A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is found in domestic and wild animals including birds, and fish. In humans it causes GASTROENTERITIS in young children and some adults.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.

Small subunit rRNA gene sequences of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and Haemophilus piscium reveal pronounced similarities with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. (1/769)

The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) encoding genes from reference strains of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and Haemophilus piscium were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into Escherichia coli cells. Almost the entire SSU rRNA gene sequence (1505 nucleotides) from both organisms was determined. These DNA sequences were compared with those previously described from A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, subsp. achromogenes and subsp. masoucida. This genetic analysis revealed that A. salmonicida subsp. smithia and H. piscium showed 99.4 and 99.6% SSU rRNA gene sequence identity, respectively, with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of cold-active L-glutamate dehydrogenase independent of NAD(P) and oxygen. (2/769)

L-Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) independent of NAD(P) and oxygen was first obtained from the psychrotrophic bacterium Aeromonas sp. L101, originally isolated from the organs of salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). GLDH was purified by a series of chromatography steps on DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex 200pg, Q-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose, and Phenyl-Sepharose. The purified protein was determined to have a molecular mass of 110 kDa and a pI of 5.7. Maximum activity was obtained at 55 degrees C and pH 8.5. The activity of GLDH at 4 and 20 degrees C was 38 and 50%, respectively, of that at 50 degrees C. GLDH was coupled to cytochrome c and several redox dyes including 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (1-Methoxy PMS), 2, 6-dichlorophenylindophenol (DCIP), 9-dimethylaminobenzo[alpha]phenoxazin-7-ium chloride (meldola's blue), 3,3'-[3,3'-dimethoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4, 4'-diyl]-bis[2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H tetrazolium chloride] (nitroblue tetrazolium; NBT), and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H tetrazolium (INT). The presence of NAD(P) and oxygen gave no oxidation activity to GLDH. Spectroscopic profile and ICP data indicated a b-type cytochrome containing iron.  (+info)

Fish macrophages express a cyclo-oxygenase-2 homologue after activation. (3/769)

In mammals, the increased generation of prostaglandins (PG) during the onset of inflammatory responses and activation of immune cell types has been attributed to the induction of a novel cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoform, termed COX-2, which is distinct from the well-characterized constitutive activity (COX-1). Goldfish (Carassius auratus) macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and leucocyte-derived macrophage-activating factor(s) showed a significant increase in the generation of the major COX product, PGE2, within the first 6 h of stimulation. The selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398, inhibited this elevated generation of PGE, whereas the basal level of this product synthesized by unstimulated macrophages was unaffected by such exposure. PGE generation by goldfish macrophages was similarly inhibited by the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, and an inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide, suggesting that this stimulation may be due to an inducible enzyme equivalent to mammalian COX-2. The complete coding sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) COX-2 was obtained by PCR. The gene contains a 61 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1821 bp open reading frame and a 771 bp 3'UTR containing multiple copies of an mRNA instability motif (ATTTA). The predicted translation product had high homology to known mammalian and chicken COX-2 (83-84%) and COX-1 (77%) sequences. Reverse-transcriptase PCR with cDNA from control and bacterially challenged fish revealed that trout COX-2 expression was not constitutive but could be induced. Overall, these studies show for the first time that the inducible isoform of COX has a long evolutionary history, probably dating back to the evolution of fish over 500 million years ago.  (+info)

Intramolecular chaperone and inhibitor activities of a propeptide from a bacterial zinc aminopeptidase. (4/769)

An aminopeptidase from Aeromonas caviae T-64 was translated as a preproprotein consisting of three domains; a signal peptide (19 amino acid residues), an N-terminal propeptide (101 residues) and a mature region (273 residues). We demonstrated that a proteinase, which was isolated from the culture filtrate of A. caviae T-64, activated the recombinant pro-aminopeptidase by removal of the majority of the propeptide. Using L-Leu-p-nitroanilide as a substrate, the processed aminopeptidase showed a large increase in kcat when compared with the unprocessed enzyme, whereas the Km value remained relatively unchanged. The similar Km values for the pro-aminopeptidase and the mature aminopeptidase indicated that the N-terminal propeptide of the pro-aminopeptidase did not influence the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex, suggesting the absence of marked conformational changes in the active domain. In contrast, the marked difference in kcat suggests a significant decrease in the energy of one or more of the transition states of the enzyme-substrate reaction coordinate. Moreover, we showed that the activity of the urea-denatured pro-aminopeptidase could be recovered by dialysis, whereas the activity of the urea-denatured mature aminopeptidase, which lacked the propeptide, could not. Further to this, the propeptide-deleted aminopeptidase formed an inclusion body in the cytoplasmic space in Escherichia coli and was not secreted at all. These results suggested that the propeptide of the pro-aminopeptidase acted as an intramolecular chaperone that was involved with the correct folding of the enzyme in vitro and was required for extracellular secretion in E. coli.  (+info)

Structure elucidation of Sch 20562, a glucosidic cyclic dehydropeptide lactone--the major component of W-10 antifungal antibiotic. (5/769)

A novel bacterium designated as Aeromonas sp. W-10 produces the antibiotic W-10 complex which comprises of two major and several minor components. The two major components from this complex, Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (1a), are of biological interest in view of their potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies utilized for the assignment of structure 1 for Sch 20562 are described here. Some of the noteworthy diversity of structural features in this glucosidic cyclic dehydrononapeptide lactone 1 are: an N-terminal (D)-beta-hydroxymyristyl unit, three D-amino acid units, two (E)-alpha-aminocrotonyl units, and an O-alpha-D-glucosyl-N-methyl-L-allo-threonine unit. The structure determination of 1 utilized the selective cleavage of the dehydropeptide units by ozonolysis to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The stereochemistry of the amino acid units were assigned by isolation of the free amino acids from the hydrolysates of the fragments. The stereochemistry of the alpha-aminocrotonyl units and the glucosidic linkage were assigned by nmr spectroscopy and molecular rotation data.  (+info)

Structure elucidation of Sch 20561, a cyclic dehydropeptide lactone--a major component of W-10 antifungal antibiotic. (6/769)

Antibiotic W-10 is a fermentation complex produced by the bacterium Aeromonas sp. W-10. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactones Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (2) are the major components of this fermentation complex and are of biological interest in view of their unique structural features and potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies that were utilized in the assignment of structure 2 for Sch 20561 are described here. The structure determination of 2 made use of the ozonolytic cleavage of the dehydropeptide units to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactone Sch 20561 (2) was found to be the aglycone of Sch 20562 (1) and these two natural products were correlated by a chemical transformation involving the deglucosidation of 1 to form 2.  (+info)

Cloning, sequencing, and role in virulence of two phospholipases (A1 and C) from mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34. (7/769)

Two different representative recombinant clones encoding Aeromonas hydrophila lipases were found upon screening on tributyrin (phospholipase A1) and egg yolk agar (lecithinase-phospholipase C) plates of a cosmid-based genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serogroup O34) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Subcloning, nucleotide sequencing, and in vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that the phospholipase A1 (pla) and C (plc) genes code for an 83-kDa putative lipoprotein and a 65-kDa protein, respectively. Defined insertion mutants of A. hydrophila AH-3 defective in either pla or plc genes were defective in phospholipase A1 and C activities, respectively. Lecithinase (phospholipase C) was shown to be cytotoxic but nonhemolytic or poorly hemolytic. A. hydrophila AH-3 plc mutants showed a more than 10-fold increase in their 50% lethal dose on fish and mice, and complementation of the plc single gene on these mutants abolished this effect, suggesting that Plc protein is a virulence factor in the mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34 infection process.  (+info)

Efficacy of orally administered oxolinic acid and Vetoquinol, an oxolinic acid ester, for the treatment of furunculosis in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar held in seawater. (8/769)

This study was performed to determine the efficacy of orally administered oxolinic acid and Vetoquinol, an oxolinic acid ester, in the treatment of experimental induced furunculosis in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar held in seawater. Two strains of the causative bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, 1 sensitive (VI-88/09/03175) and 1 resistant (3475/90) to oxolinic acid, were used. In 2 trials, cohabitational challenges were performed by introducing 8 fish challenged in advance by an intraperitoneal injection of 2.2 x 10(4) colony forming units of strain 3475/90 (Trial 1) or strain VI-88/09/03175 (Trial 2) to 10 aquaria each containing 40 healthy fish. The treatment groups in both trials consisted of 4 groups receiving either oxolinic acid (2 groups) or Vetoquinol (2 groups) and 1 control group. An unchallenged, unmedicated group was used to determine the natural mortality in the population. The recommended therapeutic dose of 25 mg oxolinic acid kg-1 fish at Days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 following initiation of treatment was used. Oral medication initiated at Day 10 (Trial 1) or Day 11 (Trial 2) following challenge significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the specific mortality in all drug-treated groups compared to the untreated control groups. Mortality in Vetoquinol-treated groups was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in oxolinic acid-treated groups in Trial 1 whereas no significant (p < 0.05) difference in survival rate was found between the medicated groups in Trial 2.  (+info)

'Aeromonas' is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Some species of Aeromonas can cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia. These bacteria are often associated with water exposure or contaminated food, and they can infect individuals with weakened immune systems.

The most common species that cause human infections are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas veronii. Symptoms of infection may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and skin or soft tissue infections. In severe cases, Aeromonas infections can lead to sepsis, meningitis, or endocarditis.

It's important to note that while Aeromonas infections can be serious, they are relatively rare and typically only affect individuals with compromised immune systems. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

'Aeromonas hydrophila' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in fresh and brackish water environments. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. This bacterium is known to cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The bacterium produces a range of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, hemolysins, and proteases. The symptoms of Aeromonas hydrophila infection can vary widely depending on the site of infection and the overall health of the individual. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the effectiveness of different antibiotics may vary depending on the strain of the bacterium. Proper hygiene and wound care are important measures to prevent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

'Aeromonas salmonicida' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of a disease known as furunculosis in fish, particularly in salmonids. The bacteria are facultatively anaerobic, meaning they can grow in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. They are motile with polar flagella and produce various virulence factors that contribute to their pathogenicity, including exotoxins, hemolysins, and proteases. The bacteria can cause septicemia, skin ulcers, and abscesses in fish, leading to significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In humans, 'Aeromonas salmonicida' is not considered a primary pathogen but has been isolated from occasional cases of wound infections and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying health conditions or compromised immune systems.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

'Aeromonas caviae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in aquatic environments such as freshwater and soil. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. 'Aeromonas caviae' is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Infections caused by 'Aeromonas caviae' may include gastrointestinal illnesses such as diarrhea, wound infections, and septicemia (bloodstream infections). The bacterium can enter the body through contaminated water or food, or through contact with contaminated surfaces.

It is important to note that while 'Aeromonas caviae' can cause infections in humans, it is not typically considered a highly virulent pathogen, and most infections caused by this bacterium are mild and resolve on their own without the need for medical treatment. However, in severe cases or in individuals with weakened immune systems, antibiotic therapy may be necessary to treat 'Aeromonas caviae' infections.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Furunculosis is a skin condition characterized by the recurrent development of boils or furuncles. A furuncle is a deep infection of the hair follicle and surrounding tissue, typically caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can be painful, red, swollen, and may contain pus.

Furunculosis occurs when a person has recurring furuncles, often due to persistent or frequent reinfection with S. aureus. This condition is more common in people with weakened immune systems, diabetes, poor hygiene, or who have close contact with someone infected with S. aureus.

Treatment for furunculosis usually involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, to eliminate the infection-causing bacteria. In some cases, incision and drainage of the boil may be necessary. Maintaining good hygiene, keeping the affected area clean, and avoiding sharing personal items like towels or razors can help prevent the spread and recurrence of furuncles.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

Vibrionaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce endotoxins and exotoxins, which can cause illness in humans and animals. Some members of this family are capable of causing foodborne illnesses, wound infections, and gastrointestinal diseases.

The most well-known genus within Vibrionaceae is Vibrio, which includes several species that are significant human pathogens. For example, Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that can lead to dehydration and death if left untreated. Other notable Vibrio species that can cause illness in humans include Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which are often associated with raw or undercooked seafood consumption and wound infections, respectively.

Proper food handling, cooking, and hygiene practices can help prevent Vibrionaceae infections. People with weakened immune systems, chronic liver disease, or iron overload disorders may be at higher risk of severe illness from Vibrio infections and should take extra precautions to avoid exposure.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trout" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Trout is a common name that refers to several species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmonid family. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

"Salmonidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of fish which includes salmon, trout, char, grayling, and whitefish. These fish are often anadromous, meaning they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. They are important both commercially and recreationally as a source of food and sport fishing.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Aquaculture is the controlled cultivation and farming of aquatic organisms, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants, in both freshwater and saltwater environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of these organisms under controlled conditions to produce food, feed, recreational resources, and other products for human use. Aquaculture can take place in a variety of systems, including ponds, raceways, tanks, and cages, and it is an important source of protein and livelihoods for many people around the world.

Sanitary drainage is a type of plumbing system that is designed to safely remove liquid and solid waste materials from a building or site. It is called "sanitary" because its primary purpose is to maintain public health by effectively disposing of human excreta, kitchen and bathing wastewater, and other types of dirty water that may contain pathogens or pollutants.

Sanitary drainage systems typically consist of a network of pipes, traps, vents, and fixtures that are designed to convey waste materials from their source (such as toilets, sinks, showers, and washing machines) to a sewer system or a septic tank. The pipes used in sanitary drainage systems are usually made of materials such as cast iron, PVC, or ABS, which are resistant to corrosion and can withstand the high temperatures and pressures that may be encountered in the system.

Traps are important components of sanitary drainage systems because they prevent sewer gases from entering buildings through the plumbing fixtures. Traps are designed to hold a small amount of water after each use, which creates a seal that blocks the flow of gases back into the building. Vents are also essential for maintaining proper air pressure in the system and allowing waste materials to flow freely through the pipes.

Sanitary drainage systems must be properly designed, installed, and maintained to ensure their safe and efficient operation. Regular inspections, cleaning, and repairs are necessary to prevent blockages, leaks, and other problems that could lead to health hazards or property damage.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious bacterial infection that affects the fascia, which is the tissue that surrounds muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. The infection can also spread to the muscle and skin. It is often caused by a combination of different types of bacteria, including group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

The infection causes extensive tissue damage and necrosis (death) of the fascia and surrounding tissues. It can progress rapidly and can be fatal if not treated promptly with aggressive surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics.

Symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area; fever; chills; and general weakness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if these symptoms occur, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Fasciitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation or irritation of the fascia, which are the bands of connective tissue that surround muscles, tendons, and bones in the body. The most common type of fasciitis is plantar fasciitis, which affects the fascia on the bottom of the foot and can cause heel pain. Other types of fasciitis include:

* Achilles tendonitis or Achilles tendinopathy, which affects the fascia that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone
* Shin splints, which affect the fascia that covers the front of the lower leg
* Necrotizing fasciitis, a rare and serious bacterial infection that can cause extensive tissue damage and is potentially life-threatening.

The symptoms of fasciitis may include pain, stiffness, or tenderness in the affected area, especially after prolonged periods of rest or physical activity. Treatment for fasciitis typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) of the affected area, as well as physical therapy exercises to stretch and strengthen the fascia and surrounding muscles. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms and promote healing.

... aides leeches in digesting blood meals. H. medicinalis used after surgery has led to Aeromonas infections, most ... Aeromonas pneumonia due to episodes of near-drowning are frequently complicated by bacteremia and death. Aeromonas species are ... In the Netherlands, the presence of Aeromonas in drinking water is currently not considered a health-related problem. Aeromonas ... Aeromonas species are endosymbionts of Hirudo medicinalis, a species of leech that is FDA-approved for use in vascular surgery ...
279 Aeromonas species can also cause gastroenteritis. Aeromonas infections can sometimes be spread by leech bites. Aeromonas ... Minnaganti, V.R.; Patel, P.J.; Iancu, D.; Schoch, P.E. (2000). "Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila". Heart ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Abuhammour, W.; Hasan, R.A.; Rogers, D. (2006). "Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Aeromonas hydrophilia in ... Aeromonas infections include skin infections such as cellulitis, pustules, and furuncles.: ...
"Aeromonas aquatica sp. nov., Aeromonas finlandiensis sp. nov. and Aeromonas lacus sp. nov. isolated from Finnish waters ... Aeromonas lacus is a bacterium from the genus Aeromonas which has been isolated from a humic lake in Huutjärvi in Finland. ... Parte, A.C. "Aeromonas". LPSN. "Aeromonas lacus". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2015). Parker, ... Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Aeromonas lacus Beaz-Hidalgo et al. 2015". The ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas which can cause infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio). A ... Type strain of Aeromonas bestiarum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Straininfo of Aeromonas bestiarum". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-11-28. Kozinska ... ZipcodZoo.com Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Kozinska, A. (2004). "The effect of various Aeromonas bestiarum ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium of the genus Aeromonas ... Alperi, A.; Martinez-Murcia, A. J.; Ko, W. -C.; Monera, A.; Saavedra, M. J.; Figueras, M. J. (2009). "Aeromonas taiwanensis sp ... And Aeromonas sanarellii sp. nov., clinical species from Taiwan". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... eol Encyclopedia of Life [1] Type strain of Aeromonas sanarellii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ...
... is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped and motile bacterium from the genus Aeromonas ... Parte, A.C. "Aeromonas". LPSN. "Aeromonas rivipollensis". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2016). ... Marti, E; Balcázar, JL (December 2015). "Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov., a novel species isolated from aquatic samples". ... Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Aeromonas rivipollensis Marti and Balcázar 2016". ...
Aeromonas J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature Type strain of Aeromonas media at BacDive - the ... Aeromonas media is a species of bacteria. RM (= ATCC 33907) is the type strain of this species. It is Gram-negative and motile ... Lategan, M.J.; Booth, W.; Shimmon, R.; Gibson, L.F. (2006). "An inhibitory substance produced by Aeromonas media A199, an ... Allen, D. A.; Austin, B.; Colwell, R. R. (1983). "Aeromonas media, a New Species Isolated from River Water". International ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from stool of a child with diarrhoea, a healthy ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Strain info of Aeromonas tecta". Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-11. DSMZ DSMZ ... UniProt Type strain of Aeromonas tecta at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... "Aeromonas tecta sp. nov., isolated from clinical and environmental sources". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 31 (4): 278- ...
... Oregon State University. Arrow Scientific. Aeromonas hydrophila "Aeromonas hydrophila." Bad Bug Book ... The genomic insights of aeromonas could be a stepping stone into understanding of them The pathogenicity of Aeromonas species ... "Georgia woman with flesh-eating disease leaves hospital" Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC7966 Type strain of Aeromonas hydrophila at ... Aeromonas hydrophila is not as pathogenic to humans as it is to fish and amphibians. One of the diseases it can cause in humans ...
Aeromonas J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature UniProt entry Type strain of Aeromonas ... Aeromonas schubertii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. Its type strain is ATCC 43700 (CDC 2446-81). It is ... "Aeromonas schubertii, a new mannitol-negative species found in human clinical specimens." Journal of Clinical Microbiology26.8 ... Liu, J Y; Li, A H (2012). "First case of Aeromonas schubertii infection in the freshwater cultured snakehead fish, ...
2002 and Aeromonas aquariorum Martínez-Murcia et al. 2008 as Aeromonas dhakensis sp. nov. Comb nov. And emendation of the ... "Aeromonas aquariorum Is Widely Distributed in Clinical and Environmental Specimens and Can Be Misidentified as Aeromonas ... Aeromonas dhakensis is a Gram-negative bacterium first isolated from aquariums in Portugal in 2005. The species is globally ... Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments. Prior to the discovery of A. dhakensis, the most prevalent ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile bacterium with a polar flagellum of the genus ... Type strain of Aeromonas molluscorum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... Minana-Galbis, D. (2004). "Aeromonas molluscorum sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs". International Journal of Systematic ... "Strain info of Aeromonas molluscorum". Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-07. ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from human feces in Oregon. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de " ... Type strain of Aeromonas jandaei at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... ATCC MetaCyc Janda, J. M.; Abbott, S. L. (2010). "The Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection". Clinical ... "Strain info of Aeromonas jandaei". Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-06. ...
... is a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium from the genus Aeromonas isolated from an irrigation water ... Type strain of Aeromonas australiensis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Straininfo of Aeromonas australiensis". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-11-27. ... "Aeromonas australiensis sp. nov., isolated from irrigation water". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from drinking water production plants and ... Lee, C.; Cho, J. -C.; Lee, S. -H.; Lee, D. -G.; Kim, S. -J. (2002). "Distribution of Aeromonas spp. as identified by 16S rDNA ... Type strain of Aeromonas popoffii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Strain info of Aeromonas popoffii". Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-08. ATCC ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from epizootic guinea pigs. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de " ... eol Type strain of Aeromonas caviae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Straininfo of Aeromonas caviae". Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2013-11-30. Taxonomy Browser ATCC Beatson ... "Genome Sequence of the Emerging Pathogen Aeromonas caviae". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (5): 1286-1287. doi:10.1128/JB.01337- ...
Type strain of Aeromonas fluvialis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... Aeromonas fluvialis is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming bacterium of ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Strain info of Aeromonas fluvialis". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-12-05. Alperi ... A.; Martínez-Murcia, A. J.; Monera, A.; Saavedra, M. J.; Figueras, M. J. (2009). "Aeromonas fluvialis sp. nov., isolated from a ...
... is a Gram-negative, motile bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from European eels in Valencia, Spain ... eol Type strain of Aeromonas encheleia at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Straininfo of Aeromonas encheleia". Archived from the original on 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2013-12-03. Esteve, ... C.; Gutiérrez, M. C.; Ventosa, A. (1995). "Aeromonas encheleia sp. nov., isolated from European eels". International Journal of ...
LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Straininfo of Aeromonas bivalvium Aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve molluscs. Miñana-Galbis ... Aeromonas bivalvium is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile bacterium with a polar flagellum of the genus ... Type strain of Aeromonas bivalvium at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... 1] Minana-Galbis, D.; Farfan, M.; Fuste, M. C.; Loren, J. G. (2007). "Aeromonas bivalvium sp. nov., isolated from bivalve ...
"Aeromonas eucrenophila species nova aeromonas caviae a later and illegitimate synonym of aeromonas punctata". Zentralblatt für ... "Aeromonas eucrenophila species nova Aeromonas caviae a later and illegitimate synonym of Aeromonas punctata". Zentralblatt für ... Aeromonas eucrenophila is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from fresh water and infected fish. A. ... Type strain of Aeromonas eucrenophila at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description ...
"Aeromonas aquatica sp. nov., Aeromonas finlandiensis sp. nov. and Aeromonas lacus sp. nov. isolated from Finnish waters ... Aeromonas aquatica is a bacterium from the genus Aeromonas which has been isolated from a humic lake in Haukkajärvi in Finland ... Parte, A.C. "Aeromonas". LPSN. "Aeromonas aquatica". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2015). Parker ... Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds.). "Nomenclature Abstract for Aeromonas aquatica Beaz-Hidalgo et al. 2015". The ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Aeromonas which has been isolated from the Lake Pyhälampi in Finland. ... Parte, A.C. "Aeromonas". LPSN. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (2015). Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (eds ... "Nomenclature Abstract for Aeromonas finlandensis Beaz-Hidalgo et al. 2015". The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.27385. " ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive motile bacterium of the genus Aeromonas, with a polar ... Type strain of Aeromonas simiae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Harf-Monteil, C.; Flèche, A. L.; Riegel, P.; Prévost, G.; Bermond, D.; Grimont, P. A.; Monteil, H. (2004). "Aeromonas simiae sp ... Harf-Monteil, C. (2004). "Aeromonas simiae sp. nov., isolated from monkey faeces". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... is a Gram-negative, motile bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from human stool in Varanasi, in ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Strain info of Aeromonas enteropelogenes Taxonomy Browser eol Leibniz Institut Deutsche Sammlung von ... Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH [1] Type strain of Aeromonas enteropelogenes at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found in fresh water and in association with animals. It can be a ... Type strain of Aeromonas veronii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Genus Aeromonas". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 16 November 2016. F. W. Hickman-Brenner; K ... Patel, Ketan M.; Svestka, Michael; Sinkin, Jeremy; Ruff, Paul (January 2013). "Ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila ...
... is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium of the genus Aeromonas isolated from the leg wound of a ... Type strain of Aeromonas diversa at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Strain info of Aeromonas diversa". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-12-02. Farfan, M ... UniProt Miñana-Galbis, D.; Farfán, M.; Gaspar Lorén, J.; Carmen Fusté, M. (2010). "Proposal to assign Aeromonas diversa sp. nov ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase-positive, motile bacterium from the genus Aeromonas which was isolated ... Type strain of Aeromonas allosaccharophila at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Straininfo of Aeromonas allosaccharophila". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-11-26 ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium with a polar flagellum of the ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de "Aeromonas rivuli". Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-09. "EzBioCloud". Archived ... Leibniz Institut DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH [1] Type strain of Aeromonas rivuli at ... "Aeromonas rivuli sp. nov., isolated from the upstream region of a karst water rivulet". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Type strain of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Type strain of Aeromonas ... Aeromonas salmonicida's ability to infect a variety of hosts, multiply, and adapt, make it a prime virulent bacterium. A. ... Aeromonas salmonicida is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacterium. It is rod-shaped, about 1.3-2.0 by 0.8- ... Aeromonas salmonicida is a pathogenic bacterium that severely impacts salmonid populations and other species. It was first ...
... is a synonym of Aeromonas caviae. The bacterium is found in sewage, fresh water and in animals. "Aeromonas ... Springer, New York, 2005, Volume 2: The Proteobacteria, Part B: The Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonas J.P. Euzéby: List of ... caviae (Aeromonas punctata)". George M. Garrity: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2. Auflage. ...
Aeromonas aides leeches in digesting blood meals. H. medicinalis used after surgery has led to Aeromonas infections, most ... Aeromonas pneumonia due to episodes of near-drowning are frequently complicated by bacteremia and death. Aeromonas species are ... In the Netherlands, the presence of Aeromonas in drinking water is currently not considered a health-related problem. Aeromonas ... Aeromonas species are endosymbionts of Hirudo medicinalis, a species of leech that is FDA-approved for use in vascular surgery ...
Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier Depositors. LS McClung Chain of custody. ATCC <-- LS McClung <-- L.A. Page 243 Type of ... To download a certificate of analysis for Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414), enter the lot number exactly as it ... To download a certificate of origin for Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414), enter the lot number exactly as it ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier (43414) is not currently available online. ...
HERRERA, Marco L. et al. Diarreas invasivas por Aeromonas hydrophila. Rev. méd. Hosp. Nac. Niños (Costa Rica) [online]. 2002, ... Se presenta el hallazgo de niños con diarreas atribuibles a Aeromonas hydrophila pero que presentan características de diarrea ...
Timeline for Species Aeromonas proteolytica [TaxId:671] from c.56.5.4 Aminopeptidase: *Species Aeromonas proteolytica [TaxId: ... Species Aeromonas proteolytica [TaxId:671] [53206] (17 PDB entries). Uniprot Q01693. synonym: Vibrio proteolyticus. ... PDB entries in Species: Aeromonas proteolytica [TaxId: 671]:. *Domain(s) for 1amp: *. Domain d1ampa_: 1amp A: [33837]. ... Lineage for Species: Aeromonas proteolytica [TaxId: 671]. *Root: SCOPe 2.08 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349] ( ...
Aeromonas hydrophila). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Vila J, Ruiz J, Gallardo F, Vargas M, Soler L, Figueras MJ, Aeromonas spp. and travelers diarrhea: clinical features and ... In conclusion, Aeromonas spp. is responsible for a small proportion of cases of bacterial gastroenteritis encountered in an ... Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(8):1506-1507. doi:10.3201/ ... Chan, S. S., & Ng, K. C. (2004). Aeromonas spp. and Infectious Diarrhea, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(8), 1506- ...
Plasmid DNAs from Aeromonas punctata 37 and A. media 42 and their Escherichia coli TOP10 transformants (TF) carrying plasmids ... Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp. Vincent Cattoir ... Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp.. ...
In isolation, 5 different selective media were used: DNase Agar with Toluidine blue and Ampicillin (DNTA), Aeromonas Agar (AA ... Rimler Shotts Agar (RSA), mA Agar and Aeromonas Mediums Base (AMB). Identification of the isolates was performed according to ... from Izmir were examined for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Alkaline peptone Water (APW) for the environmental samples ... In isolation, 5 different selective media were used: DNase Agar with Toluidine blue and Ampicillin (DNTA), Aeromonas Agar (AA ...
Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... Presence of blaTEM-116 gene in environmental isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei from Brazil ... and blaCTX-M ESBL-encoding genes were investigated in environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas ...
Transcription factor T-bet in Atlantic salmon: characterization and gene expression in mucosal tissues during Aeromonas ... Transcription factor T-bet in Atlantic salmon: characterization and gene expression in mucosal tissues during Aeromonas ... Transcription factor T-bet in Atlantic salmon: characterization and gene expression in mucosal tissues during Aeromonas ...
We provide the most advanced method for gene and shRNA delivery with an extensive collection of viral particles as well as a range of custom services ...
... determinar a dose eficaz de OTC e de FFC administrada na ração para o controle da infecção por Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu; ... Ecotoxicidade e eficácia da oxitetraciclina e do florfenicol contra infecção experimental por Aeromonas hydrophila e aspectos ... Ecotoxicidade e eficácia da oxitetraciclina e do florfenicol contra infecção experimental por Aeromonas hydrophila e aspectos ... Ecotoxicidade e eficácia da oxitetraciclina e do florfenicol contra infecção experimental por Aeromonas hydrophila e aspectos ...
... A reason to have a heater on a pond is to prevent an effect, sometimes called aeromonas alley, which is due to ... Although this temperature range is called aeromonas alley, aeromonas isn t the only threat, there are other potentially harmful ... Aeromonas bacteria are not active below 4.4 C but their activity and ability to infect rises rapidly as temperatures increase ... This means that at 4 C koi are almost inactive but, since the aeromonas bug is also inactive, they are safe from infection. If ...
Nomenclature of Aeromonas cavernicola Martínez-Murcia et al. 2013 ... Martínez-Murcia A, Beaz-Hidalgo R, Svec P, Saavedra MJ, Figueras MJ, Sedlacek I. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from ... The species Aeromonas cavernicola was originally described by Martínez-Murcia et al. 2013. ... Name Abstract for Aeromonas cavernicola Martínez-Murcia et al. 2013. NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved August 18, 2022. . https:// ...
1999). Aeromonas. In R. Robinson, C. Batt, & P. Patel (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology (pp. 25-30). Academic Press. ... Aeromonas. / Blair, I.S; McMahon, MAS; McDowell, DA. Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology. ed. / R Robinson; C Batt; P Patel. ... Aeromonas. In Robinson R, Batt C, Patel P, editors, Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology. Academic Press. 1999. p. 25-30 ... Aeromonas. Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology. editor / R Robinson ; C Batt ; P Patel. Academic Press, 1999. pp. 25-30 ...
Parent taxon: Aeromonas Stanier 1943 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Marti E, Balcazar JL. Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov ... Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov., a novel species isolated from aquatic samples. J Basic Microbiol 2015; 55:1435-1439. ... Linking: To permanently link to this page, use https://lpsn.dsmz.de/species/aeromonas-rivipollensis. Copy to clipboard. Link ...
Aeromonas - Salmonocida - Furunculosis - Aquaculture. Cant find what youre looking for? Get in touch and well be more than ... Aeromonas salmonicida. Catalogue no: Path-A.salmonicida. Catalogue no: Path-A.salmonicida-standard. ...
Aeromonas sobria. Taxonomy ID: 646 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid646). current name. Aeromonas sobria Popoff ... Aeromonas sobria. meta-databases. BacDive. Aeromonas sobria Popoff and VA%A9ron 1981. taxonomy/phylogenetic. Encyclopedia of ... Popoff, M., and Veron, M. A taxonomic study of the Aeromonas hydrophila-Aeromonas punctata group. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1976) ... type strain of Aeromonas sobria: ATCC:43979, CCUG:14830, CECT:4245, CIP:74.33, HAMBI:1974, JCM:2139, BCCM/LMG:3783, NCTC:12979 ...
Aeromonas My first birthday without a mum in the world. 28 September 2018. 2 August 2021. / Sandra Walsh / 15 Comments ...
If Aeromonas is detected from the wound, injured corpse can be realized. ...
Mulia, D.S. (2007). Keefektivan vaksin Aeromonas hydrophila untuk mengendalikan penyakit MAS (Motile Aeromonas Septicemia) pada ... 2008). Penggunaan vaksin polivalen Aeromonas hydrophila untuk pengendalian penyakit MAS (Motile Aeromonas Septicemia) pada ... dan GPl-05 ABSTRAK Vaccination Aeromonas hydrophila is a concrete step to control the disease motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS ... ABSTRAK Vaksinasi Aeromonas hydrophila merupakan langkah konkrit untuk mengendalikan penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS ...
Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species ... Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species ... Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species ... Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species ...
name=RbsR regulon. species= Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449. (optional)size=2. ...
Our findings also highlighted that both Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria have been isolated in association with CyHV-2 ... CyHV-2 Outbreak Associated with Aeromonas spp. in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) in Piedmont (Italy). Author(s): Caruso ... CyHV-2 Outbreak Associated with Aeromonas spp. in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) in Piedmont (Italy), Trends in Fisheries ... we have speculated that motile Aeromonas spp. and CyHV-2 could be regarded as a potential "infectious pathogenic-complex". ...
Bacteria isolated from kidneys and livers of infected fish were iden- tified as Aeromonas salmonicida achromogenes according to ... Aeromonas salmonicida achromogenes, atypical aeromonas, Black Sea, sea bass,. Fish culture--Israel--Periodicals.,. Fish culture ... Karatas, S., Candan, A., & Demircan, D. (2005). Atypical aeromonas infection in cultured sea bass in the Black Sea. The Israeli ... Bacteria isolated from kidneys and livers of infected fish were iden- tified as Aeromonas salmonicida achromogenes according to ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Lee, Jeremy. ... A larger pore, using the type II secretin of Aeromonas hydrophila, may be able to circumvent the size constraint of α-hemolysin ... To avoid the presence of a similar lipoprotein co-purifying with ExeD, the gene was cloned from the bacteria Aeromonas ... Isolation and Use of the Aeromonas hydrophila Secretin ExeD for Nanopore Analysis. ...
Investigation of Aeromonas spp. in ground beef marketed in Afyonkarahisar Year 2021, Volume: 7 Issue: 1, 15 - 20, 27.10.2020 ... Aeromonas spp. can be widely found in the environment and it is associated with water. With contaminated water used in ... Aeromonas spp. kusma, ishal ve gastroenterit gibi çeşitli rahatsızlıklara neden olmaktadır. Ayrıca, çocuklar ve yaşlılar bu ... The suspected Aeromonas spp. were confirmed with VITEK® 2 Compact. The detected A. hydrophila strains were further investigated ...
KEY WORDS: Aeromonas dhakensis · Virulence · Erythrocyte necrosis · Antibiotic · Virulence genes · Oreochromis Full text in pdf ... ABSTRACT: Aeromonas dhakensis (Ad) CAIM 1873 growth was evaluated at different conditions and antibiotic susceptibility. ... Virulence of the fish pathogen Aeromonas dhakensis: genes involved, characterization and histopathology of experimentally ... Virulence of the fish pathogen Aeromonas dhakensis: genes involved, characterization and histopathology of experimentally ...
  • Most commonly, this has been reported with A. hydrophila, though the ability of clinical laboratories to correctly identify species of Aeromonas has been limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • To download a certificate of analysis for Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier ( 43414 ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. (atcc.org)
  • The certificate of analysis for that lot of Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) Stanier ( 43414 ) is not currently available online. (atcc.org)
  • Se presenta el hallazgo de niños con diarreas atribuibles a Aeromonas hydrophila pero que presentan características de diarrea invasiva, contrastando con lo esperado para este agente donde el desarrollo de diarrea secretoria es lo esperado. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • A total of 43 samples (4 sea water, 5 water, 4 river water, 10 oyster and 10 fish samples) from Izmir were examined for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Presence and phenotypic expression of blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M ESBL-encoding genes were investigated in environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and phenotypic expression of bla TEM , bla SHV, and bla CTX-M ESBL- encoding genes in 87 environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (n=41) and Aeromonas jandaei (n=46). (scielo.br)
  • Popoff, M., and Veron, M. 'A taxonomic study of the Aeromonas hydrophila-Aeromonas punctata group. (nih.gov)
  • 094 - 100 IMUNOGENISITAS HEAT KILLED Aeromonas hydrophila Strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VAKSIN Imunogenisitas Heat Killed Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Gb-01, Gpd-02, Dan Gpl-05 as a Vaccine Candidate Dini Siswani Mulia*, Cintya Windarti, Heri Maryanto Pendidikan Biologi, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto Jl. (studylibid.com)
  • [email protected] , ABSTRAK Vaksinasi Aeromonas hydrophila merupakan langkah konkrit untuk mengendalikan penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS) yang disebabkan oleh bakteri A.hydrophila. (studylibid.com)
  • Kata Kunci : Aeromonas hydrophila, heat killed, imunogenisitas, kandidat vaksin, strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 ABSTRAK Vaccination Aeromonas hydrophila is a concrete step to control the disease motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), which is caused by bacteria A. hydrophila. (studylibid.com)
  • Antibody titer data was analyzed by 94 Dini Siswani Mulia, Cintya Windarti, Heri Maryanto Imunogenisitas Heat Killed Aeromonas hydrophila Strain GB-01, GPd-02, dan GPl-05 Sebagai Kandidat Vaksin Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at test level 5%, while data from cross-reactions and water quality parameters were observed descriptively. (studylibid.com)
  • Budidaya ikan air tawar sering terkendala oleh adanya penyakit, yang paling utama adalah penyakit bercak merah atau sering disebut Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS) yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. (studylibid.com)
  • A larger pore, using the type II secretin of Aeromonas hydrophila, may be able to circumvent the size constraint of α-hemolysin and could allow research into larger molecules to be made. (usask.ca)
  • To avoid the presence of a similar lipoprotein co-purifying with ExeD, the gene was cloned from the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila (which does not have a PulS homologue) and expressed in E. coli. (usask.ca)
  • Detection of aerolysin, hemolysin genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from retail foods and human stool samples. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • The importance of Aeromonas hydrophila in food safety. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila complex isolated from foods of animal origin. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • All other cultures were reported as A. hydrophila or Aeromonas unspecified. (drjohnson.com)
  • A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. (who.int)
  • We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14%) and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. (who.int)
  • This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. (who.int)
  • A retrospective study of Aeromonas hydrophila infections at a university tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aeromonas hydrophila can cause a wide range of diseases and is mainly found in patients with underlying diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • In total 24 patients were identified with Aeromonas hydrophila -positive cultures , 22 of which were males (91.7%), and most (75%) had hospital -acquired infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Aeromonas hydrophila is an important pathogen to consider in nosocomial infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • The frequencies of the identified Aeromonas species were 38.33% for A. sobria, 23.33% for A. hydrophila, 10.0% for A. veronii and 26.67% for A. salmonicida and only one strain was not clearly identified. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacillus with a monotrichous flagellum which is gram-negative, pleomorphic and non-spore-forming. (dipterajournal.com)
  • The complete molecular interaction study clearly elucidated the efficiency of the molecular compound, Pentane with the target proteins, Mucin-5AC and the Outer Membrane Protein Transport Protein of Aedes aegypti and Aeromonas hydrophila respectively. (dipterajournal.com)
  • It was finally concluded that Pentane had better inhibitive action on Aeromonas hydrophila than on Aedes aegypti . (dipterajournal.com)
  • Hence, Pentane acts as a potential therapeutic agent for diseases associated with Aeromonas hydrophila . (dipterajournal.com)
  • Recently, we have characterized a heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (Alt), a heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (Ast), and a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) from a diarrheal isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterium widely found in the aquatic environment and capable of causing gastroenteritis in healthy individuals, was also identified. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT To investigate the inactivation of potential pathogens, we evaluated survival rates for Escherichia coli , Enterococcus faecalis , Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella typhi in samples taken from the Isfahan drinking water system. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'examiner l'inactivation d'agents pathogènes potentiels, nous avons évalué le taux de survie d' Escherichia coli , Enterococcus faecalis , Aeromonas hydrophila et de Salmonella typhi dans des échantillons prélevés dans le système d'eau potable d'Ispahan. (who.int)
  • Al- question awaiting an answer is the level of though the source water may be safe, once inactivation of other potential pathogens flowing in the distribution mains, it may be such as Enterococcus faecalis , Aeromonas detrimentally affected from a variety of hydrophila and Salmonella typhi at the rec- sources. (who.int)
  • Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Identification of Aeromonas strains to the genospecies level in the clinical laboratory. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • This study is the first to examine the in vitro formation and components of the biofilm of several Aeromonas clinical and environmental strains. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A biofilm formation assay using 1% crystal violet on a polystyrene plate revealed that most Aeromonas strains used in this study formed biofilms but one strain did not. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Analysis of the basic components contained in the biofilms formed by Aeromonas strains confirmed that they contained polysaccharides containing GlcNAc, extracellular nucleic acids, and proteins, as previously reported for the biofilms of other bacterial species. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This result suggests that outer membrane components may affect the biofilm formation of Aeromonas strains. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To examine this idea, we next investigated the ability of Aeromonas strains to form outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Electron microscopic analysis revealed that most Aeromonas strains released OMVs outside the cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Finally, we purified OMVs from several Aeromonas strains and examined their effect on the biofilm formation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These results suggest that the OMVs released from the bacterial cells are closely related to the biofilm formation of Aeromonas strains. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This study shows that the 16S rDNA RFLP analysis combined with fstA gene specific PCR was useful for rapid and reliable identification of Aeromonas strains and the coupled determination of the virulence genes may help to both control fish disease arising from Aeromonas spp. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • Type III secretion in the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (canada.ca)
  • The Gram negative bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fishes. (mun.ca)
  • Stool samples were collected on three employees who reported diarrhea, and one grew Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which is associated with diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • This review also aims to highlight comparative studies of immune responses against bacteria, based on our previous findings in largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) against Nocardia seriolae , gray mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) against Lactococcus garvieae , orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides ) against Vibrio harveyi , and koi carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) against Aeromonas sobria , using RNA-seq techniques. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulon of RbsR in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • species= Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (canada.ca)
  • Extensive studies with phenotyping and genotyping methods demonstrated that Aeromonas isolates from fresh and drinking water environments were phenotypically and genotypically different from Aeromonas isolates from patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aeromonas , bla TEM-116 , environmental isolates. (scielo.br)
  • On May 1, 1988, isolates of Aeromonas became reportable in California, the first state to mandate reporting of isolates of and infections with these organisms. (drjohnson.com)
  • From May 1, 1988, through April 30, 1989, clinicians and clinical laboratories in California reported 225 Aeromonas isolates from 219 patients. (drjohnson.com)
  • Aeromonas is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, bacteria that morphologically resemble members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reason to have a heater on a pond is to prevent an effect, sometimes called aeromonas alley, which is due to the falling efficiency of the koi immune system when compared with the activity of pathogenic bacteria such as aeromonas at low temperatures. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • Aeromonas bacteria are not active below 4.4 C but their activity and ability to infect rises rapidly as temperatures increase above this point until they reach their peak activity at 15.6 C. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • Although this temperature range is called aeromonas alley, aeromonas isn t the only threat, there are other potentially harmful bacteria that could exploit the weakened koi immune system below about 13 C. A graph showing the relative activity of the koi metabolism compared to the activity of common bacteria is shown below. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • Bacteria isolated from kidneys and livers of infected fish were iden- tified as Aeromonas salmonicida achromogenes according to morphological and biochemical characteristics, API 20NE results, and an agglutination test for A. salmonicida. (hawaii.edu)
  • Aeromonas bacteria are commonly found in freshwater aquariums and ponds. (cdc.gov)
  • Aeromonas bacteria cannot spread from person to person. (cdc.gov)
  • Aeromonas bacteria can also infect open wounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Aeromonas species are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria found in soil and fresh and brackish water worldwide (1). (drjohnson.com)
  • The results showed that some proteins existing in the Aeromonas biofilms have amino acid sequences homologous to functional proteins present in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It is known that Gram-negative bacteria often release extracellular membrane vesicles from the outer membrane, so we think that the outer membrane-derived proteins found in the Aeromonas biofilms may be derived from such membrane vesicles. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Wound infections are the second-most common type of human infection associated with Aeromonas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that at 4 C koi are almost inactive but, since the aeromonas bug is also inactive, they are safe from infection. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • If the water temperature rises slowly, the aeromonas bug becomes active and can infect koi because its immune system is weak until the temperature rises above 12.8 C so it is defenceless against this infection until then. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • Anyone can have an Aeromonas infection, but young children and adults with weakened immune systems are at most risk for severe disease. (cdc.gov)
  • One patient had a mixed infection including Aeromonas, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species. (drjohnson.com)
  • Pitt bacteremia score (p comorbidity index (p international normalized ratio (p comorbidity factors (p mortality due to Aeromonas infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • The susceptibility pattern of this organism indicates that, in Saudi Arabia , when an Aeromonas infection is suspected, treatment with quinolone along with other broad-spectrum antibiotics should be started until the culture and susceptibility results are known. (bvsalud.org)
  • Name Abstract for Aeromonas cavernicola Martínez-Murcia et al. (namesforlife.com)
  • Two major diseases associated with Aeromonas are gastroenteritis and wound infections, with or without bacteremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • reported the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Study of prevalence and antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas species isolated from minced meat and chicken samples in Iran. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • Prevalence of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The fact that someone has always maintained, say, 7 C and has never had a problem doesn't disprove that there is a risky area which we call aeromonas alley, it's just a reflection that their pond has few, if any, pathogenic bugs. (mankysanke.co.uk)
  • Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Molecular identification and determination of some virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. (uludag.edu.tr)
  • Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Antibacterial treatment of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) experimentally challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida and Pasteurella atlantica. (uib.no)
  • Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Members of the genus Aeromonas have been associated with a wide range of illnesses in humans, including gastrointestinal disorders and systemic infections in both immunocompromised and healthy hosts (4). (scielo.br)
  • The genus Aeromonas in human bacteriology: report of 30 cases and review of the literature. (drjohnson.com)
  • Empiric ciprofloxacin was given to one patient with a temperature of 38.3°C. Stool culture results were available within 3 days for positive isolation of Aeromonas . (cdc.gov)
  • In isolation, 5 different selective media were used: DNase Agar with Toluidine blue and Ampicillin (DNTA), Aeromonas Agar (AA), Rimler Shotts Agar (RSA), mA Agar and Aeromonas Mediums Base (AMB). (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Isolation and seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • H. medicinalis used after surgery has led to Aeromonas infections, most commonly with A. veronii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protection and antibody reactivity following vaccination of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. (uib.no)
  • Plasmid DNAs from Aeromonas punctata 37 and A. media 42 and their Escherichia coli TOP10 transformants (TF) carrying plasmids p37 or p42. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of an Aeromonas strain in a fecal specimen does not prove or even imply that the strain was causing the diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Netherlands, the presence of Aeromonas in drinking water is currently not considered a health-related problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have shown the presence of Aeromonas spp. (scielo.br)
  • Although the California surveillance data provide limited information about the morbidity of the wound infections reported, they suggest that the public health impact of these soft tissue infections is low and may be determined more by the nature of the underlying injury than by the presence of Aeromonas organisms. (drjohnson.com)
  • Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. (haifa.ac.il)
  • If history reflects exposure to sewage-contaminated water, gram-negative coverage should be instituted for organisms such Pseudomonas and Aeromonas . (medscape.com)
  • An interest in Aeromonas in nonchlorinated drinking water in the Netherlands was initiated from the 1980s, after the observation of a sudden increase of Aeromonas numbers in drinking water at the municipal Dune Waterworks of The Hague in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • Literature exists on this subject, but many papers have not adequately studied the causal role of the Aeromonas strain(s) that were isolated from the cases that were studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unexpected Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Environmental Aeromonas spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Surveillance data for 1988 and 1989 represent the first population-based estimates of both the occurrence and public health impact of Aeromonas infections in the United States and provide a basis for assessing the need for further surveillance of these organisms. (drjohnson.com)
  • These findings, as well as the occurrence of Aeromonas organisms in mixed infections, suggest that in some cases Aeromonas species may be colonizers in wounds rather than pathogens. (drjohnson.com)
  • Türkiye'deki su ve balıklardan izole edilen Aeromonas türlerinde ilk qnrS pozitifliği. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Incidence of Aeromonas and Listeria spp. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • Based on reported cases, the incidence of Aeromonas wound infections in California was 0.7 per million population. (drjohnson.com)
  • In spite of a number of virulence factors produced by Aeromonas species, their association with diarrhea has not been clearly linked. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For the first time, Aeromonas eucrenophila was isolated from two children, one with diarrhea and another without diarrhea. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The taxonomy of Aeromonas species requires further clarification. (drjohnson.com)
  • Aeromonas dhakensis ( Ad ) CAIM 1873 growth was evaluated at different conditions and antibiotic susceptibility. (int-res.com)
  • If Aeromonas is detected from the wound, injured corpse can be realized. (blogspot.com)
  • Aeromonas species are associated with gastroenteritis and with wound infections, particularly wounds incurred in outdoor settings. (drjohnson.com)
  • Globally the data on Aeromonas infections is limited, and no studies have been published about the situation in Saudi Arabia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors , clinical presentation, treatment , and outcomes of Aeromonas infections in Saudi Arabia . (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients 14 years and older with Aeromonas -positive cultures between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2022 were included. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Distribution of mesophilic Aeromonas species in raw and ready-to-eat fish and meat products in Switzerland. (scientificwebjournals.com)
  • Although Aeromonas species were recognized in 1891 as colonizers and pathogens of cold-blooded animals, especially fish (2), they were not identified as human pathogens until 1968 (3). (drjohnson.com)
  • The identification of Aeromonas species was performed as previously described (1). (scielo.br)
  • Identification of Aeromonas species is known to be troublesome due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. (uludag.edu.tr)