Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedChlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Nobel PrizeDeodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)HydrocarbonsGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Inventors: Persons or entities that introduce a novel composition, device, or process, as well as improvements thereof.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Ethyl EthersNitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.ButanonesButanesPropanePetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dictionaries, ChemicalAgrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Pharmacokinetics of chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate. (1/62)

AIMS: To compare the pharmacokinetic profile of Beclazone (beclomethasone dipropionate) in its chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based and CFC-free formulations. METHODS: Ten healthy adults received a single 1,000 microg nominal dose (ex-valve) of beclomethasone dipropionate from a CFC inhaler (BEC-CFC) or from a CFC-free inhaler containing hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-134a (BEC-HFA) in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study. Blood samples were collected predose and over 12 h after inhalation. Comparisons were made of maximum plasma concentration of beclomethasone 17-monopropionate (17-BMP) (Cmax), and area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC). RESULTS: The tmax was significantly (P<0.05) earlier with BEC-HFA and plasma levels were significantly higher following administration of BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. Geometric mean values for AUC were 1.5 fold greater (90% CI 1.3-1.9) and for Cmax were 1.9 fold greater (90% CI 1.6-2.6) following BEC-HFA than BEC-CFC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data in healthy volunteers would not be consistent with the manufacturers' recommendation for a microgram equivalent (1:1) nominal dose switch between these HFA and CFC formulations. Further well designed trials are required in asthmatic patients to properly define their respective dose-response relationships for antiasthmatic and systemic adverse effects.  (+info)

Comparison of the safety of drug delivery via HFA- and CFC-metered dose inhalers in CAO. (2/62)

The objective of this study was to compare the long-term safety of a fixed combination of fenoterol hydrobromide (50 microg) and ipratropium bromide (20 microg) delivered using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) formulated with a non-chlorinated propellant, hydrofluoroalkanel34a (HFA-MDI), with delivery using the conventional chlorofluorocarbon propellant (CFC-MDI, Berodual/Bronchodual). The study was designed according to Safety Assessment of Marketed Medicines (SAMM) guidelines, to reflect as far as possible the use of MDls under normal prescribing conditions. Two thousand and twenty-seven patients with chronic airways obstruction (CAO) were enrolled from 99 centres in France, 95 centres in Germany and 24 centres in Italy. Following a 2-week run-in period, patients were randomized on a 2:1 basis (1,348 patients to HFA-MDI, 679 patients to CFC-MDI) to receive a flexible dose regimen of the combination (2 puffs, 2-4 times a day, as prescribed by the investigator) during a 12-week open label phase. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between both groups. In addition, the incidence of respiratory side effects was also similar, with CAO exacerbations or bronchitis the most frequently recorded events. The safety profile of the HFA formulation was comparable to those of the marketed CFC-MDIs used in Germany and France/Italy. No clinically significant differences were detected between HFA134a or CFC driven inhalers on the switch from CFC- to HFA-MDI (2 weeks before randomisation versus 2 weeks after randomization). There was a trend for taste complaints to be reported more frequently by patients in the HFA-MDI group (0.7% before randomization versus 3.4% after randomization). This, however, was an expected finding as the HFA134a formulation does have a different taste to the CFC formulation. No difference between formulations was observed in the incidences of coughing or paradoxical bronchospasm. The incidence of falls in FEV1 >15% within 15 min following inhalation at each of the clinic visits was 1.2% for both CFC- and HFA-MDIs. In conclusion, administration of a fenoterol/ipratropium bromide combination via hydrofluoroalkane-metered dose inhaler is as safe as delivery by the currently available chlorofluorocarbon-metered dose inhaler, in an extended population of patients with CAO under normal prescribing conditions.  (+info)

Fenoterol hydrobromide delivered via HFA-MDI or CFC-MDI in patients with asthma: a safety and efficacy comparison. (3/62)

The main objective of the study was to compare the long-term safety and tolerability of fenoterol hydrobromide delivered using a metered-dose inhaler formulated with the alternative propellant, hydrofluoroalkane 134a (HFA-MDI), with delivery using the currently available chlorofluorocarbon MDI (CFC-MDI; Berotec 100). A further objective was to compare the efficacy of fenoterol HFA-MDI with fenoterol CFC-MDI, using the pulmonary function parameters of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Following a 2-week run-in phase, a 12-week, double-blind parallel group comparison was undertaken in 290 patients randomized on a 2:1 basis to two puffs of 100 microg fenoterol four times a day (HFA-MDI=197 patients; CFC-MDI=93 patients). A total of 236 patients in this multi-centre study completed the trial as planned. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both groups (29.9% of HFA-MDI patients and 28% of CFC-MDI patients). Reports of respiratory disorder AEs were also comparable (21.8% HFA-MDI; 22.6% CFCMDI). End of study laboratory tests, ECG, pulse, blood pressure and physical examination showed no significant differences from pre-study baselines in either group and both treatments appeared to be well tolerated. Pre-dose FEV1 measurements taken at the three clinic visits were constant and increase in FEV1 at 5 and 30 min post-dose demonstrated equivalent efficacy for the two formulations. No difference between the two groups was observed in PEF or in the use of rescue medication. We conclude from these findings that the long-term safety and efficacy profile of fenoterol HFA-MDI is comparable to that of the fenoterol CFC-MDI.  (+info)

Delivery of fenoterol via Respimat, a novel 'soft mist' inhaler. a randomised, double-blind (within device), placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging study in asthmatic patients. (4/62)

BACKGROUND: The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has prompted the development of alternative propellants and the design of propellant-free devices for inhalation therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the dose of fenoterol inhaled from Respimat (RMT), a new propellant-free soft mist inhaler, which is equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety to 1 puff of either 100 or 200 microg fenoterol inhaled from a conventional CFC-MDI (Berotec). METHODS: Sixty-two asthmatic patients (35 male, 27 female) with a mean baseline FEV(1) of 1.7 liters, corresponding to 55% of the predicted normal value, were randomized at two study centers to 4 of a total of 8 possible treatments: placebo; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg fenoterol via RMT, and 100 or 200 microg fenoterol delivered via the MDI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients completed the study as planned. Results of the therapeutic equivalence test for the primary endpoint, average FEV(1) (AUC(0-6))/6 and for the secondary endpoint, peak FEV(1), showed that the 12.5- and 25-microg fenoterol doses administered via RMT were equivalent to the 100 microg fenoterol dose from the MDI. The 50-, 100- and 200-microg fenoterol doses delivered by RMT did not meet the criterion for therapeutic equivalence with the 100-microg dose from the MDI, and if tested for a difference would have been significantly different in favor of RMT. All 5 RMT fenoterol doses were therapeutically equivalent to the MDI 200-microg fenoterol dose. Headache, reported by 4 patients on test days and 2 patients between test days in those randomized to RMT, was the most common adverse event, but the active treatments were generally well tolerated with no dose-dependent increases in incidence or severity of adverse events observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study suggest that safe and efficacious bronchodilation can be obtained from single-dose fenoterol administered via RMT. Use of lower absolute doses to obtain a clinically significant improvement in pulmonary function may be possible because of the increased lung deposition achievable with the novel soft mist inhaler.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosol therapy with pressurised metered-dose inhalers through plastic spacers. (5/62)

AIM: The main objective of this study was to compare the in vitro delivery of salbutamol from a chlorofluorocarbon(CFC)-propelled pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus a newly developed hydrofluoroalkane(HFA)-propelled pMDI through various spacers. In addition, we aimed to study the effect on bronchodilator response when using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination for aerosol delivery compared to a suboptimal combination. METHODS: Particle size distribution and output from salbutamol pMDIs containing either CFC propellants (Ventolin) or HFA propellants (Airomir) were measured using a multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) and compared to that through both detergent-coated (non-static) or untreated (static) large volume (Nebuhaler, Volumatic) and small volume (Aerochamber) plastic spacers. Flow-volume curves (FEV1) were obtained from twelve asthmatic children with known significant bronchodilator response (8 males), aged 13-17 years, randomly inhaling salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer (Nebuhaler) and from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (Nebuhaler). RESULTS: In vitro output of particles in the respirable range (< 6.8 microns) from HFA-pMDIs was significantly higher than that from CFC-pMDIs using various spacers. Removal of electrostatic charge increased output from CFC- and HFA-pMDIs through all spacers by 17-82%. The mean (SD) bronchodilator response after inhalation of salbutamol from a CFC-pMDI through a static spacer was 7.1% (6.3%) compared to 17.5% (7.9%) after inhalation from an HFA-pMDI through a non-static spacer (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a newly developed HFA-propelled pMDI greatly improves drug delivery through spacers compared to a CFC-propelled pMDI. However, electrostatic charge in plastic spacers remains the key determinant limiting delivery of salbutamol from a pMDI through spacers, and can be reduced by soaking the spacer in a household detergent. Using an optimal pMDI/spacer combination leads to a significantly improved bronchodilator response.  (+info)

Bedside tracer gas technique accurately predicts outcome in aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax. (6/62)

BACKGROUND: There is no technique in general use that reliably predicts the outcome of manual aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax. We have hypothesised that the absence of a pleural leak at the time of aspiration will identify a group of patients in whom immediate discharge is unlikely to be complicated by early lung re-collapse and have tested this hypothesis by using a simple bedside tracer gas technique. METHODS: Eighty four episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and 35 episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax were studied prospectively. Patients breathed air containing a tracer (propellant gas from a pressurised metered dose inhaler) while the pneumothorax was aspirated percutaneously. Tracer gas in the aspirate was detected at the bedside using a portable flame ioniser and episodes were categorised as tracer gas positive (>1 part per million of tracer gas) or negative. The presence of tracer gas was taken to imply a persistent pleural leak. Failure of manual aspiration and the need for a further intervention was based on chest radiographic appearances showing either failure of the lung to re-expand or re-collapse following initial re-expansion. RESULTS: A negative tracer gas test alone implied that manual aspiration would be successful in the treatment of 93% of episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (p<0.001) and in 86% of episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (p=0.01). A positive test implied that manual aspiration would either fail to re-expand the lung or that early re-collapse would occur despite initial re-expansion in 66% of episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and 71% of episodes of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. Lung re-inflation on the chest radiograph taken immediately after aspiration was a poor predictor of successful aspiration, with lung re-collapse occurring in 34% of episodes by the following day such that a further intervention was required. CONCLUSIONS: National guidelines currently recommend immediate discharge of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax based primarily on the outcome of the post-aspiration chest radiograph which we have shown to be a poor predictor of early lung re-collapse. Using a simple bedside test in combination with the post-aspiration chest radiograph, we can predict with high accuracy the success of aspiration in achieving sustained lung re-inflation, thereby identifying patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax who can be safely and immediately discharged home and those who should be observed overnight because of a significant risk of re-collapse, with an estimated re-admission rate of 1%.  (+info)

Exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons in the indoor environment. (7/62)

The indoor environment has frequently been ignored as a significant source of exposure to air pollutants. To date there are a number of documented examples of levels of indoor air pollutants greatly exceeding those levels which commonly occur in the outdoor environment. Among these instances are airborne buildup of polynuclear aromatics and cadmium from cigarette smoke, lead from burning candles, and vinyl chloride from use of aerosols containing this substance as a propellant. These examples suggest that there may be additional sources of indoor air pollutants, particularly halogenated hydrocarbons from aerosol products, which have heretofore not been generally recognized as important. The present paper endeavors to review those instances where halogenated hydrocarbons in the indoor air environment may build up to concentrations of potential public health concern. These considerations may be especially relevant in future years as increasing efforts are being made to insulate buildings more efficiently as a means to conserve energy. The available data strongly suggest that halogenated hydrocarbons are an important class of air pollutants in the indoor environment and that their presence in the outdoor environment should also be carefully examined. In this regard, halogenated hydrocarbons in the outdoor environment may also contaminate indoor air spaces.  (+info)

Moving from CFC aerosol to HFA aerosol or dry powder inhalers: what do patients think? (8/62)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurised metered-dose inhalers are currently being marketed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-driven devices. It is uncertain whether these new formulations with different properties are acceptable to patients. Similarly, switching a patient to a dry powder inhaler (DPI) carries the risk of non-acceptance. METHODS: One hundred patients with obstructive airway disease on regular CFC aerosol inhaler medication underwent a standardised, structured interview. During the interview patients were asked to use a new HFA aerosol inhaler and three DPIs in random order. Patients' notions were recorded. RESULTS: Most patients (96) agreed to change from their CFC to the HFA inhaler, of those, only 12 did so with some reservation. Properties (taste, user-friendliness, design) of the HFA inhaler were rated favourably. DPIs represented an acceptable alternative to aerosol inhalers. In fact, 57 patients preferred a DPI over the HFA inhaler. Not all powder devices were equally acceptable. Replacing the CFC inhaler with patients' preferred alternative devices resulted in a more than 3-fold increase in costs. CONCLUSION: Concerns about the acceptability of reformulated CFC-free aerosol inhalers are ill founded. However, if given the choice, many patients prefer a DPI over the HFA inhaler. The transition offers an opportunity to review patients' current treatment and the proficiency of their inhaling technique. Moving to CFC-free inhalers will have revenue implications.  (+info)

Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. Aerosol Propellant: The global aerosol propellant market was valued at USD 5.70 Billion in 2014 and is expected to reach USD 8.16 Billion by 2020, at a CAGR of 6.17% from 2015 to 2020.. Europe The most dominant region in the aerosol propellant market. The aerosol propellant market in Europe accounted for the largest share of 37.22%, by volume, of the global aerosol propellant market in 2014. The European market is expected to register the largest share by 2020 owing to the increasing demand of personal care and homecare products, such as antiperspirants, hair gels, air fresheners, and other products from developing countries, such as India and China. Also, major propellant manufacturers are based in Europe, such as Akzo Nobel N.V. (The Netherlands), Arkema Group (France), Royal Dutch Shell (The Netherlands), and others. They manufacture and supply propellants to the personal care and homecare product manufacturing companies, such as ...
Recently, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change.[12] It has a global warming potential of 1300.[13] The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems.[14] California may also prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.[15] A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in Wisconsin in 2012.[16] During the time that it was active, this Wisconsin-specific ban contained loopholes. For example, it was legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the ...
Recently, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change.[12] It has a global warming potential of 1300.[13]. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems.[14] California may also prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.[15] A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in Wisconsin in 2012.[16] During the time that it was active, this Wisconsin-specific ban contained loopholes. For example, it was legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the ...
Preface xvii. 1 Solid Propellants and Their Combustion Characteristics 1. 1.1 Background of Solid Propellant Combustion, 4. 1.1.1 Definition of Solid Propellants, 4. 1.1.2 Desirable Characteristics of Solid Propellants, 4. 1.1.3 Calculation of Oxygen Balance, 5. 1.1.4 Homogeneous Propellants, 6. 1.1.4.1 Decomposition Characteristics of NC, 6. 1.1.5 Heterogeneous Propellants (or Composite Propellants), 7. 1.1.6 Major Types of Ingredients in Solid Propellants, 8. 1.1.6.1 Description of Oxidizer Ingredients, 10. 1.1.6.2 Description of Fuel Binders, 12. 1.1.6.3 Curing and Cross-Linking Agents, 14. 1.1.6.4 Aging, 15. 1.1.7 Applications of Solid Propellants, 16. 1.1.7.1 Hazard Classifications of Solid Propellants, 16. 1.1.8 Material Characterization of Propellants, 16. 1.1.8.1 Propellant Density Calculation, 16. 1.1.8.2 Propellant Mass Fraction, 17. 1.1.8.3 Viscoelastic Behavior of Solid Propellants, 17. 1.1.9 Thermal Profile in a Burning Solid Propellant, 18. 1.1.9.1 Surface and Subsurface ...
A rapid burning propellant charge for applications including igniters, launch eject motors, and gas generators for automobile air bags. The propellant charge comprises a reticulated substrate having a quantity of interconnected ligaments and a coating of solid propellant material on the ligaments. In order to provide a large amount of surface area for a fast burn time, interstices are between coated ligaments to define propellant surface area for combustion. In applications where minimum smoke is desired, the reticulated substrate is preferably composed of carbon, graphite, or a non-combustible material, and the solid propellant material is preferably a minimum smoke type.
The ballistic properties of RDX-based propellants are highly dependent on the particle size of RDX used. The effect of RDX particle size on the burning rate and pressure exponent of the gun propellant was studied. Propellant formulation containing RDX to extent of 60 per cent in the composition was processed with varying particle size of RDX. Finished propellants in heptatubular and cord geometry were evaluated for ballistic aspects by closed vessel firing in a 700 cc vessel at a loading density of 0.18 g/cc. The data obtained clearly indicate that increase in particle size of RDX increases the burning rate as well as the pressure exponent ...
The CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual is the basic safety manual needed by all aerosol product manufacturers and laboratories.
[140 Pages] Aerosol Propellant Market report categorizes the global market by Application (Medical, Household, Personal Care, and Others), by Type (HFO, Other Hydrocarbons, HFC, DME, and Others), & by Geography.
Novel spherical grain-binding, high-burning-rate propellant is a kind of compound structure propellant (called a consolidated propellant) that is prepared using...
A multiple component catalyst system for curing of energetic urethane bins for solid fuel propellants and gas generators based upon curing of glycidyl-azide polymer and isocynate curative mixtures. Void or bubble free propellant grains are obtained by employing a cure catalyst composed of a mixture of triphenyl bismuth and dibutyltin dilaurate, preferably in a respective ratio of about 10:1 by weight. The void free propellant grains have burn characteristics acceptable for missile propulsion applications.
Nitroglycerin (NG) and nitrocellulose (NC) are constituents of double-base propellants used notably for firing antitank ammunitions. Nitroglycerin was detected in soil and water samples from the unsaturated zone (pore water) at an active antitank firing position, where the presence of high nitrate (NO 3 -) concentrations suggests that natural attenuation of NG is occurring. However, concentrations alone cannot assess if NG is the source of NO3 -, nor can they determine which degradation processes are involved. To address this issue, isotopic ratios (δ15N, δ18O) were measured for NO 3 - produced from NG and NC through various controlled degradation processes and compared with ratios measured in field pore water samples. Results indicate that propellant combustion and degradation mediated by soil organic carbon produced the observed NO3 - in pore water at this site. Moreover, isotopic results are presented for NO 3 - produced through photolysis of propellant constituents, which could be a ...
This invention relates to a process for separating 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from a mixture comprising both 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane wherein
Headache, dizziness, and disorientation are common. Cerebral edema may be found on autopsy. Dichlorodifluoromethane was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits. ,br,The reproductive effects of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane were studied in rats. No adverse effects on reproductive performance was noted or on the development, maturation or reproductive performance of up to two successive generations ...
300441754 - EP 0755245 B1 2001-05-30 - PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS MILLING OF AEROSOL PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS IN AEROSOL PROPELLANTS - [origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.[origin: US5687920A] The present invention provides a process and apparatus for the continuous milling of aerosol pharmaceutical formulations which contain solids by milling in the aerosol propellant.
Press Release issued Jan 21, 2016: The report Aerosol Propellant Market by Type (DME, HFC, HFO, Other Hydrocarbons, and Others), by Application (Personal Care, Household, Medical, and Others), and by Region - Global Forecast to 2020, defines and segments the concerned market with analysis and forecast of revenue.
A one-component-foam formulation contains a propellant in a concentration range of from 5 to 35 weight-percent of total formulation weight and contains at least 50 weight-percent non-liquefied inert gases based on total propellant weight, a polyol, a silicone glycol copolymer and less than 0.01 weight-percent of a cell opener based on polyol weight. An article contains five liters or more of the one-component-foam formulation within a container compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres pressure. A method for dispensing the one-component foam formulation includes providing the article and expelling the formulation from the container through a dispensing means onto a substrate and allowing the formulation to expand into a stable polymeric foam having a density of 45 kilograms per cubic meter or less.
Apparatus for dispensing a carbonated beverage including a source of propellant gas, a reservoir for beverage to be dispensed, one or more dispensing valves connected to the reservoir, a propellant gas conduit for applying a first gaseous propellant pressure upon beverage supply vessels and for applying a second and lesser gaseous propellant pressure upon beverage in the reservoir, a beverage supply conduit for transferring beverage from a supply vessel to the reservoir and normally closed valves in the beverage supply and gas conduits, which valves are controllable by a level sensor in the reservoir; the apparatus also features structure for automatically switching from one supply vessel to another as vessels become emptied; a method of dispensing includes the steps of providing a supply of carbonated beverage, applying a first propellant pressure upon the supply, selectively transferring beverage from the supply to a reservoir, applying a second and lesser propellant pressure upon the reservoir and
The "Simple Depot" mission was proposed by NASA in 2011 as a potential first PTSD mission, with launch no earlier than 2015, on an Atlas V 551. Simple Depot would utilize the "used" (nearly-emptied) Centaur upper stage LH2 tank for long-term storage of LO2 while LH2 will be stored in the Simple Depot LH2 module, which is launched with only ambient-temperature gaseous Helium in it. The SD LH2 tank was to be 3 metres (9.8 ft) diameter and 16 metres (52 ft) long, 110 cubic metres (3,900 cu ft) in volume, and store 5 mT of LH2. "At a useful mixture ratio (MR) of 6:1 this quantity of LH2 can be paired with 25.7 mT of LO2, allowing for 0.7 mT of LH2 to be used for vapor cooling, for a total useful propellant mass of 30 mT. ... the described depot will have a boil-off rate of approaching 0.1 percent per day, consisting entirely of hydrogen."[36] In September 2010, ULA released a Depot-Based Space Transportation Architecture concept to propose propellant depots that could be used as way-stations for ...
Feb. 20, 1962 F. B. CRAMER PROCESS FOR DISPERSING SOLIDS IN POLYMERIC PROPELLENT FUEL BINDERS Filed Nov. 29, 1957 INVENTOR. FRANK B. CRAMER ATTORNEY 3,@ZZ,M9 Patented Feb. 20, 1962 3,922,149 PRLBCESS F0152 DHSPERSKNG SOlLlDS Hi PQLY- MERIC PROPELLENT FUEL BENDERS Frank B. Cramer, Reseda, Calil., assignor to North American Aviation, inc. Filed Nov. 29, 1957, Ser. No. 699,632 16 Claims. (Cl. 149-19) mately be broken down to such a point that their macro scopic composition is substantially uniform. This is a slow, time-consuming process, and it requires that the entire batch of material be folded and refolded until, from a-statistical viewpoint, it may be said that every ultimate layer of material has been broken and refolded. Another method of dispersing solids in polymeric or resin vehicles is by the use of a ball mill. In this case, the solid is ground in the presence of the vehicle which usual- 13/ comprises a plasticizer and the resin or polymer solution. Grinding is accomplished by means of ...
Propellant residues are scattered onto the soil surface when guns are fired. Here, we studied fired residues and unfired propellants from 9-mm pistols, 5.56-mm ...
this study is to compare GW815SF [salmeterol/fluticasone-propionate] HFA MDI [hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler] with concomitant treatment with salmeterol
Indpet is a top supplier of aerosol propellant for pharma sprays, pesticides, silicon spray, air-fresheners and deosprays, & customized to specific needs.
The amount of propellant is normally measured either in units of mass or weight. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to have units of speed, and so specific impulses are often measured in meters per second and are often termed effective exhaust velocity. However, if propellant weight is used, an impulse divided by a force (weight) turns out to be a unit of time, and so specific impulses are measured in seconds. These two formulations are both widely used and differ from each other by a factor of g0, the dimensioned constant of gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.. Note that the rate of change of momentum of a rocket (including its propellant) per unit time is equal to the thrust.. The higher the specific impulse, the less propellant is needed to produce a given thrust during a given time. In this regard a propellant is more efficient the greater its specific impulse. This should not be confused with energy efficiency, ...
Some years ago while dissecting what I felt to be a particularly ingenious handheld propellant sprayer in order to see how it worked, I became aware that it contained an oily residue which could be of concern if used in certain treatment applications. Only recently I became aware that paper conservators were using a similar disposable propellant canister for spray applications of deacidifying reagents on works of art. Procedural questions had also been raised about the cause of yellowing which accompanied some, but not all, methods of application of the same reagent. It quickly became clear that these canisters also possessed oil in the propellant reservoir. While the oil did not seem to have caused the observed yellowing in this particular case, conservators should consider that staining may be caused by the unknown contents of such propellant systems. Such problems are easily identified. A canister of the propellant should be completely discharged, without anything attached to the aspirator, ...
The 8 inch prevalves were normally open, pneumatically actuated, electrically controlled, butterfly-gate type valves. Supported propellant flow rates were 386 pounds of LOX per second at 132 psi; and 78 pounds of LH2 at 132 psi. A built-in four-way pneumatic control solenoid permitted 750 +/- 50 psig helium pressure to actuate the butterfly-gate (response time was 1000 milliseconds). Should a loss of pneumatic or electrical power occur, the prevalves were designed to be spring actuated to return to the open position. During ground operations, the Pre-Valve was opened to permit propellant fueling and in conjunction with the recirculation subsystem, allow the propellant to cycle through the feed lines and valves servicing the J2 engines, maintaining uniform cryogenic density and temperature, and precluding the formation of gas in propellant plumbing. Following propellant tank loading and all the way up to the point of S-IC (Saturn V first stage) separation, the Pre-Valves were commanded to remain ...
In metered-dose inhalers aerosol is generated with the aid of propellants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) or hydrofluoralkanes (HFA). They have a high dose consistency and average particle size as well as fine particle fraction are independent of the inspiratory air flow.. Mainly drugs in metered-dose inhalers are suspended within the propellant. They need to be shaken before use and generate particles with an average size of 3-5 µm. Substances insolution do not require shaking and are released from the inhaler with considerably smaller average size of about 1 µm thus being more easily deposited in the distal lung areas.. In most metered-dose inhalers aerosol inhalation has to be coordinated with dose actuation. Several studies have demonstrated that up to 70% of patients fail to complete the correct inhalation manoeuvre. This problem is overcome by breath-actuation or inhalation aids like spacers and holding chambers, which contrawise are more bulky to carry.. ...
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Hairspray came into vogue after World War II when the cosmetics industry adopted the use of aerosol spray technology developed by the Department of Agriculture for use with insect sprays during the war. This transfer of technology to the business of beauty helped make womens hair styles such as the beehive and the bouffant possible. Although the use of hairspray has declined with the popularity of more "natural" hairstyles, hairspray is commonly used by men and women today. Todays typical hairspray contains polymers (chain-like molecules) in a solvent and sometimes a propellant. After spraying, the solvent evaporates and leaves behind a stiff layer of the polymers on the hair to help keep it in place. The propellant is usually a liquefied gas under pressure that forces the hairspray out of an aerosol can and produces a mist. Sometimes the propellant is also the solvent. Due to health and environmental concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned certain propellants (e.g., ...
Work involved during the preflight preparation of spacecraft involves the handling of materials that are very toxic to humans. These toxins attack the respiratory and skin systems and, therefore, impose the requirement for full suit enclosures. The weight, structure, and operating parameters of such a suit can be expected to have a significant effect upon the metabolic and thermal responses of the user, especially in high workload situations and ambient temperature extremes.. This paper describes the testing of the operational version of the Propellant Handlers Ensemble (PHE). In particular, parameters affecting the physiology of the user were measured during a work-rest regimen performed in three temperature environments: −7, 23, and 43°C (20, 74, and 110°F). Six subjects performed tests in these environments in two versions of the PHE, the autonomous backpack version and the hoseline supplied configuration. Measurements included heart rate, four skin temperatures, rectal temperature, ...
I can visualize the magnitude of work and efforts put in this assignment from the quantum of information packed in this book. Indeed this book is going to be a very good guidebook for the professionals dealing with high energy materials and a milestone in the literature on explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics. I am sure that the wealth of information along with a large number of bibliographic references provided in this book will prove to be a goldmine for researchers working in this area. The eminent author, Dr. Jai Prakash Agrawal deserves kudos and appreciation from the entire HEMs community for his valuable contribution to the world of explosives literature." (Institute of Energetic Materials, 1 November 2010) "The work is clearly and appropriately divided into six chapters, and leads the reader through almost every aspect of high-energy materials. It is written in a way that is also understandable for readers other than chemists." (Angewandte Chemie, 2010) ...
This Phase I SBIR program will result in the availability of a high strength, closed cell titanium foam material suitable for fabricating propellant tank structures. The resulting titanium foams are predicted to have >350Mpa strengths at densitied ...
NSC 9135 - Liquid Propellant Fuels and Oxidizers, Chemical Base, including description, included items, excluded items and related part numbers and NSN starting at Page 1.
Reservoir volume in a drug delivery device is sensed by providing a capacitor, the capacitance of which varies with bellows position or, alternatively, with the amount of propellant liquid absorbed in a dielectric material. In one embodiment, a capacitance is provided between a surface of the bellows, which acts as a first capacitor plate, and a conductive surface disposed proximate the bellows, which acts as a second capacitor plate. As the bellows moves from its extended full position to its collapsed empty position, the area of overlap, and therefore the capacitance between the first and second plates varies from a maximum value to a minimum value. In another embodiment, a variable capacitor is provided with an absorbent material. The absorbent material absorbs the liquid phase of the propellant in the pump housing and acts as a dielectric between two stationary conductive plates provided in the housing. The amount of liquid propellant absorbed in the absorbent material varies with the reservoir
In May 2001, AFRL awarded a $10.4M contract to develop hydrogen peroxidebased rocket propulsion systems to Aerojet. Under this contract, Aerojet was to retire risk areas in injectors, catalyst beds, turbine materials and design and thrust chamber design, paving the way for a highly operable reusable rocket engine using non-toxic propellants. The contract with additional options is expected to earn Aerojet up to $29.9 million over the next four years. The Advanced Reusable Rocket Engine (ARRE) program represented a dramatic stepping stone for Aerojets reusable rocket engine technologies - as well as the aerospace industry as a whole. This program was to advance state-of-the-art peroxide engine technologies 30 years by maintaining storable rocket engine performance with environmentally friendly propellants. Aerojet is tasked to develop an Advanced Reusable Rocket Engine that utilizes non-toxic, hydrogen peroxide as a propellant. The technology Aerojet proposed for the SMV engine significantly ...
United States Patent 3,770,787 VINYL FERROCENE BUTADIENE COPGLTMER BURNING RATE CATALYST Jimmy D. Burnett, Arab, Ala, assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army No Drawing. Original application Sept. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 858,896. Divided and this application .luly 19, 1971, Ser. No. 164,143 lint. Cl. (307i 15/02 US. Cl. 260-439 CY 3 Claims ABSTRACT UP THE DISCLOSURE Copolymers of vinyl ferrocene and butadiene are disclosed along with the procedure for preparation. The copolymers are useful as a burning rate catalyst and provide a means for introducing and maintaining a high catalyst concentration in solid propellants inasmuch as the copolymer containing the iron catalyst is capable of serving as the binder replacing part of the normally used binders in solid propellants. Also disclosed is a typical solid propellant composition utilizing the copolymers of this invention as a binder replacement and burning rate catalyst. This application is a division of ...
The objectives of this study are to measure Impulse Oscillometry (IOS) in patients with asthma extensively at baseline in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, treated with as-needed short acting beta agonist only, to measure respiratory resistance and small airway dysfunction accurately and precisely at baseline, from which to measure onset of action of Advair MDI in comparison with that of Symbicort MDI. Initial screening will assess IOS resistance and small airway dysfunction and its response to short acting beta agonist (SABA). Patients will be selected from among those who manifest a 40% improvement in small airway function assessed by IOS low frequency reactance after SABA compared to baseline. After screening, patients will be randomized to receive either Advair or Symbicort; and will be assessed at randomization before and at several intervals after initial dosing, up to 4 hours. Patients will return again 4 weeks after randomization for extended IOS (and spirometry) testing as done at ...
Air Freshener details: Air Wick is a 100% Natural propellant for cleaner fragrance. Unlike traditional aerosols that release chemical propellants with
... (CO2) is a colorless, odorless and nonflammable gas heavier than air. It is classified as one of the major air pollutants when it exceeds its naturally-occurring concentration. There are a number of processes for its production including combustion, fermentation and heating of organic matter. Its main use is in the food and beverage industry, although it is also used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishing equipment, as a pressure source, aerosol propellant, and also in welding and some metallurgical processes. Below are some of its major physical characteristics: ...
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms. . ...
A pressurized dispensing device contains a fluid product, either a dry powder or a liquid, to be dispensed and a reservoir containing a propellant sorbed by a sorbent material, the reservoir having a vapor-permeable wall to permit propellant gas to pass through and pressurize the headspace of the device.
Red iron oxide is used as a catalyst in composite and whistling rocket propellant and Candy rocket propellant formulations. It is also added to some glitter formulations and used for thermite, a mixture that produces enormous amounts of heat, forming molten iron. Due to its catalytic properties it is also added to primes, and even coloured star compositions to increase their ignitability and burn rate.. ...
The next major phase of development worth mentioning in modern rocket technology happened in Germany. Wernher Von Braun, while pursuing his doctorate at Berlin Technical University was granted funds to experiment on liquid fuel propellant rockets by the Nazi party which had come to power. Nazi party was at the time looking to invest in any new technology that could be weaponised in the anticipation of the impending war. By the end of 1934, Von Braun was able to successfully test couple of small liquid propellant rockets. The year 1941 saw the German scientists possessing all the four key technologies namely large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance and rudders in jet control essential to the success of rockets. After the conclusion of development work in 1943, Hitler ordered the V-2 rockets to be deployed in the year 1944 against the allied nations. Cities like London and Antwerp bear the brunt of the damage from the V-2 rockets. It is estimated that roughly ...
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[http://www.pgcpl.com]Welcome to Parag Gases & Chemicals Private Limited Manufacturer, Trader & Supplier of Industrial Gases, Chemicals and LubricantsThe company was established in the year 1989. Our well equipped manufacturing facilities, qualified experts & sophisticated infrastructure are some of
A method and apparatus are provided for delivering lunar generated fluid to Earth orbit from lunar orbit. Transport takes place in an external tank of a shuttle which has been suitably outfitted in Earth orbit for reusable travel between Earth orbit and a lunar orbit. The outfitting of the external tank includes the adding of an engine, an electrical system, a communication system, a guidance system, an aerobraking device, and a plurality of interconnected fluid storage tanks to the hydrogen and oxygen tanks of the external tank. The external tank is then propelled to lunar orbit the first time using Earth based propellant. In lunar orbit, the storage tanks are filled with the lunar generated fluid with the remainder tank volumes filled with lunar generated liquid oxygen and hydrogen which serve as propellants for returning the tank to Earth orbit where the fluid is off-loaded. The remaining lunar generated oxygen and hydrogen is then sufficient to return the external tank to lunar orbit so that ...
This new more powerful configuration, identified as the LV 51.00.48 is now able to put 71.1 mT through TLI. While this configuration still can not reach its targets, this is a clear improvement towards closing the performance requirements NASA has for the Lunar architecture.. Each new reusable 5.5 segment SRB, will contain over 1.5 million pounds of propellant which will produce a peak of 3,774,000 million lbs of thrust and will have a vacuum Isp of 275.5 seconds. The 38 percent larger SRBs will burn for 116 seconds - a full 8 seconds shorter burn time than Space Shuttle - before being jettisoned.. They feature a new 333-07 Trace PBAN solid propellant mix derived from that currently used by the Shuttle, although there is still the option to go to a new HTPB mix if the trade studies are favorable.. To accommodate the new lengthened boosters, the Liquid Hydrogen Tank on the Core Stage has been stretched by 190.3". Together with a proportional stretch to the Liquid Oxygen Tank this growth puts ...
Due to the all-time high fuel costs, our inbound and outbound freight is costing us twice as much as it did a year ago. UPS is currently charging us $1.75 per box in addition to their listed rates as a fuel surcharge. Although UPS has been charging these additional fees, we have not passed them on to you, nor have we been charging a fuel surcharge to each order to pay the additional costs of our inbound freight. Because our overall pricing is already lower than the competition, we can no longer absorb these fees and we can no longer give the additional volume discounts that Firefox alone has been giving to club members and on volume orders. It makes no sense to give a discount, then charge it back to cover the fuel surcharges that everyone is now charging additionally. Be of good cheer, these ridiculous fuel costs are bound to come down sooner or later, right? In the meantime, we are still lower on our prices overall and we still give our normal volume discounts on items throughout the ...
Materials MASINT [r]: A discipline involving the measurement of signatures from the collection, processing, and analysis of gas, liquid, or solid samples; it complements technical intelligence: a technical intelligence analyst would work with a captured example of the weapon, or at least pieces of it, to come to that understanding of the propellant, while an analyst of this technique would infer the propellant through analysis of the exhaust [e] ...
applied to the catalyst, superconducting materials, thermoelectric materials, sensing materials, glass, ceramics and other fields. In addition, the nano-copper oxide can be used as rocket propellant combustion catalyst. It not only can significantly improve the homogeneous propellant burning rate, lower ...
Has anyone read an article in Journal of Military History (62, Jan 1998) by Nicholas Lambert entitled Our Bloody Ships or Our Bloody Sytem? Jutland and the loss of the Battlecruisers I mention it as I remembered it has a number of things to say about the propellant. Having re-read the article, what it says is a little different to what I remember but worth mentioning all the same. Briefly and amongst a number of other points, t appears that pre-war the ammunition allocation per gun was increased. This was ok for shells as the shell room had the capacity but the magazine was short of space so propellant cases were stowed on the floor in magazine gangways. This coupled with the BCF ethic of rate of fire over accuracy resulted in a dangerously overprovisioned supply chain between magazine and gun. There is much more besides this in the article including Jellicoe suppressing a report by rear Admiral Tudor (3rd sea Lord) essentially to the effect that this was the cause of the losses. It was ...
"Aerosol Propellant , Aerosol Propellant Gas , Aerosol Supplies Dubai - Brothers Gas". www.brothersgas.com. Archived from the ... It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage ...
One of the most crucial components of a MDI is its propellant. The propellant provides the force to generate the aerosol cloud ... Propellants in MDIs typically make up more than 99% of the delivered dose, so it is the properties of the propellant that ... Leach, C L (1995). "Approaches and Challenges to Use Freon Propellant Replacements". Aerosol Science and Technology. 22 (4): ... Noakes, T (2002). "Medical Aerosol Propellants". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 118 (1-2): 35-45. doi:10.1016/S0022-1139(02) ...
... aerosol propellants, 2%; food freezant, 1%; other, 8%; exports, 3%. 1,2-Difluoroethane is toxic when inhaled or when it comes ...
An aerosol spray propellant. A potential renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines with a cetane rating as high as 56-57. ...
Both are used as propellants in aerosol sprays. From pentane to octane the alkanes are highly volatile liquids. They are used ...
To distribute their insecticide, foggers also contain aerosol propellants. During 2001-2006, a total of 466 fogger-related ...
It is distributed in liquid and aerosol forms. The aerosol uses butane or propane as a propellant. It advertises it has no ...
Aerosol propellants are liquids with very low boiling points. When under pressure inside the can, the propellant is in liquid ... A key component in Silly String is its aerosol spray can and the propellant that ejects the product mixture from the can. The ... The aerosol propellant represents the bulk of the product. Solubility of the resin and other materials in the product is ... The use of aerosol string products has been banned in several places for various reasons, including cleanup and removal costs ...
... and make almost ideal aerosol propellants. However, when research concluded that CFCs cause destruction of stratospheric ozone ... It sprays evenly over the hair using a pump or aerosol spray nozzle. The product may leave hair feeling 'crunchy' unless ...
Information on the aerosol propellant controversy ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride CDC - NIOSH ... Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant. Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic ...
Hairspray is an aerosol product containing many harmful chemical compounds. Because of its aerosol application, hair spray is ... Hair sprays typically consist of several components for the hair as well as a propellant. Hair sprays consist of the following ... In the US, the first to package it was Chase products (an aerosol manufacturer) in 1948, as the beauty industry saw that the ... In the US, hair sprays were developed around the time of the aerosol can in the 1940s, and the first patents describing ...
... is also used as a propellant in aerosol products. Such products include hair spray, bug spray and some aerosol ... The simplest ether, it is a colorless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds and an aerosol propellant that ...
2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Nick Baumann (July-August 2011). "Why You're ... In MDIs, medication is typically stored in solution in a pressurized canister that contains a propellant, although it may also ... On activation, the metered-dose inhaler releases a fixed dose of medication in aerosol form. The correct procedure for using an ... Nebulizers - supply the medication as an aerosol created from an aqueous formulation. Nasal inhalers contain decongestant drugs ...
Nitrous oxide is used as a propellant in aerosol whip cream cans. Large densities of N2O are dissolved in cream at high ...
The biggest cause of these sources is the usage of ozone depleting substances; such as refrigerants, aerosol, propellants, foam ...
Image of the Norway Postage stamp Highlights of The Aerosol (Fédération Européenne des Aerosols). ... The can could dispense different fluids using a chemical propellant. The Norwegian patent was granted in June 1929. He filed ... He is best known for invention of the first aerosol spray can and valve that could hold and dispense fluids. Erik Rotheim was ... In 1949, Robert Abplanalp files the first aerosol valve patent which was issued by the United States Patent and Trademark ...
... and as a propellant in aerosol sprays. When used as a refrigerant or a propellant, isobutane is also known as R-600a. Some ... Isobutane is also used as a propellant for aerosol cans and foam products. Isobutane is used as part of blended fuels, ...
... propellants in aerosol cans, and as solvents. The entry of CFCs into the ocean makes them extremely useful as transient tracers ... propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. Because CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, the ... but also have uses in fire-fighting and as propellants in aerosol cans. Bromomethane is widely used as a fumigant. ... In 1978 the United States banned the use of CFCs such as Freon in aerosol cans, the beginning of a long series of regulatory ...
Regulations for aerosol packages need to be observed. Sprays with greenhouse relevant propellants such as R134a (1,1,1,2- ... The SHU is a measurement of the base resin compound and not what comes out in the aerosol. The rated irritant effect of the ... It is classified as a Category 6 Weapon in French law and if the aerosol contains more than 100ml, it is classed as an ... An emulsifier such as propylene glycol is used to suspend OC in water, and pressurized to make it aerosol in pepper spray. High ...
... is used as a propellant for many household aerosol sprays, including shaving creams and air fresheners. Propane is a ... Propane is used as a propellant, relying on the expansion of the gas to fire the projectile. It does not ignite the gas. The ...
Like most household cleaning aerosols, the propellant is a blend of propane and isobutane. Because the product required ... The original product - an aerosol oven cleaner - was developed at Drackett in 1986.[citation needed] The Mr Muscle product ...
It is also used as a propellant for aerosol sprays and in gas duster products. As an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons, it has ... The low cost, easy availability, and packaging of dusting sprays in a valved aerosol can encourage impulsive use. The practice ... When inverted to spray liquid, the boiling fluorocarbon aerosol is easily ignitable, producing a very large blast of flame and ... and many consumer aerosol products, especially those subject to stringent VOC requirements. ...
... also propellant Specific kinds of packaging gases are aerosol propellants. These process and assist the ejection of the product ... used for aerosol whipped cream canisters (see Nitrous oxide: Aerosol propellant) octafluorocyclobutane (E946) These must be ... Some may also serve as a propellant for aerosol sprays like cans of whipped cream. For packaging food, the use of various gases ... argon (E938), used for canned products helium (E939), used for canned products nitrogen (E941), also propellant carbon dioxide ...
... moderately toxic gases or liquids which have typically been used as refrigerants and as aerosol propellants. These include the ... They are no longer used in aerosols, but to date no suitable, general use alternatives to the halocarbons have been found for ...
Propane and isobutane blends are used as propellants for household cleaners. Aerosol furniture polishes apply a thin layer of ... butane and iso-butane as propellant gases for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking ...
The biggest cause of these sources is the usage of ozone depleting substances; such as refrigerants, aerosol, propellants, foam ...
... aerosol propellant; EC Number: 200-866-1; find Aldrich-439045 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... CFC-free aerosol propellant. The Chromist attaches to the top of a standard 38-400 bottle filled with your reagent to deliver ...
An aerosol can contains one fluid that boils well below room temperature (called the propellant) and one that boils at a much ... The plastic head on an aerosol can pushes down on a small valve, allowing the pressurized contents of the can to flow to the ... In most aerosol cans, the bottom curves inward. This serves two functions:. *The shape strengthens the structure of the can. If ... The high-pressure propellant gas drives the liquid product up the plastic tube and out through the nozzle. The narrow nozzle ...
Find the market report of quickest-growing Aerosol Propellants market with in-detailed market analysis, data insights and ... North America Aerosol Propellants Market Size and Forecast, By Country. 6.2.1. The U.S. Aerosol Propellants Market. 6.2.1.1. ... MEA Aerosol Propellants Market Size and Forecast, By Application. 11. Leading Companies in the Aerosol Propellants Market 11.1 ... Asia Pacific Aerosol Propellants Market Size and Forecast, By Country. 9.2.1. Japan Aerosol Propellants Market. 9.2.1.1. Market ...
Aerosol Propellant: The global aerosol propellant market was valued at USD 5.70 Billion in 2014 and is expected to reach USD ... The aerosol propellant market in Europe accounted for the largest share of 37.22%, by volume, of the global aerosol propellant ... It accounted for a share of 63.88% of the global aerosol propellant market in 2014. Other hydrocarbon propellants are easy to ... Browse more than 78 market data tables with 57 figures spread through 140 pages and in-depth TOC on "Aerosol Propellant Market ...
... and aerosol propellants market. The global market was valued at US$16.4 billion in 2012, and is estimatedto reach a value of US ... and future prospects of the market for aerosol, SPF, and aerosol propellants.. The aerosol, SPF, and aerosol propellants ... Hydrocarbons to Lead the Aerosol, SPF, and Aerosol Propellants Market in Coming Years : Transparency Market Research. Aerosol, ... www.transparencymarketresearch.com/aerosol-propellants-market.html. Europe is the dominant market for aerosol propellants in ...
The CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual is the basic safety manual needed by all aerosol product manufacturers and ... "Aerosol Propellants: Considerations for Effective Handling in the Aerosol Plant and Laboratory" (better known as the Aerosol ... "Aerosol Propellants: Considerations for Effective Handling in the Aerosol Plant and Laboratory" (better known as the Aerosol ... First published in 1984, the CSPA Aerosol Propellants Safety Manual contains information on propellants shipping, receiving, ...
Cambridge engineers investigate propellant-free aerosols. By Kate Cummins 6th June 2011 12:00 am 17th December 2015 12:51 pm ... Conventional aerosol cans contain both a propellant and any number of products such as a deodorant or insect repellent. When a ... Many types of propellant have been used by aerosol manufacturers over the years. These include chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), ... Our approach would enable manufacturers to produce propellant-free aerosols but in smaller, less expensive packaging. And ...
Aerosol Propellant Market report categorizes the global market by Application (Medical, Household, Personal Care, and Others), ... 6.2.2 Aerosol Propellant, By Type Segment. 6.2.3 Aerosol Propellant Manufacturers/Formulators. 6.2.4 Aerosol Propellant ... Figure 20 Aerosol Propellant, By Type. Figure 21 Aerosol Propellant, By Application. Figure 22 Aerosol Propellant, By Region. ... 4.1 Attractive Opportunities in Aerosol Propellant Market 4.2 Aerosol Propellant Market, By Applications 4.3 Aerosol Propellant ...
... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market/request-sampleAdditionally, paints are estimated to go ... Global Aerosol propellant Market Size and Forecast up, 2024. Radiant Insights, Inc - Market Research And Consulting Firm - ... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market/request-sample ... www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-aerosol-propellant-market ...
RT @WellingtonBrew: We cant get over the hustle, poise and heart of this team. Class act @Raptors! Thanks for the history-making 🍻 https://t.co/ ...
Aerosol Propellant Market by Type (DME, HFC, HFO, Other Hydrocarbons, and Others), by Application (Personal Care, Household, ... Aerosol Propellant: The global aerosol propellant market was valued at USD 5.70 Billion in 2014 and is expected to reach USD ... The aerosol propellant market in Europe accounted for the largest share of 37.22%, by volume, of the global aerosol propellant ... Aerosol Propellant Market Expected Value Up to 8.16 Billion USD by 2020. Aerosol Propellant Market report categorizes the ...
... and Aerosol Propellants (CFC, Hydrocarbons, DME and Others) Market for Paints, Coatings, Medical and Household Applications - ... The hazards associated with aerosol propellants and flammable and explosive properties of aerosol propellants such as propane ... Aerosol, SPF (Spray Polyurethane Foam) and Aerosol Propellants (CFC, Hydrocarbons, DME and Others) Market for Paints, Coatings ... Hydrocarbons to Lead the Aerosol, SPF, and Aerosol Propellants Market in Coming Years ...
... of a hydrocarbon propellant having a vapor pressure of from about 3 psig to about 15 psig. ... An aerosol personal cleansing composition comprising from about 85% to about 95% of a neat cleansing lotion comprising from ... Osaka Aerosol Industries Corporation. Aerosol composition exhibiting crackling sound using aliphatic hydrocarbon propellants ... Osaka Aerosol Industries Corporation. Aerosol composition exhibiting crackling sound using aliphatic hydrocarbon propellants ...
Aerosol Propellants Market Size by Product (DME & Methyl Ethyl Ether, Hydrocarbons, Nitrous Oxide & Carbon Dioxide), By ... Aerosol Propellants Market Size by Product (DME & Methyl Ethyl Ether, Hydrocarbons, Nitrous Oxide & Carbon Dioxide), By ... Aerosol Propellants Market Size by Product (DME & Methyl Ethyl Ether, Hydrocarbons, Nitrous Oxide & ... ...
The global Aerosol Propellants Market size is projected to reach USD 11 billion by 2024. The development of high-quality ... Global Aerosol Propellant Market is expected to witness a steady growth over the forecast period on account of its high ... Growth of the Aerosol Propellants Market depends greatly on the availability of raw materials, such as crude oil and natural ... The use of aerosol propellant gases, such as carbon dioxide & nitrous oxide can increase considerably in the near future. This ...
Some of the key Aerosol Propellants market players include Aerochem, Aeropres Corporation, Aerosol Gas Ltd., Aerosol Service ... there is increasing adoption of aerosol propellants. The adoption of some eco-friendly aerosol propellants is also facilitated ... Also, the growth of aerosol propellants is likely to be driven by the growing adoption of aerosol in cosmetics, pharmaceutical ... "The global aerosol propellants market is anticipated to surpass USD 13 billion by 2030 while growing at a lucrative CAGR of 5.4 ...
Importance of Propellants and Excipients in Pharmaceutical Topical Aerosol. Author(s): Maunab Patra*, Abbess Healthcare OPC Pvt ... Keywords:Excipients, pharmaceutical aerosol, propellants, skin, solvents, topical drug delivery system.. Abstract:Skin is the ... So, pharmaceutical aerosols came to existence to meet patient compliance. Many variations in excipients with respect to ... Conclusion: Presently, aerosol drug delivery system has become beneficial as far as faster pharmacological action and economy ...
Global Market for Aerosol Cans Projected to Grow from USD 8.74 Billion in 2015 to Reach USD 10.93 Billion by 2021, at an ... 8 Aerosol Cans Market, By Propellant Type 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Liquefied Gas Propellant 8.3 Compressed Gas Propellant 9 Aerosol ... 4.2 Aerosol Cans Market, By Propellant Type 4.3 Aerosol Cans Market, By Material Type 4.4 Aerosol Cans Market, By End-Use ... Table 5 Aerosol Cans Market Size, By Propellant Type, 2014-2021 (USD Million) Table 6 Aerosol Cans Market Size, By Propellant ...
Here you can find the contact information of our associate members. Our members list is sorted by category. Please select the category of your choice to get more information directly from the Members:. Select a category. All associate members. Cans. Valves. Actuators. Caps. Propellants. Valve bushings. Fillers. Marketers. Machinery. Essences. Specialized consulting. Others. ...
In the meantime, the aerosol propellants had also gained importance for military purposes: Excerpt from Chapter 2, "Historical ... developed a portable aerosol dispenser which used "Freon" 12 fluorocarbon as the propellant ... From July 1942, when the ... supplied over 30,000,000 aerosols to the Armed Forces. Other companies engaged in supplying aerosols for the military included ... "One of the most important developments in the aerosol field occurred during World War II. During an investigation to find a way ...
Tag Archives: propellant definition. What is a Propellant?. According to Merriam-Webster, a propellant is a gas under pressure ... Good examples of common, everyday products that use propellants are aerosol products. These inert … read more… ... Consumer Aerosol Products Council 1667 K Street NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20006. (202) 670-6501 [email protected] *facebook ... 2015 All Rights Reserved - Consumer Aerosol Products Council, In Affiliation with the Consumer Specialty Products Association ( ...
... the liquid aerosol formulation is propellant free. An aerosol generating device generates an aerosol by passing liquid aerosol ... The aerosol generator can be incorporated in a hand held inhaler. The aerosol can be delivered to a targeted portion of the ... In some embodiments, particles of the aerosol consist essentially of the second component. ... formulation through a flow passage heated to convert the liquid into a vapor, which is mixed with air to form an aerosol. ...
Aerosol Propellants Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Product (Hydrocarbon, DME, CFC), By Application (Households ... Aerosol propellants composition in shaving creams 11. Aerosol propellants composition in deodorants 12. Aerosol propellants ... Aerosol propellants composition in inhalation aerosols 7. Aerosol propellants composition in topical aerosol pharmaceutical ... Aerosol propellants composition in hard surface spray cleaner 17. Aerosol propellants- Key market driver analysis 18. Aerosol ...
Aerosol propellants are widely used in aerosol sprays that help in the compressed gas escape. ... Paint industry makes extensive aerosol propellants use especially in the spray paints manufacturing. Aerosol paints have ... Global aerosol propellant market is expected to witness a steady growth over the forecast period on account of its high ... Global Aerosol Propellant Market is Expected to Grow at a CAGR of around 4% from 2016 to 2024 - Industry Report by Hexa ...
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  • Due to the increasing demand for skin care, hair care, antiperspirants, etc. products in numerous personal care applications, there is increasing adoption of aerosol propellants. (visiongain.com)
  • Owing to the rising demand in numerous personal care applications including skincare, hair care, antiperspirants, deodorants, etc., there is an increasing adoption of aerosol propellants. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Our AeroCan° family of Micro Leak Detection Systems for filled aerosol cans offers a very economical and practical solution to achieve immediate production savings and improve safety and quality by eliminating bubble detectors and water bath operators. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This rise in market value can be attributed to the growth of the personal care and automotive industry which employs the usage of aerosol cans majorly. (openpr.com)
  • Aerosol propellants must meet strict VOC (volatile organic compound) regulations as outlined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and other government agencies. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • And unsurprisingly, air fresheners of all varieties, not just ones in aerosol cans, contain those nefarious volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a source of health woes and ground-level ozone. (mnn.com)
  • If aerosol containers are acceptable in your local recycling program, remove plastic lid and place with recyclables. (mass.gov)
  • Smoke aerosols generated from waste agricultural materials and held in containers with Salmonella-contaminated compost for 18 h significantly reduced the prevalence of the pathogen in samples compared with control samples ( P (bioportfolio.com)
  • Key participants in the global aerosol propellant market include Royal Dutch Shell Plc. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Aeropres Corporation, Bayer Material Science AG, Honeywell International Inc., Lapolla Industries Inc., National Gas Company S.A.O.G, Arkema S.A., Shanghai Cal Custom Manufacturing & Aerosol Propellants Co. Ltd., and Royal Dutch Shell plc. (heraldkeeper.com)
  • The plastic head on an aerosol can pushes down on a small valve, allowing the pressurized contents of the can to flow to the outside. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The development of Eco-Valve technology by the Spray Research Group at the University of Salford that uses environment-friendly gasses such as Nitrogen is expected to drive the demand for such propellants. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • When the container's valve is opened, the payload is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "crimp-on valve", used to control the spray in low-pressure aerosols was developed in 1949 by Bronx machine shop proprietor Robert H. Abplanalp . (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time MDIs represented a convergence of two relatively new technologies, the CFC propellant and the Meshburg metering valve which was originally designed for dispensing perfume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The empty aerosol container can then be recycled or disposed. (mass.gov)
  • And here's something to consider before you say adios to that half-empty aerosol air freshener: the improper disposal of non-empty aerosol cans is illegal in many states since the contents are considered as hazardous waste. (mnn.com)
  • This spring, purge your home of chemically enhanced aerosol cans of air freshener and consider a few sweet-smelling, low-impact alternatives. (mnn.com)
  • But if you're the type who grabs for a can of Freesia Fiesta or Melon Madness aerosol air freshener to combat the stench of last night's fish fry or this morning's wet dog, I'm here to convince you to spritz your last spritz. (mnn.com)
  • To see if such materials would produce droplets of sufficient quantity when used in conjunction with an impact aerosol technique, we conducted a series of experiments, firing jets of water at a number of different surfaces and observing the results,' said Biddle. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • At some point, the leading edge of the corona then broke up into uniformly sized droplets a valuable feature for any potential uses of the technique in an aerosol. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Early experiments showed that it was possible to create an aerosol of droplets of around 20-30μm with a waterjet pressurised to as little as 1 bar. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The same team that so successfully fought the leaded gasoline battle of the 1920´s, Charles Franklin Kettering , director of General Motors research, Thomas Midgley , his assistant, originator of the idea to use tetraethyl lead as an antiknocking agent, and their "toxicologist" Robert Kehoe , created another, not less important issue in the 1930´s: fluorocarbons used as refrigerants, propellants and fire extinguishers. (fluoride-history.de)
  • It is used to make refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and pharmaceuticals. (dictionary.com)
  • This aerosol cans market report intelligently dissects the manufacturer's competitive scenario and market share given to all major players premised on production capacity, sales, revenue, geographical presence and other key factors. (openpr.com)
  • Study of the mainstream cigarette smoke aerosols by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry coupled to laser/desorption and electrospray ionization - Additional insights on the heteroaromatic components. (bioportfolio.com)