Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
In anatomy, 'axis' is a term used to describe a real or imaginary line around which something rotates or along which it aligns, such as the second cervical vertebra, also known as the axis bone, which provides the pivot point for the rotation of the head.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (1/3073)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Ferritin mutants of Escherichia coli are iron deficient and growth impaired, and fur mutants are iron deficient. (2/3073)

Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of "reactive ferrous iron." It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling the expression of iron-containing proteins. The role of Bfr remains unclear.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of the nitrite-reducing system of Staphylococcus carnosus. (3/3073)

Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme prosthetic group; and NirR, which revealed no convincing similarity to proteins with known functions. We suggest that NirR is essential for nir promoter activity. In the absence of NirR, a weak promoter upstream of sirA seems to drive transcription of sirA, nirB, nirD, and sirB in the stationary-growth phase. In primer extension experiments one predominant and several weaker transcription start sites were identified in the nir promoter region. Northern blot analyses indicated that anaerobiosis and nitrite are induction factors of the nir operon: cells grown aerobically with nitrite revealed small amounts of full-length transcript whereas cells grown anaerobically with or without nitrite showed large amounts of full-length transcript. Although a transcript is detectable, no nitrite reduction occurs in cells grown aerobically with nitrite, indicating an additional oxygen-controlled step at the level of translation, enzyme folding, assembly, or insertion of prosthetic groups. The nitrite-reducing activity expressed during anaerobiosis is switched off reversibly when the oxygen tension increases, most likely due to competition for electrons with the aerobic respiratory chain. Another gene, nirC, is located upstream of the nir operon. nirC encodes a putative integral membrane-spanning protein of unknown function. A nirC mutant showed no distinct phenotype.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (4/3073)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females. (5/3073)

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

Activity of disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide) and ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate) against metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. (6/3073)

Clinical resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole is best correlated with MIC values measured under aerobic conditions. Under these conditions both disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide), and its first mammalian metabolite, ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate), showed high levels of activity against metronidazole-sensitive (disulfiram MIC, 0.1-0.7 microM; ditiocarb MIC, 0.3-9 microM) and -resistant (MICs 0.2-1.3 microM and 1.2-9 microM respectively) isolates. Tritrichomonas foetus was also sensitive-the MICs for seven metronidazole-sensitive isolates were 0.1-1.0 microM for disulfiram and 1.0-6.9 microM for ditiocarb; those for two highly metronidazole-resistant strains were 0.3-1.3 microM and 0.6-6 microM respectively. Under anerobic conditions most strains became highly resistant to both compounds. Surprisingly, disulfiram was consistently more active than ditiocarb.  (+info)

Acid- and base-induced proteins during aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (7/3073)

Proteins induced by acid or base, during long-term aerobic or anaerobic growth in complex medium, were identified in Escherichia coli. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed pH-dependent induction of 18 proteins, nine of which were identified by N-terminal sequencing. At pH 9, tryptophan deaminase (TnaA) was induced to a high level, becoming one of the most abundant proteins observed. TnaA may reverse alkalinization by metabolizing amino acids to produce acidic products. Also induced at high pH, but only in anaerobiosis, was glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The gad system (GadA/GadBC) neutralizes acidity and enhances survival in extreme acid; its induction during anaerobic growth may help protect alkaline-grown cells from the acidification resulting from anaerobic fermentation. To investigate possible responses to internal acidification, cultures were grown in propionate, a membrane-permeant weak acid which acidifies the cytoplasm. YfiD, a homologue of pyruvate formate lyase, was induced to high levels at pH 4.4 and induced twofold more by propionate at pH 6; both of these conditions cause internal acidification. At neutral or alkaline pH, YfiD was virtually absent. YfiD is therefore a strong candidate for response to internal acidification. Acid or propionate also increased the expression of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) but only during aerobic growth. At neutral or high pH, AhpC showed no significant difference between aerobic and anaerobic growth. The increase of AhpC in acid may help protect the cell from the greater concentrations of oxidizing intermediates at low pH. Isocitrate lyase (AceA) was induced by oxygen across the pH range but showed substantially greater induction in acid or in base than at pH 7. Additional responses observed included the induction of MalE at high pH and induction of several enzymes of sugar metabolism at low pH: the phosphotransferase system components ManX and PtsH and the galactitol fermentation enzyme GatY. Overall, our results indicate complex relationships between pH and oxygen and a novel permeant acid-inducible gene, YfiD.  (+info)

Convective oxygen transport and tissue oxygen consumption in Weddell seals during aerobic dives. (8/3073)

Unlike their terrestrial counterparts, marine mammals stop breathing and reduce their convective oxygen transport while performing activities (e.g. foraging, courtship, aggressive interactions, predator avoidance and migration) that require sustained power output during submergence. Since most voluntary dives are believed to remain aerobic, the goal of this study was to examine the potential importance of the dive response in optimizing the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores during dives involving different levels of muscular exertion. To accomplish this, we designed a numerical model based on Fick's principle that integrated cardiac output (Vb), regional blood flow, convective oxygen transport (Q(O2)), muscle oxymyoglobin desaturation and regional rates of oxygen consumption (VO2). The model quantified how the optimal matching or mismatching of QO2 to VO2 affected the aerobic dive limit (ADL). We chose an adult Weddell seal Leptonycotes weddellii on which to base our model because of available data on the diving physiology and metabolism of this species. The results show that the use of blood and muscle oxygen stores must be completed at the same time to maximize the ADL for each level of VO2. This is achieved by adjusting Vb (range 19-94 % of resting levels) and muscle QO2 according to the rate of muscle oxygen consumption (VMO2). At higher values of VMO2, Vb and muscle perfusion must increase to maintain an appropriate QO2/VO2 ratio so that available blood and muscle oxygen stores are depleted at the same time. Although the dive response does not sequester blood oxygen exclusively for brain and heart metabolism during aerobic dives, as it does during forced submersion, a reduction in Vb and muscle perfusion below resting levels is necessary to maximize the ADL over the range of diving VO2 (approximately 2-9 ml O2 min-1 kg-1). Despite the reduction in Vb, convective oxygen transport is adequate to maintain aerobic metabolism and normal function in the splanchnic organs, kidneys and other peripheral tissues. As a result, physiological homeostasis is maintained throughout the dive. The model shows that the cardiovascular adjustments known as the dive response enable the diving seal to balance the conflicting metabolic demands of (1) optimizing the distribution and use of blood and muscle oxygen stores to maximize the ADL over the normal range of diving VO2 and (2) ensuring that active muscle receives adequate oxygen as VMO2 increases.  (+info)

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

In medical terms, "axis" is used to describe a line or lines along which a structure or body part can move or around which it is oriented. It is often used in anatomical context to refer to specific axes of movement or alignment for various parts of the body. For example:

* The axial skeleton, also known as the upright skeleton, includes the skull, vertebral column, and chest cage.
* In neurology, the term "axis" is used to describe the second cervical vertebra (C2), which is also called the axis because it serves as a pivot point for head movement.
* The term "longitudinal axis" is used to describe an imaginary line that runs from the head to the foot, passing through the center of the body.
* In imaging studies such as X-rays or MRIs, the term "axis" may be used to describe a specific orientation or alignment for the image.

Overall, the term "axis" is used in medicine to describe lines or planes that serve as reference points for movement, alignment, or orientation of various body structures and parts.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Teaching Materials" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to resources and tools used by educators to facilitate learning, which can include textbooks, multimedia presentations, handouts, and other materials used in educational settings. If you have a specific term related to medicine or healthcare in mind, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate definition.

Clinical pharmacology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms. It involves understanding how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body, as well as their therapeutic effects, side effects, and toxicity. Clinical pharmacology also encompasses the design and conduct of clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new drugs in human subjects. The ultimate goal of clinical pharmacology is to optimize drug therapy for individual patients by considering factors such as age, sex, genetics, lifestyle, and comorbidities. In summary, clinical pharmacology is the application of pharmacological principles to the practice of medicine for the benefit of patients.

Competitive behavior, in a medical or psychological context, refers to the actions, attitudes, and strategies that individuals employ in order to achieve their goals while contending with others who have similar objectives. This concept is often studied within the framework of social psychology and personality psychology.

Competitive behavior can manifest in various domains, including sports, academics, professional settings, and social relationships. It may involve direct competition, where individuals or groups engage in head-to-head contests to determine a winner, or indirect competition, where individuals strive for limited resources or recognition without necessarily interacting with one another.

In some cases, competitive behavior can be adaptive and contribute to personal growth, skill development, and motivation. However, excessive competitiveness may also lead to negative outcomes such as stress, anxiety, reduced cooperation, and strained relationships. Factors that influence the expression of competitive behavior include genetic predispositions, environmental influences, cultural norms, and individual personality traits.

In a medical setting, healthcare providers may encounter competitive behavior among patients vying for attention or resources, between colleagues striving for professional advancement, or in the context of patient-provider relationships where power dynamics can influence decision-making processes. Understanding the nuances of competitive behavior is essential for fostering positive interactions and promoting collaboration in various domains.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Video Games" is not a term that has a medical definition. Video games are interactive software programs that run on electronic devices, such as computers, gaming consoles, and mobile phones. They typically involve some form of user input, such as keyboard or controller movements, to control an avatar or environment within the game.

However, there is a growing field of research examining the potential health impacts of video games, both positive and negative. Some studies have suggested that certain types of video games can improve cognitive abilities, such as problem-solving, memory, and reaction time. However, excessive gaming has also been linked to issues such as addiction, social isolation, and decreased physical activity.

If you have any concerns about the impact of video games on your health or the health of someone you know, it may be helpful to speak with a healthcare professional for guidance.

Spondylolisthesis is a medical condition that affects the spine, specifically the vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar region). It occurs when one vertebra slips forward and onto the vertebra below it. This slippage can lead to narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the nerves exiting the spine, causing pain and discomfort. The condition can be congenital, degenerative, or result from trauma or injury. Symptoms may include lower back pain, stiffness, and radiating pain down the legs. Treatment options range from physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Game Theory" is not a medical term. It is actually a mathematical model of strategic interaction, which is commonly used in economics, political science, and psychology. Game theory analyzes how people or entities make decisions when their outcomes depend on the actions of others, and how they can use this knowledge to achieve better results.

In medicine, the term "game" might be used informally to describe various types of simulations or training exercises, but it does not have a specific medical definition related to game theory.

"Methylhopane biomarker hydrocarbons in Hamersley Province sediments provide evidence for Neoarchean aerobiosis". Earth and ...
"Late Archean molecular fossils from the Transvaal Supergroup record the antiquity of microbial diversity and aerobiosis". ...
Identification of the transcription start sites indicates that transcription occurs in aerobiosis from three constitutive ...
A short-duration cycle ergometer exercise test has been developed that allows four parameters of aerobic function to be discerned. These are the maximum O2 uptake, anaerobic threshold, work efficiency, and the time constant for O2 uptake kinetics. The test form is a ramp of 4-8 min duration to the l …
Aerobiosis / physiology * Anaerobiosis / physiology * Bacterial Proteins / metabolism* * Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ...
"Methylhopane biomarker hydrocarbons in Hamersley Province sediments provide evidence for Neoarchean aerobiosis". Earth and ...
Life history traits and genome structure: aerobiosis and G+C content in bacteria J.R. Lobry ...
is an adjective that is used in the field of biology to name a member of aerobiosis. ...
... coli MG1655 and frdA and sdhC mutants at various aerobiosis levels. Journal of Biotechnology 154 (1), pp. 35 - 45 (2011) ...
Incubation was performed at 37°C for 48 hours for aerobiosis and for five days for anaerobiosis. Macroscopy and microscopy were ...
This is a "connection" page, showing publications James Liao has written about Aerobiosis. ...
Keywords: Aerobiosis, Cytochrome c Group, Neisseria meningitidis, Nitric Oxide, Nitrites, Oxidoreductases, Comparative Study, ... Aerobiosis, Cytochrome c Group, Neisseria meningitidis, Nitric Oxide, Nitrites, Oxidoreductases, Comparative Study, Journal ...
We found that divergence in energy metabolism and aerobiosis observed in extant lineages emerged later during chlamydial ...
C in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively. Pure probiotics and pathogens cultures were then mixed 1:1 and co-cultures were ...
Auerbach et al [25] also reported that stability upon aerobiosis in whole-crop rye harvested at DM content of 439 g/kg (milk ... From 0 to 32 h after aerobiosis, there was an increase in temperature of CON silage from 20.5°C to 23.8°C, remained stable ... Changes in organic acids after aerobiosis. Figure 5 illustrates effect of additives on lactic acid and acetic acid ... Stability of wilted rye silage ensiled with different additives after aerobiosis expressed as the hours that the silage ...
MeSH headings : Aerobiosis; Anaerobiosis; Biodegradation, Environmental; Canada; Environmental Pollutants / analysis; Food; ...
Aerobiosis is a type of respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. In the medical field, aerobiosis is the process by ... During aerobiosis, glucose (a type of sugar) is broken down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP ... Aerobiosis refers to the process of living organisms obtaining energy through the use of oxygen. ... Aerobic exercise, such as running or cycling, is a type of physical activity that relies on aerobiosis to produce energy. ...
Aerobiosis : ہوا پر منحصر زندگی , Asphyxiate : دم گہونٹنا , Aerobiotic : آکسیجن میں جینے والا ...
Aerobiosis; Anaerobiosis; Escherichia coli; Escherichia coli Proteins; Fermentation; Gene Deletion; Genetic Engineering; Lactic ...
MeSH headings : Aerobiosis; Bacterial Proteins / pharmacology; Escherichia coli / enzymology; Escherichia coli / genetics; Gene ...
TertiaryAerobiosisBody TemperatureSurface PropertiesCell DifferentiationClimate ChangeGene Transfer, HorizontalGene Expression ...
aerobiosis (en) * anaerobiosis (en) * environmental impact assessment (en) * environmental legislation (en) * microclimate (en) ...
Treatment 2 Aerobiosis. Of the 20 samples incubated in BHI broth under aerobiosis, only two demonstrated turbidity, represented ... Treatment 2 Aerobiosis: After the immersion of the point in saline for 24 h, the suspension was homogenized and 1 mL was ... Contamination was determined qualitatively and quantitatively by aerobiosis, capnophilic growth, and pour plate. The Petri ...
Stellungnahme der Hochschullehrer der deutschen Sportmedizin und des Wissenschaftsrates der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention (DGSP ...
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere ...
Discover & Compare: Unravel the world of terminology at your fingertips. Explore, learn, and compare diverse terms across various domains, fostering a deeper understanding and empowering informed decisions. Join our ever-growing community of knowledge seekers and sharpen your insights with us ...
Deciphering the Adaptation of Corynebacterium glutamicum in Transition from Aerobiosis via Microaerobiosis to Anaerobiosis.. ...
This .csv file shows FNR activity at different aerobiosis levels. Columns a_old Desired aerobiosis level (Aerobiosis units or % ... Data files: FNR activity at different aerobiosis levels REC..., FNR reporter activity at different aerobiosis l... ... aerobiosis levels. Finally, the aerobiosis levels were re-determined by calculating the actual acetate flux in the sampled ... Assays: Analysis of by-product formation rates in MG1655, Analysis of gene expression rates at different aerobiosis levels via ...
... are more generally used as indicators for aerobiosis in ancient ecosystems. However, recent genetic studies have brought into ...
Rather than reflecting the ancestral metabolic state, obligate aerobiosis in eukaryotes is most probably derived, having only ...
Under aerobiosis, nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ) is strongly decreased in pgrl1. Under anaerobiosis, H2 ...
Used to study Neoarchean aerobiosis, but can be produced by other bacteria. Methylation may aide survival under nutrient ...

No FAQ available that match "aerobiosis"

No images available that match "aerobiosis"