Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Acetoin Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseEscherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Agmatine: Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalFree Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Altitude Sickness: Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.Catalogs, Booksellers'BooksTextbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Rare BooksMicrobiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/3073)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (2/3073)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (3/3073)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (4/3073)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females. (5/3073)

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

Activity of disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide) and ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate) against metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. (6/3073)

Clinical resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole is best correlated with MIC values measured under aerobic conditions. Under these conditions both disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide), and its first mammalian metabolite, ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate), showed high levels of activity against metronidazole-sensitive (disulfiram MIC, 0.1-0.7 microM; ditiocarb MIC, 0.3-9 microM) and -resistant (MICs 0.2-1.3 microM and 1.2-9 microM respectively) isolates. Tritrichomonas foetus was also sensitive-the MICs for seven metronidazole-sensitive isolates were 0.1-1.0 microM for disulfiram and 1.0-6.9 microM for ditiocarb; those for two highly metronidazole-resistant strains were 0.3-1.3 microM and 0.6-6 microM respectively. Under anerobic conditions most strains became highly resistant to both compounds. Surprisingly, disulfiram was consistently more active than ditiocarb.  (+info)

Acid- and base-induced proteins during aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (7/3073)

Proteins induced by acid or base, during long-term aerobic or anaerobic growth in complex medium, were identified in Escherichia coli. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed pH-dependent induction of 18 proteins, nine of which were identified by N-terminal sequencing. At pH 9, tryptophan deaminase (TnaA) was induced to a high level, becoming one of the most abundant proteins observed. TnaA may reverse alkalinization by metabolizing amino acids to produce acidic products. Also induced at high pH, but only in anaerobiosis, was glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The gad system (GadA/GadBC) neutralizes acidity and enhances survival in extreme acid; its induction during anaerobic growth may help protect alkaline-grown cells from the acidification resulting from anaerobic fermentation. To investigate possible responses to internal acidification, cultures were grown in propionate, a membrane-permeant weak acid which acidifies the cytoplasm. YfiD, a homologue of pyruvate formate lyase, was induced to high levels at pH 4.4 and induced twofold more by propionate at pH 6; both of these conditions cause internal acidification. At neutral or alkaline pH, YfiD was virtually absent. YfiD is therefore a strong candidate for response to internal acidification. Acid or propionate also increased the expression of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) but only during aerobic growth. At neutral or high pH, AhpC showed no significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic growth. The increase of AhpC in acid may help protect the cell from the greater concentrations of oxidizing intermediates at low pH. Isocitrate lyase (AceA) was induced by oxygen across the pH range but showed substantially greater induction in acid or in base than at pH 7. Additional responses observed included the induction of MalE at high pH and induction of several enzymes of sugar metabolism at low pH: the phosphotransferase system components ManX and PtsH and the galactitol fermentation enzyme GatY. Overall, our results indicate complex relationships between pH and oxygen and a novel permeant acid-inducible gene, YfiD.  (+info)

Convective oxygen transport and tissue oxygen consumption in Weddell seals during aerobic dives. (8/3073)

Unlike their terrestrial counterparts, marine mammals stop breathing and reduce their convective oxygen transport while performing activities (e.g. foraging, courtship, aggressive interactions, predator avoidance and migration) that require sustained power output during submergence. Since most voluntary dives are believed to remain aerobic, the goal of this study was to examine the potential importance of the dive response in optimizing the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores during dives involving different levels of muscular exertion. To accomplish this, we designed a numerical model based on Fick's principle that integrated cardiac output (Vb), regional blood flow, convective oxygen transport (Q(O2)), muscle oxymyoglobin desaturation and regional rates of oxygen consumption (VO2). The model quantified how the optimal matching or mismatching of QO2 to VO2 affected the aerobic dive limit (ADL). We chose an adult Weddell seal Leptonycotes weddellii on which to base our model because of available data on the diving physiology and metabolism of this species. The results show that the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores must be completed at the same time to maximize the ADL for each level of VO2. This is achieved by adjusting Vb (range 19-94 % of resting levels) and muscle QO2 according to the rate of muscle oxygen consumption (VMO2). At higher values of VMO2, Vb and muscle perfusion must increase to maintain an appropriate QO2/VO2 ratio so that available blood and muscle oxygen stores are depleted at the same time. Although the dive response does not sequester blood oxygen exclusively for brain and heart metabolism during aerobic dives, as it does during forced submersion, a reduction in Vb and muscle perfusion below resting levels is necessary to maximize the ADL over the range of diving VO2 (approximately 2-9 ml O2 min-1 kg-1). Despite the reduction in Vb, convective oxygen transport is adequate to maintain aerobic metabolism and normal function in the splanchnic organs, kidneys and other peripheral tissues. As a result, physiological homeostasis is maintained throughout the dive. The model shows that the cardiovascular adjustments known as the dive response enable the diving seal to balance the conflicting metabolic demands of (1) optimizing the distribution and use of blood and muscle oxygen stores to maximize the ADL over the normal range of diving VO2 and (2) ensuring that active muscle receives adequate oxygen as VMO2 increases.  (+info)

Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities. ...
Elite oarsmen and oarswomen possess large body dimensions and show outstanding aerobic and anaerobic qualities. Oarsmen have VO2max values of 6.1 +/- 0.6 L/min and have incurred O2 debts of between 10 and 20 litres. The caloric expenditure of rowing estimated from the O2 cost of a 6-minute rowing ergometer exercise was calculated at 36 kcal/min, one of the highest energy costs so far reported for any predominantly aerobic-type sport. Aerobic and anaerobic calculations show that 70 to 75% of the energy necessary to row the standard 2000m distance for men is derived from aerobiosis while the remaining 25 to 30% is anaerobic. Women achieve VO2max values of 4.1 +/- 0.4 L/min and slightly lower anaerobic values than men. The relative 60 to 65% energy contribution of aerobic metabolism and 35 to 40% for anaerobiosis is not surprising since women compete at 1000m. Rowers also exhibit excellent isokinetic leg strength and power when compared with other elite athletes and oarswomen produced higher ...
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Changing the oxygen availability leads to an adaptation of Escherichia coli at different biological levels. After pertubation of oxygen in chemostat experiments there are very quick responses. This investigation deals with this dynamical behaviour (transitions) of Escherichia coli within the aerobiosis scale. The change for different biological variables, in different areas of the organism like the electron transport chain, the TCA cycle or globally is investigated by wildtype and mutants experiments ...
A revision video on the knowledge required on aerobic respiration. The knowledge is mainly for AQA but it will apply to other boards too. Remember to Like, Share and Comment!! Subscribe for more videos: source
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Keeping your back healthy: Regular low-impact aerobic activities - those that dont strain or jolt your back - can increase strength and endurance in your back.
Slim-fitting, soft and stretchy, this midweight jacket translates from the gym, to the track, and beyond. VaporWick® technology throughout manages moisture to keep you comfortable during aerobic activity.
Aerobic activity involves repetitive use of the large budgets, and all of them claim to have the best product for your skin. Depending on ones locale...
... The AirFloor aeration system is designed to provide optimal aeration for your composting material; allow the heaviest loaders to operate on the floor; and to facilitate leachate collection and drainage. The...
Anaerobic and aerobic respiration are ways your body converts food into energy so that your brain, muscles and other organs can function normally....
The development of the microbial flora specifically involved in the spoilage of sliced beef livers packaged and stored under aerobic conditions at 0 and 3 °C for 14 days was studied. Changes in the pH value of the product ...
Aims To (i) measure the aerobic stability- and describe the characteristics, during aeration, of high-moisture maize (HMM) treated with various additives, and (ii) describe the microbial characteristics of fermented liquid feed (FLF) added HMM. Methods and Results Four treatments were prepared with each of three HMM samples: (i) The HMM as is (CONTROL); and the control added (ii) acids (ACID); (iii) heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (HETERO); or (iv) homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (HOMO). After ensiling, aerobic stability was measured (Aim 1) and FLF prepared (Aim 2). The ACID treatment improved the aerobic stability of samples 1 and 3 from 9 to 14 h in the CONTROL to 67-115 h. All additives improved aerobic stability of sample 3 from 32 h in the CONTROL to 104-168 h. No proliferation of Enterobacteriacaea was detected during incubation of FLF. Conclusion The microbial profile during aeration- and impact of additives on the aerobic stability of HMM depended on the characteristics of ...
Aerobic Respiration is the second part of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen. Aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air which is necessary for aerobic respiration. This is the part of cellular respiration that most of the ATP is produced. After glycolysis, if oxygen is present in the cells environment, pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP through this process. Oxygen is important to aerobic respiration because oxygen allows additional electrons to pass along the chain and if they didnt ATP synthesis would stop. In aerobic respiration pyruvic acid is converted into Carbon Dioxide and water, producing a large amount of ATP. Aerobic respiration has two major stages known as the Krebs Cycle (named after a German biochemist, Hans Krebs), and the elctron transport chain. In the Krebs Cycle the oxidation of glucose is complete. The Krebs cycle takes 2 ...
Aerobic activity is the kind that uses the large muscles in your arms and legs, getting your heart rate up and making you breathe harder. Aerobic exercises, such as walking, biking, and jogging, are good for your cardiovascular system because they strengthen your heart, lower your blood pressure, and improve your circulation. And theres no substitute for aerobic activity when it comes to calorie burning and fat burning.. Experts recommend that you work at a moderate level of intensity, at least when you first begin an aerobic exercise program. There are two ways to tell whether youre at the moderate level. The simplest is the talk test. If you can still carry on a conversation and the activity feels somewhat hard, then youre probably working at the right pace. If its too difficult to talk and you find yourself panting, slow down. That indicates youre pushing yourself too hard. If youre breathing easy and can belt out a tune while youre working out, you need to pick up the pace a bit to ...
General Information: This strain has been derived from the original human-lung H37 isolate in 1934, and has been used extensively worldwide in biomedical research. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. This bacterium is the causative agent of tuberculosis - a chronic infectious disease with a growing incidence worldwide. It infects 1.7 billion people a year (~33% of the entire world population) and causes over 3 million deaths/year. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. The sluggish growth rate is a result of the tough cell wall that resists ...
General Information: Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. This bacterium is the causative agent of tuberculosis - a chronic infectious disease with a growing incidence worldwide. It infects 1.7 billion people a year (~33% of the entire world population) and causes over 3 million deaths/year. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. This bacterium does not form a polysaccharide capsule, and is an extremely slow growing obligate aerobe. The sluggish growth rate is a result of the tough cell wall that resists the passage of nutrients into the cell and inhibits waste products to be excreted out of the cell. The specialized cell envelope of this organism ...
Vigorous exercise requires anaerobic respiration. it doesnt require aerobic respiration because the blood wont be able to reach your muscle calls fast enough to deliver the oxygen they need.. A burst event (sudden vigorous activity). the energy comes from breaking down glucose into a chemial called lactic acid:. glucose ----, lactic acid (+ some energy). Respiration does not use oxygen to react with the glucose. disadvantages of anaerobic respiration:. -produces much less energy than aerobic respiration. -when lactic acid builds up int he bloodstream, it causes muscle cramp.. once burst event is over, lactic acid needs to be removed, it breaks down into carbon dioxide and water, using aerobic…. ...
The aerobes are organisms that require oxygen to live. The term can also be used as an adjective with respect to what needs oxygen or which has this gas.. Listed on Digopaul, the opposite of aerobic is anaerobic. In this case, anaerobic organisms (which can also be mentioned as anaerobic) do not use oxygen in their metabolic activities.. The evolutionary process that led to the development of aerobiosis began in oxygenic photosynthesis. In this photosynthesis, water supplies electrons and produces the release of oxygen as a by-product of the process. This photosynthesis began to send a large amount of oxygen into the atmosphere. Aerobic organisms, taking advantage of the energy released from the oxidation of different substances, managed to establish themselves as dominant on the planet.. It is called aerobically to the process through cellular respiration, oxygen can be employed to achieve the oxidation of fat, sugar and other substances, so that energy is generated. Plants and animals are thus ...
I have a question about anaerobic cultures. I am biochem/biophys grad student at the University of Pennsylvania. I need to grow up wild type ecoli anaerobically. What constitutes an anaerobic culture? How much media should I put into Fernbach flasks to make it an anaerobic culture and is it necessary to degas any flasks or bottles that I choose to grow my bacteria in? Any help in this matter would be appreciated. my email address is ehopper at mail.med.upenn.edu. Thank you Elizabeth Hopper ...
Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration both are involve chemical reactions which take place in the cell to produce energy, which is needed for
Transcriptional regulator required for the aerobic growth on D-malate as the sole carbon source. Induces the expression of dmlA in response to D-malate or L- or meso-tartrate. Negatively regulates its own expression.
In 2007, biologists from MIT uncovered a mystery surrounding cobalamin.[3] They found bacteria in an ecosystem that did not seem to have any synergistic relationship (involving the production of B-12) with other organisms in their environment. Dr. Graham Walker points out that there are over 30 genes required to synthesize cobalamin, and "thats a lot to carry around if you dont need to make it."[4] So, what is the reason for this biologically expensive process? In the last decade, biologists have been trying to answer this question, and cobalamin has some effect on flagella function (a tail-like structure that bacteria use for propulsion)[5]. So, there could be a synergistic relationship with this nutrient in a larger bacterial colony, especially in an anaerobic environment (lacking oxygen).. Most of the gut is an anaerobic environment, so there may be more answers to be found in the human intestines. In 2014, a group of scientists published a revolutionary paper on Cell Metabolism.[6] The ...
Aerobic Respiration: Krebs Cycle ,Respiration in Plants - Get topics notes, Online test, Video lectures, Doubts and Solutions for CBSE Class 11-science on TopperLearning.
Definition of aerobic respiration. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Sun Exposure- Heavy sun exposure over the years, skin which for those objects or potions that can slow if only stop! Apparently with GHR1000 athletes ...
Aerobic Respiration. The model for aerobic respiration is the oxidation of the glucose molecule: (1) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O + 38 ADP +38 P è 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 ...
Researchers from University of Cambridge have identified how an antibiotic-resistant superbug exploits oxygen-limited conditions in the lungs of patients with severe respiratory disease to thrive.
Respiration is the process or processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. ...
a diet for a person engaged in very active sports activity is one witch are ofter due to complex carbohydrates. traditional diet for athletes consister of a high percentage of meat, cheese and milk altough a steak has alot of potien it may also contain as 80% fat ...
Exercise that involves repetitive motion of the arms, legs and hips is known as aerobic activity. A treadmill is an aerobic machine used in gyms and homes....
Brand: Horleys , Code: HOR 4122 , Spec: 500.00 g For women. A supplement specially formulated for you, to help you take control of your health and fitness goals. Sculpt is a high protein shaping formula to assist fat loss in conjunction with a sensible eating plan and an exercise regime that includes resistance training and aerobic activity.. ...
How to Get Great Thighs. To get great thighs, try thigh-toning exercises, like squats, lunges, pliés, and leg circles. In addition to these exercises, try to get 150 minutes of aerobic activity each week. Shed off extra weight by eating 3 ...
Similar to common aerobic activities like jogging, walking and biking, swimming has huge health benefits. Whats more, swimming works your whole body from your
The magic numbers are 20 and 20; 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 20 minutes of strength training, and there are a couple ways to meet the goal.
An aeration device is immersed in an aeration-sedimentation basin for oxygenating the water contained therein. The aeration device comprises a vertical, hollow aeration column with a lower inlet and a
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) and generate energy. Facultative anaerobes use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. Microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2). Aerotolerant anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it. When an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the Pasteur effect can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant organisms. If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of ...
Fluid Thioglycollate Medium. Thioglycollate broth (Fluid Thioglycollate Medium) is a medium designed to test the aerotolerance of bacteria. Along with nutrients to support bacterial growth, it contains sodium thioglycollate, thioglycollic acid, L-cystine, methylene blue, and 0.05% agar. The sodium thioglycollate, thioglycollic acid, and L-cystine reduce the oxygen to water. Methylene blue is an indicator that is colorless in an anaerobic environment and greenish-blue in the presence of oxygen. The agar helps retard oxygen diffusion and helps maintain the stratification of organisms growing in different layers of the broth. Oxygen is driven out of the broth by autoclaving, but as the broths sit at room temperature, oxygen begins to diffuse back into the tube. This is evidenced by the small layer of blue-green at the top of the broth. Obligate aerobes will only grow in this oxygen-rich top layer. Obligate anaerobes will only grow in the lower areas of the tube. Microaerophiles will grow in a thin ...
PubMed journal article: Validating new tuberculosis computational models with public whole cell screening aerobic activity datasets. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Phosphorylation - Adding a phosphate back on. Stages of aerobic respiration. There are 4 stages of aerobic respiration:. 1) Glycolysis. The splitting of the 6-C glucose molecule into two 3-C pyruvate molecules. It occurs in the cytoplasm of all living cells.. -Glucose is activated by phosphorylation, the phosphate molecules come from the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules to ADP.. -Each glucose molecule is split into two 3-C molecules known as triose phosphate. -Hydrogen is removed from each of the triose phosphate molecules and transferred to a hydrogen-carrier molecule known as NAD.. -Enzyme controlled reactions convert each triose phosphate into pyruvate.. For each molecule of glucose, glycolysis produces:. 2 x ATP , 2 x Pyruvate , 2 x NADH. 2) Link Reaction. This is the conversion of the 3-C pyruvate…. ...
Looking for aerobiotic? Find out information about aerobiotic. Life existing in air or oxygen. life in the presence of free oxygen. Aerobiosis is characteristic of the overwhelming majority of animals, plants, and... Explanation of aerobiotic
For decades its been the common wisdom that runners need to build their aerobic "base." That is, to run long, slow distances.. As a coach, Dr. Phil Maffetone has had great success with this. He advises distance runners to wear a heart rate monitor and keep their heart rate below the Maximum Aerobic Factor.. He defines MAF as 180 minus your age.. If youre over 65, though, just stick with 65. Thats 180 minus 65, so you aim for a MAF of 115.. He also adds that if youre an experienced athlete whos gone over two years without injury and youre still progressing, you can add 5.. If youve been exercising but your performance is going downhill, subtract 5.. If youre recovering from major illness or surgery or youre just starting out, substract 10.. If youre 66 years and just had knee replacement surgery and/or you havent exercised since college, your MAF is 180 - 65 = 115 - 10 = 105.. Keep your heart rate below 105.. Remember, that figure is your maximum heart beat. If youre cycling and your ...
View this thesis on Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most. 6 How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin You need to include...
February is heart health month. You dont need to be an excellent athlete to boost your heart health. Moderate exercise can significantly reduce your risk of heart disease and other chronic illnesses as well as improve your endurance, strength and flexibility. Any amount and type of physical activity is beneficial for your overall health, Buy, here are the top five exercises to benefit your heart.. How much exercise do you need for heart health?. Experts recommend doing some form of moderate aerobic activity for at least 150 minutes/week or 75 minutes/week of vigorous aerobic activity. You can spread the minutes out in any manner that works for your schedule. The key is scheduling some form of moderate to vigorous cardiovascular activity into your week and actually doing it.. 5 Best exercises to improve heart health. Aerobic or cardiovascular exercise is any form of activity that increases your respiratory and heart rate; basically, any exercise that challenges your heart to work harder and ...
To understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of energy metabolism of tumor cells, its effect on the respiration and calcium homeostasis was examined with ascites hepatoma (AH130) cells under different oxygen tensions. NO reversibly inhibited the respiration and depolarized the membrane potential of AH130 cells in an oxygen-dependent manner; the inhibition was more marked at physiologically low oxygen concentrations than at its high tensions. NO reversibly decreased the cellular ATP levels and elevated the cytosolic calcium, particularly under low oxygen concentrations. Since the peritoneal cavity is fairly anaerobic, the results suggested that small amounts of NO generated in this compartment might strongly affect the energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis of tumor cells in vivo.. ...
Pandoraea species are gram negative, motile, non-spore forming, rod shaped and oxidase positive, obligate aerobes bacteria, and have one polar flagellum. Most of Pandoraea species ...
3. Replace the standard Petri dish lid with a sterile Brewer anaerobic Petri dish cover. The cover should not rest on the Petri dish bottom. The inner glass ridge should seal against the uninoculated periphery of the agar. It is essential that the sealing ring inside the cover is in contact with the medium. This seal must not be broken before the end of the incubation period. A small amount of air is caught over the surface of the medium; however, the oxygen in this space reacts with reducing agents in the medium to form an anaerobic environment ...
... ; Anaerobic respiration in muscles. Both of the processes releases energy ...
Basically the electron transport chain pumps the H+ into the inter membrane space in order to create a electrochemical gradient. This is used to generate ATP using ATPsynthase. The oxygen is used in order to take the H+ away from the cell so there is still an electrochemical gradient, in the reaction shown below ...
This 25-second animation illustrates how the movement of electrons and protons transmutes energy from covalent bond energy into a proton motive force and back into a covalent (phosphoryl) bond in ATP.. Published by Learning Registry #GoOpen. 2 Views, 0 Likes on Docs.com. #Life Science #oai:nsdl.org:2200/20110722035350704T #Microbiology #NSDL #NSDL_SetSpec_BEN
"Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis". ...
Identification of the transcription start sites indicates that transcription occurs in aerobiosis from three constitutive ...
... s have evolved from mitochondria by loss of aerobiosis-related features in several lineages (not all ...
The facultative anaerobic bacterium Escherichia coli is frequently forced to adapt to changing environmental conditions. One important determinant for metabolism is the availability of oxygen allowing a more efficient metabolism. Especially in large scale bioreactors, the distribution of oxygen is inhomogeneous and individual cells encounter frequent changes. This might contribute to observed yield losses during process upscaling. Short-term gene expression data exist of an anaerobic E. coli batch culture shifting to aerobic conditions. The data reveal temporary upregulation of genes that are less efficient in terms of energy conservation than the genes predicted by conventional flux balance analyses. In this study, we provide evidence for a positive correlation between metabolic fluxes and gene expression. We then hypothesize that the more efficient enzymes are limited by their low expression, restricting flux through their reactions. We define a demand that triggers expression of the demanded enzymes
"Aerobiosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aerobiosis" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Aerobiosis" by people in Profiles. ...
Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. …
Aerobiosis * Alcohol Oxidoreductases / genetics * Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism * Amino Acid Substitution * Anaerobiosis ...
d,e) Aerobiosis analysis. The cladograms report the taxa (highlighted by small circles and by shading) showing different ...
by-product formation rates and glucose uptake rates of mutants with linear electron transport chain at different aerobiosis ... Dephosphorylation and therefore inactivation of ArcA started at lower aerobiosis levels than in the wild-type strain. Notably, ... Determination of by-product formation and glucose uptake of mutants with linear respiratory chain at different aerobiosis ... Determination of by-product formation and glucose uptake of mutants with linear respiratory chain at different aerobiosis ...
Aerobiosis. Altitude*. Animals. Body Weight. Demography. Oxygen Consumption. Peromyscus / physiology*. Temperature*. From ...
Aerobiosis. Anaerobic Threshold* / physiology. Energy Metabolism. Glycogen / metabolism. Humans. Lactates / blood*, metabolism ...
"Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis". ...
Anaerobic growth corresponds to an aerobiosis value of 0%. An aerobiosis value of 100% is defined as the steady state with the ... Using the aerobiosis scale, results of different laboratories using different reactors can be compared. The aerobiosis scale ... the citric acid cycle shows the switch from its branched form at low aerobiosis values to the cyclic form at high aerobiosis ... aerobiosis units. The aerobiosis scale allows the reproducible analysis of microaerobic states on the physiological (Alexeeva ...
2002) Aerobiosis increases the genomic guanine plus cytosine content (GC%) in prokaryotes. J Mol Evol 55:260-264. ...
Cultivo y aislamiento en agar sangre a 37º en aerobiosis. Colonias blancas cremosas, lisas brillantes (24hs.). Colonias rojo ...
The growth of these mutants was then tested under different conditions (aerobiosis and aerobiosis enriched with CO2) and on ... or of arginine/ml in aerobiosis or CO2-enriched air. Aerobiosis was obtained by incubation in ordinary air. To calibrate the ... All these mutants were isolated under CO2-enriched growth conditions (aerobiosis enriched with 4% CO2), since CPS-A activity ... These mutants displayed the characteristic growth dependency on the CO2 supply; on DLA medium, no growth in aerobiosis was ...
2009) Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis. ... 2008) Methylhopane biomarker hydrocarbons in Hamersley Province sediments provide evidence for Neoarchean aerobiosis. Earth ...
Identification of the transcription start sites indicates that transcription occurs in aerobiosis from three constitutive ...
aerobiosis - life sustained in the presence of air or oxygen. 12.. life - an account of the series of events making up a ...
Batch cultures were grown in a New Brunswick BioFlo III fermentor using either air (aerobiosis) or 2.5% CO2 in O2-free N2 ( ... Interestingly, a large number of other ERG genes were significantly up-regulated in the rox1 strains under aerobiosis (ERG1, ... Presumably, a number of these genes are up-regulated in response to the derepression of Rox1-regulated genes under aerobiosis ... PIS1 is reported to be constitutively expressed with respect to a number of perturbations under aerobiosis (16), whereas Pss1 ...
Species Differences in Edema Formation and Energy Metabolism of the Heart Muscle During Aerobiosis and Anaerobiosis +). Methods ...
Relationships between mean SR and possible driving factors among sites.SR represented soil respiration; The driving factors were soil temperature (ST) at 5 cm d
Annual SR for the six sites.SR means soil respiration. Different letters denote significant differences among means (á = 0.05) as determined by Turkeys
MG1655, wild type, M9 minimal medium, glucose 0.2%, aerobiosis, 37.0 C, pH 5.5, OD600 of 0.3, mid exponential phase. E: ... MG1655, gadE knockout mutant, M9 minimal medium, glucose 0.2%, aerobiosis, 37.0 C, pH 5.5, OD600 of 0.3, mid exponential phase ...
Aerobiosis is characteristic of the overwhelming majority of animals, plants, and... Explanation of aerobiotic ... Aerobiosis. (redirected from aerobiotic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. aerobiosis. [‚e·rō‚bi′ō·səs] (biology ... Aerobiosis. life in the presence of free oxygen. Aerobiosis is characteristic of the overwhelming majority of animals, plants, ...
Ydenberg, R. C. and Clark, C. W. (1989). Aerobiosis and anaerobiosis during diving by Western Grebes: an optimal foraging ...
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... but it is required for normal growth in aerobiosis. As expected, the inactivation of ASC1 in the hap1−hem1− strain W3/H/C ... These results clearly show that only the ORF is involved in normal growth in aerobiosis and in the inability to grow on TE in ... because cells in which HAP1 is inactivated do not present an obvious phenotype in aerobiosis and heme-sufficient conditions. In ...
  • Aerobiosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Los resultados han evidenciado la influencia de la secuencia de deformación , de las características estructurales de los materiales y de la naturaleza de los esfuerzos en el endurecimiento durante la conformación de metales Resumen en inglés A study was made of the mechanical behavior of low carbon steel and brass samples submitted to sequential tensile and cyclic torsion straining. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Aerobiosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Aerobiosis" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The inability of Brucella abortus to aggregate under aerobiosis and that fact that the replicative niche of Brucella is characterized by microaerobic conditions prompted us to investigate the capacity of this pathogen to aggregate and grow in biofilms under microaerobiotic conditions. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • However, it is often unavailable because it is present as insoluble ferric hydroxide complexes in aerobiosis and at neutral pH. (plantphysiol.org)