten healthy adults received a single 1,000 microg nominal dose (ex-valve) of beclomethasone dipropionate from a CFC inhaler (BEC-CFC) or from a CFC-free inhaler containing hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-134a (BEC-HFA) in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study. Blood samples were collected predose and over 12 h after inhalation. Comparisons were made of maximum plasma concentration of beclomethasone 17-monopropionate (17-BMP) (Cmax), and area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC). RESULTS: The tmax was significantly (P<0.05) earlier with BEC-HFA and plasma levels were significantly higher following administration of BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. Geometric mean values for AUC were 1.5 fold greater (90% CI 1.3-1.9) and for Cmax were 1.9 fold greater (90% CI 1.6-2.6) following BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data in healthy volunteers would not be consistent with the manufacturers' recommendation for a microgram equivalent (1:1) nominal dose switch between these HFA and CFC formulations. Further well designed trials are required in asthmatic patients to properly define their respective dose-response relationships for antiasthmatic and systemic adverse effects.  (+info)

Comparison of the safety of drug delivery via HFA- and CFC-metered dose inhalers in CAO. (2/62)

The objective of this study was to compare the long-term safety of a fixed combination of fenoterol hydrobromide (50 microg) and ipratropium bromide (20 microg) delivered using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) formulated with a non-chlorinated propellant, hydrofluoroalkanel34a (HFA-MDI), with delivery using the conventional chlorofluorocarbon propellant (CFC-MDI, Berodual/Bronchodual). The study was designed according to Safety Assessment of Marketed Medicines (SAMM) guidelines, to reflect as far as possible the use of MDls under normal prescribing conditions. Two thousand and twenty-seven patients with chronic airways obstruction (CAO) were enrolled from 99 centres in France, 95 centres in Germany and 24 centres in Italy. Following a 2-week run-in period, patients were randomized on a 2:1 basis (1,348 patients to HFA-MDI, 679 patients to CFC-MDI) to receive a flexible dose regimen of the combination (2 puffs, 2-4 times a day, as prescribed by the investigator) during a 12-week open label phase. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between both groups. In addition, the incidence of respiratory side effects was also similar, with CAO exacerbations or bronchitis the most frequently recorded events. The safety profile of the HFA formulation was comparable to those of the marketed CFC-MDIs used in Germany and France/Italy. No clinically significant differences were detected between HFA134a or CFC driven inhalers on the switch from CFC- to HFA-MDI (2 weeks before randomisation versus 2 weeks after randomization). There was a trend for taste complaints to be reported more frequently by patients in the HFA-MDI group (0.7% before randomization versus 3.4% after randomization). This, however, was an expected finding as the HFA134a formulation does have a different taste to the CFC formulation. No difference between formulations was observed in the incidences of coughing or paradoxical bronchospasm. The incidence of falls in FEV1 >15% within 15 min following inhalation at each of the clinic visits was 1.2% for both CFC- and HFA-MDIs. In conclusion, administration of a fenoterol/ipratropium bromide combination via hydrofluoroalkane-metered dose inhaler is as safe as delivery by the currently available chlorofluorocarbon-metered dose inhaler, in an extended population of patients with CAO under normal prescribing conditions.  (+info)

Fenoterol hydrobromide delivered via HFA-MDI or CFC-MDI in patients with asthma: a safety and efficacy comparison. (3/62)

The main objective of the study was to compare the long-term safety and tolerability of fenoterol hydrobromide delivered using a metered-dose inhaler formulated with the alternative propellant, hydrofluoroalkane 134a (HFA-MDI), with delivery using the currently available chlorofluorocarbon MDI (CFC-MDI; Berotec 100). A further objective was to compare the efficacy of fenoterol HFA-MDI with fenoterol CFC-MDI, using the pulmonary function parameters of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Following a 2-week run-in phase, a 12-week, double-blind parallel group comparison was undertaken in 290 patients randomized on a 2:1 basis to two puffs of 100 microg fenoterol four times a day (HFA-MDI=197 patients; CFC-MDI=93 patients). A total of 236 patients in this multi-centre study completed the trial as planned. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both groups (29.9% of HFA-MDI patients and 28% of CFC-MDI patients). Reports of respiratory disorder AEs were also comparable (21.8% HFA-MDI; 22.6% CFCMDI). End of study laboratory tests, ECG, pulse, blood pressure and physical examination showed no significant differences from pre-study baselines in either group and both treatments appeared to be well tolerated. Pre-dose FEV1 measurements taken at the three clinic visits were constant and increase in FEV1 at 5 and 30 min post-dose demonstrated equivalent efficacy for the two formulations. No difference between the two groups was observed in PEF or in the use of rescue medication. We conclude from these findings that the long-term safety and efficacy profile of fenoterol HFA-MDI is comparable to that of the fenoterol CFC-MDI.  (+info)

Delivery of fenoterol via Respimat, a novel 'soft mist' inhaler. a randomised, double-blind (within device), placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging study in asthmatic patients. (4/62)

BACKGROUND: The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has prompted the development of alternative propellants and the design of propellant-free devices for inhalation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the dose of fenoterol inhaled from Respimat (RMT), a new propellant-free soft mist inhaler, which is equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety to 1 puff of either 100 or 200 microg fenoterol inhaled from a conventional CFC-MDI (Berotec). METHODS: Sixty-two asthmatic patients (35 male, 27 female) with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 1.7 liters, corresponding to 55% of the predicted normal value, were randomized at two study centers to 4 of a total of 8 possible treatments: placebo; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg fenoterol via RMT, and 100 or 200 microg fenoterol delivered via the MDI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed the study as planned. Results of the therapeutic equivalence test for the primary endpoint, average FEV(1) (AUC(0-6))/6 and for the secondary endpoint, peak FEV(1), showed that the 12.5- and 25-microg fenoterol doses administered via RMT were equivalent to the 100 microg fenoterol dose from the MDI. The 50-, 100- and 200-microg fenoterol doses delivered by RMT did not meet the criterion for therapeutic equivalence with the 100-microg dose from the MDI, and if tested for a difference would have been significantly different in favor of RMT. All 5 RMT fenoterol doses were therapeutically equivalent to the MDI 200-microg fenoterol dose. Headache, reported by 4 patients on test days and 2 patients between test days in those randomized to RMT, was the most common adverse event, but the active treatments were generally well tolerated with no dose-dependent increases in incidence or severity of adverse events observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study suggest that safe and efficacious bronchodilation can be obtained from single-dose fenoterol administered via RMT. Use of lower absolute doses to obtain a clinically significant improvement in pulmonary function may be possible because of the increased lung deposition achievable with the novel soft mist inhaler.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers. (5/62)

AIM: The main objective of this study was to compare the in vitro delivery of salbutamol from a chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-propelled pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus a newly developed hydrofluoroalkane(HFA)-propelled pMDI through various spacers. In addition, we aimed to study the effect on bronchodilator response when using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination for aerosol delivery compared to a suboptimal combination. METHODS: Particle size distribution and output from salbutamol pMDIs containing either CFC propellants (Ventolin) or HFA propellants (Airomir) were measured using a multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) and compared to that through both detergent-coated (non-static) or untreated (static) large volume (Nebuhaler, Volumatic) and small volume (Aerochamber) plastic spacers. Flow-volume curves (FEV1) were obtained from twelve asthmatic children with known significant bronchodilator response (8 males), aged 13-17 years, randomly inhaling salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer (Nebuhaler) and from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (Nebuhaler). RESULTS: In vitro output of particles in the respirable range (< 6.8 microns) from HFA-pMDIs was significantly higher than that from CFC-pMDIs using various spacers. Removal of electrostatic charge increased output from CFC- and HFA-pMDIs through all spacers by 17-82%. The mean (SD) bronchodilator response after inhalation of salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer was 7.1% (6.3%) compared to 17.5% (7.9%) after inhalation from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a newly developed HFA-propelled pMDI greatly improves drug delivery through spacers compared to a CFC-propelled pMDI. However, electrostatic charge in plastic spacers remains the key determinant limiting delivery of salbutamol from a pMDI through spacers, and can be reduced by soaking the spacer in a household detergent. Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response.  (+info)

Bedside tracer gas technique accurately predicts outcome in aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax. (6/62)

BACKGROUND: There is no technique in general use that reliably predicts the outcome of manual aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax. We have hypothesised that the absence of a pleural leak at the time of aspiration will identify a group of patients in whom immediate discharge is unlikely to be complicated by early lung re-collapse and have tested this hypothesis by using a simple bedside tracer gas technique. METHODS: Eighty four episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and 35 episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax were studied prospectively. Patients breathed air containing a tracer (propellant gas from a pressurised metered dose inhaler) while the pneumothorax was aspirated percutaneously. Tracer gas in the aspirate was detected at the bedside using a portable flame ioniser and episodes were categorised as tracer gas positive (>1 part per million of tracer gas) or negative. The presence of tracer gas was taken to imply a persistent pleural leak. Failure of manual aspiration and the need for a further intervention was based on chest radiographic appearances showing either failure of the lung to re-expand or re-collapse following initial re-expansion. RESULTS: A negative tracer gas test alone implied that manual aspiration would be successful in the treatment of 93% of episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (p<0.001) and in 86% of episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (p=0.01). A positive test implied that manual aspiration would either fail to re-expand the lung or that early re-collapse would occur despite initial re-expansion in 66% of episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and 71% of episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. Lung re-inflation on the chest radiograph taken immediately after aspiration was a poor predictor of successful aspiration, with lung re-collapse occurring in 34% of episodes by the following day such that a further intervention was required. CONCLUSIONS: National guidelines currently recommend immediate discharge of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax based primarily on the outcome of the post-aspiration chest radiograph which we have shown to be a poor predictor of early lung re-collapse. Using a simple bedside test in combination with the post-aspiration chest radiograph, we can predict with high accuracy the success of aspiration in achieving sustained lung re-inflation, thereby identifying patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax who can be safely and immediately discharged home and those who should be observed overnight because of a significant risk of re-collapse, with an estimated re-admission rate of 1%.  (+info)

Exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons in the indoor environment. (7/62)

The indoor environment has frequently been ignored as a significant source of exposure to air pollutants. To date there are a number of documented examples of levels of indoor air pollutants greatly exceeding those levels which commonly occur in the outdoor environment. Among these instances are airborne buildup of polynuclear aromatics and cadmium from cigarette smoke, lead from burning candles, and vinyl chloride from use of aerosols containing this substance as a propellant. These examples suggest that there may be additional sources of indoor air pollutants, particularly halogenated hydrocarbons from aerosol products, which have heretofore not been generally recognized as important. The present paper endeavors to review those instances where halogenated hydrocarbons in the indoor air environment may build up to concentrations of potential public health concern. These considerations may be especially relevant in future years as increasing efforts are being made to insulate buildings more efficiently as a means to conserve energy. The available data strongly suggest that halogenated hydrocarbons are an important class of air pollutants in the indoor environment and that their presence in the outdoor environment should also be carefully examined. In this regard, halogenated hydrocarbons in the outdoor environment may also contaminate indoor air spaces.  (+info)

Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think? (8/62)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurised metered-dose inhalers are currently being marketed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-driven devices. It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance. METHODS: One hundred patients with obstructive airway disease on regular CFC aerosol inhaler medication underwent a standardised, structured interview. During the interview patients were asked to use a new HFA aerosol inhaler and three DPIs in random order. Patients' notions were recorded. RESULTS: Most patients (96) agreed to change from their CFC to the HFA inhaler, of those, only 12 did so with some reservation. Properties (taste, user-friendliness, design) of the HFA inhaler were rated favourably. DPIs represented an acceptable alternative to aerosol inhalers. In fact, 57 patients preferred a DPI over the HFA inhaler. Not all powder devices were equally acceptable. Replacing the CFC inhaler with patients' preferred alternative devices resulted in a more than 3-fold increase in costs. CONCLUSION: Concerns about the acceptability of reformulated CFC-free aerosol inhalers are ill founded. However, if given the choice, many patients prefer a DPI over the HFA inhaler. The transition offers an opportunity to review patients' current treatment and the proficiency of their inhaling technique. Moving to CFC-free inhalers will have revenue implications.  (+info)

*Inhaler

2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Nick Baumann (July-August 2011). "Why You're ... In MDIs, medication is typically stored in solution in a pressurized canister that contains a propellant, although it may also ... On activation, the metered-dose inhaler releases a fixed dose of medication in aerosol form. The correct procedure for using an ... Nebulizers - supply the medication as an aerosol created from an aqueous formulation. Nasal inhalers contain decongestant drugs ...

*Nebulizer

"Delivery and retention of an insulin aerosol produced by a new jet nebulizer". Journal of Aerosol Medicine. 8 (3): 243-254. doi ... The device features no gas propellant and no need for battery/power to operate. The average droplet size in the mist was ... An aerosol is a mixture of gas and solid or liquid particles. Various asthma guidelines, such as the Global Initiative for ... As they create aerosols from ultrasonic vibration instead of using a heavy air compressor, they only have a weight around 170 ...

*Liquefied petroleum gas

"Aerosol Propellant , Aerosol Propellant Gas , Aerosol Supplies Dubai - Brothers Gas". www.brothersgas.com. Archived from the ... It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage ...

*Metered-dose inhaler

One of the most crucial components of a MDI is its propellant. The propellant provides the force to generate the aerosol cloud ... Propellants in MDIs typically make up more than 99% of the delivered dose, so it is the properties of the propellant that ... Leach, C L (1995). "Approaches and Challenges to Use Freon Propellant Replacements". Aerosol Science and Technology. 22 (4): ... Noakes, T (2002). "Medical Aerosol Propellants". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 118 (1-2): 35-45. doi:10.1016/S0022-1139(02) ...

*1,2-Difluoroethane

... aerosol propellants, 2%; food freezant, 1%; other, 8%; exports, 3%. 1,2-Difluoroethane is toxic when inhaled or when it comes ...

*Fogger

To distribute their insecticide, foggers also contain aerosol propellants. During 2001-2006, a total of 466 fogger-related ...

*Silly String

Aerosol propellants are liquids with very low boiling points. When under pressure inside the can, the propellant is in liquid ... A key component in Silly String is its aerosol spray can and the propellant that ejects the product mixture from the can. The ... The aerosol propellant represents the bulk of the product. Solubility of the resin and other materials in the product is ... The use of aerosol string products has been banned in several places for various reasons, including cleanup and removal costs ...

*Hairstyling product

... and make almost ideal aerosol propellants. However, when research concluded that CFCs cause destruction of stratospheric ozone ... It sprays evenly over the hair using a pump or aerosol spray nozzle. The product may leave hair feeling 'crunchy' unless ...

*Aerosol burn

Fluorinated hydrocarbon (fluorocarbon) aerosol propellants can be abused, as with solvents. A common form is huffing as a means ... An aerosol burn is an injury to the skin caused by the pressurized gas within an aerosol spray cooling quickly, with the sudden ... In rare cases aerosol-induced burns can be severe enough to necessitate skin grafting. The most common cause of aerosol burns ... In rarer cases aerosol burns are reported to have been caused by air fresheners and other compressed aerosol canisters ...

*Freon

... moderately toxic gases or liquids which have typically been used as refrigerants and as aerosol propellants. These include the ... They are no longer used in aerosols, but to date no suitable, general use alternatives to the halocarbons have been found for ...

*1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane

As an aerosol propellant, HFC-227ea is used in pharmaceutical metered dose inhalers such as those used for dispensing asthma ...

*Robert MacFarlan Cole III

Robert MacFarlan Cole, a chemist who helped develop Freon and its use as a refrigerant and an aerosol propellant, died Saturday ... He helped develop many chemicals, including freon and its use as a refrigerant and an aerosol repellent, a substance to ...

*Wertha Pendleton Cole

Robert MacFarlan Cole, a chemist who helped develop Freon and its use as a refrigerant and an aerosol propellant, died Saturday ...

*Greenhouse gas footprint

The biggest cause of these sources is the usage of ozone depleting substances; such as refrigerants, aerosol, propellants, foam ...

*1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane

It has been used as a cooling agent in refrigerants and air conditioners, aerosol propellant, and a cleansing agent for ...

*Frederick Kaufman

Kaufman was most notable for his research work which led to a ban on the use of chloro-fluorocarbon aerosol propellants in the ...

*Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation

... and aerosol propellants. Housewares and related goods- This division makes Thermos branded products and deals with Stainless ...

*Vinyl chloride

Information on the aerosol propellant controversy ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride CDC - NIOSH ... Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant. Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic ...

*Alkane

Both are used as propellants in aerosol sprays. From pentane to octane the alkanes are highly volatile liquids. They are used ...

*Packaging gas

... also propellant Specific kinds of packaging gases are aerosol propellants. These process and assist the ejection of the product ... used for aerosol whipped cream canisters (see Nitrous oxide: Aerosol propellant) octafluorocyclobutane (E946) These must be ... Some may also serve as a propellant for aerosol sprays like cans of whipped cream. For packaging food, the use of various gases ... argon (E938), used for canned products helium (E939), used for canned products nitrogen (E941), also propellant carbon dioxide ...

*Dimethyl ether

... is also used as a propellant in aerosol products. Such products include hair spray, bug spray and some aerosol ... The simplest ether, it is a colorless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds and an aerosol propellant that ...

*Air freshener

Instant action systems are mainly aerosol sprays, or atomizers. The aerosol spray uses a propellant and fragrance packaged ... aerosol propellants, preservatives, and solvents such as mineral oil or 2-butoxyethanol and other glycol ethers. As fragrances ... A recently developed type of aerosol packages a plastic bag of fragrance into a can. The bag is attached to the valve/actuator/ ... In the 1980s, the air freshener market shifted away from aerosols, due to concerns over the destruction of the ozone layer by ...

*List of MeSH codes (D15)

... aerosol propellants MeSH D26.255.165.260 --- emulsions MeSH D26.255.165.260.270 --- fat emulsions, intravenous MeSH D26.255. ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D26.255.150 --- capsules MeSH D26.255.165 --- colloids MeSH D26.255.165.055 --- aerosols MeSH ...

*Fluorinated gases

... aerosol propellants, and solvents. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the compounds consisting of fluorine and carbon. They are widely ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... aerosols MeSH D27.720.280.165.055.055 --- aerosol propellants MeSH D27.720.280.165.260 --- emulsions MeSH D27.720.280.165.320 ...

*Unilever Leeds

The site has worked with DCA Design International Ltd of Warwick, for design of its aerosol cans It makes compressed aerosols. ... Due to the flammable substances (LPG and ethanol) stored on site to create the propellants, the site is regulated by the ... In the mid-1990s, the UK was producing 10% of the world's, and 25% of Europe's, aerosol products. The site is situated north of ... One of the main substances in aerosol anti-perspirants is aluminium chlorohydrate. There are around 150 scientists on the site ...

*LO-NOx burner

... such as household aerosol propellants, possible gas leaks and ingress of vehicle exhaust fume), converts to NO2. This was found ...
Recently, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change.[12] It has a global warming potential of 1300.[13] The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems.[14] California may also prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.[15] A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in Wisconsin in 2012.[16] During the time that it was active, this Wisconsin-specific ban contained loopholes. For example, it was legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the ...
Global Aerosol Propellants Market is expected to grow at the CAGR of 6.3% during 2015-2022 and it estimated to be $6.45 billion by 2022. The global Aerosol propellants market is segmented on the basis of product, industry applications and geography. The report on global aerosol propellants market forecast 2015-2022 provides detailed overview and predictive.... ...
Preface xvii. 1 Solid Propellants and Their Combustion Characteristics 1. 1.1 Background of Solid Propellant Combustion, 4. 1.1.1 Definition of Solid Propellants, 4. 1.1.2 Desirable Characteristics of Solid Propellants, 4. 1.1.3 Calculation of Oxygen Balance, 5. 1.1.4 Homogeneous Propellants, 6. 1.1.4.1 Decomposition Characteristics of NC, 6. 1.1.5 Heterogeneous Propellants (or Composite Propellants), 7. 1.1.6 Major Types of Ingredients in Solid Propellants, 8. 1.1.6.1 Description of Oxidizer Ingredients, 10. 1.1.6.2 Description of Fuel Binders, 12. 1.1.6.3 Curing and Cross-Linking Agents, 14. 1.1.6.4 Aging, 15. 1.1.7 Applications of Solid Propellants, 16. 1.1.7.1 Hazard Classifications of Solid Propellants, 16. 1.1.8 Material Characterization of Propellants, 16. 1.1.8.1 Propellant Density Calculation, 16. 1.1.8.2 Propellant Mass Fraction, 17. 1.1.8.3 Viscoelastic Behavior of Solid Propellants, 17. 1.1.9 Thermal Profile in a Burning Solid Propellant, 18. 1.1.9.1 Surface and Subsurface ...
A rapid burning propellant charge for applications including igniters, launch eject motors, and gas generators for automobile air bags. The propellant charge comprises a reticulated substrate having a quantity of interconnected ligaments and a coating of solid propellant material on the ligaments. In order to provide a large amount of surface area for a fast burn time, interstices are between coated ligaments to define propellant surface area for combustion. In applications where minimum smoke is desired, the reticulated substrate is preferably composed of carbon, graphite, or a non-combustible material, and the solid propellant material is preferably a minimum smoke type.
A rapid burning propellant charge for applications including igniters, launch eject motors, and gas generators for automobile air gags. The propellant charge comprises a reticulated substrate having a quantity of interconnected ligaments and a coating of solid propellant material on the ligaments. In order to provide a large amount of surface area for a fast burn time, interstices are between coated ligaments to define propellant surface area for combustion. In applications where minimum smoke is desired, the reticulated substrate is preferably composed of carbon, graphite, or a non-combustible material, and the solid propellant material is preferably a minimum smoke type.
The ballistic properties of RDX-based propellants are highly dependent on the particle size of RDX used. The effect of RDX particle size on the burning rate and pressure exponent of the gun propellant was studied. Propellant formulation containing RDX to extent of 60 per cent in the composition was processed with varying particle size of RDX. Finished propellants in heptatubular and cord geometry were evaluated for ballistic aspects by closed vessel firing in a 700 cc vessel at a loading density of 0.18 g/cc. The data obtained clearly indicate that increase in particle size of RDX increases the burning rate as well as the pressure exponent ...
The CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual is the basic safety manual needed by all aerosol product manufacturers and laboratories.
Acute Market Reports.com has announced the addition of Global Aerosol Propellants Market Analysis And Segment Forecasts To 2016 Market Research report to
Novel spherical grain-binding, high-burning-rate propellant is a kind of compound structure propellant (called a consolidated propellant) that is prepared using...
A multiple component catalyst system for curing of energetic urethane bins for solid fuel propellants and gas generators based upon curing of glycidyl-azide polymer and isocynate curative mixtures. Void or bubble free propellant grains are obtained by employing a cure catalyst composed of a mixture of triphenyl bismuth and dibutyltin dilaurate, preferably in a respective ratio of about 10:1 by weight. The void free propellant grains have burn characteristics acceptable for missile propulsion applications.
Nitroglycerin (NG) and nitrocellulose (NC) are constituents of double-base propellants used notably for firing antitank ammunitions. Nitroglycerin was detected in soil and water samples from the unsaturated zone (pore water) at an active antitank firing position, where the presence of high nitrate (NO 3 -) concentrations suggests that natural attenuation of NG is occurring. However, concentrations alone cannot assess if NG is the source of NO3 -, nor can they determine which degradation processes are involved. To address this issue, isotopic ratios (δ15N, δ18O) were measured for NO 3 - produced from NG and NC through various controlled degradation processes and compared with ratios measured in field pore water samples. Results indicate that propellant combustion and degradation mediated by soil organic carbon produced the observed NO3 - in pore water at this site. Moreover, isotopic results are presented for NO 3 - produced through photolysis of propellant constituents, which could be a ...
This invention relates to a process for separating 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from a mixture comprising both 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane wherein
Headache, dizziness, and disorientation are common. Cerebral edema may be found on autopsy. Dichlorodifluoromethane was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits. ,br,The reproductive effects of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane were studied in rats. No adverse effects on reproductive performance was noted or on the development, maturation or reproductive performance of up to two successive generations ...
300441754 - EP 0755245 B1 2001-05-30 - PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL PROPELLANTS - [origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.[origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.
Aerosol package employs a compressed gas such as carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide as propellant and provides a tiny vapor tap in the aerosol valve body to permit, in a restricted controlled way, the passage of the propellant gas into the aerosol valve. The diameter of the vapor tap is preferably in the range of only about 0.004 to only about 0.008. In a modification a pair of vapor tap openings of 0.006 diameter are formed in the valve. This permits a lesser initial can pressure.
Press Release issued Jan 21, 2016: The report Aerosol Propellant Market by Type (DME, HFC, HFO, Other Hydrocarbons, and Others), by Application (Personal Care, Household, Medical, and Others), and by Region - Global Forecast to 2020, defines and segments the concerned market with analysis and forecast of revenue.
A one-component-foam formulation contains a propellant in a concentration range of from 5 to 35 weight-percent of total formulation weight and contains at least 50 weight-percent non-liquefied inert gases based on total propellant weight, a polyol, a silicone glycol copolymer and less than 0.01 weight-percent of a cell opener based on polyol weight. An article contains five liters or more of the one-component-foam formulation within a container compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres pressure. A method for dispensing the one-component foam formulation includes providing the article and expelling the formulation from the container through a dispensing means onto a substrate and allowing the formulation to expand into a stable polymeric foam having a density of 45 kilograms per cubic meter or less.
Feb. 20, 1962 F. B. CRAMER PROCESS FOR DISPERSING SOLIDS IN POLYMERIC PROPELLENT FUEL BINDERS Filed Nov. 29, 1957 INVENTOR. FRANK B. CRAMER ATTORNEY 3,@ZZ,M9 Patented Feb. 20, 1962 3,922,149 PRLBCESS F0152 DHSPERSKNG SOlLlDS Hi PQLY- MERIC PROPELLENT FUEL BENDERS Frank B. Cramer, Reseda, Calil., assignor to North American Aviation, inc. Filed Nov. 29, 1957, Ser. No. 699,632 16 Claims. (Cl. 149-19) mately be broken down to such a point that their macro scopic composition is substantially uniform. This is a slow, time-consuming process, and it requires that the entire batch of material be folded and refolded until, from a-statistical viewpoint, it may be said that every ultimate layer of material has been broken and refolded. Another method of dispersing solids in polymeric or resin vehicles is by the use of a ball mill. In this case, the solid is ground in the presence of the vehicle which usual- 13/ comprises a plasticizer and the resin or polymer solution. Grinding is accomplished by means of ...
Propellant residues are scattered onto the soil surface when guns are fired. Here, we studied fired residues and unfired propellants from 9-mm pistols, 5.56-mm ...
The amount of propellant is normally measured either in units of mass or weight. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to have units of speed, and so specific impulses are often measured in meters per second and are often termed effective exhaust velocity. However, if propellant weight is used, an impulse divided by a force (weight) turns out to be a unit of time, and so specific impulses are measured in seconds. These two formulations are both widely used and differ from each other by a factor of g0, the dimensioned constant of gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.. Note that the rate of change of momentum of a rocket (including its propellant) per unit time is equal to the thrust.. The higher the specific impulse, the less propellant is needed to produce a given thrust during a given time. In this regard a propellant is more efficient the greater its specific impulse. This should not be confused with energy efficiency, ...
Some years ago while dissecting what I felt to be a particularly ingenious handheld propellant sprayer in order to see how it worked, I became aware that it contained an oily residue which could be of concern if used in certain treatment applications. Only recently I became aware that paper conservators were using a similar disposable propellant canister for spray applications of deacidifying reagents on works of art. Procedural questions had also been raised about the cause of yellowing which accompanied some, but not all, methods of application of the same reagent. It quickly became clear that these canisters also possessed oil in the propellant reservoir. While the oil did not seem to have caused the observed yellowing in this particular case, conservators should consider that staining may be caused by the unknown contents of such propellant systems. Such problems are easily identified. A canister of the propellant should be completely discharged, without anything attached to the aspirator, ...
In metered-dose inhalers aerosol is generated with the aid of propellants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) or hydrofluoralkanes (HFA). They have a high dose consistency and average particle size as well as fine particle fraction are independent of the inspiratory air flow.. Mainly drugs in metered-dose inhalers are suspended within the propellant. They need to be shaken before use and generate particles with an average size of 3-5 µm. Substances insolution do not require shaking and are released from the inhaler with considerably smaller average size of about 1 µm thus being more easily deposited in the distal lung areas.. In most metered-dose inhalers aerosol inhalation has to be coordinated with dose actuation. Several studies have demonstrated that up to 70% of patients fail to complete the correct inhalation manoeuvre. This problem is overcome by breath-actuation or inhalation aids like spacers and holding chambers, which contrawise are more bulky to carry.. ...
A cleaning composition being an oil-in-water emulsion in aerosol form characterized in that sufficient of the propellant is retained in the emulsion on discharge to a surface such that the retained propellant boils to create a sustained bubbling action in the absence of foaming on the surface. The cleaning composition comprises an oil-in-water emulsion containing (a) 2 to 60% w/w in total amount of one or more hydrocarbon propellants such that the propellants substantially form a part of the oil phase when the composition is formulated; (b) 2 to 50% w/w in total amount of one or more surfactants; (c) 0.1 to 30% w/w in total amount of one or more water-immiscible organic compounds; (d) 0.5 to 40% w/w in total amount of one or more water-miscible organic coupling agents; and (e) 10 to 70% w/w of water.
Hairspray came into vogue after World War II when the cosmetics industry adopted the use of aerosol spray technology developed by the Department of Agriculture for use with insect sprays during the war. This transfer of technology to the business of beauty helped make womens hair styles such as the beehive and the bouffant possible. Although the use of hairspray has declined with the popularity of more "natural" hairstyles, hairspray is commonly used by men and women today. Todays typical hairspray contains polymers (chain-like molecules) in a solvent and sometimes a propellant. After spraying, the solvent evaporates and leaves behind a stiff layer of the polymers on the hair to help keep it in place. The propellant is usually a liquefied gas under pressure that forces the hairspray out of an aerosol can and produces a mist. Sometimes the propellant is also the solvent. Due to health and environmental concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned certain propellants (e.g., ...
Work involved during the preflight preparation of spacecraft involves the handling of materials that are very toxic to humans. These toxins attack the respiratory and skin systems and, therefore, impose the requirement for full suit enclosures. The weight, structure, and operating parameters of such a suit can be expected to have a significant effect upon the metabolic and thermal responses of the user, especially in high workload situations and ambient temperature extremes.. This paper describes the testing of the operational version of the Propellant Handlers Ensemble (PHE). In particular, parameters affecting the physiology of the user were measured during a work-rest regimen performed in three temperature environments: −7, 23, and 43°C (20, 74, and 110°F). Six subjects performed tests in these environments in two versions of the PHE, the autonomous backpack version and the hoseline supplied configuration. Measurements included heart rate, four skin temperatures, rectal temperature, ...
AFMAN 24-204(I)/TM 38-250/NAVSUP PUB 505/MCO P4030.19H/ DLAI 4145.3 205 11 DECEMBER 2001 Inner packaging Outer packaging Bags: Kraft paper, plastic, sift-proof woven plastic or textile Receptacles: fiberboard, metal, paper, plastic Not required for UN0160 and 0161 when packed in outer 1A2 or 1B2 drum Drums: removable head steel (1A2), removable head aluminum (1B2), removable head plastic (1H2), plywood (1D), fiber (1G) For UN0160 and 0161, 1A2 and 1B2 drums must be constructed so that risk of explosion caused by increased internal pressure (from internal or external causes) is prevented A5.13. Nitroglycerin, Desensitized; Nitroglycerin, Solution in Alcohol; and Propellant, Liquid. For liquid explosives, surround each inner packaging with sufficient amount of non-combustible absorbent cushioning material to absorb the entire contents. Cushion metal receptacles from each other in all directions. Liquid substances must not freeze at temperatures above 15 degrees C (5 degrees F). A composite ...
I can visualize the magnitude of work and efforts put in this assignment from the quantum of information packed in this book. Indeed this book is going to be a very good guidebook for the professionals dealing with high energy materials and a milestone in the literature on explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics. I am sure that the wealth of information along with a large number of bibliographic references provided in this book will prove to be a goldmine for researchers working in this area. The eminent author, Dr. Jai Prakash Agrawal deserves kudos and appreciation from the entire HEMs community for his valuable contribution to the world of explosives literature." (Institute of Energetic Materials, 1 November 2010) "The work is clearly and appropriately divided into six chapters, and leads the reader through almost every aspect of high-energy materials. It is written in a way that is also understandable for readers other than chemists." (Angewandte Chemie, 2010) ...
This Phase I SBIR program will result in the availability of a high strength, closed cell titanium foam material suitable for fabricating propellant tank structures. The resulting titanium foams are predicted to have >350Mpa strengths at densitied ...
NSC 9135 - Liquid Propellant Fuels and Oxidizers, Chemical Base, including description, included items, excluded items and related part numbers and NSN starting at Page 1.
Introduction: Subject was exposed for some minutes to 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, a gaseous fluorocarbon refrigerant, with possible prior exposure to the same substance without noticeable symptoms. The International Chemical Safety Card for 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane reports that acute symptoms of inhalation include dizziness, drowsiness, and dullness, and "a harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment… The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system, resulting in cardiac disorders… inhaling high concentration of vapor… may cause light-headedness, shortness of breath, heart irregularities, unconsciousness or death" and that the vapor "reduces the oxygen available for breathing.". ...
My name is Cheri Modrow. I live in Milwaukee and I have asthma. Recently my inhaler was abruptly changed without my knowledge or consent to ProAir HFA. After researching why the change happened, I found that the CFC propellants in medical inhalers such as mine are being banned. I cannot tolerate the ProAir HFA and it actually made my asthma worse. I fear that others who have been switched to HFA propelled inhalers are having increased asthma symptoms, and may not even realize why. I want to help spread the word that many people are finding these new inhalers seriously inferior. There is a petition that Id like to make asthma patients and those who care about them, or care for them, aware of. If you could help by spreading the word in your asthma community, that would be wonderful. Here is the link to the petition. On the right hand side of the petition is a place where those not tolerating the new propellant (HFA), can still find the generic CFC. Thank you for any help you can give ...
In May 2001, AFRL awarded a $10.4M contract to develop hydrogen peroxidebased rocket propulsion systems to Aerojet. Under this contract, Aerojet was to retire risk areas in injectors, catalyst beds, turbine materials and design and thrust chamber design, paving the way for a highly operable reusable rocket engine using non-toxic propellants. The contract with additional options is expected to earn Aerojet up to $29.9 million over the next four years. The Advanced Reusable Rocket Engine (ARRE) program represented a dramatic stepping stone for Aerojets reusable rocket engine technologies - as well as the aerospace industry as a whole. This program was to advance state-of-the-art peroxide engine technologies 30 years by maintaining storable rocket engine performance with environmentally friendly propellants. Aerojet is tasked to develop an Advanced Reusable Rocket Engine that utilizes non-toxic, hydrogen peroxide as a propellant. The technology Aerojet proposed for the SMV engine significantly ...
The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and ...
Hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) is a salt of the hydrazinium ion (N2H5+) and nitroformate anion (C(NO2)3−). It is an energetic oxidizer, and is soluble in most solvents. Research is being conducted at the European Space Agency to investigate its use in solid rocket propellants. It tends to produce propellants which burn very rapidly and with very high combustion efficiency. Its high energy leads to high specific impulse propellants. It is currently an expensive research chemical available only in limited quantities. A disadvantage of HNF is its limited thermal stability. 1996 newsgroup posting on HNF "Preparing for the Future". Vol. 6 no. 1. European Space Agency. March 1996. Tydon, Walter (31 July 1970). Minimum Cost Design Launch Vehicle Design/Costing Study TOR-0059(6526-01)2. vol. 2, Background Studies. The Aerospace Corporation. pp. 4-13, 4-14 ...
United States Patent 3,770,787 VINYL FERROCENE BUTADIENE COPGLTMER BURNING RATE CATALYST Jimmy D. Burnett, Arab, Ala, assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army No Drawing. Original application Sept. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 858,896. Divided and this application .luly 19, 1971, Ser. No. 164,143 lint. Cl. (307i 15/02 US. Cl. 260-439 CY 3 Claims ABSTRACT UP THE DISCLOSURE Copolymers of vinyl ferrocene and butadiene are disclosed along with the procedure for preparation. The copolymers are useful as a burning rate catalyst and provide a means for introducing and maintaining a high catalyst concentration in solid propellants inasmuch as the copolymer containing the iron catalyst is capable of serving as the binder replacing part of the normally used binders in solid propellants. Also disclosed is a typical solid propellant composition utilizing the copolymers of this invention as a binder replacement and burning rate catalyst. This application is a division of ...
The objectives of this study are to measure Impulse Oscillometry (IOS) in patients with asthma extensively at baseline in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, treated with as-needed short acting beta agonist only, to measure respiratory resistance and small airway dysfunction accurately and precisely at baseline, from which to measure onset of action of Advair MDI in comparison with that of Symbicort MDI. Initial screening will assess IOS resistance and small airway dysfunction and its response to short acting beta agonist (SABA). Patients will be selected from among those who manifest a 40% improvement in small airway function assessed by IOS low frequency reactance after SABA compared to baseline. After screening, patients will be randomized to receive either Advair or Symbicort; and will be assessed at randomization before and at several intervals after initial dosing, up to 4 hours. Patients will return again 4 weeks after randomization for extended IOS (and spirometry) testing as done at ...
... (CO2) is a colorless, odorless and nonflammable gas heavier than air. It is classified as one of the major air pollutants when it exceeds its naturally-occurring concentration. There are a number of processes for its production including combustion, fermentation and heating of organic matter. Its main use is in the food and beverage industry, although it is also used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishing equipment, as a pressure source, aerosol propellant, and also in welding and some metallurgical processes. Below are some of its major physical characteristics: ...
A pressurized dispensing device contains a fluid product, either a dry powder or a liquid, to be dispensed and a reservoir containing a propellant sorbed by a sorbent material, the reservoir having a vapor-permeable wall to permit propellant gas to pass through and pressurize the headspace of the device.
Red iron oxide is used as a catalyst in composite and whistling rocket propellant and Candy rocket propellant formulations. It is also added to some glitter formulations and used for thermite, a mixture that produces enormous amounts of heat, forming molten iron. Due to its catalytic properties it is also added to primes, and even coloured star compositions to increase their ignitability and burn rate.. ...
The next major phase of development worth mentioning in modern rocket technology happened in Germany. Wernher Von Braun, while pursuing his doctorate at Berlin Technical University was granted funds to experiment on liquid fuel propellant rockets by the Nazi party which had come to power. Nazi party was at the time looking to invest in any new technology that could be weaponised in the anticipation of the impending war. By the end of 1934, Von Braun was able to successfully test couple of small liquid propellant rockets. The year 1941 saw the German scientists possessing all the four key technologies namely large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance and rudders in jet control essential to the success of rockets. After the conclusion of development work in 1943, Hitler ordered the V-2 rockets to be deployed in the year 1944 against the allied nations. Cities like London and Antwerp bear the brunt of the damage from the V-2 rockets. It is estimated that roughly ...
Modular turnout gear | Glass breaking tool, method for breaking glass | Emergency escape device | Method and apparatus for the treatment of tissue | Delivery system for radiation therapy |
[http://www.pgcpl.com]Welcome to Parag Gases & Chemicals Private Limited Manufacturer, Trader & Supplier of Industrial Gases, Chemicals and LubricantsThe company was established in the year 1989. Our well equipped manufacturing facilities, qualified experts & sophisticated infrastructure are some of
A method and apparatus are provided for delivering lunar generated fluid to Earth orbit from lunar orbit. Transport takes place in an external tank of a shuttle which has been suitably outfitted in Earth orbit for reusable travel between Earth orbit and a lunar orbit. The outfitting of the external tank includes the adding of an engine, an electrical system, a communication system, a guidance system, an aerobraking device, and a plurality of interconnected fluid storage tanks to the hydrogen and oxygen tanks of the external tank. The external tank is then propelled to lunar orbit the first time using Earth based propellant. In lunar orbit, the storage tanks are filled with the lunar generated fluid with the remainder tank volumes filled with lunar generated liquid oxygen and hydrogen which serve as propellants for returning the tank to Earth orbit where the fluid is off-loaded. The remaining lunar generated oxygen and hydrogen is then sufficient to return the external tank to lunar orbit so that ...
This new more powerful configuration, identified as the LV 51.00.48 is now able to put 71.1 mT through TLI. While this configuration still can not reach its targets, this is a clear improvement towards closing the performance requirements NASA has for the Lunar architecture.. Each new reusable 5.5 segment SRB, will contain over 1.5 million pounds of propellant which will produce a peak of 3,774,000 million lbs of thrust and will have a vacuum Isp of 275.5 seconds. The 38 percent larger SRBs will burn for 116 seconds - a full 8 seconds shorter burn time than Space Shuttle - before being jettisoned.. They feature a new 333-07 Trace PBAN solid propellant mix derived from that currently used by the Shuttle, although there is still the option to go to a new HTPB mix if the trade studies are favorable.. To accommodate the new lengthened boosters, the Liquid Hydrogen Tank on the Core Stage has been stretched by 190.3". Together with a proportional stretch to the Liquid Oxygen Tank this growth puts ...
Due to the all-time high fuel costs, our inbound and outbound freight is costing us twice as much as it did a year ago. UPS is currently charging us $1.75 per box in addition to their listed rates as a fuel surcharge. Although UPS has been charging these additional fees, we have not passed them on to you, nor have we been charging a fuel surcharge to each order to pay the additional costs of our inbound freight. Because our overall pricing is already lower than the competition, we can no longer absorb these fees and we can no longer give the additional volume discounts that Firefox alone has been giving to club members and on volume orders. It makes no sense to give a discount, then charge it back to cover the fuel surcharges that everyone is now charging additionally. Be of good cheer, these ridiculous fuel costs are bound to come down sooner or later, right? In the meantime, we are still lower on our prices overall and we still give our normal volume discounts on items throughout the ...
Materials MASINT [r]: A discipline involving the measurement of signatures from the collection, processing, and analysis of gas, liquid, or solid samples; it complements technical intelligence: a technical intelligence analyst would work with a captured example of the weapon, or at least pieces of it, to come to that understanding of the propellant, while an analyst of this technique would infer the propellant through analysis of the exhaust [e] ...
Has anyone read an article in Journal of Military History (62, Jan 1998) by Nicholas Lambert entitled Our Bloody Ships or Our Bloody Sytem? Jutland and the loss of the Battlecruisers I mention it as I remembered it has a number of things to say about the propellant. Having re-read the article, what it says is a little different to what I remember but worth mentioning all the same. Briefly and amongst a number of other points, t appears that pre-war the ammunition allocation per gun was increased. This was ok for shells as the shell room had the capacity but the magazine was short of space so propellant cases were stowed on the floor in magazine gangways. This coupled with the BCF ethic of rate of fire over accuracy resulted in a dangerously overprovisioned supply chain between magazine and gun. There is much more besides this in the article including Jellicoe suppressing a report by rear Admiral Tudor (3rd sea Lord) essentially to the effect that this was the cause of the losses. It was ...
AccessGUDID - DeBakey Extra-Fine Occlusion Clamp 15mm 17cm curved shanks (04057034058855)- DeBakey Extra-Fine Occlusion Clamp 15mm 17cm curved shanks
This study will investigate the effects of extra-fine beclometasone on small airways inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Learn about the potential side effects of Instant Ice (pentafluoropropane/tetrafluoroethane). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
A cannabinoid material as active agent containing formulation comprising the active agent, an HFA propellant, and optionally a co-solvent is disclosed. Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C.
4. The graph in question 3 shows the pressure line reaching zero at -42 ºC. What happens to the propellant vapour at that temperature ...
Industrial intermediate in chemical synthesis. It is also an ingredient of various incenses or room odorizers and is used as a euphoric. The chemical has also been used as a jet propellant and in the preparation of fuels ...
This volume selects over sixty papers presented at this symposium, and provides an excellent introduction to the state-of-the-art technology in non-intrusive combustion diagnostics for propulsion systems. As such, it is invaluable for researchers wishing to adopt the methods directly, to those interested in assessing the accuracy, advantages, and limitations of specific techniques, and to those seeking a starting point for new ideas toward advances in combustion diagnostics. Topics range from LIF and PLIF techniques to diagnostics of particles, gaseous reaction systems, and solid propellants. Also covered are diagnostics in practical combustion systems. 754 pages, © 1994
Overview The orbiters reaction control system comprises the forward and aft RCS. The forward RCS is located in the forward fuselage nose area. The aft (right and left) RCS is located with the orbital maneuvering system in the OMS/RCS pods. Each RCS consists of high-pressure gaseous helium storage tanks, pressure regulation and relief systems, a fuel and oxidizer tank, a system that distributes propellant to its engines, and thermal control systems (electrical heaters). The forward and aft RCS units provide the thrust for attitude (rotational) maneuvers (pitch, yaw and roll) and for small velocity changes along the orbiter axis (translation maneuvers). The ascent profile of a mission determines the interaction of the RCS units, which depends on the number (one or two) of OMS thrusting periods. After main engine cutoff, the forward and aft thrusters are used to maintain attitude hold until external tank separation. Then the reaction control system provides a minus (negative) Z translation ...
A multilayer foil that enables reaction initiation for propellant ignition and joining of... | Article from Advanced Materials & Processes March 1, 2006
Hi Jim, Is this the same principle? I believe this has to do with the gravitational field not the magnetic field. -----Original Message----- From: amsat-bb-bounces at amsat.org [mailto:amsat-bb-bounces at amsat.org] On Behalf Of James C. Mankin Sent: Wednesday, February 21, 2007 7:16 PM To: Bruce Bostwick Cc: amsat-bb at amsat.org Subject: [amsat-bb] Re: Could we raise orbit thru magnetorque? I seem to remember back when they were testing tethered satellites from the Shuttle that one of the possible applications being discussed was that if you could deploy enough wire and put the right current through it that it was possible to change orbits. I dont see why it wouldnt work if a large loop of wire could be created say between three satellites in a triangle. Jim Mankin n5x at psu.edu Bruce Bostwick wrote: , Thats been my understanding as well. Magnetorquing by itself can , drive rotation but not translation. Its main benefit is that it , saves propellant, weight, and complexity, as well as moving ...
CREAM, WATER, SUGAR, CORN SYRUP, NONFAT MILK, CONTAINS LESS THAN 2% OF: NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, CARRAGEENAN, PROPELLANT: NITROUS OXIDE ...
The December 2013 Firing went well. It was attended by 8 members in addition to a group of students from USC RPL.. Except for a few spots on the road right after the asphalt ends it was in pretty good shape. There were some light rain early in the day and strong winds persisted all day. This kicked around a lot of sand. And again Ill be dismantling my camera to remove all the sand. (At least the wind was kind enough not to shatter one of my car windows with a rock this time like it did last time.) The video quality suffered because of the winds. I had to film from inside the blockhouse and through the not so clear windows.. There were 6 static firings for the day. Three where from the USC group. These tests where designed to test additives to their basic AP-Aluminum propellant formula. All three were fired successfully. (I only captured footage from the first and last test.). Chris Lujan, brought and static fired another one of his Potassium Nitrate/Sucrose Rocket motors, with some ...
Once got flapped to catch a helo from DaNang back down to Chu Lai for an accident investigation. (1st Tanks had recently moved Bn HQ, H&S, Bravo and Charlie Companies up to the DaNang area, leaving Alpha down south filling in as 3rd Tanks moved further north... late 66, early 67). The accident involved a mishap that, thankfully, remained relatively, emphasis relatively, minor. A tank crewman had been assigned, for whatever reason, to some crew maintenance task that involved removing, or at least disconnecting, the batteries in his M-48 tank. These are secured in the hull bottom, under the turret floor, and accessed thru a removable turret floor plate This hard-charger, half-inch combination wrench in hand, had loosened his first cable, and flipped it up, out of his way. It was a positive cable (not the ground or - side), and it promptly arced, welded itself to the nearest 90MM round seated in a floor rack. The propellant charge flashed, probably in what might have been classified as a ...
CREAM, WATER, SUGAR, CORN SYRUP, NONFAT MILK, CONTAINS LESS THAN 2% OF: NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, CARRAGEENAN, PROPELLANT: NITROUS OXIDE ...
The aim is to be able to build future liquid propellant engines with a unit cost of about 1 million euros, or 10 times less than the cost of producing existing ...
It is 100% pure HFE7100 together with pure 134A HFE propellant, so it is absolutely non-flammable, non-conductive, plastic safe, and non-toxic. Application : -. ...
Dental Product Shopper delivers practical, unbiased product information. Our peer to peer product reviews help you select the best products for your practice.
definition of - SB 52: HFA(1),(2); SB 55: HFA (1),(2); SB 92: HFA (1),(2); SB 135: HFA (2),(3); SB 146: HFA (1),(2); SB 187: HFA (1),(2); SB 200: HFA (1),(2); SB 245: HFA (7) ...
Duolin HFA is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Duolin HFA is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Titanium Dioxide Market. The global Aerosol Propellants Market is categorized as products, applications, and regions. Based on products, the market is divided into Dimethyl Ether (DME) & methyl ethyl ether, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide & nitrous oxide. Methyl ether & DME can grow at a CAGR of 6% from 2016 to 2025. This attributes to the superior properties exhibited by these components, such as no harm to the ozone layer and low global warming potential. The use of aerosol propellant gases, such as carbon dioxide & nitrous oxide can increase considerably in the near future. This is because these gases cause minimal environmental damage and ensure greater stability.. Applications comprise household, personal care, food, medical, paints, and automotive & industrial. The personal care segment is anticipated to grow at a healthy CAGR of over 3% during the estimated years. This is because of rising popularity of mousses, hair sprays, and deodorants. Demand for beauty products in Central & South ...
Global aerosol propellants market is anticipated to reach USD 24.8 billion by 2020, as per a new research report by Radiant Insights, Inc. Increasing popularity of personal care and cosmetics products such as hair sprays, deodorants and shaving creams among young population is likely to drive the demand. Increasing geriatric population is also expected to positively influence demand for anti-ageing products particularly in U.S., Europe and Japan.. Increasing infrastructure spending in emerging economies such as China Indonesia and India is likely to drive its demand for spray paint applications. Favorable support from regulatory bodies such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as they not contribute towards global warming, is likely to surge demand.. Hydrocarbons dominated the product segment and accounted for over 80% of the market demand in 2014. Ethane, propane, n-butane and isobutene are used as hydrocarbon propellants and are comparatively low cost and less toxic when compared to ...
294333907 - EP 1051152 A1 2000-11-15 - AEROSOL PERSONAL CLEANSING EMULSION COMPOSITIONS WHICH CONTAIN LOW VAPOR PRESSURE PROPELLANTS - [origin: WO9938490A1] The present invention relates to an aerosol personal cleansing composition comprising from about 85 % to about 95 % of a neat cleansing lotion comprising from about 0.5 % to about 30 %, by weight of the neat cleansing lotion, of a lathering surfactant, from about 0.5 % to about 40 %, by weight of the neat cleansing lotion, of a lipophilic skin moisturizing agent, from about 0.1 % to about 10 % by weight of the neat cleansing lotion of a stabilizer, and from about 35 % to about 90 %, by weight of the neat cleansing lotion, of water; and from about 3 % to about 15 % of a hydrocarbon propellant having a vapor pressure of from about 3 psig to about 15 psig.[origin: WO9938490A1] The present invention relates to an aerosol personal cleansing composition comprising from about 85 % to about 95 % of a neat cleansing lotion comprising from about 0.5 % to
A method of thermally disposing a binder containing explosive that reduces the possibility of an unplanned detonation and also allows for the control of pollution. It is particularly adapted for solid rocket propellants. The method comprises cooling a binder containing explosive to a temperature below the Tg range of the binder, reducing the cooled explosive to a smaller size and burning the resultant explosive. Another aspect of this invention is directed to a method for reclaiming ammonium perchlorate from an explosive comprising ammonium perchlorate and a binder that reduces the possibility of an unplanned detonation. It is particularly adapted for solid rocket propellants. The method comprises cooling the explosive to a temperature below the Tg range of the binder, reducing the cooled explosive to a smaller size and chemically extracting the ammonium perchlorate.
An artillery propellant under development b the U.S. Army is a granular mixture of nitrocelinlose, nitroglycerin, nitroguanidine, ethylcentralite, cryolite, and graphite. The propellant, Modniar Artillery Charge System or MACS, consists of a single increment of propellant charge contained within a rigid combustible casing. Nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and nitroguanidine make up greater than 98% of the total propellant mixture. As part of the process to develop environmental and health effects criteria, a 90-day modified Screening Information Data Set reproductive assay is planned. In order to provide information on clinical signs, methemoglobin formation and possible target organs, as well as determine dose levels, a range- finding study was performed. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with diet containing either O.O,0.2S, or 2.Og propellant/kg diet for a three-week period. No mortalities occurred and body weights were unaffected by treatment. Methemoglobin concentrations measured at
A propellant having a minimum assay by weight of 90 percent hydrogen peroxide. Excludes HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, ACS; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, ANALYZED REAGENT; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, PHOTOGRAPHIC; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SOLUTION, USP and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, TECHNICAL. ...
Find the blue Begin button to the right to start. Text of petition: The FDA, in compliance with the Montreal Protocol, has banned the use of life-saving CFC propellant albuterol asthma rescue inhalers in order to help restore the ozone layer, even though it has been widely acknowledged that these CFC inhaler emissions are too trivial to harm the ozone layer: Leslie Hendeles, University of Florida Professor of Pharmacy and Pediatrics, has noted that CFC inhalers release negligible amounts of the propellant and DO NOT POSE A THREAT TO OZONE DEPLETION. (LINK 1) The amount of CFCs in inhalers is minute, so BANNING THEM WONT MAKE ANY IMPROVEMENT (in the ozone layer). says Sallie Baliunas, an astrophysicist at Harvard University and the George Marshall Institute (LINK 2) CFC rescue inhalers have proven their safety, effectiveness, and reliability to tens of millions of asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and other pulmonary patients for almost thirty years. Therefore, before the FDA could ...
Inhalation aids used with pMDIs can be divided into holding chambers with a larger volume and spacers which are not as bulky. Both kinds of inhalation aids facilitate the coordinationbetween actuation and inhalation essential for the correct use of a pMDI. Additionally inhalation aids reduce oropharyngeal deposition frequently observed, when aerosol is released directly with high pressure from metered-dose inhalers.. In contrast to spacers holding chambers feature an inspiratory valve which inhibits the direct emission of aerosol from and exhalation into the hollow space. Due to intermediate storage of aerosol in the inhalation aid propellant evaporates resulting in the generation of smaller particles. Thereby bioavailability of the aerosol and intrabronchial deposition of particles is increased.. However filling a holding chamber with more than a single puff from the inhaler or delay of inspiration reduces the amount of breathable particles. Using a spacer still requires some coordination ...
|p|The MG Chemicals 402A-285G is a clear liquid gas duster that comes in a 10 oz aerosol can. The non-flammable propellant is ideal for cleaning electronics without scratching delicate surfaces.|/p||b|MG Chemicals 402A-285G Specifications:|/b||ul||li| Brand: Super Duster&trade |li| Product Type: Duster|li| Color: Clear|li| Primary Color: Clear|li| Physical Form: Liquid Gas|li| Container Size: 10oz|li| Chemical Composition: 1, 1, 1, 2-Tetrafluoroethane|li| Odor: Slight Ethereal|li| Solubility (Yes/No): Yes|li| Specific Gravity: 1.21|li| Flammability?: Non Flammable|li| Applications: Electronics Industry|/ul|
The U.S. government-mandated switch to CFC-free inhalers is causing problems for millions of people with asthma and other lung diseases, according to The New York Times. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), used as propellants in the inhalers, damage the Earths ozone layer. As of Jan.
I have been using the new inhalers for the past year. The quality of my life and the degree of activity Im able to enjoy has been much reduced. I used to be able to run for two miles! Now I can barely jog half a block.. Its the same medication, albuterol, but its driven out by a different propellant. Just doesnt go as deeply into the lungs. VERY frustrating.. The only alternative is to get a nebulizer machine and some liquid albuterol and saline solution. This is what your doctor would do for you if you came into his office with a bronchospasm. The trouble is, of course, that you cant take the nebulizer with you if youre going on a hike or a camping trip, and its awkward to drag around even if youre just going to the office. But when push comes to shove, it does work. No propellants, just drug + saline + air.. And take your inhaled steroids so you dont need much in the way of bronchodilators.. ...
A person may acquire and store up to 5 kilogram gross mass of smokeless powder for use in an attached dwelling if the containers are greater than 1 kilogram gross mass.. A person may acquire and store up to 20 kilograms gross mass of smokeless powder for use in an attached dwelling if the containers are less than or equal to 1 kilogram gross mass.. A person may acquire and store up to 25 kilograms gross mass of smokeless powder for use in a detached dwelling or a storage unit attached to a detached dwelling. This value is inclusive of all the propellant powders at the dwelling.. When propellant powders, percussion caps or black power cartouches are stored in a dwelling:. ...
The purpose of the research described here is to study the implementation of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithms as an adequate means for propellant slosh simulations in 1g and 0g environments. The dualSPHysics solver has been adapted for propellant slosh simulations. Simulated sloshing liquid frequency and damping ratio data for 1g cases has been compared to existing experiments for both spherical and prismatic container geometries. The 0g case has been studied to determine what further modifications would be required to obtain realistic simulations results. The findings in this research will be used to create a sloshing simulation to determine torques applied to a Cubesat during operations.
As noted, ATVs capabilities once docked with the ISS range past just providing the Station with much required cargo, it will also bring additional reboost and attitude control ability, refueling, gas and water transfer capability.. Attitude Control will come via eight 220 N (22.4kgf) thrusters. Reboost capability will be via two of four or four of four 490 N (50kgf) thrusters (Main Engines). ATV also has four Advanced Attitude Control System (ACS) 220 N (22.4kgf) thrusters that can be used in the event a Main Engine fails. Refueling: The ATV refueling system transfers up to 860 kg of propellant (306 kg of fuel and 554 kg of oxidizer) to the FGB propellant tanks.. Gas Transfer: ATV Jules Verne will carry 20 kg of O2 to ISS. Delivery is via a Gas Control Panel (GCP). Crew opens valve and walks away. The crew comes back to check on the condensation build up and ice behind the panel.. Water Transfer: ATV Jules Verne will carry 281 kg of water for ISS. The crew will manually transfer the water from ...
Solar sail propulsion technology bounces a stream of solar energy particles called photons off giant, reflective sails made of lightweight material 40 to 100 times thinner than a piece of writing paper. The continuous pressure provides sufficient thrust to perform maneuvers, such as hovering at a point in space and rotating the space vehicles plane of orbit, which would require too much propellant for conventional rocket systems. Because the Sun provides the necessary propulsive energy, solar sails also require no onboard propellant, thus reducing payload mass ...
Oxidation of aqueous sodium phenylmethane-nitronate with ammonium persulfate yields d,1-(major product) and meso-1,2-dinitro-1,2-diphenylethanes along with cis-alpha-nitrostilbene, alpha, beta, gamma-triphenyl-alpha-nitropropene, 3,4,5-triphenylisoxazoline oxide, 3,4,5-triphenylisoxazole, benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid. The complex condensation products are derived by the actions of bases on the 1,2-dinitro-1,2-diphenylethanes or from benzaldehyde and phenylnitromethane. The actions of persulfate on nitronates are greatly accelerated by trace quantities of silver ion. Salts of 1-nitropropane and 2-methyl-1-nitropropane respectively were oxidized with persulfates in the presence or absence of silver ion to give oxidative-dimers. Reaction of potassium 1-nitropentane-1-nitronate with ammonium persulfate yielded valeric acid and valeramide. The sodium salt of phenyldinitromethane is not oxidized by aqueous persulfate. Possible mechanisms for formation of the products of the various oxidation reactions are
Nitrocellulose is complex stuff. It is generally considered to be the fully nitrated version of cellulose, in which every available alcohol functional group is converted to a nitrate:. $$\ce{[C6H10O5]n +3HNO3 -, (C6H7O2(ONO2)3]n +3H2O}$$. In principal it probably contains some small amount of partially and/or non-nitrated units.. If we consider nitrocellulose to be fully nitrated, then the combustion reaction is:. $$\ce{ 2C6H7N3O11 + 9/2O2 -, 12CO2 + 3N2 + 7H2O}$$. For nitroglycerin $(\ce{C3H5N3O9})$:. $$\ce{2C3H5N3O9 -, 6CO2 + 3N2 + 5H2O + 1/2O2}$$. It will depend on the ratio of nitrocellulose to nitroglycerin what the overall $\ce{CO2}: \ce{N2}:\ce{H2O}$ mole ratio is. Ill leave you to figure out the mass ratios using the molecular masses of the products.. ...
The general objective of this program is to identify and develop synthesis routes for a new fluorine-containing propellant oxidizer for solid rocket propellants which will lead to increased impulse de ... ...
Lunar Excursion Vehicle approaching the lunar outpost landing site. The third manned mission in mid-2002 represents the beginning of reusable Lunar Excursion Vehicle operation. This crew will spend 12 months on the Moon. All flights until now have involved expendable LEVs and LTVs costing some $2 billion [1999 dollars] per mission but the addition of a Lunar Excursion Vehicle "servicer" will permit up to five LEV reuses, reducing the cost per flight to "only" $800 million including $75 million for new LTV propellant tanks and servicing. The Servicer provides power, thermal control, monitor vehicle subsystems and permit cryogenic propellant boiloff while the LEV is parked on the lunar surface. LEVs, servicers and landing pads are located 2.5 kilometers from the outpost to minimize the impact from chemical contamination from rocket exhaust and reduce the potential for damage if a crash should occur. ...
MODEL RELEASED. Eight year old boy using an inhaler to treat an asthma attack. Asthma causes breathing difficulties due to the contraction of the airways in the lungs. The pump dispenses 100 micrograms of the bronchodilator drug salbutamol (salbutamol sulphate BP) per dose to giving rapid relief from wheezing and breathlessness. This pump uses a non-CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) propellant. - Stock Image C033/6253
|p|The Techspray 1697-8S is a clear liquid duster that comes in an 8 oz aerosol can. The moisture-free, non-flammable duster is great for removing dust, lint, and contaminants from computers, printers, and more.|/p||b|Techspray 1697-8S Features:|/b||ul||li|Non-flammable|li|Non-ozone depleting|li|Moisture free|li|Zero residue|li|Safe on plastics|li|VOC exempt|/ul||b|Techspray 1697-8S Specifications:|/b||ul||li| Brand: Vortex|li| Product Type: Duster|li| Color: Clear|li| Primary Color: Clear|li| Physical Form: Liquid|li| Container Size: 8oz|li| Chemical Composition: 1, 1, 1, 2-Tetrafluoroethane|li| Odor: Faint Ethereal|li| Solubility (Yes/No): No|li| pH Rating: 0|li| Specific Gravity: 1.22|li| Flammability?: Non Flammable|li| VOCs Content: 100%|li| Applications: Electronic Repair, Electrical Cleaning, Fiber Optics Cleaning, Office Equipment Maintenance, Plant Maintenance|/ul|
A dispersion in which a material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid which volatilizes to produce a fine spray when pressure is released. The spray carries the active material. Tn archival work, aerosols are used for dispersing deacidification solutions; in this case the propellant, which must be inert and nonflammable, is frequently a chlorofluorocarbon, e.g., freon 12, dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl 2 F 2 ). ...
This story struck me as a little over the top when I first heard about it. Actually I thought this particular medicine had already been pulled years ago due to related deaths using the product. Primatene mist along with a few others will be phased out because the propellent used in the products contain CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) which are bad for the environment. Read More. ...
Medicines containing beclomethasone dipropionate, including Beclotaide, Becloterol, Beclotis-NS, Beclotrox HFA, Beclospray; their forms, doses and companies.
The Aspen Global Change Institute is an independent nonprofit dedicated to furthering scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change in service of society. Our work includes interdisciplinary research, education and outreach, and collaboration with resource managers and policy-makers. Together we strive to facilitate scientific discussion for the betterment of society and natural systems, while promoting practical solutions to the challenges of todays changing Earth systems. ...
Sennelier Extra-Fine Acrylique Paints contain only the highest-quality pigments, selected to assure clarity, purity, opacity, and stability over time. A broad palette of 120 colors includes all the colors that made Senneliers Artists Oils famous.
Sennelier Extra-Fine Acrylique Paints contain only the highest-quality pigments, selected to assure clarity, purity, opacity, and stability over time. A broad palette of 120 colors includes all the colors that made Senneliers Artists Oils famous.
... is the condition characterized by uncontrolled, persistent cough. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
A dispersion of fine particles of a solid or liquid in a pressurized or liquefied gas propellant for release as an aerosol spray ...
Extruded Tubular Powder is another term for cylindrical powder. Formed by forcing damp propellant mix through a die during manufacture and cutting to desired lengths.
Introduction. Eugine Whint 7/12/2005 Chemistry 5G Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl3), CFC-12 (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF2Cl2), CFC-113 (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3), CFC-114 (dichloro-tetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2), and CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane - C2F5Cl). CFCs are widely used as coolants in refrigeration and air conditioners, as solvents in cleaners, particularly for electronic circuit boards, as a blowing agents in the production of foam (for example fire extinguishers), and as propellants in aerosols. Indeed, much of the modern lifestyle of the second half of the 20th century had been made possible by the use of CFCs. Man-made CFCs however, are the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. CFCs have a lifetime in the atmosphere of about 20 to 100 years, and ...
An aerosol composition includes an admixture of: (a) at least one silicone-based fluid and (b) at least one fluorine-containing propellant that is soluble in the silicone-based fluid. In a preferred embodiment, the propellant includes a hydrofluorocarbon, in particular 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. An aerosol spray system includes: (a) a container; (b) the aerosol composition described above disposed within the container; (c) a metering device; and (d) a spray head. An aerosol lubricating composition includes the composition described above, wherein the silicone-based fluid is a lubricant. A method of lubricating, includes: (a) directing a container containing the lubricating composition described above at an article in need of lubrication; and (b) spraying the lubricating composition at the article. A flammable aerosol composition includes an aerosol composition which includes an admixture of: (a) at least one silicone-based fluid; and (b) at least one fluorine-containing propellant that is soluble in the
Global Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets Market 2017, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market globally, providing basic overview of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market including Definitions, Classifications, Applications and Industry chain structure, Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and companies.. Download Free Sample Report @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/34409/request-sample. Global market research report of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets 2017 mainly focuses on Production, means the output of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets and Revenue, means the sales value of Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets in market. Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets market research report studies Fluorocarbon Rubber Sheets in Global market, ...
EXTRACT: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be collectively described as Kyoto Protocol synthetic GHGs (KP-SGGs). HFCs are used extensively in Australia, largely in air conditioning and refrigeration, initially as ozone-friendly replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Minor uses of HFCs in Australia are as aerosol propellants, including metered dose inhalers (MDIs), as foam blowing agents and in fire extinguishers. PFCs are a by-product of the production of aluminium in Australia and overseas and, in addition, are used overseas in the electronics industry during the manufacture of integrated circuits and plasma screens. Refrigeration represents a very minor use of PFCs in Australia and overseas. Sulfur hexafluoride is used extensively in the electricity distribution industry, both in Australia and overseas, for dielectric insulation ...
After RTLS is selected, the vehicle continues downrange to dissipate excess main propulsion system propellant. The goal is to leave only enough main propulsion system propellant to be able to turn the vehicle around, fly back towards the Kennedy Space Center and achieve the proper main engine cutoff conditions so the vehicle can glide to the Kennedy Space Center after external tank separation. During the downrange phase, a pitch-around maneuver is initiated (the time depends in part on the time of a space shuttle main engine failure) to orient the orbiter/external tank configuration to a heads up attitude, pointing toward the launch site. At this time, the vehicle is still moving away from the launch site, but the space shuttle main engines are now thrusting to null the downrange velocity. In addition, excess orbital maneuvering system and reaction control system propellants are dumped by continuous orbital maneuvering system and reaction control system engine thrustings to improve the orbiter ...
Purpose: Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs.. Methods: A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using ...
RESULTS: A total of 41 participants completed at least one, and 38 completed all 3 home videoconference visits. During each visit, technique improved for all inhalers, with significant improvements for the albuterol metered-dose inhaler, budesonide/formoterol metered-dose inhaler, and tiotropium dry powder inhaler. Improved technique was sustained for nearly all inhalers at 1 and 2 months. Quality of life measured with the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire improved following the training: dyspnea (+0.3 points, P = .01), fatigue (+0.6 points, P , .001), emotional function (+0.5 points, P = .001), and mastery (+0.7 points, P , .001). Coping skills measured with the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire improved (+9.9 points, P = .003). Participants reported increased confidence in inhaler use; for example, mean self-efficacy for using albuterol increased 3 points (P , .001). Inhaler adherence improved significantly after the intervention from 1.6 at the initial visit to 1.1 at month 2 (P ...
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Montreal Protocol On Substances That Deplete The Ozone Layer | Encyclopedia.comMontreal Protocol On Substances That Deplete The Ozone Layer | Encyclopedia.com

Haloalkanes were widely used in industry as aerosol propellants, refrigerants, solvents, and fire extinguishing agents. ... AEROSOL: Liquid droplets or minute particles suspended in air.. GREENHOUSE GAS: A gas whose accumulation in the atmosphere ... PROPELLANT: Gas or liquid ejected by a rocket or other vehicle to make the vehicle move in the opposite direction. ... for aerosols, foams, halons, methyl bromide, refrigeration, and solvents. The TEAP found and created new product designs, ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/environmental-studies/montreal-protocol-substances-deplete-ozone-layer

CFC Substitutes: Good for the Ozone Layer, Bad for Climate? - Innovation TorontoCFC Substitutes: Good for the Ozone Layer, Bad for Climate? - Innovation Toronto

... as propellants in aerosol cans, as solvents and as foaming agents in the manufacture of foam products. However, there is a ...
more infohttps://www.innovationtoronto.com/2012/03/cfc-substitutes-good-for-the-ozone-layer-bad-for-climate/

Chromist™ aerosol propellant | Sigma-AldrichChromist™ aerosol propellant | Sigma-Aldrich

... aerosol propellant; EC Number: 200-866-1; find Aldrich-439045 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... CFC-free aerosol propellant. The Chromist attaches to the top of a standard 38-400 bottle filled with your reagent to deliver ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/439045?lang=en®ion=US

Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual - CSPAAerosol Propellants Safety Manual - CSPA

The CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual is the basic safety manual needed by all aerosol product manufacturers and ... "Aerosol Propellants: Considerations for Effective Handling in the Aerosol Plant and Laboratory" (better known as the Aerosol ... "Aerosol Propellants: Considerations for Effective Handling in the Aerosol Plant and Laboratory" (better known as the Aerosol ... First published in 1984, the CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual contains information on propellants shipping, receiving, ...
more infohttps://www.cspa.org/product/aerosol-propellant-safety-manual/

Aerosol Propellants Market- Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2013-2019Aerosol Propellants Market- Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2013-2019

... and aerosol propellants market. The global market was valued at US$16.4 billion in 2012, and is estimatedto reach a value of US ... and future prospects of the market for aerosol, SPF, and aerosol propellants.. The aerosol, SPF, and aerosol propellants ... Hydrocarbons to Lead the Aerosol, SPF, and Aerosol Propellants Market in Coming Years : Transparency Market Research. Aerosol, ... www.transparencymarketresearch.com/aerosol-propellants-market.html. Europe is the dominant market for aerosol propellants in ...
more infohttp://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/aerosol-propellants-market/release-578441.htm

Global Aerosol propellant Market Size and Forecast up, 2024Global Aerosol propellant Market Size and Forecast up, 2024

... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market/request-sampleAdditionally, paints are estimated to go ... Global Aerosol propellant Market Size and Forecast up, 2024. Radiant Insights, Inc - Market Research And Consulting Firm - ... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market/request-sample ... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market ...
more infohttp://prsync.com/radiant-insights-inc---market-research-and-consult/global-aerosol-propellant-market-size-and-forecast-up--2547762/

Aerosol Propellants Market- Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2013-2019Aerosol Propellants Market- Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2013-2019

... and Aerosol Propellants (CFC, Hydrocarbons, DME and Others) Market for Paints, Coatings, Medical and Household Applications - ... The hazards associated with aerosol propellants and flammable and explosive properties of aerosol propellants such as propane ... Aerosol, SPF (Spray Polyurethane Foam) and Aerosol Propellants (CFC, Hydrocarbons, DME and Others) Market for Paints, Coatings ... Hydrocarbons to Lead the Aerosol, SPF, and Aerosol Propellants Market in Coming Years ...
more infohttps://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/aerosol-propellants-market.html

Aerosol Propellant Market Expected Value Up to 8.16 Billion USD by 2020 | Jan 21, 2016 - ReleaseWireAerosol Propellant Market Expected Value Up to 8.16 Billion USD by 2020 | Jan 21, 2016 - ReleaseWire

Aerosol Propellant Market by Type (DME, HFC, HFO, Other Hydrocarbons, and Others), by Application (Personal Care, Household, ... Aerosol Propellant: The global aerosol propellant market was valued at USD 5.70 Billion in 2014 and is expected to reach USD ... The aerosol propellant market in Europe accounted for the largest share of 37.22%, by volume, of the global aerosol propellant ... Aerosol Propellant Market Expected Value Up to 8.16 Billion USD by 2020. Aerosol Propellant Market report categorizes the ...
more infohttp://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/aerosol-propellant-market-expected-value-up-to-816-billion-usd-by-2020-658309.htm

Global Aerosol Propellants Market is Estimated to Reach USD 11 Billion by 2024 | Hexa Research - Express Press Release...Global Aerosol Propellants Market is Estimated to Reach USD 11 Billion by 2024 | Hexa Research - Express Press Release...

The global Aerosol Propellants Market size is projected to reach USD 11 billion by 2024. The development of high-quality ... Global Aerosol Propellant Market is expected to witness a steady growth over the forecast period on account of its high ... Growth of the Aerosol Propellants Market depends greatly on the availability of raw materials, such as crude oil and natural ... The use of aerosol propellant gases, such as carbon dioxide & nitrous oxide can increase considerably in the near future. This ...
more infohttps://express-press-release.net/news/2018/06/06/270030

Freons ( CFC´s ) - aerosol propellants, refrigerants, fire extinguishers,
  and lubricants, - Kettering and Dental CariesFreons ( CFC´s ) - aerosol propellants, refrigerants, fire extinguishers, and lubricants, - Kettering and Dental Caries

In the meantime, the aerosol propellants had also gained importance for military purposes: Excerpt from Chapter 2, "Historical ... developed a portable aerosol dispenser which used "Freon" 12 fluorocarbon as the propellant ... From July 1942, when the ... supplied over 30,000,000 aerosols to the Armed Forces. Other companies engaged in supplying aerosols for the military included ... "One of the most important developments in the aerosol field occurred during World War II. During an investigation to find a way ...
more infohttp://www.fluoride-history.de/p-freon.htm

Aerosol Propellants Market - Analysis & Forecast 2014-2020Aerosol Propellants Market - Analysis & Forecast 2014-2020

Aerosol propellants market research report by AMR provides a quantitative analysis & future scope of the market for the period ... Exhaustive analysis of the Global aerosol propellant market by type helps in understanding the types of aerosol propellant are ... Among all aerosol propellant, hydrocarbons propellants, such as propane, isobutene and n-butane have low cost, less toxicity ... The global aerosol propellants market is segmented on the basis of type, application and geography. In terms of type, the ...
more infohttps://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/aerosol-propellants-market

Global Aerosol Propellant Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of around 4% from 2016 to 2024 - Industry Report by Hexa...Global Aerosol Propellant Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of around 4% from 2016 to 2024 - Industry Report by Hexa...

Aerosol propellants are widely used in aerosol sprays that help in the compressed gas escape. ... Paint industry makes extensive aerosol propellants use especially in the spray paints manufacturing. Aerosol paints have ... Global aerosol propellant market is expected to witness a steady growth over the forecast period on account of its high ... Global Aerosol Propellant Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of around 4% from 2016 to 2024 - Industry Report by Hexa ...
more infohttp://www.abnewswire.com/pressreleases/global-aerosol-propellant-market-is-expected-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-around-4-from-2016-to-2024-industry-report-by-hexa-research_65272.html

HARP® Aerosol Propellants - The Complete Worldwide Refrigeration Service - Harp InternationalHARP® Aerosol Propellants - The Complete Worldwide Refrigeration Service - Harp International

Harp International Limited offers a range of speciality chemicals for use in the refrigeration, air conditioning, aerosol and ... HARP® Aerosol Propellants. To help our customers meet the drive towards non-chlorofluorocarbon delivery systems, global ... Both propellants are stable when used alone or with conventional aerosol solvents. ... The optimum propellant may be a custom blend ot two or more HARP® products. Please contact us for more information. ...
more infohttp://www.harpintl.com/aerosol-propellants.php

Aerosol Propellants Market Insights-Usage of metal cans to drive growthAerosol Propellants Market Insights-Usage of metal cans to drive growth

Global aerosol propellants market expected to witness enhanced adoption till 2025 as these enable contact-less product ... Aerosol Propellants Market Insights-Usage of metal cans to drive growth. Aerosol Propellants Market Insights: Increasing demand ... The demand for aerosol propellants is expected to grow in the wake of high consumption of aerosol based products. The demand ... The use of such aerosol propellant gasses leads to an increased demand for aerosol based products as they did not lead to any ...
more infohttps://www.grandviewresearch.com/research-insights/aerosol-propellants-market-insights-industry-trends-analysis

Aerosol Packaging: Propellant Storage Handling Archives - Canadian PackagingAerosol Packaging: Propellant Storage Handling Archives - Canadian Packaging

RT @WellingtonBrew: We cant get over the hustle, poise and heart of this team. Class act @Raptors! Thanks for the history-making 🍻 https://t.co/ ...
more infohttps://www.canadianpackaging.com/packaging-machinery/aerosol-packaging/aerosol-packaging-propellant-storage-handling/

Aerosol Propellants Market to Hit USD 11 Billion Worldwide by 2024 | Hexa Research | Gaya Herald		Aerosol Propellants Market to Hit USD 11 Billion Worldwide by 2024 | Hexa Research | Gaya Herald

... www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/aerosol-propellants-market/. The global Aerosol Propellants Market is categorized as ... Aerosol Propellants Market to Hit USD 11 Billion Worldwide by 2024 , Hexa Research. ... The global Aerosol Propellants Market size is projected to reach USD 11 billion by 2024. The development of high-quality ... Growth of the Aerosol Propellants Market depends greatly on the availability of raw materials, such as crude oil and natural ...
more infohttp://www.gayaherald.com/story/33786/aerosol-propellants-market-to-hit-usd-11-billion-worldwide-by-2024-hexa-research.html

Aerosol Propellants Market size to reach USD 11 billion by 2024 | Hexa Research | Florida News Reporter		Aerosol Propellants Market size to reach USD 11 billion by 2024 | Hexa Research | Florida News Reporter

Aerosol Propellants Market size to reach USD 11 billion by 2024 , Hexa Research. Print This Article Share it With Friends ... www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/aerosol-propellants-market/. In addition, widespread adoption of various aerosol-based ... Aerosol Propellants Market size to reach USD 11 billion by 2024 , Hexa Research. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ... The global Aerosol Propellants Market size is projected to reach USD 11 billion by 2024. The development of high-quality ...
more infohttp://www.floridanewsreporter.com/story/107937/aerosol-propellants-market-size-to-reach-usd-11-billion-by-2024-hexa-research.html

Grand View Research: Aerosol Propellant Market is expected to reach USD 27.09 billion by 2022Grand View Research: Aerosol Propellant Market is expected to reach USD 27.09 billion by 2022

Labels: Aerosol Propellant Market, Aerosol Propellant Market Growth, Aerosol Propellant Market Trends ... Global Aerosol Propellant Market demand was 9,521.5 kilo tons in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.5% from 2015 to ... The global Aerosol Propellant Market is expected to reach USD 27.09 billion by 2022, according to a new report by Grand View ... Demand for aerosol propellants in household products accounted for over 30% of global volume in 2014 and is anticipated to ...
more infohttps://grandviewresearchinc.blogspot.com/2016/03/aerosol-propellant-market-is-expected.html

EP 0755245 B1 20010530 - PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL...EP 0755245 B1 20010530 - PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL...

... for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.[ ... for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant. ... PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL PROPELLANTS - [origin: ... PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL PROPELLANTS ...
more infohttps://data.epo.org/gpi/EP0755245B1-PROCESS-AND-APPARATUS-FOR-THE-CONTINUOUS-MILLING-OF-AEROSOL-PHARMACEUTICAL-FORMULATIONS-IN-AEROSOL-PROPELLANTS

Propellant and Product - How Aerosol Cans Work | HowStuffWorksPropellant and Product - How Aerosol Cans Work | HowStuffWorks

An aerosol can contains one fluid that boils well below room temperature (called the propellant) and one that boils at a much ... The plastic head on an aerosol can pushes down on a small valve, allowing the pressurized contents of the can to flow to the ... In most aerosol cans, the bottom curves inward. This serves two functions:. *The shape strengthens the structure of the can. If ... The high-pressure propellant gas drives the liquid product up the plastic tube and out through the nozzle. The narrow nozzle ...
more infohttps://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/everyday-innovations/aerosol-can2.htm

Aerosol Propellant Market Is Anticipated To Witness Substantial Growth Owing To Increasing Technological Developments Till 2025...Aerosol Propellant Market Is Anticipated To Witness Substantial Growth Owing To Increasing Technological Developments Till 2025...

Global Aerosol Propellants Market size is expected to reach USD 11.28 billion by 2025. The aerosol propellants market growth is ... www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/aerosol-propellants-market. Global aerosol propellant market, by application, 2014 ... Global Aerosol Propellants Market size is expected to reach USD 11.28 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View ... The pricing of aerosol propellants is dependent on the price of natural gas and crude oil that act as raw materials for the ...
more infohttp://www.usfinancialnewstoday.com/story/127081/aerosol-propellant-market-is-anticipated-to-witness-substantial-growth-owing-to-increasing-technological-developments-till-2025-grand-view-research-inc.html

US7040314B2 - Aerosol generating devices and methods for generating aerosols suitable for forming propellant-free aerosols 
   ...US7040314B2 - Aerosol generating devices and methods for generating aerosols suitable for forming propellant-free aerosols ...

... the liquid aerosol formulation is propellant free. An aerosol generating device generates an aerosol by passing liquid aerosol ... The aerosol generator can be incorporated in a hand held inhaler. The aerosol can be delivered to a targeted portion of the ... In some embodiments, particles of the aerosol consist essentially of the second component. ... formulation through a flow passage heated to convert the liquid into a vapor, which is mixed with air to form an aerosol. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7040314B2/en

Propellants | Cámara Argentina del AerosolPropellants | Cámara Argentina del Aerosol

Here you can find the contact information of our associate members. Our members list is sorted by category. Please select the category of your choice to get more information directly from the Members:. Select a category. All associate members. Cans. Valves. Actuators. Caps. Propellants. Valve bushings. Fillers. Marketers. Machinery. Essences. Specialized consulting. Others. ...
more infohttp://www.cadea.org.ar/asociados/propelentes/?lang=en

Importance of Propellants and Excipients in Pharmaceutical Topical Aerosol | Bentham ScienceImportance of Propellants and Excipients in Pharmaceutical Topical Aerosol | Bentham Science

Importance of Propellants and Excipients in Pharmaceutical Topical Aerosol. Author(s): Maunab Patra*, Abbess Healthcare OPC Pvt ... Keywords:Excipients, pharmaceutical aerosol, propellants, skin, solvents, topical drug delivery system.. Abstract:Skin is the ... So, pharmaceutical aerosols came to existence to meet patient compliance. Many variations in excipients with respect to ... Conclusion: Presently, aerosol drug delivery system has become beneficial as far as faster pharmacological action and economy ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/150772/article

Aerosol Cans Market by Material,Product Type,Propellant Type,End User and Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarketsAerosol Cans Market by Material,Product Type,Propellant Type,End User and Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarkets

Propellant Type (Liquefied Gas, and Compressed Gas), End-use Sector, and Region ... 173 Pages Report] Aerosol Cans Market categorizes the global market by Material (Aluminium, Steel, and Plastic), Product Type ( ... Table 5 Aerosol Cans Market Size, By Propellant Type, 2014 2021 (USD Million). Table 6 Aerosol Can Market Size, By Propellant ... 8.2 Compressed gas propellant 8.3 Liquefied gas propellant 9 Aerosol cans Market, by End-use Sector, 2014 2021(Value & Volume) ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/aerosol-cans-market-48885732.html
  • This 2016 4th Edition includes the latest thinking in aerosol propellant safety and includes references and explanations of all the relevant standards that have been created or updated since the Third Edition published in 2010. (cspa.org)
  • The overall market size in 2015 was approximately 10 million tons and the industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 4% from 2016 to 2024.However, environmental and health hazards linked with the use of propellants in aerosol products could inhibit growth. (abnewswire.com)
  • However, EPA has imposed conditional restrictions on the manufacturing and usage of various aerosol propellants including hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCF), Dimethyl Ether (DME) due to their adverse effect on health and environment. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Breakup of the volatile propellant into droplets, followed by rapid evaporation of these droplets, results in the generation of an aerosol consisting of micrometer-sized medication particles that are then inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paints and coatings,and healthcare are opportunity-rich markets for aerosol, SPF, and aerosol propellants. (sbwire.com)
  • Paint industry makes extensive aerosol propellants use especially in the spray paints manufacturing. (abnewswire.com)
  • Aerosol paints have industrial, commercial and household uses. (abnewswire.com)
  • Wall graffiti is done using aerosol paints. (abnewswire.com)
  • Many variations in excipients with respect to compatibility to drugs, stability and economy are being used to improve the aerosol system of drug delivery. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The present review deals with the excipients and constituents used in a pharmaceutical aerosol system as per target delivery. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Other than the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the pharmacological action of the aerosol system is also dependent on the excipients used as they help the API to penetrate through the skin as fast as possible. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Maunab Patra*, Sibasis Bhattacharya and Meenakshi Patnaik, "Importance of Propellants and Excipients in Pharmaceutical Topical Aerosol", Current Drug Delivery (2017) 14: 1106. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The formulation itself is made up of the drug, a liquefied gas propellant and, in many cases, stabilising excipients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosol propellants have wide application in the field of medicine, food & beverages, cosmetics, automotive and paint industries. (abnewswire.com)
  • The same team that so successfully fought the leaded gasoline battle of the 1920´s, Charles Franklin Kettering , director of General Motors research, Thomas Midgley , his assistant, originator of the idea to use tetraethyl lead as an antiknocking agent, and their "toxicologist" Robert Kehoe , created another, not less important issue in the 1930´s: fluorocarbons used as refrigerants, propellants and fire extinguishers. (fluoride-history.de)
  • The present invention relates to aerosol personal cleansing compositions which provide improved moisturization of the skin. (google.com)
  • The aerosol personal cleansing compositions of the present invention contain a lipophilic skin moisturizing agent, a surfactant, a stabilizer, water, and a hydrocarbon propellant with a low vapor pressure. (google.com)
  • CSPA's " Aerosol Propellants: Considerations for Effective Handling in the Aerosol Plant and Laboratory " (better known as the Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual) is the basic safety manual needed by all aerosol product manufacturers and laboratories. (cspa.org)
  • They manufacture and supply propellants to the personal care and homecare product manufacturing companies, such as Unilever, Reckitt Benckiser, and other personal care & homecare product manufacturing companies. (sbwire.com)
  • An aerosol can contains one fluid that boils well below room temperature (called the propellant ) and one that boils at a much higher temperature (called the product ). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The high-pressure propellant gas drives the liquid product up the plastic tube and out through the nozzle. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The low vapor pressure propellant also gives the product the appearance of a lotion product. (google.com)
  • Various environmental organizations are also facilitating the adoption of some eco-friendly aerosol propellants. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The pricing of aerosol propellants is dependent on the price of natural gas and crude oil that act as raw materials for the extraction of the propellants. (usfinancialnewstoday.com)
  • Also, major propellant manufacturers are based in Europe, such as Akzo Nobel N.V. (The Netherlands), Arkema Group (France), Royal Dutch Shell (The Netherlands), and others. (sbwire.com)