A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is found in domestic and wild animals including birds, and fish. In humans it causes GASTROENTERITIS in young children and some adults.
A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The application of LEECHES to the body to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Such medicinal leeching, an ancient medical practice, is still being used in microsurgery and the treatment of venous congestion or occlusion.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
A centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.

Quorum sensing-dependent regulation and blockade of exoprotease production in Aeromonas hydrophila. (1/265)

In Aeromonas hydrophila, the ahyI gene encodes a protein responsible for the synthesis of the quorum sensing signal N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Inactivation of the ahyI gene on the A. hydrophila chromosome abolishes C4-HSL production. The exoprotease activity of A. hydrophila consists of both serine protease and metalloprotease activities; in the ahyI-negative strain, both are substantially reduced but can be restored by the addition of exogenous C4-HSL. In contrast, mutation of the LuxR homolog AhyR results in the loss of both exoprotease activities, which cannot be restored by exogenous C4-HSL. Furthermore, a substantial reduction in the production of exoprotease by the ahyI+ parent strain is obtained by the addition of N-acylhomoserine lactone analogs that have acyl side chains of 10, 12, or 14 carbons. The inclusion of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at 10 microM in overnight cultures of A. hydrophila abolishes exoprotease production in azocasein assays and reduces the activity of all the exoprotease species seen in zymograms.  (+info)

Kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of native and metal-substituted beta-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophila AE036. (2/265)

Two metal ion binding sites are conserved in metallo-beta-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophila. The ligands of a first zinc ion bound with picomolar dissociation constant were identified by EXAFS spectroscopy as one Cys, two His and one additional N/O donor. Sulfur-to-metal charge transfer bands are observed for all mono- and di-metal species substituted with Cu(II) or Co(II) due to ligation of the single conserved cysteine residue. Binding of a second metal ion results in non-competitive inhibition which might be explained by an alternative kinetic mechanism. A possible partition of metal ions between the two binding sites is discussed.  (+info)

Cloning, sequencing, and role in serum susceptibility of porin II from mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila. (3/265)

We cloned and sequenced the structural gene for Aeromonas hydrophila porin II from strain AH-3 (serogroup O:34). The genetic position of this gene, like that of ompF in Escherichia coli, is adjacent to aspC and transcribed in the same direction. However, upstream of the porin II gene no similarities with E. coli were found. We obtained defined insertion mutants in porin II gene either in A. hydrophila (O:34) or A. veronii sobria (serogroup O:11) serum-resistant or -sensitive strains. Furthermore, we complemented these mutants with a plasmid harboring only the porin II gene, which allowed us to define the role of porin II as an important surface molecule involved in serum susceptibility and C1q binding in these strains.  (+info)

The cytotoxic enterotoxin of Aeromonas hydrophila induces proinflammatory cytokine production and activates arachidonic acid metabolism in macrophages. (4/265)

An aerolysin-related cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) of Aeromonas hydrophila possesses multiple biological activities, which include its ability to lyse red blood cells, destroy tissue culture cell lines, evoke a fluid secretory response in ligated intestinal loop models, and induce lethality in mice. The role of Act in the virulence of the organism has been demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Act to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with Act-induced tissue injury and Act's capacity to activate in macrophages arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism that leads to production of eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandin E(2) [PGE(2)]). Our data indicated that Act stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and upregulated the expression of genes encoding interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6 in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Act also activated transcription of the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase. Act evoked the production of PGE(2) coupled to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway. AA is a substrate for PGE(2), and Act produced AA from phospholipids by inducing group V secretory phospholipase A(2). We also demonstrated that Act increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in macrophages. cAMP, along with PGE(2), could potentiate fluid secretion in animal models because of infiltration and activation of macrophages resulting from Act-induced tissue injury. After Act treatment of RAW cells, we detected an increased translocation of NF-kappaB and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) to the nucleus using gel shift assays. Act also upregulated production of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in macrophages, suggesting a protective role for Bcl-2 against cell death induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and Bcl-2 appeared correlated with the activation of NF-kappaB and CREB. This is the first report of the detailed mechanisms of action of Act from A. hydrophila.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of genetic differences between virulent and avirulent strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish. (5/265)

Aeromonas hydrophila, a normal inhabitant of aquatic environments, is an opportunistic pathogen of a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. A. hydrophila PPD134/91 is defined as virulent whereas PPD35/85 is defined as avirulent on the basis of their different LD50 values in fish. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify genetic differences between these two strains. Sixty-nine genomic regions of differences were absent in PPD35/85, and the DNA sequences of these regions were determined. Sixteen ORFs encoded by 23 fragments showed high homology to known proteins of other bacteria. ORFs encoded by the remaining 46 fragments were identified as new proteins of A. hydrophila, showing no significant homology to any known proteins. Among these PPD134/91-specific genes, 22 DNA fragments (21 ORFs) were present in most of the eight virulent strains studied but mostly absent in the seven avirulent strains, suggesting that they are universal virulence genes in A. hydrophila. The PPD134/91-specific genes included five known virulence factors of A. hydrophila: haemolysin (hlyA), protease (oligopeptidase A), outer-membrane protein (Omp), multidrug-resistance protein and histone-like protein (HU-2). Another 47 DNA fragments (44 ORFs) were mainly present in PPD134/91, indicating the heterogeneity among motile aeromonads. Some of these fragments encoded virulence determinants. These included genes for the synthesis of O-antigen and type II restriction/modification system. The results indicated that SSH is successful in identifying genetic differences and virulence genes among different strains of A. hydrophila.  (+info)

A major secreted elastase is essential for pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila. (6/265)

Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of fatal hemorrhagic septicemia in rainbow trout. A gene encoding an elastolytic activity, ahyB, was cloned from Aeromonas hydrophila AG2 into pUC18 and expressed in Escherichia coli and in the nonproteolytic species Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ahyB gene revealed an open reading frame of 1,764 nucleotides with coding capacity for a 588-amino-acid protein with a molecular weight of 62,728. The first 13 N-terminal amino acids of the purified protease completely match those deduced from DNA sequence starting at AAG (Lys-184). This finding indicated that AhyB is synthesized as a preproprotein with a 19-amino-acid signal peptide, a 164-amino-acid N-terminal propeptide, and a 405-amino-acid intermediate which is further processed into a mature protease and a C-terminal propeptide. The protease hydrolyzed casein and elastin and showed a high sequence similarity to other metalloproteases, especially with the mature form of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (52% identity), Helicobacter pylori zinc metalloprotease (61% identity), or proteases from several species of Vibrio (52 to 53% identity). The gene ahyB was insertionally inactivated, and the construct was used to create an isogenic ahyB mutant of A. hydrophila. These first reports of a defined mutation in an extracellular protease of A. hydrophila demonstrate an important role in pathogenesis.  (+info)

Microbial iron transport via a siderophore shuttle: a membrane ion transport paradigm. (7/265)

A mechanism of ion transport across membranes is reported. Microbial transport of Fe(3+) generally delivers iron, a growth-limiting nutrient, to cells via highly specific siderophore-mediated transport systems. In contrast, iron transport in the fresh water bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is found to occur by means of an indiscriminant siderophore transport system composed of a single multifunctional receptor. It is shown that (i) the siderophore and Fe(3+) enter the bacterium together, (ii) a ligand exchange step occurs in the course of the transport, and (iii) a redox process is not involved in iron exchange. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no other reports of a ligand exchange mechanism in bacterial iron transport. The ligand exchange step occurs at the cell surface and involves the exchange of iron from a ferric siderophore to an iron-free siderophore already bound to the receptor. This ligand exchange mechanism is also found in Escherichia coli and seems likely to be widely distributed among microorganisms.  (+info)

Prevalence of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea, healthy controls, and the environment. (8/265)

Aeromonads are causative agents of a number of human infections. Even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear. In spite of a number of virulence factors produced by Aeromonas species, their association with diarrhea has not been clearly linked. Recently, we have characterized a heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (Alt), a heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (Ast), and a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) from a diarrheal isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila. Alt and Ast are novel enterotoxins which are not related to cholera toxin; Act is aerolysin related and has hemolytic, cytotoxic, and enterotoxic activities. We studied the distribution of the alt, ast, and act enterotoxin genes in 115 of 125 aeromonads isolated from 1, 735 children with diarrhea, in all 27 aeromonads isolated from 830 control children (P = 7 x 10(-4) for comparison of rates of isolation of aeromonads from cases versus those from controls), and in 120 randomly selected aeromonads from different components of surface water in Bangladesh. Aeromonas isolates which were positive only for the presence of the alt gene had similar distributions in the three sources; the number of isolates positive only for the presence of the ast gene was significantly higher for the environmental samples than for samples from diarrheal children; and isolates positive only for the presence of the act gene were not found in any of the three sources. Importantly, the number of isolates positive for both the alt and ast genes was significantly higher for diarrheal children than for control children and the environment. Thus, this is the first study to indicate that the products of both the alt and ast genes may synergistically act to induce severe diarrhea. In 26 patients, Aeromonas spp. were isolated as the sole enteropathogen. Analysis of clinical data from 11 of these patients suggested that isolates positive for both the alt and ast genes were associated with watery diarrhea but that isolates positive only for the alt gene were associated with loose stools. Most of the isolates from the three sources could be classified into seven phenospecies and eight hybridization groups. For the first time, Aeromonas eucrenophila was isolated from two children, one with diarrhea and another without diarrhea.  (+info)

'Aeromonas hydrophila' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in fresh and brackish water environments. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. This bacterium is known to cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The bacterium produces a range of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, hemolysins, and proteases. The symptoms of Aeromonas hydrophila infection can vary widely depending on the site of infection and the overall health of the individual. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the effectiveness of different antibiotics may vary depending on the strain of the bacterium. Proper hygiene and wound care are important measures to prevent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

'Aeromonas' is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Some species of Aeromonas can cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia. These bacteria are often associated with water exposure or contaminated food, and they can infect individuals with weakened immune systems.

The most common species that cause human infections are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas veronii. Symptoms of infection may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and skin or soft tissue infections. In severe cases, Aeromonas infections can lead to sepsis, meningitis, or endocarditis.

It's important to note that while Aeromonas infections can be serious, they are relatively rare and typically only affect individuals with compromised immune systems. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

'Aeromonas salmonicida' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of a disease known as furunculosis in fish, particularly in salmonids. The bacteria are facultatively anaerobic, meaning they can grow in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. They are motile with polar flagella and produce various virulence factors that contribute to their pathogenicity, including exotoxins, hemolysins, and proteases. The bacteria can cause septicemia, skin ulcers, and abscesses in fish, leading to significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In humans, 'Aeromonas salmonicida' is not considered a primary pathogen but has been isolated from occasional cases of wound infections and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying health conditions or compromised immune systems.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

'Aeromonas caviae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater and soil. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. 'Aeromonas caviae' is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Infections caused by 'Aeromonas caviae' may include gastrointestinal illnesses such as diarrhea, wound infections, and septicemia (bloodstream infections). The bacterium can enter the body through contaminated water or food, or through contact with contaminated surfaces.

It is important to note that while 'Aeromonas caviae' can cause infections in humans, it is not typically considered a highly virulent pathogen, and most infections caused by this bacterium are mild and resolve on their own without the need for medical treatment. However, in severe cases or in individuals with weakened immune systems, antibiotic therapy may be necessary to treat 'Aeromonas caviae' infections.

Vibrionaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce endotoxins and exotoxins, which can cause illness in humans and animals. Some members of this family are capable of causing foodborne illnesses, wound infections, and gastrointestinal diseases.

The most well-known genus within Vibrionaceae is Vibrio, which includes several species that are significant human pathogens. For example, Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that can lead to dehydration and death if left untreated. Other notable Vibrio species that can cause illness in humans include Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are often associated with raw or undercooked seafood consumption and wound infections, respectively.

Proper food handling, cooking, and hygiene practices can help prevent Vibrionaceae infections. People with weakened immune systems, chronic liver disease, or iron overload disorders may be at higher risk of severe illness from Vibrio infections and should take extra precautions to avoid exposure.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Aquaculture is the controlled cultivation and farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, in both freshwater and saltwater environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of these organisms under controlled conditions to produce food, feed, recreational resources, and other products for human use. Aquaculture can take place in a variety of systems, including ponds, raceways, tanks, and cages, and it is an important source of protein and livelihoods for many people around the world.

Pore-forming cytotoxic proteins are a group of toxins that can create pores or holes in the membranes of cells, leading to cell damage or death. These toxins are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, as a defense mechanism or to help establish an infection.

The pore-forming cytotoxic proteins can be divided into two main categories:

1. Membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain-containing proteins: These are found in many organisms, including humans. They form pores by oligomerizing, or clustering together, in the target cell membrane. An example of this type of toxin is the perforin protein, which is released by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells.
2. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs): These are mainly produced by gram-positive bacteria. They bind to cholesterol in the target cell membrane, forming a prepore structure that then undergoes conformational changes to create a pore. An example of a CDC is alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus, which can lyse red blood cells and damage various other cell types.

These pore-forming cytotoxic proteins play a significant role in host-pathogen interactions and have implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Leeching, in the context of historical medicine, refers to the practice of applying blood-sucking leeches to a patient's skin as a form of treatment. The idea behind this therapy, which dates back to ancient times and was popular during the 19th century, is based on the concept of humoralism. This is the belief that the balance of bodily fluids (or "humors") directly affects a person's health.

Leeches were believed to help restore the balance of humors by removing excess blood from the body. Practitioners would apply leeches to specific areas of the body, which would then attach themselves and feed on the patient's blood. The leech's saliva contains various substances with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which might have contributed to some therapeutic effects.

However, modern medicine has largely abandoned this practice due to a lack of solid scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness and the development of safer and more effective treatments for most conditions where leeches were once used. Today, leech therapy is still occasionally used in some specific medical contexts, such as promoting blood flow during reconstructive surgery or helping with symptoms of osteoarthritis; however, these uses are based on a more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms at play and are not rooted in the humoralist principles of the past.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

"Catfishes" is a term that refers to a group of ray-finned fish belonging to the order Siluriformes. However, in a medical or clinical context, "catfishing" has taken on a different meaning. It is a term used to describe the phenomenon of creating a false online identity to deceive someone, particularly in social media or dating websites. The person who creates the fake identity is called a "catfish." This behavior can have serious emotional and psychological consequences for those who are being deceived.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Cellophane" is not a medical term. It is a type of thin, transparent sheet material made from regenerated cellulose, which is often used for packaging or wrapping purposes in various industries including food and medical. However, it does not have a specific medical definition.

Allopurinol is a medication used to treat chronic gout and certain types of kidney stones. It works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, which is the substance that can cause these conditions when it builds up in high levels. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, meaning it blocks an enzyme called xanthine oxidase from converting purines into uric acid. By doing this, allopurinol helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the body and prevent the formation of new kidney stones or gout attacks.

It is important to note that allopurinol can have side effects, including rash, stomach upset, and liver or kidney problems. It may also interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of any other drugs you are taking before starting allopurinol. Your healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and monitoring schedule based on your individual needs and medical history.

Chlorphenesin is a muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory agent that is primarily used in topical creams, gels, and solutions for the relief of minor aches and pains due to strains, sprains, and bruises. It works by blocking the nerve impulses that cause muscle spasms.

Chlorphenesin can also be found in some oral medications as an antimicrobial agent, used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria.

It is important to note that chlorphenesin can have side effects, including skin irritation, stinging, redness, or swelling at the application site. If taken orally, it may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or upset stomach. It should be used with caution and under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

Eugenol is defined in medical terms as a phenolic compound that is the main active component of oil of cloves, which is derived from the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum). It has been used in dentistry for its analgesic and antibacterial properties. In addition, eugenol is used in perfumes, flavorings, and as a local antiseptic and anesthetic in medical applications. It's also used in some mouthwashes and toothpastes. However, it can cause allergic reactions in some people, so its use should be monitored carefully.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

... Oregon State University. Arrow Scientific. Aeromonas hydrophila "Aeromonas hydrophila." Bad Bug Book ... "Georgia woman with flesh-eating disease leaves hospital" Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC7966 Type strain of Aeromonas hydrophila at ... Aeromonas hydrophila is not as pathogenic to humans as it is to fish and amphibians. One of the diseases it can cause in humans ... A. hydrophila was isolated from humans and animals in the 1950s. It is the best known of the species of Aeromonas. It is ...
Minnaganti, V.R.; Patel, P.J.; Iancu, D.; Schoch, P.E. (2000). "Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila". Heart ... 279 Aeromonas species can also cause gastroenteritis. Aeromonas infections can sometimes be spread by leech bites. Aeromonas ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Abuhammour, W.; Hasan, R.A.; Rogers, D. (2006). "Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophilia in ... Aeromonas infections include skin infections such as cellulitis, pustules, and furuncles.: ...
"Analysis of the lateral flagellar gene system of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3". Journal of Bacteriology. 188 (3): 852-62. doi: ... "Polar flagellum biogenesis in Aeromonas hydrophila". Journal of Bacteriology. 188 (2): 542-55. doi:10.1128/JB.188.2.542- ... particularly Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and related bacteria such as Aeromonas, two flagellar systems co-exist, using different ...
Bulger, Roger J.; Sherris, John C. (1966). "The Clinical Significance of Aeromonas hydrophila". Archives of Internal Medicine. ...
Mzula A, Wambura PN, Mdegela RH, Shirima GM (2019). "Aeromonas hydrophila Vaccines for Aquaculture: A Systematic Review". ...
Avigad, Lois S. (1974). "Partial Characterization of Aerolysin, a Lytic Exotoxin from Aeromonas hydrophila". Infection and ...
Pectine hydrolyzing microbes are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae and Citrobacter freundii. Two bacterial species: ... Cellulose degraders are Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas caviae and ...
More rarely, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Cyanobacterium may also cause disease. Giardia lamblia cysts ...
Rahman, M. H.; Suzuki, S.; Kawai, K. (2001-12-17). "The effect of temperature on Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, ... to Aeromonas hydrophila and to Escherichia coli endotoxin". Journal of Fish Diseases. 1 (3): 271-273. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
This fish was then exposed to Aeromonas hydrophila (1x105 CFU) by IP injection. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were ... fed garlic to groups for 14 days prior to intraperitoneal injection challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila (1x106 CFU) per fish. ...
Furthermore, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter koseri (Citrobacter diversus), Pantoea agglomerans (Enterobacter agglomerans), ...
In molecular biology, aerolysin is a cytolytic pore-forming toxin exported by Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium ... "Nucleotide sequence of the gene for the hole-forming toxin aerolysin of Aeromonas hydrophila". J. Bacteriol. 169 (6): 2869-71. ... Parker MW, Buckley JT, Postma JP, Tucker AD, Leonard K, Pattus F, Tsernoglou D (January 1994). "Structure of the Aeromonas ...
Aeromonas hydrophila 209A is the only organism outside of Enterobacterales that expresses the ECA. More studies are needed to ... Additionally, Aeromonas hydrophila 209A is the only organism outside of Enterobacterales that expresses the ECA. Yet, more ...
Their environment is conducive to the spread of other infectious fungi and bacteria (such as Aeromonas hydrophila). The cause ... The combination of malathion and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infection could be causing increased mortality rates. ...
One disease known to affect the snail is caused by the pseudomonad bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Infection occurs by ...
"The primary structure of clostridium septicum alpha-toxin exhibits similarity with that of aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin". ...
"Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio". ...
Patel, Ketan M.; Svestka, Michael; Sinkin, Jeremy; Ruff, Paul (January 2013). "Ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila ... Aeromonas veronii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found in fresh water and in association with animals. It can be a ... Type strain of Aeromonas veronii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Genus Aeromonas". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 16 November 2016. F. W. Hickman-Brenner; K ...
SdiA detects AHLs produced by other species of bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Hafnia alvei, and Yersinia ... However, SdiA does become activated when Salmonella transits through turtles colonized with Aeromonas hydrophila or mice ... Aeromonas sp. have been isolated from various infected sites from patients (bile, blood, peritoneal fluid, pus, stool and urine ... Chan KG, Puthucheary SD, Chan XY, Yin WF, Wong CS, Too WS, Chua KH (January 2011). "Quorum sensing in Aeromonas species ...
Bacteria that test positive for cleaving indole from tryptophan include: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas punctata, Bacillus ... Bacteria which give negative results for the indole test include: Actinobacillus spp., Aeromonas salmonicida, Alcaligenes sp., ...
Fresh-water bacterial infections include Aeromonas hydrophila, Burkholderia pseudomallei causing melioidosis, leptospira ...
"Molecular and clinical evidence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Fusarium solani co-infection in narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus ... the Aeromonas hydrophilia and Fusarium solani. Pontastacus leptodactylus is fairly docile, especially the male with large claws ...
... resistant Aeromonas hydrophila". Journal of Fish Diseases. 44 (9): 1435-1447. doi:10.1111/jfd.13451. ISSN 0140-7775. PMID ...
... reducing bacterium phylogenetically related to Aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from a microbial fuel cell". FEMS Microbiology ... microbial fuel cells use electrochemically active bacteria such as Shewanella putrefaciens and Aeromonas hydrophila to transfer ...
... a virulence factor of the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Proaerolysin binds to the glycophosphatidylinositol(GPI) anchor in ...
... particularly towards Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Lactococcus garvieae. Lastly, ...
Aeromonas hydrophila, Clostridium and Haemophilus are generally susceptible to nalidixic acid, while other bacteria such as ...
AC-IV was first reported in the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila, and the structure of the AC-IV from Yersinia pestis has been ...
Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella spp. Decoctions and infusions of the fruits, bark and roots are used in traditional ...
The population size of this species can be curtailed through disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila but it often ... Dean, W. W.; Mead, A. R.; Northey, W. T. (1970). "Aeromonas liquefaciens in the giant African snail, Achatina fulica". Journal ...
Aeromonas hydrophila Oregon State University. Arrow Scientific. Aeromonas hydrophila "Aeromonas hydrophila." Bad Bug Book ... "Georgia woman with flesh-eating disease leaves hospital" Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC7966 Type strain of Aeromonas hydrophila at ... Aeromonas hydrophila is not as pathogenic to humans as it is to fish and amphibians. One of the diseases it can cause in humans ... A. hydrophila was isolated from humans and animals in the 1950s. It is the best known of the species of Aeromonas. It is ...
Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier Depositors. LS McClung Chain of custody. ATCC <-- LS McClung <-- L.A. Page 243 Type of ... To download a certificate of analysis for Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414), enter the lot number exactly as it ... To download a certificate of origin for Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414), enter the lot number exactly as it ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414) is not currently available online. ...
HERRERA, Marco L. et al. Diarreas invasivas por Aeromonas hydrophila. Rev. méd. Hosp. Nac. Niños (Costa Rica) [online]. 2002, ... Se presenta el hallazgo de niños con diarreas atribuibles a Aeromonas hydrophila pero que presentan características de diarrea ...
REBASE acronym: Org_num: All begin KBAHV01_, KBAHV22_, KBAHV22_P, KBAHV27_, KBAHV42_, KBAHV46_, KBAHV46_P. ...
Aeromonas hydrophila). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
... from Izmir were examined for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Alkaline peptone Water (APW) for the environmental samples ... In isolation, 5 different selective media were used: DNase Agar with Toluidine blue and Ampicillin (DNTA), Aeromonas Agar (AA ... hydrophila. The enterotoxin production of 9 isolates was investigated by the suckling mouse assay and 8 of the 9 isolates were ... Rimler Shotts Agar (RSA), mA Agar and Aeromonas Mediums Base (AMB). Identification of the isolates was performed according to ...
Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... and blaCTX-M ESBL-encoding genes were investigated in environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas ...
... determinar a dose eficaz de OTC e de FFC administrada na ração para o controle da infecção por Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu; ... Para o tratamento de infecção induzida por A. hydrophila (3.0 x108 bactéria.mL-1), foram realizados dois testes, um com OTC ( ... Ecotoxicidade e eficácia da oxitetraciclina e do florfenicol contra infecção experimental por Aeromonas hydrophila e aspectos ... Ecotoxicidade e eficácia da oxitetraciclina e do florfenicol contra infecção experimental por Aeromonas hydrophila e aspectos ...
Copyright ©2015 - Thailand Bioresource Research Center (TBRC), All rights reserved ...
Results from the challenge through co-infection with S. iniae and A. hydrophila showed the relative percent survival (RPS) in ... and effectiveness of a newly developed feed-based killed bivalent vaccine against Streptococcus iniae and Aeromonas hydrophila ... hydrophila vaccine (MA group) and unvaccinated as a control group. The vaccine was orally administered on days 0, 14 and 42 ... hydrophila) spray vaccine (BS group), bivalent formulate vaccine (BF group), monovalent S. iniae vaccine (MS group), monovalent ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Lee, Jeremy. ... A larger pore, using the type II secretin of Aeromonas hydrophila, may be able to circumvent the size constraint of α-hemolysin ... Isolation and Use of the Aeromonas hydrophila Secretin ExeD for Nanopore Analysis. ... the gene was cloned from the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (which does not have a PulS homologue) and expressed in E. coli. The ...
Aeromonas hydrophila 0-30% Giardia lamblia 0-20% Entamoeba histolytica 0-5% ... Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas spp. are less frequently found. Mechanisms of action vary: some bacteria ...
Aeromonas hydrophila (FDA). * Algal Blooms, Harmful (HABs) ( CDC ). * Amebiasis (CDC). * Arsenic (CDC-ATSDR, CDC-Water, WHO ) ...
Aeromonas hydrophila protein. Multicopper oxidase CueO. A0A2H1LKG6_9GAMM (A0A2H1LKG6). Serratia grimesii protein. Blue copper ...
The higher percentage of the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw cow milk was 40%, and the A. hydrophila isolates found in ... The PCR technique is modern method which regarded as a reliable tool to detect virulent gene of the A. hydrophila isolates. The ... The result of the present study showed that the results of PCR concerning the proteolytic activity of A. hydrophila in the ... The association between the source of the milk sample and proteolytic A. hydrophila positive results was considered to be ...
Aeromonas hydrophila: Doxycycline 100 mg IV every 12 h plus ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV every 12 h, or ceftriaxone 1-2 g IV every ... Aeromonas hydrophila (associated with wounds exposed to freshwater) ...
Aeromonas hydrophila. 2013 Jul 7. Abnormal increase in no. positive samples, with 1 positive sample from 1 patient. 1. ... Aeromonas hydrophila. 2014 Mar 11. Abnormal increase in no. positive samples, with 1 positive sample from 1 patient. 1. ...
Twenty three bioactive compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Aeromonas hydrophila. GC-MS analysis of Aeromonas ... The results of anti-fungal activity produced by Aeromonas hydrophila showed that the volatile compounds were highly effective ... Aeromonas hydrophila produce many important secondary metabolites with high biological activities. Based on the significance of ... the purification of compounds produced by Aeromonas hydrophila can be useful. ...
A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012 Authors. * Qian Zhang Key ... Zhang Q, Shi G-Q, Tang G-P, Zou Z-T, Yao G-H, Zeng G. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, ... A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 ... Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14%) and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students ...
Aeromonas hydrophila; Aeromonas; Masculino; Humanos; Feminino; Estudos Retrospectivos; Centros de Atenção Terciária; Arábia ... Aeromonas hydrophila / Aeromonas Tipo de estudo: Estudo observacional / Estudo prognóstico / Fatores de risco Limite: Feminino ... Aeromonas hydrophila / Aeromonas Tipo de estudo: Estudo observacional / Estudo prognóstico / Fatores de risco Limite: Feminino ... Aeromonas hydrophila can cause a wide range of diseases and is mainly found in patients with underlying diseases. Globally the ...
PROFIL PROTEIN VAKSIN Aeromonas hydrophila DAN Streptococcus agalactiae HASIL INAKTIVASI DENGAN FORMALIN: DI UJI MENGGUNAKAN ... dilakukan inaktivasi sediaan vaksin dari isolat bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila AHL0905-2 dan Streptococcus agalactiae N 14 G ... Akan tetapi, inaktivasi vaksin A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae dengan 3% NBF menghasilkan berat total protein yang lebih rendah ... Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa sediaan vaksin A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae yang diinaktivasi dengan 3% NBF memiliki profil ...
... sebagai Antibakteri Ramah Lingkungan terhadap Penanggulangan Infeksi Ektoparasit Aeromonas hydrophila pada Budidaya Ikan Air ... sebagai Antibakteri Ramah Lingkungan terhadap Penanggulangan Infeksi Ektoparasit Aeromonas hydrophila pada Budidaya Ikan Air ...
In this context, Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from fish farms (9 strains), identified by polymerase chain reaction ( ... Jin L., Chen Y., Yang W., Qiao Z., Zhang X. (2020). Complete genome sequence of fish-pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila HX-3 and a ... Kayis, S., Er, A., Yilmaz, C., Duzgun, A., Kose, O., Kurtoglu, I.Z. (2015). Aeromonas hydrophila as a causative agent of blue ... Jin L., Chen Y., Yang W., Qiao Z., Zhang X. (2020). Complete genome sequence of fish-pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila HX-3 and a ...
Identification of the efficiency of Pentane on the bacterial and insecticide proteins of Aedes aegypti and Aeromonas hydrophila ... It was finally concluded that Pentane had better inhibitive action on Aeromonas hydrophila than on Aedes aegypti. Hence, ... Identification of the efficiency of Pentane on the bacterial and insecticide proteins of Aedes aegypti and Aeromonas hydrophila ... Identification of the efficiency of Pentane on the bacterial and insecticide proteins of Aedes aegypti and Aeromonas hydrophila ...
Return to Article Details Infection control of Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish (Clarias sp.) using mixture of meniran ...
Return to Article Details Effect of Aeromonas hydrophila infection with high and normal water temperature on total hemocyte ...
Aeromonas hydrophila Citrobacter spp.. Moraxellacatarrhalis Neisseria meningitidis Providencia stuartii Susceptibility Testing ...
KEY WORDS: Aeromonas hydrophila · Cyprinus carpio · Haematology · Triherbal extract · Probiotics Full text in pdf format ... Potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp ... with Aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 × 106 CFU ml-1). On Day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the ... hydrophila challenge were higher in the IU (85%) and H (50%) groups than in the S (45%) and L (35%) groups. Our results show ...

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