Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Firefly Luciferin: A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Monoiodotyrosine: A product from the iodination of tyrosine. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE), tyrosine is first iodized to monoiodotyrosine.Protein Modification, Translational: Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Hypotrichosis: Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Therapies, Investigational: Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.ArchivesMedical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cubozoa: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
(1/417) Intracellular trafficking pathways in the assembly of connexins into gap junctions.

Trafficking pathways underlying the assembly of connexins into gap junctions were examined using living COS-7 cells expressing a range of connexin-aequorin (Cx-Aeq) chimeras. By measuring the chemiluminescence of the aequorin fusion partner, the translocation of oligomerized connexins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane was shown to occur at different rates that depended on the connexin isoform. Treatment of COS-7 cells expressing Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq with brefeldin A inhibited the movement of these chimera to the plasma membrane by 84 +/- 4 and 88 +/- 4%, respectively. Nocodazole treatment of the cells expressing Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq produced 29 +/- 16 and 4 +/- 7% inhibition, respectively. In contrast, the transport of Cx26 to the plasma membrane, studied using a construct (Cx26/43T-Aeq) in which the short cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Cx26 was replaced with the extended carboxyl terminus of Cx43, was inhibited 89 +/- 5% by nocodazole and was minimally affected by exposure of cells to brefeldin A (17 +/-11%). The transfer of Lucifer yellow across gap junctions between cells expressing wild-type Cx32, Cx43, and the corresponding Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq chimeras was reduced by nocodazole treatment and abolished by brefeldin A treatment. However, the extent of dye coupling between cells expressing wild-type Cx26 or the Cx26/43T-Aeq chimeras was not significantly affected by brefeldin A treatment, but after nocodazole treatment, transfer of dye to neighboring cells was greatly reduced. These contrasting effects of brefeldin A and nocodazole on the trafficking properties and intercellular dye transfer are interpreted to suggest that two pathways contribute to the routing of connexins to the gap junction.  (+info)

(2/417) Reactive oxygen metabolites increase mitochondrial calcium in endothelial cells: implication of the Ca2+/Na+ exchanger.

In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still caused an elevation of [Ca2+]m. Moreover, the specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+/Na+ exchanger, 7-chloro-3,5-dihydro-5-phenyl-1H-4.1-benzothiazepine-2-on (CGP37157), did not potentiate the effects of H2O2 and HX-XO on [Ca2+]m, while causing a marked increase in the peak [Ca2+]m and a significant attenuation of the rate of [Ca2+]m efflux upon addition of histamine or CPA. In permeabilized cells, H2O2 mimicked the effects of CGP37157 causing an increase in the basal level of matrix free Ca2+ and decreased efflux. Dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient by carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), and blocade of the Ca2+ uptake by ruthenium red prevented [Ca2+]m increases evoked by H2O2. These results demonstrate that the H2O2-induced elevation in [Ca2+]m results from a transfer of Ca2+ secondary to increased [Ca2+]c, and an inhibition of the Ca2+/Na+ electroneutral exchanger of the mitochondria.  (+info)

(3/417) Functional effects of endothelin and regulation of endothelin receptors in isolated human nonfailing and failing myocardium.

BACKGROUND: An activated endothelin (ET) system may be of pathophysiological relevance in human heart failure. We characterized the functional effects of ET-1, ET receptors, and ET-1 peptide concentration in left ventricular myocardium from 10 nonfailing hearts (NF) and 27 hearts in end-stage failure due to idiopathic dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: Inotropic effects were characterized in isolated muscle strips (1 Hz; 37 degrees C). ET-1 0.0001 to 0.3 micromol/L significantly (P<0.05) increased twitch force by maximally 59+/-10% in NF and by 36+/-11% in DCM (P<0.05 versus NF). Preincubation with propranolol 1 micromol/L and prazosin 0.1 micromol/L did not affect the response to ET-1, but the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan and the ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 shifted the concentration-response curves for ET-1 rightward. The ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin S6c 0.001 to 0.3 micromol/L had no functional effects. The inotropic response to ET-1 was not associated with increased intracellular Ca2+ transients, as assessed in aequorin-loaded muscle strips. ET receptor density (Bmax; radioligand binding) was 62.5+/-12.5 fmol/mg protein in NF and 122. 4+/-24.3 fmol/mg protein in DCM (P<0.05 versus NF). The increase in Bmax in DCM resulted from an increase in ETA receptors without change in ETB receptors. ET-1 peptide concentration (radioimmunoassay) was higher in DCM than in NF (14 447+/-2232 versus 4541+/-1340 pg/mg protein, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ET-1 exerts inotropic effects in human myocardium through ETA receptor-mediated increases in myofibrillar Ca2+ responsiveness. In DCM, functional effects of ET-1 are attenuated, but ETA receptor density and ET-1 peptide concentration are increased, indicating an activated local cardiac ET system and possibly a reduced postreceptor signaling efficiency.  (+info)

(4/417) Secretagogues modulate the calcium concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum of insulin-secreting cells. Studies in aequorin-expressing intact and permeabilized ins-1 cells.

The precise regulation of the Ca2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]er) is important for protein processing and signal transduction. In the pancreatic beta-cell, dysregulation of [Ca2+]er may cause impaired insulin secretion. The Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin mutated to lower its Ca2+ affinity was stably expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. The steady state [Ca2+]er was 267 +/- 9 microM. Both the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid and 4-chloro-m-cresol, an activator of ryanodine receptors, caused an almost complete emptying of ER Ca2+. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generating agonists, carbachol, and ATP, reduced [Ca2+]er by 20-25%. Insulin secretagogues that raise cytosolic [Ca2+] by membrane depolarization increased [Ca2+]er in the potency order K+ >> glucose > leucine, paralleling their actions in the cytosolic compartment. Glucose, which augmented [Ca2+]er by about 25%, potentiated the Ca2+-mobilizing effect of carbachol, explaining the corresponding observation in cytosolic [Ca2+]. The filling of ER Ca2+ by glucose is not directly mediated by ATP production as shown by the continuous monitoring of cytosolic ATP in luciferase expressing cells. Both glucose and K+ increase [Ca2+]er, but only the former generated whereas the latter consumed ATP. Nonetheless, drastic lowering of cellular ATP with a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in a marked decrease in [Ca2+]er, emphasizing the requirement for mitochondrially derived ATP above a critical threshold concentration. Using alpha-toxin permeabilized cells in the presence of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate did not change [Ca2+]er, invalidating the hypothesis that glucose acts through this metabolite. Therefore, insulin secretagogues that primarily stimulate Ca2+ influx, elevate [Ca2+]er to ensure beta-cell homeostasis.  (+info)

(5/417) Reactive oxygen species activate a Ca2+-dependent cell death pathway in the unicellular organism Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

Here we examine a cell death process induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the haemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Ca2+ distribution in cellular compartments was measured with stable transformants expressing aequorin targeted to the cytosol, nucleus or mitochondrion. Within 1.5 h of ROS production, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport was impaired and the Ca2+ barrier between the nuclear envelope and cytosol was disrupted. Consequently the mitochondrion did not accumulate Ca2+ efficiently in response to an extracellular stimulus, and excess Ca2+ accumulated in the nucleus. The terminal transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labelling assay revealed that, 5 h after treatment with ROS, extensive fragmentation of nuclear DNA occurred in over 90% of the cells. Permeability changes in the plasma membrane did not occur until an additional 2 h had elapsed. The intracellular Ca2+ buffer, EGTA acetoxymethyl ester, prevented DNA fragmentation and prolonged the onset of changes in cell permeability. Despite some similarities to apoptosis, nuclease activation was not a consequence of caspase 3, caspase 1, calpain, serine protease, cysteine protease or proteasome activity. Moreover, trypanosomes expressing mouse Bcl-2 were not protected from ROS even though protection from mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS have been reported for mammalian cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ pathways can induce pathology in trypanosomes, although the specific proteins involved might be distinct from those in metazoans.  (+info)

(6/417) The vacuolar Ca2+/H+ exchanger Vcx1p/Hum1p tightly controls cytosolic Ca2+ levels in S. cerevisiae.

It is well established that the vacuole plays an important role in the cellular adaptation to growth in the presence of elevated extracellular Ca2+ concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Ca2+ ATPase Pmc1p and the Ca2+/H+ exchanger Vcx1p/Hum1p have been shown to facilitate Ca2+ sequestration into the vacuole. However, the distinct physiological roles of these two vacuolar Ca2+ transporters remain uncertain. Here we show that Vcx1p can rapidly sequester a sudden pulse of cytosolic Ca2+ into the vacuole, while Pmc1p carries out this function much less efficiently. This finding is consistent with the postulated role of Vcx1p as a high capacity, low affinity Ca2+ transporter and suggests that Vcx1p may act to attenuate the propagation of Ca2+ signals in this organism.  (+info)

(7/417) Differential pharmacological properties and signal transduction of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors EDG-1, EDG-3, and EDG-5.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP) is a potent lipid mediator released upon cellular activation. In this report, pharmacological properties of the three G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for SPP, EDG-1, -3, and -5 are characterized using a Xenopus oocyte expression system, which lacks endogenous SPP receptors. Microinjection of the EDG-3 and EDG-5 but not EDG-1 mRNA conferred SPP-responsive intracellular calcium transients; however, the EDG-5 response was quantitatively much less. Co-expression of EDG-1 receptor with the chimeric Galphaqi protein conferred SPP responsiveness. Galphaqi or Galphaq co-injection also potentiated the EDG-5 and EDG-3 mediated responses to SPP. These data suggest that SPP receptors couple differentially to the Gq and Gi pathway. All three GPCRs were also activated by sphingosylphosphorylcholine, albeit at higher concentrations. None of the other related sphingolipids tested stimulated or blocked SPP-induced calcium responses. However, suramin, a polycyclic anionic compound, selectively antagonized SPP-activated calcium transients in EDG-3 expressing oocytes with an IC50 of 22 microM, suggesting that it is an antagonist selective for the EDG-3 GPCR isotype. We conclude that the three SPP receptors signal differentially by coupling to different G-proteins. Furthermore, because only EDG-3 was antagonized by suramin, variations in receptor structure may determine differences in antagonist selectivity. This property may be exploited to synthesize receptor subtype-specific antagonists.  (+info)

(8/417) Measurement of perimitochondrial Ca2+ concentration in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells with aequorin targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane.

Microdomains of high cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in the proximity of mitochondria might have an important role in the stimulation of steroidogenesis in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. In the present study we have investigated local changes of free Ca(2+) concentration near the outer mitochondrial membrane ([Ca(2+)](om)) under stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) and K(+). Glomerulosa cells in primary culture were transfected with a recombinant cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of the human translocase protein 20 of the outer mitochondrial membrane, in frame with the Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein aequorin. This chimaeric aequorin (TomAeq) was associated with mitochondria-enriched subcellular fractions of transfected COS-7 cells and was susceptible to proteinase K, showing that it was targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane, facing the cytosolic space. In bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells transfected with TomAeq cDNA, Ang II induced a transient [Ca(2+)](om) peak reaching 1.42+/-0.28 microM, which decreased immediately to the basal resting value. The peak response to Ang II was strikingly lower than the peak response of mitochondrial free Ca(2+) concentration, which increased to 5.4+/-1.2 microM. The smaller response of [Ca(2+)](om) to Ang II compared with the elevated matrix response did not result from buffering effects of the organelle, from altered mechanisms of intramitochondrial Ca(2+) transport or from differences in the affinity of the chimaeric aequorins for Ca(2+). This approach has allowed us to follow perimitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis in bovine glomerulosa cells under stimulation with Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists and to reveal a strong gradient of Ca(2+) concentration between the mitochondrial matrix and the immediate environment of the organelle.  (+info)

*  Aequorin
Chemical characterization of aequorin indicates the protein is somewhat resilient to harsh treatments. Aequorin is heat ... Shimomura O, Inouye S, Musicki B, Kishi Y (1990). "Recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins. Cellular Ca2+ ... making aequorin suitable as a (Ca2+ reporter) in plants, fungi, and mammalian cells. Aequorin has a number of advantages over ... not aequorin, although both originally derived from the same animal. Work on aequorin began with E. Newton Harvey in 1921. ...
*  Bioluminescence
Furthermore, some of the blue light released by aequorin in contact with calcium ions is absorbed by a green fluorescent ... Other cofactors may be required for the reaction, such as calcium (Ca2+) for the photoprotein aequorin, or magnesium (Mg2+) ... ISBN 978-1-139-45181-9. Shimomura, O. (August 1995). "A short story of aequorin". The Biological Bulletin. 189 (1): 1-5. doi: ... Shimomura, O.; Johnson, F.H.; Saiga, Y. (1962). "Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein ...
*  Aequorea victoria
The blue light produced is in turn transduced to green by the now famous green fluorescent protein (GFP). Both aequorin and GFP ... The species is best known as the source of two proteins involved in bioluminescence, aequorin, a photoprotein, and green ... PDB: 1EMA​ Shimomura O (August 1995). "A short story of aequorin". The Biological Bulletin. 189 (1): 1-5. doi:10.2307/1542194. ... In 1967, Ridgeway and Ashley microinjected aequorin into single muscle fibers of barnacles, and observed transient calcium ion- ...
*  Photoprotein
For example, the photoprotein aequorin produces a flash of light when luciferin and calcium are added, rather than the ... Because of the kinetically slow step, each aequorin molecule must "recharge" with another molecule of luciferin before it can ... Shimomura O, Johnson FH (1975). "Regeneration of the photoprotein aequorin". Nature. 256 (5514): 236-238. doi:10.1038/256236a0 ... often until the addition of another required factor such as Ca2+ in the case of aequorin. Shimomura, O. "Bioluminescence: ...
*  Douglas Prasher
He is known for his work to clone and sequence the genes for the photoprotein aequorin and green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ... Prasher, D., McCann, R.O., Cormier, M.J., Cloning and expression of the cDNA coding for aequorin, a bioluminescent calcium- ... aequorin. Photochem. Photobiol., 49(4), 509-512 (1989). Prasher, D.C., O'Kane, D., Lee, J., Woodward, B., The lumazine protein ... where he identified the gene sequence for aequorin. He then joined the Biology Department of the Woods Hole Oceanographic ...
*  Bioreporter
Aequorin has been incorporated into human B cell lines for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in what is referred ... GFP, like aequorin, produces a blue fluorescent signal, but without the required addition of an exogenous substrate. All that ... Aequorin is a photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Upon addition of calcium ions (Ca2+) ... In some instances, the signal only occurs when a secondary substrate is added to the bioassay (luxAB, Luc, and aequorin). For ...
*  John Woodland Hastings
Hastings, J.W.; Mitchell, G.W.; Mattingly, P.H.; Blinks, J.R.; Van Leeuwen, M. (1969). "Response of aequorin bioluminescence to ... aequorin), which alone emits blue light, to a secondary green emitter which they termed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Once ...
*  Connexin
"Connexin-aequorin chimerae report cytoplasmic calcium environments along trafficking pathways leading to gap junction ... "Assembly of chimeric connexin-aequorin proteins into functional gap junction channels. Reporting intracellular and plasma ...
*  Calcein
Alternatively, Fura-2 , Furaptra , Indo-1 and aequorin may be used. An acetomethoxy group obscures the part of the molecule ...
*  Roger Y. Tsien
Aequorin is also a useful tool to indicate calcium level inside cells; however, it has some limitations, primarily is that its ...
*  Green fluorescent protein
GFP is co-expressed with aequorin in small granules around the rim of the jellyfish bell. The secondary excitation peak (480 nm ... In the 1960s and 1970s, GFP, along with the separate luminescent protein aequorin (an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of ... In A. victoria, GFP fluorescence occurs when aequorin interacts with Ca2+ ions, inducing a blue glow. Some of this luminescent ... The purpose of both the (primary) bioluminescence (from aequorin's action on luciferin) and the (secondary) fluorescence of GFP ...
*  Fusion gene
Prendergast, FG; Mann, KG (1978). "Chemical and physical properties of aequorin and the green fluorescent protein isolated from ...
*  Cell CANARY
At the final step of these reactions, Ca2+ ions are released, and in the presence of aequorin, photons are emitted. Aequorin is ... Aequorin," Photochem. Photobiol., vol. 49, no. 4, 1989, pp. 509-512. Petrovick, Martha S., James D. Harper, Frances E. Nargi, ...
*  ILCD
Aequorin-expressing yeast emits light under electric control.J Biotechnol. 2011 Mar 20;152(3):93-5. Official website J ... It is based on yeast cells expressing aequorin protein sensitive to change in intracellular calcium. Upon electrical ...
*  Luciferin
It is the prosthetic group in the protein aequorin responsible for the blue light emission. Dinoflagellate luciferin is a ...
*  Adult neurogenesis
Prendergast, Franklyn G.; Mann, Kenneth G. (1978-08-22). "Chemical and physical properties of aequorin and the green ...
*  Chemiluminescence
Another protein, aequorin, found in certain jellyfish, produces blue light in the presence of calcium. It can be used in ...
*  Calcium concentration microdomains
... can be visualised with fluorescence microscopy by using aequorin as a reporter protein. The ...
*  K-Strophanthidin
"The effects of digitalis on intracellular calcium transients in mammalian working myocardium as detected with aequorin". ...
*  Steven M. Smith
Knight, Marc R.; Campbell, Anthony K.; Smith, Steven M.; Trewavas, Anthony J. (1991-08-08). "Transgenic plant aequorin reports ... aequorin, to report calcium signalling in plants. Together they obtained funding, created the plants and showed that they could ...
*  Anthony Trewavas
Knight, M. R.; Campbell, A. K.; Smith, S. M.; Trewavas, A. J. (1991). "Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch ...
*  EF hand
In addition, aequorin has been used for years as an indicator of Ca2+ and has been shown to be safe and well tolerated by cells ... Aequorin belongs to the EF-hand family of CaBPs, with EF-hand loops that are closely related to CaBPs in mammals. ... Aequorin is made up of two components - the calcium binding component apoaequorin (AQ) and the chemiluminescent molecule ... EPS15 homology (EH) domain - InterPro: IPR000261 Aequorin is a calcium binding protein (CaBP) isolated from the coelenterate ...
*  UR-AK49
"Determination of affinity and activity of ligands at the human neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor by flow cytometry and aequorin ...
*  Pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1
"Determination of affinity and activity of ligands at the human neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor by flow cytometry and aequorin ...
*  Coelenterazine
... including aequorin, and obelin. Coelenterazine was simultaneously isolated and characterized by two groups studying the ...
Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of calcium, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular calcium ion concentration, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. Reduction of Cao reduced the amplitude of the aequorin response by a factor no greater than 3. Raising Cao increased the amplitude of the aequorin response. The aequorin response became smaller when membrane voltage was clamped to successively more positive values. These results indicate that the stimulus-induced rise of Cai may be due in part to a light-induced influx of Ca and in part to release of Ca from an intracellular store. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in Cai is a step in the sequence of ...
Light emitting molecules are an indispensable part of detection and reporting in many fields and are employed in a variety of biomedical applications. Bioluminescent light, or living light, from bioluminescent proteins in particular has many beneficial characteristics, including their lack of a need for an outside excitation source and detection at as low as subattomole levels. Aequorin is a well-characterized bioluminescent photoprotein that has found application in in vitro and in vivo studies. Despite the many advantages of aequorin, its application has been limited by the finite number of canonical amino acids restricting the engineering of aequorin. In order to increase the applications of aequorin, we have taken established methods that hijack the cellular machinery used to synthesize proteins to incorporate non-natural amino acids. By site-specifically incorporating the non-natural amino acids L-4-aminophenylalanine, L-4-bromophenylalanine, L-4-iodophenylalanine, and L-4-methoxyphenylalanine,
... INTRODUCTION ...Many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) trigger upon binding of an a...One of the methods of choice (reviewed by Mottheakis and Ohler 2000) ... ...,Cell,lines,expressing,recombinant,aequorin,and,a,G-protein,coupled,receptor,for,functional,screening,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Chem. 275, 25,892-25,899. 77. Green, A. , and Simpson A. W. M. (2002) Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates Ca2+ oscillations in rat hepatocytes by modulating plasma membrane Ca2+ fluxes. Gastroenterol. 123, 1291-1203. 78. M. , and Pozzan, T. (1992) Rapid changes of mitochondrial Ca2+ revealed by specifically targeted recombinant aequorin. Nature 358, 325-327. 79. , and Pozzan, T. (2000) Recombinant aequorin as a tool for monitoring calcium concentration in subcellular compartments. Methods Enzymol. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 3197-3202. 98. , and Imoto, K. (2001) A high signal-to-noise Ca2+ probe composed of a single green fluorescent protein. Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 137-141. 99. , et al. (2001) Beat-to-beat oscillations of mitochondrial [Ca2+] in cardiac cells EMBO J. 20, 4998-5007. 100. Schild, D. (1996) Laser scanning microscopy and calcium imaging. Cell Calcium 19, 281-296. 101. Parker, I. and Marriott, G. ) (2003) Biophotonics, Part A. in Methods in Enzymology, vol. 360, Academic Press, San ...
Growth patterns and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 66A containing a recombinant aequorin gene were studied in the presence of a permeabilizing fungicidal agent amphotericin B. The cell response, i.e., changes in the growth and development of the fungus (initiation of spore germination, mycelial growth, and intensity of sporulation) was dose-dependent. Low concentrations of amphotericin B (2.5 μM) stimulated spore germination: the number of germinating spores was 2-3 times higher than in the control (without the fungicide). At higher amphotericin concentrations (20 μM) spore germination was inhibited. Amphotericin B had a dose-dependent effect on mycelial growth and sporulation intensity on solid Vogel medium. Intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in the presence of amphotericin B were investigated using the luminescence of the photoprotein aequorin. High concentrations of amphotericin B (10 and 20 μM) were shown to cause an instantaneous increase in Ca2+
Shop Aequorin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Aequorin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Aequorin is a protein that contains coelenterazine as a luminescent compound and can be used for intracellular calcium ion detection. When three Ca2+ ions bind to the aequorin complex consisting of the 22 KD apoaequorin protein (APO), molecular oxygen and the luminophore coelenterazine, the latter is oxidized to coelenteramide with a concomitant release of CO2 and blue light. Since the intensity of bioluminescence emitted by aequorin upon calcium binding correlates with the Ca2+ concentration, a sensitive measurement of Ca2+ concentrations with a broad detection range (~0.1 µM to ,100 µM) is possible. Unlike fluorescent Ca2+ indicators, Ca2+-bound aequorin can be detected without illuminating the sample, thereby eliminating interference from autofluorescence ...
Ca2+ is a key regulator not only of multiple cytosolic enzymes, but also of a variety of metabolic pathways occurring within the lumen of intracellular organelles. Until recently, no technique to selectively monitor the Ca2+ concentration within defined cellular compartments was available. We have recently proposed the use of molecularly engineered Ca(2+)-sensitive photoproteins to obtain such a result and demonstrated the application of this methodology to the study of mitochondrial and nuclear Ca2+ dynamics. We here describe in more detail the use of chimeric recombinant aequorin targeted to the mitochondria. The technique can be applied with equivalent results to different cell models, transiently or permanently transfected. In all the cell types we analyzed, mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) increases rapidly and transiently upon stimulation with agonists coupled to InsP3 generation. We confirm that the high speed of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation with this type of stimuli depends ...
The influence of selective removal of the endocardial endothelium (by a 1-second exposure to the detergent Triton X-100, 0.5%) on myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness and intracellular Ca2+ transients was studied in ferret papillary muscles loaded with the Ca(2+)-regulated bioluminescent indicator aequorin. The removal of endocardial endothelium produced three major effects: 1) a decrease in peak developed tension and an early onset in isometric relaxation without corresponding changes in the intracellular Ca2+ transient; 2) a rightward shift in the peak [Ca2+]i-peak tension relation with no change in maximum Ca(2+)-activated twitch tension; and 3) a decrease in steady-state tetanic force with a slight increase in the steady-state [Ca2+]i (at 4 mM [Ca2+]o) and an unchanged steady-state tetanic force with a clear increase in the steady-state [Ca2+]i (at 10 mM [Ca2+]o). These results suggest that intact endocardium may enhance performance of the heart by increasing the myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness ...
The ability of labeled DNA or RNA probes to bind with high affinity and specificity to complementary nucleic acid sequences forms the basis of nucleic acid hybridization assays. Immunoassays, on the other hand, exploit the strong and specific interaction between antigens and antibodies. One aspect of this dissertation deals with enhancement of the sensitivity of bioluminescence hybridization assays based on the photoprotein aequorin. This is achieved by introducing, enzymatically, multiple aequorin labels per DNA hybrid. The bound aequorin is determined by its characteristic bioluminescence. An 8-fold improvement in sensitivity is observed with the amplified assay as compared to an assay without the amplification step. Another aspect of this dissertation involves the development of two novel microtiter well-based DNA hybridization assays in which an expressible cDNA fragment encoding firefly luciferase serves as a reporter molecule. The reporter molecule undergoes in vitro expression through coupled
Quincy Biosciecne Products Quincy Bioscience researches, develops and plans to market therapeutic compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer s disease, Parkinson s disease, stroke, Huntington s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). New therapeutics will be based on the calcium-binding protein aequorin. Calcium-binding proteins are important in the protection of certain cellular populations and decrease over the course of aging or disease progression. In June 2004, the company applied for its first patent on the aequorin technology. Research and development work is conducted in university laboratories in addition to Quincy Biosciences own facilities to fully develop the therapeutic applications of this technology. Aequorin acts in a protective manner similar to proteins that are depleted in humans with these diseases of aging. The dietary supplement Prevagen has been developed based on Quincy Bioscience s core technology and is slated for launch ...
High Ca2+ content in the Golgi apparatus (Go) is essential for protein processing and sorting. In addition, the Go can shape the cytosolic Ca2+ signals by releasing or sequestering Ca2+. We generated two new aequorin-based Ca2+ probes to specifically measure Ca2+ in the cis/cis-to-medial-Go (cGo) or the trans-Go (tGo). Ca2+ homoeostasis in these compartments and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been studied and compared. Moreover, the relative size of each subcompartment was estimated from aequorin consumption. We found that the cGo accumulates Ca2+ to high concentrations (150-300 μM) through the sarco plasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). The tGo, in turn, is divided into two subcompartments: tGo1 and tGo2. The subcompartment tGo1 contains 20% of the aequorin and has a high internal [Ca2+]; Ca2+ is accumulated in this subcompartment via the secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase 1 (SPCA-1) at a very high affinity (K50=30 nM). The subcompartment tGo2 contains 80% of aequorin, has a ...
BioAssay record AID 632132 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at rat MCHR1 expressed in HEK293 cells by aequorin bioluminescence assay.
This book is an authoritative monograph on the recent progresses in the chemistry of bioluminescence. This book provides a comprehensive overview on the past and the latest development in understanding the biochemical mechanisms on some 35 different types of luminous organisms, together with information helpful to students and researchers in an Appendix. It is the first and only book that provides chemical information on all currently known bioluminescence systems. Dr Shimomura is the leading practitioner in the field for the past half century, and is best known for his discovery of the jellyfish photoprotein aequorin and the green fluorescent protein. This book is the bible of bioluminescence, and is "a must read," not only for the students who study bioluminescence but also for those who work in various aspects relating to bioluminescence. This book will be an important source of chemical knowledge on bioluminescence for a long period of time in future. Fully revised since its publication in ...
Safety assessment of Apoaequorin, a protein preparation: subchronic toxicity study in rats. - Daniel L Moran, Palma Ann Marone, Mark R Bauter, Madhu G Soni
In the only previous simultaneous measurements of [Ca2+]iand tension in human myometrium, the luminescent indicator aequorin was used (24). This indicator has several limitations: the membrane must be transiently permeabilized to allow loading, it is difficult to calibrate, and it is not amenable to the protracted recording required for multiple measurements from a single strip. Fura 2, which has been used in rat myometrium (18-20), overcomes these limitations, and we have established that it can be used to quantify [Ca2+]iin spontaneously active human myometrium without interfering with its contractile behavior (Fig. 1).. Although labor is accompanied by profound changes in the physiology of the myometrium (3, 4, 9), our results suggest that the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus does not change in fura 2-loaded strips (Table1), consistent with results from skinned myometrium of the rat (7). We cannot, however, entirely eliminate the possibility that some differences between labor ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes.
Exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alkaline stress resulted in adaptive changes that involved remodeling the gene expression. Recent evidence suggested that the calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin could play a role in alkaline stress signaling. By using an aequorin luminescence reporter, we showed that alkaline stress resulted in a sharp and transient rise in cytoplasmic calcium. This increase was largely abolished by addition of EGTA to the medium or in cells lacking Mid1 or Cch1, components of the high affinity cell membrane calcium channel. Under these circumstances, the alkaline response of different calcineurin-sensitive transcriptional promoters was also blocked. Therefore, exposure to alkali resulted in entry of calcium from the external medium, and this triggered a calcineurin-mediated response. The involvement of calcineurin and Crz1/Tcn1, the transcription factor activated by the phosphatase, in the transcriptional response triggered by alkalinization has ...
Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, Renilla luciferase, or RLuc, is a bioluminescent enzyme found in Renilla reniformis, belonging to a group of coelenterazine luciferases. Of this group of enzymes, the luciferase from Renilla reniformis has been the most extensively studied, and due to its bioluminescence requiring only molecular oxygen, has a wide range of applications, with uses as a reporter gene probe in cell culture, in vivo imaging, and various other areas of biological research. Recently, chimeras of RLuc have been developed and demonstrated to be the brightest luminescent proteins to date, and have proved effective in both noninvasive single-cell and whole body imaging. RLuc is an oxidoreductase, specifically acting on single donors with O2 as the oxidant. However, this enzyme appears to be unrelated from most other luciferases that act on coelenterazine, such as those from copepods. RLuc catalyzes the chemical reaction Coelenterazine + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
V. Viviani et al. [Biochemistry 38 (1999) 8271] were the first to succeed in cloning the red-emitting enzyme from the South American railroad worm, which is the only bioluminescent organism known to emit a red-colored light. The application of red bioluminescence has been our goal because the transmittance of longer-wavelength light is superior to that of the other colors for visualization of biological functions in living cells. Now, different color luciferases, which emit with wavelength maxima ranging from 400 to 630 nm, are available and are being used. For example, based on different color luciferases, Nakajima et al. developed a tricolor reporter in vitro assay system based on these different color luciferases in which the expression of three genes can be monitored simultaneously. On the other hand, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a natural phenomenon caused by the intermolecular interaction between a bioluminescent protein and a fluorophore on a second protein, ...
Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a well-established method for investigating protein-protein interactions. Here we present a BRET approach to monitor ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the surface of living cells made possible by the use of fluorescent ligands in combination with a bioluminescent protein (NanoLuc) that can be readily expressed on the N terminus of GPCRs.. ...
Repolarization alternans has been considered a strong marker of electrical instability. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that ischemia-induced contrasting effects on the kinetics of membrane voltage and intracellular calcium transient (Ca(i)T) can explain the vulnerability of the ischemic heart to repolarization alternans. Ischemia-induced changes in action potential (AP) and Ca(i)T resulting in alternans were investigated in perfused Langendorff guinea pig hearts subjected to 10-15 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 10-15 min of reperfusion. The heart was stained with 100 microl of rhod-2 AM and 25 microl of RH-237, and AP and Ca(i)T were simultaneously recorded with an optical mapping system of two 16 x 16 photodiode arrays. Ischemia was associated with shortening of AP duration (D) but delayed upstroke, broadening of peak, and slowed decay of Ca(i)T resulting in a significant increase of Ca(i)T-D. The changes in APD were spatially heterogeneous in contrast to a
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Sep 1;307(5):H710-21. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00890.2013. Epub 2014 Jul 11. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Prevagen has been touted as a dietary supplement that helps to improve memory. Does Prevagen work?. Prevagen is a dietary supplement made by Quincy Bioscience, a company based in Wisconsin. It contains apoaequorin, a protein derived from a jellyfish. Evidence cited by Quincy Bioscience that Prevagen is effective is reported in a study in 2016. This study was not published in any journal.. The goal of the study was to determine whether the active ingredient of Prevagen, apoaequorin, improves cognitive function in older adults who have normal or near normal memory function. In this study, healthy adults ages 40-91 with memory concerns were examined by cognitive tests over a period of 90 days. People with neurological diseases and other conditions were excluded from the study population.. The authors reported that there were significant improvements in cognitive function in people treated with the study chemical compared to those who were not.. Limitations of this study include:. The study duration ...
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms ...
Summary -- Introduction -- Direct evidence - the digital approach -- Fluorescence-based visualisation -- Aequorin-based measurements -- Measurement of calcium transport across membranes -- Molecular biology based approaches -- Manipulation of calcium -- Calcium-induced function -- Calcium signalling in cardiac myocytes -- Calcium signalling in red blood cells -- Perspective -- Calcium Signalling Methodology -- Non-linear and ultra high-speed imaging for explorations of the murine and human heart -- A system for optical high resolution screening of electrical excitable cells -- Concepts for optical high content screens of excitable primary isolated cells -- A primary culture system for sustained expression of a calcium sensor in preserved adult rat ventricular myocytes -- Calcium imaging of individual erythrocytes: Problems and approaches -- Calcium Signalling in Cardiac Myocytes -- Reduced Cardiac L-Type Ca²+ Current in Cavß ₂ -/- Embryos Impairs Cardiac Development and Contraction With ...
These studies were designed to examine the cellular messenger that mediates the action of angiotensin II on fluid transport (Jv) in the rabbit proximal tubule. We measured the effects of angiotensin II on Jv, activation of adenylate cyclase, and the concentration of cytosolic free calcium (Cai) in the rabbit proximal tubule. In nine rabbit proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), angiotensin II, 10(-8) M and 10(-6) M, decreased Jv by 18 and 25%, P less than 0.05. In eleven rabbit proximal straight tubules (PST), 10(-8) and 10(-6) M angiotensin II decreased Jv by 20 and 23%, P less than 0.02. Angiotensin II did not affect lumen-to-bath phosphate fluxes in PCT or PST, and it did not activate adenylate cyclase in PST. In a preparation of proximal tubules (PCT and PST) loaded with aequorin, angiotensin II, 10(-8) and 10(-6) M, transiently increased Cai by 13 and 32%, P less than 0.001. We propose that Cai surges, activated by angiotensin II, are part of a cellular message that inhibits Jv in the rabbit ...
Accepted worldwide for its reliability, the FDSS is capable of 1536-well format and high-sensitivity luminescence measurements. The FDSS (Functional Drug Screening System) series are designed for cell-based assays in the drug discovery field. These instruments optically detect intracellular reactions and biological signal transmissions, and are used as screening systems to discover new lead compounds which could be candidates for new drugs. The FDSS7000EX is our high-end model capable of handling 1536-well assays and measuring both fluorescence and luminescence, and is equipped with a variety of functions such as multiple washing. Many kinds of suspended/adherent cells real-time kinetic reactions can be measured and analyzed. Various optional parts such as FRET, robot connections, etc. are available. In addition, the FDSS7000EX is expandable for future upgrades. Applications Intracellular calcium ion Membrane potential Ion channel Aequorin Luciferase FRET Suspended cell Applications Do more ...
FDSS Application Note No.1 Chloride ion sensitive fluorescent dye for Drug Screening [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.2 CoroNa Red as a potential probe for intracellular sodium imaging [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.3 FRET-based Voltage Sensor dyes for Drug Screening [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.4 FDSS Cell dispensing unit for Aequorin Flash luminescence [0.4MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.5 COX flash luminescence screening [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.6 Direct comparison of Fast response and Slow response Membrane potential dye using the FDSS6000 [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.7 Multiplexing Calcium Mobilization and Membrane Potential Assays Using the FDSS6000 [0.3MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.8 Comparison of No Wash Reagent Kits on the FDSS6000 [0.4MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note No.9 Effect of Plate Mixing, Fluid Addition Height and Speed on Reducing Addition Artifacts and Negative Control Drift Using the FDSS6000 [0.1MB/PDF]. FDSS Application Note ...
Luminescent Proteins-Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Luminescent Proteins. The editors have built Luminescent Proteins-Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Luminescent Proteins in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Luminescent Proteins-Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the worlds leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility.
The invention relates to the staining of poly(amino acids), including peptides, polypeptides and proteins in gels and on solid supports, using neutral or anionic complexes of transition metals.
Mark Underwood of Quincy Bioscience figured out that giving aequorin to rats through the golden months of their lives helped them hang onto the ability to perform tricks despite their advancing age. Rats normally get less tricky as they age because they lose their calcium-binding proteins, allowing free calcium to ravage their brains, which lets the tricks leak out. But rats plus jellyfish protein equals peak performance at mazes and bells throughout the lifespan ...
Ref. S69-ARF) Circa £24,000 per annum Fixed-term, three-year appointment We have an exciting Postdoctoral Research position which will investigate the role of cytoplasmic and chloroplastic Ca2+ signalling in the timing and induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. This ambitious project will apply new, GM technologies for manipulating and imaging subcellular [Ca2+] in vivo, using both aequorin (photon-counting imaging) and cameleon-GFPs (laser scanning confocal microscopy). The molecular effects of altered Ca2+ signalling will be investigated using a variety of techniques, notably real time quantitative PCR. The successful applicant will integrate a new research group led by Dr. John Love, in the Plant & Microbial Sciences Division and the Bio-imaging suite of Exeter University. More details at http://biojobs.blogspot.com/2007/04/postdoctoral-research-position-school.html More ARABIDOPSIS jobs available at http://biojobs.blogspot.com/search/label/Arabidopsis%20System ...
Thyroid Hormones , Tumor Markers , Reproductive Endocrinology , Diabetes , Infectious Disease , Cardiac Markers , Adrenal/Pituitary , Bone Metabolism , TDM , Anemia , LIA Other Analytes , Nucleic acid quantification , Aequorin Ca++ assays , Ion channels / GPCR´s , Two-Hybrid / Protein - protein interaction , Apoptosis / Cell viability / Cell cytotoxicity , ATP determination , Reactive oxygen species (ROS) ...
AequoScreen Double Transfected Cell Line: Human recombinant 5-HT3A receptor in aequorin HEK-293 host cell.. We provide two vials of cryopreserved cells (approximately 2.5 x 106 cells/vial), detailed product information including cell line properties, culture conditions and the pharmacological properties of the recombinant channel in a functional assay.. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma.. Terms and conditions apply. Some of our receptors may be restricted for sale in specified countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Line: Human recombinant P2Y11 receptor in aequorin 1321N1 host cell. We provide two vials of cryopreserved cells (approximately 2.5 x 106 cells/vial), detailed product information including cell line properties, culture conditions and the pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in a functional assay. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some of our receptors may be restricted for sale in specified countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
Among different pathways coordinating intracellular signaling, the most prominent is intracellular calcium signaling (ICS), controlling various cellular processes including proliferation, motility, apoptosis and differentiation [1]. ICS is impressively diverse and consists of mechanisms that differ in frequency, amplitude and spatio-temporal patterning depending on an extensive molecular repertoire of signaling components. The free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+i) of a resting cell is in the range of 10-100 nM. Following physiological stimulation, [Ca2+i levels can rise up to 1-2 μM concentrations. ICS is codified by the peak amplitude and frequency of [Ca2+i transients, promoted by the entry of external Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels or the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. These internal stores are deposited within internal membrane structures such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Following activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) cleaves ...
The role of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in paired pulse potentiation of ferret ventricular muscle.: 1. Stimulation of cardiac muscle with pairs of stimuli (paired puls
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Photoproteins have played a major role in advancing our understanding of biological processes. A broader array of biocompatible, nontoxic, and novel reporters can serve to expand this potential. Here we describe the properties of a luciferase from the copepod marine organism Gaussia princeps. It is a monomeric protein composed of 185 aa (19.9 kDa) with a short coding sequence (555 bp) making it suitable for viral vectors. The humanized form of Gaussia luciferase (hGLuc) was efficiently expressed in mammalian cells following delivery by HSV-1 amplicon vectors. It was found to be nontoxic and naturally secreted, with flash bioluminescence characteristics similar to those of other coelenterazine luciferases. hGLuc generated over 1000-fold higher bioluminescent signal intensity from live cells together with their immediate environment and over 100-fold higher intensity from viable cells alone (not including secreted luciferase) or cell lysates, compared to humanized forms of firefly (hFLuc) and ...
The appeal that Prevagen is making to consumers is a very old one: basically, they want you to think that if a protein is used in your brain, then eating that protein will make your brain healthier (even though apoaequorin is not a human protein). By this argument, I could package up hundreds of different proteins (perhaps thousands-the brain is a complex organ) and sell them as "brain food" This simplistic principle has been used for centuries in folk medicine: its the reason why some people think that eating the body parts of bears and tigers will make them more virile. But eating tiger organs doesnt make you more like a tiger. Its a form of magical thinking, and theres simply no science to support it. In short, its just wrong ...
glass. The RE-free glass shows white light emission with a high value of quantum efficiency (QE) comparable to conventional crystalline phosphor. It is notable that the high QE value is attained for RE-free transparent glass, and the broad emission can be continuously tuned by both the amount of activator and the composition of the glass. Since this glass possesses low-melting property, we emphasize that the glass phosphor will lead to the development of a novel inorganic white-light-emitting device in combination with a solid state UV light-emitting source.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ARP \ Antigens GFP, 1-238 aa, Aequorea victoria, Recombinant, E.coli \ 01-2067 for more molecular products just contact us
Light micrograph (LM Fluorescence) of a transformed bacteria colony (Escherichia coli) containing a jellyfish gene for GFP (green fluorescent protein). GFP is a 238 amino acid protein found in the Pacific jellyfish (Aequorea victoria). It exhibits a bright green fluorescence (green bioluminescence) when exposed to ultraviolet blue light. GFP is widely used as a research tool in biology and medicine. The gene coding for GFP can be tagged to the genes of other proteins or viruses to study their movements within cells. GFP can also be used to tagged cancer cells to track their spread through the body. The purpose of both bioluminescence and GFP fluorescence in jellyfish is unknown. Magnification: x20 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2759
Green fluorescent protein is a 27 kDa protein produced from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, which emits green light (emission peak at a wavelength of 509nm) when excited by blue light. GFP is an important tool in cell biology research. GFP is widely used enabling researchers to visualize and localize GFP-tagged proteins within living cells without the need for chemical staining.
0004]Heretofore, organic EL devices require higher driving voltages and show inferior luminance of emitted light and inferior efficiencies of light emission in comparison with inorganic devices. Moreover, properties of organic EL devices deteriorate very rapidly. Therefore, heretofore, organic EL devices have not been used practically. Although the properties of organic EL devices have been improved, organic EL devices exhibiting a sufficient efficiency of light emission and having sufficient heat resistance and life have not been obtained. For example, a phenylanthracene derivative which can be used for EL devices is disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. Heisei 8 (1996)-12600. However, an organic EL device using this compound exhibited an efficiency of light emission as low as about 2 to 4 cd/A and improvement in the efficiency is desired. In Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. Heisei 8 (1996)-199162, an EL device having a light emitting layer containing a fluorescent ...
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Ferrets are great fun and hugely rewarding, but owning one can also be costly and time-consuming. Are you ready to take on the responsibility? Check out this list of things you need to know before getting a ferret.. 1. A ferret is for life. Owning a ferret is a lifetime commitment. Ferret develop deep bonds with you and your family. Any change in ownership can be extremely traumatic, so you should be prepared for the responsibility involved in ferret ownership. Ferret owners need to be able to provide shelter, food, water, medical care, and love and attention.. 2. Owning a ferret can be expensive. Before owning a ferret you need to considerable financial commitment. Whether you get one or two ferrets, you will need a cage, bedding, bowls, and toys. The average care for one ferret, which includes supplies, food, and basic vet care it cost you around $700 - $1000 per year.. 3. Buy your ferret accessories in advance. Before you take your new ferret home, make sure you have all the basic supplies. ...
Deux randonneurs sur le Crêtet de la Gouille, en montant à la Tête de Ferret, avec la Tsarve de Ferret en arrière-plan.. ...
Read Fred the Ferret by Anne Spackman with Rakuten Kobo. The short story of a pet ferret named Fred who wanders outside on an adventure.
Its easy to fall in love ferrets when you see them at the pet store -- but unlike dogs and cats, most people just dont know how to take care of them.
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Amber Valley Dental Laboratories. Find Dental Laboratories in Amber Valley at Locallife.co.uk. Online listing of Amber Valley Dental Laboratories.
Decline in enrollment, lack of exposure caused the closure.. By Cynthia M. Herrera. [email protected] This college is closing the doors on its dental laboratory technology program, which is one of only two such programs at community colleges in Texas and among the most venerable in the United States.. The closure mirrors a trend throughout the country, said Richard W. Valachovic, president and CEO of the American Dental Education Association.. Mike Swain, program coordinator of dental laboratory technology, said the decision to close the program was made nine or 10 months ago because of a lack of students.. "I am deeply disappointed, and so are laboratory owners that I have talked with in San Antonio," he said.. The program has nine students enrolled.. Thats down from 17 who started in fall 2013, when the dean had to approve the class because enrollment was under the 25-student minimum.. The program did not receive enough exposure, Swain said. Some students found out about it only by ...
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Grinding wheels unmounted, Abrasive Wheels unMonuted, Dental Laboratory, Complete online dental laboratory supply catalog with dental porcelain, dental sand blasters, dental ovens and furnaces. Some of the brands we carry Renfert, Handler, Buffalo, Dentsply and more..
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The staff at Oral Arts Dental Laboratory in Huntsville is professional and readily available to treat your medical symptoms. Take care of all your dental and oral care needs in one place at Oral Arts Dental Laboratory.Whether you need a routine checkup or something more serious, Oral Arts Dental Laboratory is happy to help.
... - Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld - Orlando - Florida - United States - United States - EVENT OVERVIEW:\r\nThe Southern States Symposium & Expo meeting is the largest dental laboratory industry meeting in the country run by a nonprofit association. The educational sessions and expo will all provide you with beneficial information on the latest trends and technology updates. FDLA offers CDT/RG, AGD and State of Florida approved credits, so you will earn continuing education credits for attending the courses held during the Symposium.\r\nEXHIBITOR INFORMATION:\r\nExhibitor Benefits:\r\nRepresentation at the Largest Dental Laboratory Association Trade Show in the SoutheastCash Luncheon Area in the Expo hall on SaturdayOver 6 Hours of Dedicated Expo Time in the ScheduleDiscounted Advertising Prices in focus, FDLA\s quarterly publication - Keynote speaker - May 2014 - May 2014
Contact details for A Plus Dental Laboratory in Dundee DD2 3SP from 192.com Business Directory, the best resource for finding Dental Technicians listings in the UK
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The two most common materials used in dental veneers are composite resin and porcelain. Both types of veneers can be fabricated by a dental technician in a dental laboratory. Dental veneers that are fabricated in a dental laboratory are bonded to the teeth with resin cement. Porcelain material is brittle; however, when it is firmly bonded to the tooth it can become very strong and durable. Composite veneers can also be fabricated by the dentist inside your mouth at a dental office. How are Dental Veneers Placed? ...
Ms, PhD Rosieide Santos Amorim-Brito, DDS, MS. Bonded lingual retainers have been developed with various wire sizes, designs, and placement methods. 1-6 Lew has described a directbonded lingual retainer made of multistranded wires in a simple V-loop configuration.2 The loops extend to the papilla of each retained tooth, allowing the patient to floss the interproximal gingival crevices without compromising periodontal health.. Any bonding technique carries the risk of moisture contamination, which can lead to bond failures and subsequently to relapse.7,8 Other problems with current retainer bonding methods include the length of chairtime required and the difficulty of precisely adapting the retainer wire to the lingual surfaces.. The present article proposes a modified technique for bonding a 3-3 V-shaped lingual retainer, using a DuraLay* transfer tray as suggested by Lee and colleagues.7 This time-saving method allows optimum moisture control and adaptation while providing the patient with ...
The BSc Dental Technology degree has been developed to allow students who gain the Dental Technology foundation degree to top up to a full honours degree through a further two years part-time study. It is built to match the requirements of dental technicians, employers, professional bodies, and also meet the statutory regulators requirements for recognition of the higher technical skills required by modern dental technicians. These are the steps needed to gain the knowledge, understanding and competence you will require to develop as a Dental Care Professional (DCP). This top-up course recognises the practical skill training provided by a work place mentor in one of the disciplines of dental technology, and formal credit will be given for the developed competence and integration with other members of the dental team.. Skills and knowledge developed: The BSc Dental Technology programme is intended to provide students with the opportunity to develop the knowledge, understanding and real ...
Local resource for laboratory technician jobs in Ames. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to laboratory technician staffing agencies, laboratory technician schools, laboratory technician education, laboratory technician degree programs, and laboratory technician instructors, as well as advice and content on how to become a laboratory technician.
The Dental Technology Showcase (DTS) triumphs for another year as laboratory owners and dental technicians from across the UK gathered at the NEC Birmingham on Friday 12th and Saturday 13th MAy to enjoy all the quality, vibrancy and fun they have come to expect at the professions best attended event. With more than 30 hours of vCPD learning to choose from, and a number of new features, DTS proved to be a huge success!. DTS, the highest attended event in the UK by dental laboratory owners and technicians where enthusiastic delegates enjoyed an action-packed two days of sourcing and networking with over 100 exhibiting trade and specialist suppliers on the dedicated show floor. ...
Leeds based HQ Dental Laboratory is celebrating again after picking up two titles at the Laboratory Awards in London.. Last year HQ Dental won the best Crown and Bridge and best Orthodontic Laboratory, and at last Fridays (Nov 18) ceremony at Kensingtons Royal Garden Hotel they were nominated in 9 of the 10 categories and awarded Team of the Year and Best Prosthetic Laboratory.. Managing director Richard Wainwright said:" This year saw a record number of entries to the Laboratory Awards, making it especially hard to emulate our success in 2015 so Im incredibly proud that the work of our team and our expertise in prosthetics has once again been recognised by the industry.". HQ Dental boasts some of the best dental technicians in the UK and has earned a strong reputation in the fields of implantology, crown and bridge and prosthetics through continuous investment in training courses and technology. We are about to go Digital with a mouth scanner which will mean no more impressions, the worst ...
Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) primarily affects the lungs. CBD may occur among dental laboratory technicians when they inhale dust containing beryllium when working on items such as dental crowns, bridges, and partial denture frameworks made from dental alloys containing beryllium. CBD may develop within months after initial exposure to beryllium or may have a very slow onset and not develop until years after exposure to beryllium has occurred. The amount or length of exposure to beryllium necessary to cause a specific individual to develop CBD is not known, but recent information suggests that even short exposures (weeks or months) to levels of beryllium below OSHAs PEL of 2 μg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour day may lead to CBD in some workers (Source: OSHA). ...
We offer both full and partial dentures, ranging from economy to premier. Custom made to match your facial structure and desired tooth color by two dental technicians with combined experience of over 25 years. Fully equipped, in-house dental laboratory capable of providing one day fabrication of dentures, relines and repairs. Our premier denture has a 5-year, no additional charge guarantee, where patients are not charged for adjustments, relines or repairs for five years after the date that the denture is made.. List of denture services provided:. ...
Every profession across the world has a role to play in fulfilling the desires and aspirations of human beings. From time immemorial, professional success does not come on a platter of gold but through series of extensive research, development and in-depth training on the part of professionals and allied persons in the related field of practice, the same applies to dental technology as well. Dental technology is one of the various health professions in dentistry that is playing a significant role in the healthcare delivery system.. What is dental technology? Dental technology is the technical side of dentistry where a dental technician, on the prescription of a dentist, manufactures dental prosthetics or orthodontic appliances. This could consist of, artificial teeth such as a complete denture, partial denture, crowns and bridges and implants. Removable orthodontic appliances such as springs and retainers and mouth guards and maxillofacial appliances such as artificial facial prostheses.. Who ...
Have you ever dropped your partial or complete denture and it cracked into pieces? Or been out with friends and bit down and chipped a tooth, or even broke several teeth off your denture? These are very embarrassing moments and it literally can happen to anyone!. Our on-site removable dental laboratory allows us to provide same-day denture and implant denture repairs for your convenience!. Your local Prosthodontist, Dr. Wiltz, and his exceptional team, can in most cases get you in quickly to get your needs addressed the same day so that you can get back going with your normal routine. We provide complete denture, partial denture, and implant denture repair services as well as relines and rebases to patients in Decatur, Athens, Huntsville, Madison, Harvest, and the surrounding areas of Alabama.. Please be mindful that if your denture is loose, hurts, or you must use a lot of adhesive to chew, Dr. Wiltz can guide you on what can be done to correct the problem.. Please call ahead, (256) 319-3256, ...
The idea of asking secondary school students to write local histories is not new. Stevens (2001) recalled that when he began teaching history at a junior high school in 1978, there were many local histories of Rye, NH, that had been written by eighth graders. Stevens text, which is a primer on teaching secondary students local historiography, including the writing of local history, could be a valuable source for graduate students faced with a local history task. Technology education teachers can integrate history and social studies into their curriculum. This allows technology education teachers to leverage the learning and experiences students gained in working toward those standards in their social studies classes. In particular, a technology education teacher who has personally engaged in historical research and the writing of history would likely be better prepared to integrate content that supports these history and social studies standards and to address Standard 7 from the Standards of ...
Modern restorative dentistry offers many methods of restoring qualitative cavities within the clinical crowns. Due to the concept of maintaining continuity of the dental arch and maintaining the correct plane of occlusion, for reconstruction of posterior teeth, there are especially recommended indirect restorations, which are made in the dental laboratory, i.e. crown inlays.The aim of the study was based on the literature to describe indications, classifications and advantages of indirect composite inlays. Additionally, factors affecting the durability of indirect composite inlays and the influence on stomatognathic system were noted. Authors concluded that composite inlays can be recommended restoration method, not only in situations of loss of clinical crown tissue, but also in situations where it is necessary as structural reinforcement, e.g., in the case of Cracked Tooth Syndrome or Molar Incisor Hypomineralization ...
In many cases, Newmarket Denture Clinic can offer same-day local denture repair. Its true, because we have a state-of-the-art dental laboratory and skilled denturist on-site. Our denturists are trained to re-model dentures and make custom impressions when necessary. Thats how they are able to deliver same-day local denture repair services.. But repairing dentures is not necessarily a quick fix. Depending on the repairs that need to be made (i.e. the extent of the damage to your dentures), repairs can take up to 24 hours to complete, so keep that in mind when you are going in for same-day denture repair. You can generally find out from your dentist how long the repairs will take.. So, if you are ever in need of same-day denture repair, call our office at 905-853-2633. We will do our best to serve you quickly so you can get the smile you deserve.. ...
will be prepared for an academic career in the related fields of Prosthodontics and Biomedical Engineering. As clinicians, these graduates will provide an important link between clinical treatment and basic science research. The program will be particularly attractive to students who are interested in an academic career in Prosthodontics. Students will have the opportunity to work in dedicated space in the Faculty of Dentistry clinics and dental laboratories, as well as the fully equipped biomaterials research and the new tissue engineering facilities. All students in the program will be given the opportunity to teach in the undergraduate DDS program.. ...
WHAT IM WORKING ON NOW Since I joined Artists & Makers Studios in Rockville, Ive been working on getting my space set up (its a really cool former dental laboratory that came with some bonus dental equipment!) and working on a series of mixed media pieces exploring collective memory and collective amnesia.. WHAT I LIKE TO DO I love to paint people interacting, working, playing, and experiencing life. Every one of us has drama in our lives - tragedy, ecstasy, passion, anger, things that fulfill us and things that crush us. We are fascinating creatures. I hold a lens up to the moments and interactions that punctuate life and make it real. Ill admit Its hard to be a (mostly) representational painter without irony. Im an apologist for painting what I see, but not a crusader. I see the figures in my paintings as part of a rhythm, a movement, a heartbeat. I want to give them weight and presence in the moment that they find themselves in, but a recognition that it is only a moment and it will ...
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In order to work with material such as porcelain, cobalt chromium and acrylics, the dental technician must be knowledgeable in several advanced production technologies, manual and computerised. The profession also demands knowledge of how the body works and of oral diseases. Theoretical instruction and practical elements are therefore interspersed throughout the programme.. Through courses in anatomy, histology and dental anatomy, the student gains an early insight into biological factors that can influence dental technology work in the mouth. The students also learn about general odontological treatment principles, prophylaxis and hygiene.. Much of the instruction focuses on the durability of various dental materials, how various materials function together, how they can affect the patient and how the materials characteristics can change in the body. During the education, the students learn to produce various kinds of oral designs, both fixed and removable prostheses.. The students are ...
A Clinical Laboratory Technician (also called as a Medical Laboratory Scientist or MLS) can be defined as a medical professional responsible for diagnosing body fluids (such as urine, blood, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid or CSF, stool, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid and the like) to understand their chemical , immunologic, , hematological,microscopic & bacteriological characteristics. A clinical laboratory technician is required at clinical laboratories, hospitals, doctors clinics, reference labs, & biotechnology labs. A clinical laboratory technician often assists fellow doctors & nurses in selecting the right lab tests & proper collection means.. A clinical laboratory scientist is also responsible for recognizing anomalies in instrumentation and must perform calibrations, equipment validations, quality controls, statistical control of observed data, "STAT" or run-by-run assessment, & record normal operations at regular intervals.. As important aids and tools, a clinical ...
Find Maryland Laboratory Technician jobs on Monster. Search for Laboratory Technician job opportunities in Maryland and apply for the job thats right for you.
The Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) is an essential member of the modern healthcare team and they work in close cooperation with physicians to establish diagnoses and monitor the effectiveness of treatment through direct examination of patients and analysis of specimens. MLTs work in all areas of the lab including chemistry, hematology, microbiology, medicine, immunology, and genetics, or they may specialize and develop expertise such as virology or molecular genetics. MLTs may work in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or in a reference laboratory. Medical Laboratory Technician is #18 on the Best Job List according to the Jobs Related Almanac. A Career Ladder Program has been established to provide additional advancement opportunities. The MLT curriculum is an integrated program in which basic concepts, technical procedures, and laboratory exercises are presented at the college prior to assignment to clinical education at one of the clinical affiliates for practical experience. Students ...
Salary ranges, benefits, bonuses, stats, job descriptions and open positions for Medical Laboratory Technician in Maine. Including Medical Laboratory Technician salaries in Auburn, Augusta, Bangor, Biddeford, Lewiston, Portland, Saco, South Portland, Westbrook, Windham
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4 Clinical Laboratory Technician jobs available in Greenville, NC on Indeed.com. Medical Technologist, Registered Nurse - Dialysis, Laboratory Technician and more!
A career in medical laboratory science is a fast-paced, caring profession where you treat the specimens we receive as if they were the patients themselves in a laboratory. Medical Laboratory Technicians are the professionals behind those laboratory results that physicians rely on to provide 70-80% of clinical diagnoses of patients. Allegany College of Maryland offers high-quality education and career training coursework that is affordable - a fraction of the cost of four-year colleges and universities. With over 90 career and transfer programs from which to choose, 98% of our graduates were found to be satisfied with their preparation for employment or transfer to another college or university.
... may offer a variety of programs, certificates and diplomas. Attend a Dental Technician school in Lubbock, Texas to help advance your career or consider pursuing an online degree.
Advanced Ceramic Tools for Machining Application - III: Wear Characteristics of a Woodworking Knife with a Vanadium Carbide Coating only on the Clearance Surface (Back Surface)
OBJECTIVES New CAD/CAM ceramic-based dental prosthesis has become a popular choice for their advantages, e.g. more materials availability, more aesthetics, higher strength and biocompatibility, and saving processing time, in comparison to other kinds of restorations. Measuring their static and dynamic mechanical properties could help dentists to choose and evaluate the appropriate material for specific applications, since the long-term clinical data might not be available when the materials had been launched. Thus, in this study, the reliability and fatigue behaviour of three CAD/CAM dental ceramics were evaluated, and envisaged to reduce the clinical risk of damage for CAD/CAM restorations. METHODS Three CAD/CAM blocks, i.e. zirconia (Cercon, DeguDent, Germany), hybrid ceramics (Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany) and lithium disilicate (e.maxCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein), were cut, sintered (if necessary according to manufacturers instruction), and surface polished (Ra,0.2microns). The ...
Patient Care Technician Sample Resume.Sample Resume Medical Laboratory Technician South . Dialysis Patient Care Technician Cover Letter Sample . Great Sample Resume: Resume Samples: Renal Dialysis . Resume & CV Design Ideas
or a similar penal statute of another country, (vi) proof of a working knowledge of the English language that the registration committee considers sufficient to enable the person to practice medical laboratory technology in the province, and (vii) proof of professional liability insurance of a type and in an amount acceptable to the council, except where an applicant is applying for registration as a member with a non-practicing status. (2) In addition to the requirements of subsection (1), where an applicant is currently or was previously licensed or registered to practice medical laboratory technology in another jurisdiction, the applicant shall provide a letter of good standing from the licensing or registration body of that jurisdiction which includes confirmation of whether or not the applicant is or has been the subject of investigative or disciplinary proceedings in the jurisdiction and the particulars of those investigative or disciplinary proceedings. Back to Top. General status 5. (1) ...
CAD/CAM is a field of dentistry and prosthodontics using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) to improve the design and creation of dental restorations, especially dental prostheses, including crowns, crown, veneers, inlays and onlays, fixed bridges, dental implant restorations, dentures (removable or fixed), and orthodontic appliances. There exists a misconception that the CAD/CAM process is complicated and time-consuming. However, the CAD/CAM system is simple to operate, versatile, and precise. All-ceramic restorations can be designed and milled chair side, with the added advantage of elimination of traditional impressions and temporaries, and the patient leaves the appointment in about an hour with the final restoration in place. Dental CAD/CAM is approaching 20 years of clinical experience and has a proven track record on all relevant aspects of clinical performance, including fit, longevity and survival rates, sensitivity, strength, and wear.
The first nylon bristle toothbrush was put on the market less than 80 years ago. That means people were driving cars before they were using an effective toothbrush.. Fortunately, dentistry has come a long way in the last century. New technology allows dentists to treat patients faster and more effectively.. Look how far weve come:. Digital X-Rays:. If youve had dental X-rays recently, you may have noticed a change from the traditional film X-ray. Many dental professionals are using new and improved digital X-ray machines.. Digital imaging uses highly sensitive receptors that require significantly less radiation exposure than film. Dental professionals benefit from using digital X-rays too. The computerized pictures allow them to see the condition of your teeth in greater detail. Digital X-rays are a time saver - they take less than half the time to develop compared with film X-rays.. Dental Lasers/Laser Dentistry:. When we think of lasers, were more likely to think of sci-fi and Star Wars. ...
De Anza College is a community college serving the south bay within the San Francisco region. Medical Laboratory Technician, Provide students with the technical skills and knowledge needed to perform routine clinical laboratory testing in all major area, Faculty
Learn more about Rhode Island Medical Laboratory Technician Schools and Career Information, including degree options, training programs, schools, colleges, universities, top cities and more.
The medical laboratory technician associate degree program is 67 credits with the awarding of an associate of arts degree upon successful completion. The certificate program is 37 credits, sequenced in 4 semesters. A bachelor in science degree is required for application to the certificate program. Completion time can vary depending on a candidates background and need for identified preparatory skills and coursework and the students rate of study. The complete program is available at the Harrisburg Campus. Some required courses offered at other campuses and sites. Graduates can sit for American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) and National Credentialing Agency (NCA) certification exams. The program is fully accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS).
IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY FOR MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIANS is a text for both two-year and four-year laboratory science programs, which is structured to provide detailed technical information interspersed with critical thinking activities, web activities, case studies, sample procedures, and review questions.
We have finalized the workflow and related component libraries to include the Multi-unit Abutment for Izir restorations. This advancement enables Noble Biocare workflows and parts for Izir ...
From the Department of Healthcare Administration, and Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, and Department of Management Information Systems, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology; Department of Health Services Administration, China Medical University; Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung; Department of Urology, Feng Yuan Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare; Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung; Department of Rheumatology, Nantou Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nantou; Department of Family Medicine, and Department of Medical Education, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan. Supported by Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare under grant no. FL1030505007-2 and Ministry of Science and Technology under grant no. MOST104-2622-H-166-001. Y.F. Chen, PhD, Department of Healthcare Administration, and Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central ...
The curriculum in Pimas Medical Laboratory Technology program is designed to prepare graduates to pass the ASCP certification examination. The curriculum emphasizes a higher level of math, science, and critical reasoning skills for proficient formulation of oral and written communications.. The MLT faculty upholds the mission of Pima Community College by preparing highly qualified medical laboratory technicians to enter the clinical laboratory field with the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for clinical competence, as well as the skills needed to grow in their careers.. ...
Most medical laboratory technicians work in a clinical laboratory either in a physicians clinic or hospital. A medical laboratory technician (MLT) performs routine tests in all areas of the clinical laboratory including blood banking, chemistry, hematology, immunology and microbiology. Working with the supervision of a medical technologist, a MLT performs a full range of laboratory tests for basic clues to determine the causes or extent of diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Medical laboratory technicians must be dedicated and self-motivated. This skilled individual is responsible for performing laboratory tests efficiently and accurately for high quality patient care. ...
This article introduces an innovative decision making model for adapting evidence-based practice to the specific needs of a department in a dental school. The design encourages suggestions for curricular change directly from the faculty members, while providing a mechanism that allows them to actively participate in the process through the use of evidence-based principles and practice. The nucleus of this model is an Advisory Council comprised of nine full-time departmental faculty members who, when charged, act as independent task force leaders who recruit other faculty members and lead small teams that investigate suggestions for curricular change. Following an accelerated investigative process, recommendations to the Advisory Council are made; if approved, these changes are integrated into the curriculum. The incorporation of an interdisciplinary Advisory Council of key departmental faculty members structured to investigate questions or concerns posed by students, administrators, or other faculty
Abstract: We measured what students perceive physicists to believe about physics and solving physics problems and how those perceptions differ from the students personal beliefs. In this study, we used a modified version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey which asked students to respond to each statement with both their personal belief and the response they thought a physicist would give. Students from three different types of university introductory physics courses were studied. Students who have not yet taken physics in college have a surprisingly accurate idea of what physicists believe about physics no matter what their high school background and what physics courses they choose to take in college. These ideas are largely unaffected by their college physics instruction. In contrast, students personal beliefs about physics differ with varying high school physics backgrounds and college physics courses in which they enroll, and these beliefs are affected by college ...
Sadness, depression and anxiety common during the festive season, according to University of Phoenix College of Social Sciences survey. PHOENIX, Dec. 8, 2015 - Roughly two-thirds (66 percent) of U.S. adults say mental health is a very or extremely serious issue, and two-thirds (67 percent) of Americans cited personal experience dealing with mental health issues, according to a recent survey from University of Phoenix® College of Social Sciences among 1014 U.S. adults aged 18 or older. The survey, which examined the prevalence of mental health issues including seasonal sadness and depression, also found that nearly half (45 percent) of U.S. adults say they have experienced mental health issues such as sadness or depression around the fall and winter festive season.. "An overwhelming majority of Americans recognize that mental health is a serious issue and many have personal experiences with mental health issues, and those feelings often intensify during the festive time of year," said Tammy ...
... Spring Semesters, Monday and Wednesday 9:30AM - 10:50AM, Room 705 Course Information. A physical science survey course dealing with the interactions between Earth systems, humans and the environment. Topics include understanding Earth systems and the physical interactions between different systems, natural disasters (earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, landslides, etc), groundwater, waste disposal, pollution, resources and population, engineering geology and land-use planning. Students will turn in several projects including constructing a land-use map of a local area as a means of learning how multiple geologic factors influence our local land-use. Transfer Credit: Transfers to CSU. Transfers to UC. POWER POINT PRESENTATIONS. Internet Resources USGS - US Geological Survey Library Internet ...
For the past few decades, medical laboratory technology has been characterized by rapid and dramatic innovation, including the development of new tests and advances in equipment and testing techniques. Information technology has revolutionized data transfer by decreasing the time it takes to order and receive test results and by creating opportunities for research using Big Data sets. These new technologies are having a profound impact on the medical laboratory workforce[i]. Yet, despite these exciting developments, the profession continues to fall short as a career choice, leading to the current workforce shortage.. The Scope of the Labor Shortage. The BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics) reports that employment of medical laboratory technologists and technicians is expected to grow by 13%, from 330,600 in 2010 to 373,500 in 2020[ii]. This translates into about 11,300 laboratory technologist/technician job openings annually through 2018 (including 7,000 through attrition as well as 4,300 new ...
Global Dental Diagnostics and Surgical Equipment Market are anticipated to be more than US$ 10 Billion by 2022. The overall growth of the market is due to innovations in the field of dental technologies; these are helping in reducing the overall turnaround time for dental procedures and also improve the efficiency of practitioners.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/dental-diagnostics-and-surgical-equipments-market-and-forecast-by-products-1184-p.php. Rising incidences of oral disease and frequent transitions in the oral care needs, of patients prefer for painless diagnosis and surgeries. This will propel the growth of the dental equipment market. Improper eating habits in children and inclination towards junk food cause dental problems. The elderly people suffer from various dental disorders such as caries, oral candidiasis and xerostomia that drive the dental diagnostic.. Tools used in Dental Diagnostics. Dental ...
Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats and courses we offer Dental Implantology, fixed orthodontics, rotary endodontics,General dentistry. and various online dental courses having best faculty of world wide repute. ...
Before the manufacturing of a veneer, your dentist may recommend that you wear a temporary veneer, or a "temporary," that provides a preview of the expected results. The temporary made by the technician is attached with composite resin material that can be removed easily to fix the final veneer onto the teeth.. The temporary may be adjusted so that an ideal fit is obtained and fabrication of the final veneer can begin. Two methods may be used for fabricating dental veneers. With respect to layered veneers, the technician will apply a mixture of porcelain, liquid, and powder to a model of the tooth in layers. This layering allows the technician to determine the level of color and translucency required.. After the porcelain powder is fired in a kiln, the veneers are then skillfully hand-molded to their desired shape. An alternative method, pressed veneers, involves the use of wax to mold a dental model, which is then coated with a high heat "investment material." The wax is melted to produce the ...
Canadian Journal of Medical Laboratory Science ... To promote and maintain a nationally accepted standard of medical laboratory technology by which other ...
The PCS 7 LAB Collection enables continuous acquisition of all influencing variables and status data over the entire course of an experiment. In this way, reliable and reproducible information can be obtained with a minimum of effort for further analysis, be it for the specification of input material or the optimization of the process.. Based on components of the scalable process control system SIMATIC PCS 7, the PCS 7 LAB Collection can be used to implement a robust, modular laboratory automation system which effectively protects the employees, the laboratory technology and the environment. The system allows the flexible use of employees: the continuous monitoring of process engineering values combined with the efficient automatic alarm system when limit values are violated directs attention to the exact areas affected. In critical situations, the process control system can bring the experiment to a safe, stable state if necessary and thus prevent personal injury and damage to equipment. ...
PGD is a process whereby a woman achieves a pregnancy by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with an unaffected embryo. IVF is an assisted reproductive technology in which after stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple eggs for fertilization, the eggs are removed from the ovary, and fertilized in the laboratory. Then a single cell from each fertilized egg is sent to a PGD laboratory. The cells are then tested for the FMR1 mutation and then only those eggs without a mutation are implanted into the womans womb. This procedure has been used for other genetic conditions.. One of the difficulties when attempting PGD for Fragile X carriers is that some carriers have ovarian insufficiency (ranging from premature menopause to reduced ovarian functioning). This makes it difficult to stimulate the ovaries to make the multiple eggs needed for PGD. Another complexity in PGD is that the laboratory technology used, called PCR, does not accurately distinguish between a full and premutation. It will only tell you ...
8:00 a.m. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Grand Rounds, "Caustic Indigestion," Dr. Thomas Lowry, Wilford Hall Medical Center (MED: 309L) 8:30 a.m. Training Office, "Telephone Skills," Anita Glass (Call ext. 7-2320 to enroll.) Noon Teleconference Network of Texas (TNT), "Cytology: Radiation Effect in Cervical, Vaginal and Pulmonary Specimens," Dr. Patti Alli, Johns Hopkins University (Call ext. 7-2700 for information.) Noon Briscoe Library Workshop, "Advanced Web Searching and Evaluating Biomedical Information" (Register at www.uthscsa.edu/computing/training/training.html.) 1:15 p.m. Psychiatry Grand Rounds, "Windows to the Brain: Imaging for Psychiatry Now and in the Future," Dr. Robin Hurley, Baylor College of Medicine (MED: 409L) 1:30 p.m. TNT, "Laboratory Technology: Hematopathology - A Case Study Approach to Erythrocyte Disorders," Bunny Rodak, Indiana University (Call ext. 7-2700 for information.) 3:00 p.m. Biocomputation Seminar, "Introductory Tutorial on the Rationale of BLAST (the ...
Aequorin - Wikipedia  Aequorin - Wikipedia
Chemical characterization of aequorin indicates the protein is somewhat resilient to harsh treatments. Aequorin is heat ... Shimomura O, Inouye S, Musicki B, Kishi Y (1990). "Recombinant aequorin and recombinant semi-synthetic aequorins. Cellular Ca2+ ... making aequorin suitable as a (Ca2+ reporter) in plants, fungi, and mammalian cells. Aequorin has a number of advantages over ... not aequorin, although both originally derived from the same animal. Work on aequorin began with E. Newton Harvey in 1921. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aequorin
Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch and cold-shock and elicitors on cytoplasmic calcium.  - PubMed - NCBI  Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch and cold-shock and elicitors on cytoplasmic calcium. - PubMed - NCBI
Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch and cold-shock and elicitors on cytoplasmic calcium.. Knight MR1, ... Microinjected aequorin has been widely used for intracellular calcium measurement in animal cells, but its use in plants has ... Reconstituted aequorin is cytoplasmic and nonperturbing; measurements can be made on whole plants and a calcium indicator can ... Aequorin is a calcium-sensitive luminescent protein from the coelenterate Aequorea victoria (A. forskalea) which is formed from ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1865907?dopt=Abstract
Cell lines expressing recombinant aequorin and a G-protein coupled receptor for functional screening (         INTRODUCTION    ...  Cell lines expressing recombinant aequorin and a G-protein coupled receptor for functional screening ( INTRODUCTION ...
... aequorin,and,a,G-protein,coupled,receptor,for,functional,screening,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory ... For t he detection of antagonists, CHO-5HT2B- Gα16-aequorin cells were incubated with various concentrations of the compounds ... After reconstitution of active aequorin, the cells are diluted 10 times before use, and 50 μl of the dilution (i.e. 25 000 ... Button, D. and Brownstein, M. (1993) Aequorin-expressing mammalian cell lines used to report Ca2+ mobilization. Cell Calcium 14 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/Cell-lines-expressing-recombinant-aequorin-and-a-G-protein-coupled-receptor-for-functional-screening-1376-1/
The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the...  The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the...
The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the ... The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12849/suppinfo
Aequorin-Containing Compositions and Methods of Using Same - Patent application  Aequorin-Containing Compositions and Methods of Using Same - Patent application
0050]Aequorin is taken up by hippocampal neurons. In a set of preliminary studies, aequorin was bilaterally injected directly ... Aequorin is not exported or secreted by cells, nor is it compartmentalized or sequestered within cells. Accordingly, aequorin ... 0016]Aequorin is a photoprotein originally isolated from luminescent jellyfish and other marine organisms. The aequorin complex ... 0019]The function of aequorin is distinguished by several characteristics: aequorin is non-toxic and does not interfere with ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100152117
Aequorin Mutants with Site-Specifically Incorporated Non-Natural Amino by Kristen Marie Grinstead  "Aequorin Mutants with Site-Specifically Incorporated Non-Natural Amino" by Kristen Marie Grinstead
... several red-shifted aequorins, including the most red-shifted aequorin to date, with half-lives of up to 60 s were developed, ... Aequorin was also genetically linked to a VEGFA targeting molecule, a DARPin designated as MP0112, for the imaging of ... Aequorin is a well-characterized bioluminescent photoprotein that has found application in in vitro and in vivo studies. ... In order to increase the applications of aequorin, we have taken established methods that hijack the cellular machinery used to ...
more infohttps://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_dissertations/1482/
The effect of physiologically occurring cations upon aequorin light emission. Determination of the binding constants  The effect of physiologically occurring cations upon aequorin light emission. Determination of the binding constants
2. The aequorin light emission in a medium simulating the in vivo cationic conditions for barnacle muscle fibres indicates that ... 1. The effect of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and pH upon the rate of aequorin utilization has been investigated in the presence of Ca2+. ... 7. The reaction schemes used for the explanation of these and other published results on aequorin (Moisescu, D.G., Ashley, C.C ... 10(-5) M. However, for free calcium concentrations lower than 10(-6) M, the intensity of light emitted by aequorin shows a ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication226512
Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids: by Kristen M. Grinstead, Laura Rowe et al.  "Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids:" by Kristen M. Grinstead, Laura Rowe et al.
The sensitivity of aequorin is due to the fact that bioluminescence is a rare phenomenon in nature and, therefore, it does not ... Aequorin is a non-toxic photoprotein that can be used as a sensitive marker for bioluminescence in vivo imaging. ... This is the first time that aequorin variants incorporating non-canonical amino acids have shown to be active in vivo and ... It is this reaction that endows aequorin with unique characteristics, making it ideally suited for a number of applications in ...
more infohttps://scholar.valpo.edu/chem_fac_pub/18/
Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane...  Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane...
By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet ... By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet ... secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin ... secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin ...
more infohttps://iris.unife.it/handle/11392/516774
Altered Inotropic Responsiveness and Gene Expression of Hypertrophied Myocardium With Captopril | Hypertension  Altered Inotropic Responsiveness and Gene Expression of Hypertrophied Myocardium With Captopril | Hypertension
Aequorin Studies. Aequorin was loaded into the muscle preparations by the macroinjection technique as previously described.16 ... After aequorin loading and equilibration, muscle preparations were exposed to concentrations of Ca2+ (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5 mmol ... with the bioluminescent indicator aequorin) was prolonged, and abundance of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger mRNA levels increased in ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/35/6/1203
Phospholipase C-β3 Is a Key Modulator of IL-8 Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells | The Journal of...  Phospholipase C-β3 Is a Key Modulator of IL-8 Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells | The Journal of...
Aequorin measurements. The probes used (cytAEQ, erAEQmut, and mtAEQ) are chimeric aequorins targeted to the cytosol, ... The aequorin luminescence data were calibrated off-line into [Ca2+] values, using a computer algorithm based on the Ca2+ ... All aequorin measurements were carried out in KRB supplemented with either 1 mM CaCl2 (cytAEQ and mtAEQ) or 100 μM EGTA ( ... E, cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) by native aequorin with the addition of histamine, [Ca2+]c: mock 1.65 ± 0.13 μM ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/186/8/4946
Serca1 Truncated Proteins Unable to Pump Calcium Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Concentration and Induce Apoptosis |...  Serca1 Truncated Proteins Unable to Pump Calcium Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Concentration and Induce Apoptosis |...
Aequorin Measurements. The aequorin chimera targeted to the ER (erAEQ) (Montero et al. 1995) was transfected alone (control) or ... 1995) Transfected aequorin in the measurement of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). A critical evaluation. J. Biol. Chem. ... For aequorin measurements, we cotransfected 0.5 μg erAEQ plus 1.5 μg of the construct of interest (or 0.7 μg of each in the ... All aequorin measurements were carried out in KRB and terminated by lysing the cells with 100 μM digitonin in a hypotonic Ca2+- ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/153/6/1301
PDB 1sl8 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBI  PDB 1sl8 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBI
... the crystal structures of calcium-loaded apo-aequorin and apo-obelin. ... Aequorin-1 Chain: A Molecule details › Chain: A. Length: 191 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 21.89 KDa. Source organism: ... All three Ca2+-binding loops of photoproteins bind calcium ions: the crystal structures of calcium-loaded apo-aequorin and apo- ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/entry/pdb/1sl8
Protein-Based Ca2+ Indicators-Section 19.5 | Thermo Fisher Scientific - AR  Protein-Based Ca2+ Indicators-Section 19.5 | Thermo Fisher Scientific - AR
Aequorin is not exported or secreted, nor is it compartmentalized or sequestered within cells; thus, aequorin measurements can ... Figure 19.5.8 Images of Ca2+ waves in gastrulating zebrafish embryos detected by microinjected f aequorin (recombinant aequorin ... Recombinant Aequorin. Conventional purification of aequorin from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria requires laborious extraction ... In several experimental systems, aequorins luminescence was detectable many hours to days after cell loading.. Aequorin also ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/ar/en/home/references/molecular-probes-the-handbook/indicators-for-ca2-mg2-zn2-and-other-metal-ions/aequorin-a-bioluminescent-ca2-indicator.html
Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 but Not Growth Hormone Augments Mammalian Myocardial Contractility by Sensitizing the Myofilament...  Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 but Not Growth Hormone Augments Mammalian Myocardial Contractility by Sensitizing the Myofilament...
Aequorin Loading. Aequorin loading was performed as described previously.6 Briefly, 3 to 5 μL of an aequorin-containing ... Triton X-100 to lyse the aequorin-loaded cells and expose all of the remaining aequorin to Ca2+. This resulted in an ... Aequorin light signals were recorded on a 4-channel recorder in parallel with the LV pressure and coronary perfusion pressure ... The heart was then positioned in a organ bath with the aequorin-loaded area of the LV directed toward the cathode of a ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/83/1/50
Primary antibodies - Page 7 of 481 on u | Genetex Inc.  Primary antibodies - Page 7 of 481 on 'u' | Genetex Inc.
Aequorin antibody [2Q2147] Mouse Monoclonal WB GTX48743 Ajuba antibody Rabbit Polyclonal Hu ELISA, IP, WB ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Web/search/Catalog/7?Category=494&Keyword=u
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced programmed cell death in soybean cells | Journal of Cell Science  Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced programmed cell death in soybean cells | Journal of Cell Science
Aequorin-dependent Ca2+ measurements. Reconstitution of the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin was performed in vivo by ... The residual aequorin was completely discharged by adding 0.33 M CaCl2 in 10% ethanol. Luminescence data were collected and ... Cessna, S. G. and Low, P. S. (2001). An apoplastic Ca2+ sensor regulates internal Ca2+ release in aequorin-transformed tobacco ... We have used a soybean cell line stably expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin, to analyze the pathway of cell ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/117/12/2591
Cell Based Assays Products, Reviews and Suppliers on SelectScience  Cell Based Assays Products, Reviews and Suppliers on SelectScience
AequoScreen and AequoZen aequorin Cell Lines. PerkinElmer, Inc. The AequoScreen™ technology is a generic GPCR technology which ...
more infohttp://www.selectscience.net/cell-based-assays-+-in-vitro/product-directory/?compID=7941&u=976680FF-68A7-4C7F-A641-F9189DA4D1DC
  • Aequorin has proven to be neuroprotective in pre-clinical studies performed at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and has shown to be effective at improving aspects of cognition such as spatial working memory and executive function in human studies conducted by Quincy Bioscience. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A company called Quincy Bioscience sells a product containing aequorin (Prevagen) that it promotes as "the first supplement to address aging through the restoration of calcium-binding proteins. (thecamreport.com)
  • The early successful purification of aequorin led to the first experiments involving the injection of the protein into the tissues of living animals to visualize the physiological release of calcium in the muscle fibers of a barnacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic plant aequorin reports the effects of touch and cold-shock and elicitors on cytoplasmic calcium. (nih.gov)
  • Microinjected aequorin has been widely used for intracellular calcium measurement in animal cells, but its use in plants has been limited to exceptionally large cells. (nih.gov)
  • We show here that aequorin can be reconstituted in transformed plants and that it reports calcium changes induced by touch, cold-shock and fungal elicitors. (nih.gov)
  • Compositions containing aequorin and methods for their use in preventing and/or alleviating symptoms and disorders related to calcium imbalance are provided by the present invention. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. A method for preventing or alleviating a symptom or disorder associated with calcium imbalance comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of aequorin. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In particular, this invention is directed to aequorin-containing pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compositions useful in preventing and/or alleviating diseases or symptoms associated with calcium imbalance. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The aequorin light emission in a medium simulating the in vivo cationic conditions for barnacle muscle fibres indicates that two Ca2+ are apparently involved in this process for free calcium concentrations higher than approx. (edu.au)
  • 10(-5) M. However, for free calcium concentrations lower than 10(-6) M, the intensity of light emitted by aequorin shows a steeper dependency upon [Ca2+] than the square low relationship, indicating that a third Ca2+ should be involved in the process of aequorin light emission, as it has been previously predicted (Moisescu, D.G., Ashley, C.C. and Campbell, A.K. (1975) Biochim. (edu.au)
  • 8. Based on these parameters one can make accurate quantitative predictions for the aequoring light response under a variety of ionic conditions, and this suggests that it is possible to determine absolute free calcium concentrations providing that the ionic composition of the solutions is known, and that the relative rate of aequorin utilization is higher than 0.005. (edu.au)
  • Using ER-targeted aequorin (erAEQ), we have found that S1T proteins reduce ER calcium and reverse elevation of ER calcium loading induced by SERCA1 and SERCA2b. (rupress.org)
  • The patent covers the use of aequorin-containing compounds for the purpose of preventing and alleviating symptoms and disorders related to calcium imbalance which include Alzheimer's disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Based on our ongoing research of aequorin in various health conditions and what we know about the role of calcium in the body, we expect aequorin to be a vital protein in many aspects of healthy aging. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Picosecond fluorescence relaxation spectroscopy of the calcium-discharged photoproteins aequorin and obelin. (wur.nl)
  • The aequorin plasmid (+G a16 ) particularly addresses GPCRs of the Gs and Gi family enabling them to modulate intracellular calcium concentration. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Aequorin and Photina cell lines - the alternative calcium flux assay. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Aequorin was also genetically linked to a VEGFA targeting molecule, a DARPin designated as MP0112, for the imaging of neovascularization in vivo using a wet age-related macular degeneration model in mice induced by laser exposure. (miami.edu)
  • Despite the many advantages of aequorin, its application has been limited by the finite number of canonical amino acids restricting the engineering of aequorin. (miami.edu)
  • In order to increase the applications of aequorin, we have taken established methods that hijack the cellular machinery used to synthesize proteins to incorporate non-natural amino acids. (miami.edu)
  • Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids:" by Kristen M. Grinstead, Laura Rowe et al. (valpo.edu)
  • The L-4- azidophenylalanine substituted aequorin was successfully covalently linked to a fluorophore via the azide to alkyne click reaction for BRET. (miami.edu)
  • 7. The reaction schemes used for the explanation of these and other published results on aequorin (Moisescu, D.G., Ashley, C.C. and Campbell, A.K. (1975) Biochim. (edu.au)
  • It is this reaction that endows aequorin with unique characteristics, making it ideally suited for a number of applications in bioanalysis and imaging. (valpo.edu)
  • The effect of physiologically occurring cations upon aequorin light emission. (edu.au)
  • 3. The inhibitory effect of physiologically occurring cations upon the aequorin light emission can be explained by the cooperative action of two cations, competing with Ca2+ for the reactive sites on aequorin. (edu.au)
  • 5. The experiments indicate a strong interaction between Na+ and K+ in this inhibitory process, since for a given total concentration of monovalent cations, a mixture containing both Na+ and K+ has a larger inhibitory effect on the aequorin light response than solutions containing either Na+ or K+ alone. (edu.au)
  • 8. The method according to claim 4 wherein said effective amount of aequorin is in a unit dosage form selected from the group consisting of a tablet, a capsule, a solution, a suspension, a syrup, a beverage, an oral or ophthalmic formulation and an injection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)