Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.
A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.
Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A phenomenon in which symptoms of a disease are fabricated by an individual other than the patient causing unnecessary, and often painful, physical examinations and treatments. This syndrome is considered a form of CHILD ABUSE, since another individual, usually a parent, is the source of the fabrication of symptoms and presents the child for medical care.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Brain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Bites inflicted by humans.
Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.
Rib fractures are breaks or cracks in the rib bones, which can occur at any location along the rib's length, often caused by direct trauma or severe coughing, and may result in pain, difficulty breathing, and increased risk of complications such as pneumonia.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The interactions between parent and child.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Female parents, human or animal.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Interaction between a mother and child.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Breaks in bones.
Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
Interaction between the father and the child.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
The killing of one person by another.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Size and composition of the family.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
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Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.

Sexual victimization and reproductive health outcomes in urban youth. (1/199)

OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and adults with a history of sexual victimization (SV) are at increased risk of engaging in sexual risk behaviors. This study seeks to examine race- and gender-based differences in SV as well as the association between SV and reproductive health outcomes (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections [STIs]) among young adults from an urban community with high rates of both outcomes. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from the Young Adult Survey of the Baltimore Prevention Program's intervention trials. Participants initially enrolled as first graders were interviewed for the Young Adult Survey as they entered adulthood. A total of 1698 participants were asked about SV, pregnancy, and STIs. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: History of SV did not vary by racial background, but female participants were more likely to report SV than their male peers. Results for models predicting STIs revealed a significant interaction between gender and SV. Adolescent girls who reported a SV were significantly more likely to have an STI than adolescent girls who did not report victimization. Both adolescent boys and girls who reported SV were more likely to report involvement in a pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Youth in urban communities with a history of SV are far more likely than those without victimization histories to have a pregnancy or STI before young adulthood. Further research is needed to explore the mediators of these outcomes and the value of sexual safety and child protection programs for pregnancy and STI prevention in urban environments.  (+info)

Severity of childhood trauma is predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes in women but not men. (2/199)

We prospectively examined the gender-specific effects of childhood trauma on cocaine relapse outcomes in an inpatient sample of treatment engaged cocaine dependent adults. Cocaine dependent men (n=70) and women (n=54) participating in inpatient treatment for cocaine dependence were assessed on severity of childhood trauma and followed for 90 days after discharge from treatment. Greater severity of childhood emotional abuse was associated with an increased risk of relapse in women. Severity of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and overall childhood trauma was associated with the number of days cocaine was used during follow-up in women, as was the association of severity of physical abuse and overall childhood trauma with the average amount of cocaine used per occasion. No associations between childhood trauma and cocaine relapse outcomes were found in men. These findings demonstrate that childhood trauma increases the likelihood of cocaine relapse and drug use escalation after initial relapse in women but not in men. Comprehensive assessments of childhood trauma and specialized treatments that address trauma-related pathophysiology could be of benefit in improving cocaine treatment outcomes in women.  (+info)

Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women. (3/199)

OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women exposed to childhood abuse or neglect would have an increased likelihood of reporting hot flashes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. DESIGN: This hypothesis was evaluated in 332 white and African American women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study, a prospective investigation of women transitioning through menopause. Childhood abuse and neglect were measured once with the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Vasomotor symptoms (any/none hot flashes, night sweats) were reported annually over 8 years. Associations between maltreatment and vasomotor symptoms were estimated with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Childhood abuse or neglect was associated with increased reporting of hot flashes (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23-2.43) and night sweats (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26-2.43) in age-adjusted models. Results persisted in multivariable models and across several types of abuse and neglect. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting in adulthood. The sequelae of childhood abuse and neglect may persist well into adulthood to influence the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms at midlife.  (+info)

Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. (4/199)

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Disparities in child abuse victimization in lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women in the Nurses' Health Study II. (5/199)

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Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: the role of childhood adversity. (6/199)

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The association of prenatal cocaine use and childhood trauma with psychological symptoms over 6 years. (7/199)

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Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients. (8/199)

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Child abuse is a broad term that refers to any form of physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect that causes harm to a child's health, development, or dignity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes:

1. Physical abuse: Non-accidental injuries caused by hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or otherwise harming a child's body.
2. Sexual abuse: Any sexual activity involving a child, such as touching or non-touching behaviors, exploitation, or exposure to pornographic material.
3. Emotional abuse: Behaviors that harm a child's emotional well-being and self-esteem, such as constant criticism, humiliation, threats, or rejection.
4. Neglect: Failure to provide for a child's basic needs, including food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, and emotional support.

Child abuse can have serious short-term and long-term consequences for the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of children. It is a violation of their fundamental human rights and a public health concern that requires prevention, early detection, and intervention.

In a medical context, "survivors" typically refers to individuals who have lived through or recovered from a serious illness, injury, or life-threatening event. This may include people who have survived cancer, heart disease, trauma, or other conditions that posed a significant risk to their health and well-being. The term is often used to describe the resilience and strength of these individuals, as well as to highlight the importance of ongoing support and care for those who have faced serious medical challenges. It's important to note that the definition may vary depending on the context in which it's used.

Sexual child abuse is a form of abuse in which a child is engaged in sexual activities or exposed to sexual situations that are inappropriate and harmful for their age. This can include:

1. Sexual contact or intercourse with a child.
2. Exposing a child to pornography or using a child to produce pornographic materials.
3. Engaging in sexual acts in front of a child.
4. Inappropriately touching or fondling a child.
5. Using a child for sexual exploitation, including prostitution.

Sexual child abuse can have serious and long-lasting effects on a child's emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. It is important to report any suspected cases of sexual child abuse to the appropriate authorities immediately.

Mandatory reporting is a legal requirement that healthcare professionals, as well as other designated individuals or organizations, must report suspected or confirmed cases of abuse, neglect, or exploitation of vulnerable populations to the appropriate authorities. These vulnerable populations often include children, elderly persons, and individuals with disabilities. The purpose of mandatory reporting is to ensure the protection and safety of these at-risk individuals and to facilitate interventions that can address and prevent further harm.

Healthcare professionals who are mandated reporters typically include doctors, nurses, mental health professionals, social workers, and teachers, among others. Mandatory reporting requirements vary by jurisdiction but generally involve immediate notification upon suspicion or knowledge of maltreatment. Failing to report as required can result in legal consequences for the mandated reporter, including potential penalties such as fines, license suspension, or even criminal charges.

The specifics of mandatory reporting laws and regulations differ between countries, states, and provinces; therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the requirements applicable to their particular practice settings.

'Adult survivors of child abuse' is a term used to describe individuals who have experienced any form of abuse during their childhood, including physical, sexual, emotional, or neglect, and have reached adulthood. These individuals may face various ongoing challenges related to their past experiences, such as mental health issues, difficulties in forming relationships, trust issues, low self-esteem, and coping mechanisms that may impact their daily lives. They are often in need of support, therapy, and counseling to help them overcome the effects of their abuse and lead healthy, fulfilling lives.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Cranial irradiation is a medical treatment that involves the use of radiation therapy to target the brain. It is often used to treat various conditions affecting the brain, such as brain tumors, leukemia, and certain neurological disorders. The radiation is directed at the skull and can be focused on specific areas of the brain or delivered more broadly, depending on the nature and location of the condition being treated.

The goal of cranial irradiation may be to destroy cancer cells, reduce the size of tumors, prevent the spread of cancer, or provide symptomatic relief for patients with advanced disease. However, it is important to note that cranial irradiation can have side effects, including hair loss, fatigue, memory problems, and cognitive changes, among others. These side effects can vary in severity and duration depending on the individual patient and the specific treatment regimen.

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (also known as factitious disorder imposed on another) is a mental health disorder in which a caregiver, typically a parent or guardian, exaggerates, fabricates, or induces illness or symptoms in another person, usually their child, to gain attention and sympathy for themselves. The caregiver may manipulate the child's medical records, alter test results, or even physically harm the child to produce symptoms. This behavior can result in serious physical harm or even death of the victim. It is considered a form of child abuse and requires immediate intervention by medical professionals and law enforcement authorities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

An earthquake is not a medical condition. It is a natural disaster that results from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust, causing the ground to shake and sometimes resulting in damage to structures and loss of life. The point where the earthquake originates is called the focus or hypocenter, and the epicenter is the point directly above it on the surface of the Earth.

Earthquakes can cause various medical conditions and injuries, such as:

* Cuts, bruises, and fractures from falling debris
* Head trauma and concussions
* Crush syndrome from being trapped under heavy objects
* Respiratory problems from dust inhalation
* Psychological distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

If you experience an earthquake, it is important to seek medical attention if you are injured or experiencing any symptoms. Additionally, it is crucial to follow safety guidelines during and after an earthquake to minimize the risk of injury and ensure your well-being.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A "Research Report" in the medical context is a comprehensive and systematic documentation of the entire process, findings, and conclusions of a scientific research study. It typically includes an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. The report may also contain information about the funding sources, potential conflicts of interest, and ethical considerations related to the research. The purpose of a research report is to allow other researchers to critically evaluate the study, replicate its findings, and build upon its knowledge. It should adhere to strict standards of scientific reporting and be written in a clear, concise, and objective manner.

Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (previously known as Precursor T-lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma) is a type of cancer that affects the early stages of T-cell development. It is a subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterized by the overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs.

In Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, these abnormal lymphoblasts accumulate primarily in the lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes, leading to the enlargement of these organs. This subtype is more aggressive than other forms of ALL and has a higher risk of spreading to the central nervous system (CNS).

The medical definition of Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma includes:

1. A malignant neoplasm of immature T-cell precursors, also known as lymphoblasts.
2. Characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of these abnormal cells in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues such as the thymus and lymph nodes.
3. Often associated with chromosomal abnormalities, genetic mutations, or aberrant gene expression that contribute to its aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
4. Typically presents with symptoms related to bone marrow failure (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and potential CNS involvement.
5. Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular genetic testing.
6. Treated with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens, often combined with radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation to achieve remission and improve survival outcomes.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), also known as Abusive Head Trauma, is a form of inflicted injury that occurs when a baby or young child is violently shaken. This can lead to severe brain damage, blindness, hearing loss, developmental delays, seizures, and even death. The shaking causes the baby's fragile brain to move back and forth inside the skull, resulting in bruised brain tissues, bleeding in the brain, and detachment of the retinas. It's important to note that even brief periods of shaking can result in severe consequences. SBS is a form of child abuse and should be reported immediately to authorities.

A contusion is a medical term for a bruise. It's a type of injury that occurs when blood vessels become damaged or broken as a result of trauma to the body. This trauma can be caused by a variety of things, such as a fall, a blow, or a hit. When the blood vessels are damaged, blood leaks into the surrounding tissues, causing the area to become discolored and swollen.

Contusions can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common in areas that are more likely to be injured, such as the knees, elbows, and hands. In some cases, a contusion may be accompanied by other injuries, such as fractures or sprains.

Most contusions will heal on their own within a few days or weeks, depending on the severity of the injury. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to help reduce swelling and pain. In some cases, over-the-counter pain medications may also be recommended to help manage discomfort.

If you suspect that you have a contusion, it's important to seek medical attention if the injury is severe or if you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, or loss of consciousness. These could be signs of a more serious injury and require immediate medical attention.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

'Human bites' refer to wounds or injuries resulting from the human mouth coming into contact with another person's body tissue. These bites can occur during fights, accidents, or intentional acts and can cause damage ranging from minor abrasions to serious tissue injury or infection. Human bite wounds may also pose a risk of transmission for various pathogens, including bacteria like Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species, hepatitis B and C viruses, and herpes simplex virus. Proper evaluation, wound care, and potential antibiotic treatment are crucial to prevent complications associated with human bites.

Spouse abuse, also known as intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pattern of behavior involving violence or threatened violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and/or psychological abuse directed by an individual toward their current or former spouse or intimate partner. This can include physical harm, sexual assault, harassment, threats, intimidation, stalking, and various forms of controlling behaviors. Spouse abuse can occur in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships and can affect individuals of any socioeconomic background, race, age, or education level. It is a serious public health issue and a violation of human rights.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters can be natural, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and wildfires, or they can be caused by human activities, such as technological accidents, intentional acts of violence, and complex emergencies.

The medical definition of a disaster focuses on the health impacts and consequences of the event, which can include injury, illness, disability, and death, as well as psychological distress and social disruption. The response to a disaster typically involves a coordinated effort by multiple agencies and organizations, including healthcare providers, emergency responders, public health officials, and government authorities, to address the immediate needs of affected individuals and communities and to restore basic services and infrastructure.

Disasters can have long-term effects on the health and well-being of individuals and populations, including increased vulnerability to future disasters, chronic illness and disability, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts are critical components of disaster management, with the goal of reducing the risks and impacts of disasters and improving the resilience of communities and societies to withstand and recover from them.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Anthracyclines are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are derived from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. These drugs include daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin. They work by intercalating into DNA and inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II, which leads to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Anthracyclines are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast cancer, and sarcomas. However, they can also cause cardiotoxicity, which limits their long-term use.

Child rearing, also known as child care or child raising, refers to the process of caring for and raising children from infancy through adolescence. This includes providing for their physical needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, as well as their emotional, social, and intellectual development. Child rearing involves a range of activities such as feeding, bathing, dressing, educating, disciplining, and providing love and support. It is typically the responsibility of parents or guardians, but may also involve other family members, teachers, caregivers, and community institutions. Effective child rearing requires knowledge, skills, patience, and a commitment to meeting the needs of the child in a loving and supportive environment.

Elder abuse is a type of mistreatment or neglect that is committed against an older adult, typically defined as someone aged 60 or older. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), elder abuse includes "physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse; financial exploitation; neglect; and abandonment."

Elder abuse can occur in various settings, including the person's own home, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and other institutional settings. The perpetrators of elder abuse can be family members, caregivers, acquaintances, or strangers.

The underlying causes of elder abuse are complex and multifaceted, but they often involve a combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors. Risk factors for elder abuse include social isolation, cognitive impairment, functional dependence, past history of abuse, and caregiver stress or burnout.

Elder abuse can have serious consequences for the physical, emotional, and financial well-being of older adults. It is estimated that up to 10% of older adults experience some form of elder abuse, although the prevalence may be higher due to underreporting. Prevention efforts include increasing public awareness, improving education and training for caregivers, strengthening community support services, and enforcing laws and regulations that protect older adults from abuse and neglect.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a widely used, standardized measure of health-related quality of life and functional status. It is a self-reporting questionnaire that assesses the impact of illness or disability on an individual's daily life and functioning across multiple dimensions. The SIP evaluates four primary domains: physical, psychosocial, independent functioning, and overall health perception. These domains are further divided into 12 subscales, including sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, recreation and pastimes, ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, communication, alertness behavior, and emotional behavior. The SIP is designed to measure both the severity and breadth of disability or impairment in individuals with a wide range of medical conditions. It has been used in research and clinical settings to evaluate treatment outcomes, compare the effectiveness of interventions, and monitor changes in health status over time.

Domestic violence is defined by the World Health Organization as:

"...a pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. Abusive behaviors can include physical, sexual, emotional, economic, and psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone."

It's important to note that domestic violence can occur in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships, and it can affect people of any race, ethnicity, age, economic status, or level of education. Domestic violence is a pervasive global health problem that affects millions of individuals and families worldwide.

Rib fractures are breaks or cracks in the bones that make up the rib cage, which is the protective structure around the lungs and heart. Rib fractures can result from direct trauma to the chest, such as from a fall, motor vehicle accident, or physical assault. They can also occur from indirect forces, such as during coughing fits in people with weakened bones (osteoporosis).

Rib fractures are painful and can make breathing difficult, particularly when taking deep breaths or coughing. In some cases, rib fractures may lead to complications like punctured lungs (pneumothorax) or collapsed lungs (atelectasis), especially if multiple ribs are broken in several places.

It is essential to seek medical attention for suspected rib fractures, as proper diagnosis and management can help prevent further complications and promote healing. Treatment typically involves pain management, breathing exercises, and, in some cases, immobilization or surgery.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Sex offenses are criminal acts that involve sexual misconduct or non-consensual sexual contact with another person. These crimes can range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism and voyeurism, to forcible rape and sexual assault. Sex offenses also include the crime of sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual contact with a minor or vulnerable adult who is unable to give consent due to age, disability, or incapacitation.

The legal definition of sex offenses varies by jurisdiction, but generally includes any form of unwanted sexual touching, forced penetration, or exploitation of another person for sexual gratification without their consent. In addition, some sex offenses may involve the production, distribution, or possession of child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation.

Those convicted of sex offenses often face severe penalties, including lengthy prison sentences, fines, and mandatory registration as a sex offender. The stigma associated with being labeled a sex offender can also have long-lasting consequences on an individual's personal and professional life, making it difficult to find employment or housing.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Fatigue is a state of feeling very tired, weary, or exhausted, which can be physical, mental, or both. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors, including lack of sleep, poor nutrition, stress, medical conditions (such as anemia, diabetes, heart disease, or cancer), medications, and substance abuse. Fatigue can also be a symptom of depression or other mental health disorders. In medical terms, fatigue is often described as a subjective feeling of tiredness that is not proportional to recent activity levels and interferes with usual functioning. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or severe fatigue to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A crime victim is a person who has suffered direct or threatened physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the commission of a crime. According to the United States Department of Justice, victims of crime may experience a range of negative effects including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and financial losses.

Crime victimization can take many forms, such as assault, robbery, homicide, sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, identity theft, and fraud. In addition to the immediate harm caused by criminal acts, victims may also face long-term challenges related to their recovery, including emotional trauma, difficulty trusting others, and economic instability.

Many countries have laws and policies in place to support crime victims and provide them with access to resources and services. These can include victim compensation programs, counseling and therapy services, and legal assistance. In the United States, for example, the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding for victim services through a federal grant program administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC).

Overall, the medical definition of 'crime victims' refers to individuals who have been directly or indirectly harmed by criminal behavior and may require support and resources to help them recover from their experiences.

Foster home care, also known as foster family care or simply foster care, is a type of residential placement where a licensed individual or family, referred to as a foster parent or foster family, provides temporary care and nurturing for children or adolescents who cannot remain in their own homes due to abuse, neglect, abandonment, or other similar circumstances. The primary goal of foster home care is to provide a safe, stable, and supportive environment that meets the emotional, physical, medical, educational, and therapeutic needs of the child while working towards reunification with their biological family or, when appropriate, exploring other permanent placement options such as adoption or guardianship.

In a foster home setting, children receive individualized attention and support, allowing them to maintain connections with their communities, schools, and friends whenever possible. The foster parents collaborate closely with the child's social worker, case manager, therapist, and other professionals involved in the child's life to ensure coordinated care and services that promote the child's overall well-being and development.

Foster home care is an essential component of the child welfare system, as it offers a flexible and responsive approach to addressing the diverse needs of children and youth in out-of-home placements. It requires ongoing training, support, and collaboration among all parties involved to ensure positive outcomes for the children and families being served.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

Battered Child Syndrome is a medical condition in which a child has been physically abused and harmed, often over a period of time. It is also known as Non-accidental Injury (NAI) or Inflicted Traumatic Injury. The syndrome is characterized by a pattern of injuries, including bruises, fractures, burns, and internal injuries, which are not consistent with the history provided by the caregiver.

The symptoms of Battered Child Syndrome may include:

1. Unexplained or inconsistent explanations for injuries
2. Multiple injuries in various stages of healing
3. Injuries to different parts of the body, such as the ears, mouth, and genitals
4. Frequent visits to the emergency department or doctor's office for treatment of injuries
5. Delayed seeking of medical attention for serious injuries
6. Behavioral changes, such as fearfulness, regression, or aggression
7. Developmental delays or learning difficulties
8. Failure to thrive (poor growth and weight gain)

The diagnosis of Battered Child Syndrome is made by a healthcare professional based on the history, physical examination, and any diagnostic tests that may be necessary. The syndrome is a serious form of child abuse that requires immediate intervention and protection for the child. Treatment typically involves medical care for injuries, counseling and support for the child and family, and reporting the abuse to child protective services or law enforcement agencies.

In medical terms, "punishment" is a consequence or intervention that is intended to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior occurring again in the future. It is often used in the context of behavioral therapy and modification, particularly for addressing maladaptive behaviors in individuals with developmental disorders, mental health conditions, or substance use disorders.

Punishment can take various forms, such as response cost (removal of a positive reinforcer), time-out (removal of access to reinforcement), or aversive stimuli (presentation of an unpleasant stimulus). However, it is important to note that punishment should be used judiciously and ethically, with careful consideration given to the potential negative consequences such as avoidance, escape, or aggression. Additionally, positive reinforcement (rewarding desirable behaviors) is generally considered a more effective and sustainable approach to behavior change than punishment alone.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

Emergency nursing is a specialized field of nursing that involves providing care to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate attention. Emergency nurses work in emergency departments, trauma centers, and urgent care settings, where they quickly assess a patient's condition, provide life-saving interventions, and coordinate care with other members of the healthcare team.

Emergency nurses must be highly skilled in a wide range of procedures, including cardiac monitoring, airway management, IV insertion, and medication administration. They must also be able to communicate effectively with patients and their families, as well as other healthcare providers, to ensure that each patient receives the best possible care.

In addition to their technical skills, emergency nurses must be able to work in a fast-paced, high-stress environment and make quick decisions under pressure. They must also be compassionate and empathetic, as they often provide care to patients who are experiencing some of the most difficult moments of their lives. Overall, emergency nursing is a rewarding and challenging field that requires a unique combination of technical expertise, critical thinking skills, and interpersonal abilities.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

A physician's role is defined as a licensed healthcare professional who practices medicine, diagnoses and treats injuries or illnesses, and promotes health and wellness. Physicians may specialize in various fields such as cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, surgery, etc., requiring additional training and certification beyond medical school. They are responsible for providing comprehensive medical care to patients, including:

1. Obtaining a patient's medical history and performing physical examinations
2. Ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests
3. Developing treatment plans based on their diagnosis
4. Prescribing medications or performing procedures as necessary
5. Coordinating with other healthcare professionals for multidisciplinary care
6. Providing counseling and education to patients about their health, disease prevention, and wellness promotion
7. Advocating for their patients' rights and ensuring quality of care
8. Maintaining accurate medical records and staying updated on the latest medical research and advancements in their field.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

Congenital pain insensitivity, also known as congenital analgesia, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the absence of ability to feel pain due to the malfunction or lack of functioning nociceptors - the nerve cells that transmit painful stimuli to the brain. It is typically caused by mutations in the SCN9A gene, which encodes a sodium channel necessary for the function of nociceptors.

Individuals with congenital pain insensitivity may not feel any pain from injuries or other sources of harm, and as a result, they are at risk for serious injury or even death due to lack of protective responses to painful stimuli. They may also have an increased risk of developing recurrent infections and self-mutilation behaviors.

It is important to note that while these individuals do not feel pain, they can still experience other sensory inputs such as touch, temperature, and pressure. Congenital pain insensitivity is a complex medical condition that requires careful management and monitoring by healthcare professionals.

Expert testimony is a type of evidence presented in court by a qualified expert who has specialized knowledge, education, training, or experience in a particular field that is relevant to the case. The expert's role is to provide an objective and unbiased opinion based on their expertise to assist the judge or jury in understanding complex issues that are beyond the knowledge of the average person.

In medical cases, expert testimony may be presented by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or other medical experts who have specialized knowledge about the medical condition or treatment at issue. The expert's testimony can help establish the standard of care, diagnose a medical condition, evaluate the cause of an injury, or assess the damages suffered by the plaintiff.

Expert testimony must meet certain legal standards to be admissible in court. The expert must be qualified to testify based on their education, training, and experience, and their opinion must be based on reliable methods and data. Additionally, the expert's testimony must be relevant to the case and not unduly prejudicial or misleading.

Overall, expert testimony plays a critical role in medical cases by providing objective and unbiased evidence that can help judges and juries make informed decisions about complex medical issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Criminal law is a system of laws that governs criminal behavior and prescribes punishment for offenses. It defines conduct that is considered illegal and punishable by the state or federal government, and outlines the process for investigating, charging, and trying individuals accused of committing crimes. Criminal laws are designed to protect society from harm and maintain social order.

Crimes can be classified as either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on their severity. Misdemeanors are less serious offenses that are typically punishable by fines, community service, or short jail sentences. Felonies, on the other hand, are more serious crimes that can result in significant prison time and even the death penalty in some jurisdictions.

Examples of criminal offenses include murder, manslaughter, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, battery, sexual assault, fraud, and drug trafficking. Criminal laws vary from state to state and country to country, so it is important to consult with a qualified attorney if you are facing criminal charges.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Multiple trauma, also known as polytrauma, is a medical term used to describe severe injuries to the body that are sustained in more than one place or region. It often involves damage to multiple organ systems and can be caused by various incidents such as traffic accidents, falls from significant heights, high-energy collisions, or violent acts.

The injuries sustained in multiple trauma may include fractures, head injuries, internal bleeding, chest and abdominal injuries, and soft tissue injuries. These injuries can lead to a complex medical situation requiring immediate and ongoing care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and mental health providers.

Multiple trauma is a serious condition that can result in long-term disability or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

The term "institutionalized child" is used to describe a minor (a person who has not yet reached the age of legal majority) who resides in an institution such as a group home, foster care facility, residential treatment center, or other similar setting on a long-term basis. Institutionalization may occur for various reasons, including but not limited to:

1. Abuse or neglect in their biological family
2. Parental absence or inability to provide care
3. Behavioral or emotional challenges that require specialized treatment and support
4. Disabilities that necessitate around-the-clock care
5. Legal reasons, such as being a ward of the state

Institutionalized children typically receive care, supervision, education, and other services from trained staff members in these facilities. The goal of institutionalization is often to provide a safe, structured environment where the child can receive the necessary support and resources to help them thrive and eventually transition back into a family or community setting when possible.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

"Near drowning" is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a term used to describe a situation where a person has nearly died from suffocation or cardiac arrest due to submersion in water, followed by survival for at least 24 hours after the incident. It can result in various short-term and long-term health consequences, such as respiratory complications, neurological damage, and even death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines near drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." The term "drowning" is used when the process results in death, while "near drowning" refers to survival after the incident. However, it's important to note that even if a person survives a near-drowning incident, they may still experience significant health issues and long-term disabilities.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

A checklist is a type of tool used in various fields, including medicine, to ensure that all necessary steps or items are accounted for and completed in a systematic and standardized manner. It typically consists of a list of tasks or items that need to be checked off as they are finished. In a medical context, checklists can be used in a variety of settings such as surgery, patient care, and research to improve safety, reduce errors, and enhance the quality of care. They help to standardize processes, promote communication, and ensure that important steps are not overlooked.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Emergency medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. This can include conditions such as severe trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, respiratory distress, and other life-threatening situations. Emergency medicine physicians, also known as emergency doctors or ER doctors, are trained to provide rapid assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a fast-paced and often unpredictable environment. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as nurses, paramedics, and specialists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care in a timely manner. Emergency medicine is a critical component of the healthcare system, providing essential services for patients who require immediate medical attention, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

"Failure to Thrive" is a medical term used to describe a condition in infants and children who are not growing and gaining weight as expected. It is typically defined as significant deviation from normal growth patterns, such as poor weight gain or loss, slow increase in length/height, and delayed developmental milestones. The condition can have various causes, including medical, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Early identification and intervention are crucial to address the underlying cause and promote healthy growth and development.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Dental care for children, also known as pediatric dentistry, is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children from infancy through adolescence. The medical definition of dental care for children includes:

1. Preventive Dentistry: This involves regular dental check-ups, professional cleaning, fluoride treatments, and sealants to prevent tooth decay and other dental diseases. Parents are also educated on proper oral hygiene practices for their children, including brushing, flossing, and dietary habits.
2. Restorative Dentistry: If a child develops cavities or other dental problems, restorative treatments such as fillings, crowns, or pulpotomies (baby root canals) may be necessary to restore the health and function of their teeth.
3. Orthodontic Treatment: Many children require orthodontic treatment to correct misaligned teeth or jaws. Early intervention can help guide proper jaw development and prevent more severe issues from developing later on.
4. Habit Counseling: Dental care for children may also involve habit counseling, such as helping a child stop thumb sucking or pacifier use, which can negatively impact their oral health.
5. Sedation and Anesthesia: For children who are anxious about dental procedures or have special needs, sedation or anesthesia may be used to ensure their comfort and safety during treatment.
6. Emergency Care: Dental care for children also includes emergency care for injuries such as knocked-out teeth, broken teeth, or severe toothaches. Prompt attention is necessary to prevent further damage and alleviate pain.
7. Education and Prevention: Finally, dental care for children involves educating parents and children about the importance of good oral hygiene practices and regular dental check-ups to maintain optimal oral health throughout their lives.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "Father-Child Relations" is a social science or psychological concept rather than a medical one. It generally refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, social, and behavioral relationship between a father and his child. This relationship can have significant impacts on a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Factors such as involvement, communication, support, and attachment are often considered when examining father-child relations.

A child who has lost one or both parents due to death is considered an orphan. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child who has lost only one parent and is not receiving care from the surviving parent is also considered an orphan. This type of orphan is sometimes referred to as a "single orphan."

The term "double orphan" is used to describe a child who has lost both parents. The death of a parent can have significant emotional, social, and economic impacts on a child, making it important for societies to provide support and resources to help them cope and thrive.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Mouth rehabilitation, also known as oral rehabilitation or dental rehabilitation, is a process aimed at restoring the functionality, health, and aesthetics of the oral cavity. It involves various procedures such as fillings, extractions, root canal treatments, periodontal therapy, prosthodontic treatments (dentures, crowns, bridges, implants), orthodontic treatments, or a combination thereof. The primary goal is to improve mastication (chewing), speech, and oral hygiene while also enhancing the patient's smile and self-confidence. This process often requires a multidisciplinary team of dental professionals including general dentists, endodontists, periodontists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and prosthodontists.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

A physical examination is a methodical and systematic process of evaluating a patient's overall health status. It involves inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating different parts of the body to detect any abnormalities or medical conditions. The primary purpose of a physical examination is to gather information about the patient's health, identify potential health risks, diagnose medical conditions, and develop an appropriate plan for prevention, treatment, or further evaluation.

During a physical examination, a healthcare provider may assess various aspects of a patient's health, including their vital signs (such as blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and respiratory rate), height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and overall appearance. They may also examine different organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems, to identify any signs of disease or abnormalities.

Physical examinations are an essential part of preventive healthcare and are typically performed during routine check-ups, annual physicals, and when patients present with symptoms or concerns about their health. The specific components of a physical examination may vary depending on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and presenting symptoms.

Hemorrhagic disorders are medical conditions characterized by abnormal bleeding due to impaired blood clotting. This can result from deficiencies in coagulation factors, platelet dysfunction, or the use of medications that interfere with normal clotting processes. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Treatment often involves replacing the missing clotting factor or administering medications to help control bleeding.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations. It examines the ways in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists seek to understand how we make sense of other people and how we understand ourselves in a social context. They study phenomena such as social influence, social perception, attitude change, group behavior, prejudice, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

In summary, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by their social context and interactions with others.

Nuclear warfare is not a medical term per se, but it refers to a military conflict using nuclear weapons. However, the medical and public health communities have studied the potential consequences of nuclear warfare extensively due to its catastrophic health impacts.

In a medical context, a nuclear explosion releases a massive amount of energy in the form of light, heat, and a shockwave, which can cause significant destruction and loss of life from the blast alone. Additionally, the explosion produces radioactive materials that contaminate the environment, leading to both immediate and long-term health effects.

Immediate medical consequences of nuclear warfare include:

1. Blast injuries: The shockwave from a nuclear explosion can cause severe trauma, including fractures, internal injuries, and burns.
2. Radiation exposure: Acute radiation sickness can occur in individuals exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and potentially death.
3. Thermal burns: The intense heat generated by a nuclear explosion can cause severe thermal burns, similar to those seen in major fires or explosions.
4. Eye injuries: Flash blindness and retinal burns can occur due to the bright flash of light emitted during the explosion.

Long-term medical consequences of nuclear warfare include:

1. Radiation-induced cancers: Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing various types of cancer, such as leukemia and solid tumors, over time.
2. Genetic mutations: Ionizing radiation can cause genetic mutations that may be passed down through generations, potentially leading to birth defects and other health issues.
3. Psychological trauma: The aftermath of a nuclear war would likely result in significant psychological distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety.
4. Environmental contamination: Radioactive fallout from a nuclear explosion can contaminate the environment, making large areas uninhabitable for extended periods. This contamination could lead to food and water shortages, further exacerbating health issues.

Preparing for and responding to a nuclear warfare event would require a coordinated effort between medical professionals, emergency responders, and public health officials to minimize the immediate and long-term health impacts on affected populations.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

Radiography is a diagnostic technique that uses X-rays, gamma rays, or similar types of radiation to produce images of the internal structures of the body. It is a non-invasive procedure that can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including bone fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects lodged in the body.

During a radiography exam, a patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a special film or digital detector. The machine emits a beam of radiation that passes through the body and strikes the film or detector, creating a shadow image of the internal structures. Denser tissues, such as bones, block more of the radiation and appear white on the image, while less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, allow more of the radiation to pass through and appear darker.

Radiography is a valuable tool in modern medicine, but it does involve exposure to ionizing radiation, which can carry some risks. Healthcare professionals take steps to minimize these risks by using the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to produce a diagnostic image, and by shielding sensitive areas of the body with lead aprons or other protective devices.

Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. They are classified based on their severity:

1. First-degree burns (superficial burns) affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing redness, pain, and swelling.
2. Second-degree burns (partial-thickness burns) damage both the epidermis and the underlying layer of skin (dermis). They result in redness, pain, swelling, and blistering.
3. Third-degree burns (full-thickness burns) destroy the entire depth of the skin and can also damage underlying muscles, tendons, and bones. These burns appear white or blackened and charred, and they may be painless due to destroyed nerve endings.

Immediate medical attention is required for second-degree and third-degree burns, as well as for large area first-degree burns, to prevent infection, manage pain, and ensure proper healing. Treatment options include wound care, antibiotics, pain management, and possibly skin grafting or surgery in severe cases.

Homicide is a legal term used to describe the taking of another human life. It is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a legal concept that may result in criminal charges. In medical terms, it might be referred to as "unnatural death" or "violent death." The term itself does not carry a connotation of guilt or innocence; it simply describes the factual occurrence of one person causing the death of another.

The legal definition of homicide varies by jurisdiction and can encompass a range of criminal charges, from manslaughter to murder, depending on the circumstances and intent behind the act.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Child nutrition disorders refer to a range of conditions that are caused by an improper or imbalanced diet during childhood. These disorders can have long-term effects on a child's growth, development, and overall health. Some common examples of child nutrition disorders include:

1. Malnutrition: This occurs when a child does not get enough nutrients for proper growth and development. It can result from inadequate food intake, digestive problems, or certain medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.
2. Obesity: This is a condition characterized by excessive body fat accumulation to the point where it negatively affects a child's health. Obesity can lead to a range of health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and orthopedic issues.
3. Vitamin deficiencies: Children who do not get enough vitamins in their diet may develop deficiencies that can lead to a range of health problems. For example, a lack of vitamin D can lead to rickets, while a lack of vitamin C can cause scurvy.
4. Food allergies and intolerances: Some children have allergic reactions or intolerances to certain foods, which can cause a range of symptoms, including digestive problems, skin rashes, and respiratory difficulties.
5. Eating disorders: Children may develop eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder, which can have serious consequences for their physical and mental health.

Preventing child nutrition disorders involves providing children with a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups, encouraging regular exercise, and promoting healthy eating habits. Regular medical check-ups can also help identify any nutritional deficiencies or other health problems early on, allowing for prompt treatment.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

I must clarify that the term "Holocaust" is primarily used in a historical and cultural context, rather than in a medical one. It refers to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. This atrocity took place from 1941 to 1945 and is widely considered to be one of the darkest chapters in human history.

However, if you are looking for a medical term that may have some thematic or conceptual similarities to the Holocaust, you might consider "mass casualty incident" or "mass atrocity." These terms describe events where numerous individuals suffer serious injuries or fatalities due to intentional human actions or natural disasters.

Medical Definition:

Mass Casualty Incident (MCI): An event in which the number of injured or deceased victims exceeds the local resources available to respond effectively. MCIs can result from natural disasters, transportation accidents, or intentional acts such as terrorist attacks.

Mass Atrocity: A large-scale and deliberate act of violence committed against a civilian population, often involving multiple incidents of murder, torture, forced displacement, or other forms of human rights abuses. The Holocaust is an example of a mass atrocity.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Social work is a professional field of practice that promotes social change, problem-solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. According to the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), social work involves "the application of social sciences, theory, knowledge, and skills to effect positive changes in individuals, groups, communities, and societies."

Social workers are trained to work with individuals, families, groups, and communities to address a wide range of social, emotional, and practical needs. They help people navigate complex systems, access resources, and advocate for their rights. Social workers may be employed in various settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, schools, community centers, and government agencies.

In medical settings, social work is often focused on helping patients and their families cope with illness, disability, or injury. Medical social workers provide counseling, support, and advocacy to help patients and families navigate the healthcare system, access needed resources, and make informed decisions about treatment options. They may also assist with discharge planning, coordinating care transitions, and connecting patients with community-based services.

Medical social work is a specialized area of practice that requires knowledge and skills in areas such as psychosocial assessment, crisis intervention, case management, and advocacy. Medical social workers must be able to communicate effectively with healthcare professionals, patients, and families, and have a deep understanding of the social determinants of health and the impact of illness on individuals and communities.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "professional-family relations," as it is more commonly referred to as "professional-patient relationship" in the medical field. However, I can provide you with the definition of professional-patient relationship:

A professional-patient relationship is a formal relationship between a healthcare provider and a patient, characterized by trust, honesty, and mutual respect. The healthcare provider has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient, providing competent and ethical care, while maintaining appropriate boundaries and confidentiality. Effective communication, shared decision-making, and informed consent are essential components of this relationship.

Family members may also be involved in the professional-patient relationship, particularly when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves or when family involvement is necessary for the patient's care. In these cases, healthcare providers must communicate clearly and respectfully with family members while still maintaining the primary focus on the patient's needs and autonomy.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

A retinal hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs in the blood vessels of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This condition can result from various underlying causes, including diabetes, high blood pressure, age-related macular degeneration, or trauma to the eye. Retinal hemorrhages can be categorized into different types based on their location and appearance, such as dot and blot hemorrhages, flame-shaped hemorrhages, or subhyaloid hemorrhages. Depending on the severity and cause of the hemorrhage, treatment options may vary from monitoring to laser therapy, medication, or even surgery. It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist for a proper evaluation and management plan if you suspect a retinal hemorrhage.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Cultural characteristics refer to the beliefs, customs, values, and behaviors that are shared by a group of people and are passed down from one generation to the next. These characteristics help define and distinguish one cultural group from another. In healthcare, understanding a patient's cultural characteristics is important for providing culturally competent care, which takes into account the patient's cultural background, beliefs, and values in the delivery of care. This can help improve communication, build trust, and ensure that the patient receives care that is respectful and responsive to their needs and preferences.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Human rights abuses in a medical context can refer to violations of the right to health, which is a fundamental human right recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations. This includes:

* Denial of access to necessary healthcare, including sexual and reproductive health services
* Discrimination in the provision of healthcare based on race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, or other status
* Use of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment in healthcare settings
* Experimentation on human subjects without their informed consent
* Violation of confidentiality and privacy in the provision of healthcare services
* Inhumane living conditions in places of detention, such as prisons and immigration detention centers, which can lead to negative health outcomes.

Additionally, Human rights abuses can also refer to violations of other human rights that have an impact on a person's health, such as:

* Violence against women, children, LGBTQ+ individuals, minorities and other marginalized groups
* Forced displacement and migration
* Denial of the right to education, food, water and sanitation
* Inhumane working conditions
* Torture and ill-treatment
* Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearances
* Violations of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly.

These abuses can lead to physical and mental health problems, including chronic illnesses, disabilities, and psychological trauma. They can also exacerbate existing health conditions and make it more difficult for individuals to access necessary healthcare services.

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, which includes the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. The goal of orthopedic care is to help patients maintain or restore their mobility, function, and quality of life through a variety of treatments, including medication, physical therapy, bracing, and surgery. Orthopedic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, and they may specialize in specific areas such as sports medicine, spine care, joint replacement, or pediatric orthopedics.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

Child custody is a legal term used in family law to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his/her child such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child's welfare and/or the right and duty to physically care for the child. In cases of divorce or separation, child custody arrangements can be made either through an agreement between the parents or by court order.

There are two main types of child custody: legal custody and physical custody. Legal custody refers to the parent's right to make important decisions about the child's upbringing, such as education, healthcare, and religious training. Physical custody refers to where the child will live and which parent will be responsible for the child's daily care.

Custody may be awarded to one parent exclusively (sole custody) or shared by both parents (joint custody). In some cases, grandparents or other relatives may also seek custody of a child. The primary consideration in any child custody case is the best interests of the child.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nuclear weapons" is not a medical term. It falls under the field of nuclear physics and military technology. However, I can provide a general definition:

Nuclear weapons are explosive devices that derive their destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (splitting of heavy atomic nuclei like uranium or plutonium) or fusion (combining of light atomic nuclei like hydrogen). These reactions release enormous amounts of energy in the form of heat, light, and radiation. The explosion from a nuclear weapon can cause widespread destruction and loss of life due to the blast wave, thermal radiation, and ionizing radiation.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Students, Dental" is not a medical term or definition. Instead, it likely refers to individuals who are studying to become dental professionals, such as dentists, dental hygienists, or dental assistants.

If you're looking for information about dental education or the field of dentistry, I would be happy to provide some resources or answer any questions you may have!

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Diagnostic errors refer to inaccurate or delayed diagnoses of a patient's medical condition, which can lead to improper or unnecessary treatment and potentially serious harm to the patient. These errors can occur due to various factors such as lack of clinical knowledge, failure to consider all possible diagnoses, inadequate communication between healthcare providers and patients, and problems with testing or interpretation of test results. Diagnostic errors are a significant cause of preventable harm in medical care and have been identified as a priority area for quality improvement efforts.

Christiane Sanderson (2006). Counselling Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 978- ... "What is Child Abuse and Neglect?". Australian Institute of Family Studies. September 2015. "Child Sexual Abuse and the " ... sexual abuse, psychological abuse and neglect and has inability to verbalize the details of the abuse. Child grooming can be a ... Food for young children, including formula and baby food can contain pathogens that can make the child very ill and even die. ...
Christiane Sanderson (2006). Counselling Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978- ... Counselling Survivors of Domestic Abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 15 June 2008. ISBN 978-1-84642-811-1 Crosson-Tower, ... Economic abuse wheel. Women's Domestic Abuse Helpline. Retrieved December 13, 2016. Jill Cory; Karen McAndless-Davis. When Love ... This power is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or be reprimanded for ...
National Association of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse. Retrieved July 9, 2022. Andreeva, Nellie (July 8, 2022). "Tony Sirico ... In 1967, he served time in prison for the first time as an adult. On February 27, 1970, he was arrested at a restaurant, and ... Murray, Bill (2015). ""Touched" - a feature film about childhood sexual abuse". ... Sirico had two children, Joanne and Richard. In 1999, he and Sopranos co-star Vincent Pastore met with James Clemenza and his ...
Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors. Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press. p. 129. ISBN ... Child sexual abuse Falconer, Joel (2012-10-08). "Mail-order drugs, hitmen & child porn: A journey into the dark corners of the ... This is a list of current and former pedophile advocacy groups that support sexual contact between adults and children. Newgon ... 2 January 2014). The Sexual Abuse of Children: Volume I: Theory and Research. Routledge. pp. 38-39. ISBN 9781317760306. ...
ISBN 978-0-446-51395-1. Wednesday's Children: Adult Survivors of Abuse Speak Out. Putnam Adult. 1992. ISBN 0-399-13743-2. After ... She married her child's father, Bruce Somers, days later, at age 19. Her situation led to low self-esteem. She was arrested for ... Somers portrayed a widow with two young children who decided to fill the shoes of her late husband, a sheriff of a Nevada town ... Suzanne Marie Mahoney was born in San Bruno, California, on October 16, 1946, as the third of four children in a working-class ...
Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors. Haworth Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7890-1901-1. Zagorski, N. ( ... Sexual abuse of children and adolescents can lead to severe negative consequences. Child sexual abuse is a risk factor for many ... ISBN 978-1-55874-320-5. Summit, R. (1983). "The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome". Child Abuse & Neglect. 7 (2): 177- ... including cases of alleged sexual abuse or child sexual abuse (CSA).[failed verification] The research of Elizabeth Loftus has ...
Misinformation concerning child sexual abuse and adult survivors. New York: Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press. pp. 56. ISBN 0 ... including sexual abuse. According to the FMS Foundation, "The controversy is not about whether children are abused. Child abuse ... after their adult daughter Jennifer Freyd accused Peter Freyd of sexual abuse when she was a child. The FMSF described its ... Treating Abuse Today. 3 (3). Lightfoot, Liz (December 19, 1993). "Child abuse expert says paedophilia part of 'God's will'". ...
"Effects of child abuse and neglect for adult survivors". 16 June 2014. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. ... Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. ... "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological ... the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of ...
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms ... Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-393-31356-7. Julia Whealin (22 May 2007). "Child Sexual ... "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological ... or using a child to produce child pornography, including live streaming sexual abuse. The effects of child sexual abuse include ...
Sex between an adult family member and a child is usually considered a form of child sexual abuse, also known as child ... "Working with Survivors of Child Incestuous Abuse". Rutgers School of Social Work. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014 ... While incest between adults and children generally involves the adult as the perpetrator of abuse, there are rare instances of ... The Goler clan in Nova Scotia is a specific instance in which child sexual abuse in the form of forced adult-child and sibling- ...
"Dozens of Children Abused at Evangelical Commune, Adult Survivors Allege". Gleanings - ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved ... Ronald Enroth was researching a sequel to his book Churches That Abuse, which was said to mention issues of abuse within JPUSA ... the Evangelical Covenant Church claiming that children were sexually abused by members of JPUSA and its leadership covered it ... to Call Home is a documentary that shares the stories of former children of JPUSA members who allegedly were sexually abused. ...
"Adult adjustment of survivors of institutional child abuse in Ireland" (PDF). Child Abuse & Neglect. 34 (7): 477-89. doi: ... Child & Youth Services) (1982) Hanson, R (Ed) Institutional Abuse of Children and Youth. (Child & Youth Services Series: Vol. 4 ... "Adult adjustment of survivors of institutional child abuse in Ireland" (PDF). Child Abuse & Neglect. 34 (7): 477-89. doi: ... Discriminatory abuse Financial abuse Neglect Physical abuse Psychological and emotional abuse Sexual abuse Verbal abuse Typical ...
... results from an 18-month follow-up study with adult female survivors of CSA". J Child Sex Abuse. 13 (1): 69-86. doi:10.1300/ ... Child marriage Child-on-child sexual abuse Child pornography Child sex tourism Child sexual abuse in Nigeria Child welfare ... "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological ... Child sexual abuse (CSA), also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a ...
The major problem for adult survivors of childhood abuse is the burden of proof of the abuse in a formal legal setting. Bindoon ... Survivors to this day still suffer the effects of the child abuse. The trauma experienced in care has affected care leavers ... Sexual abuse by foster parents, their children or other relatives was also reported. Children's experience of out-of-home care ... Each report made dozens of recommendations to address the problems caused by past abuse and prevent future abuse of children in ...
Gil, Eliana (1988). Outgrowing the pain a book for and about adults abused as children (second ed.). New York: Dell Trade Pbk. ... Gil, Eliana (1988). Treatment of adult survivors of childhood abuse. Walnut Creek, California: Launch Press. ISBN 9780961320560 ... San Francisco Child: San Francisco Child Abuse Council. Gil, Eliana (1982). Foster parenting abused children. Chicago, Illinois ... "Institutional abuse of children in out-of-home care". Child & Youth Services. 4 (1-2): 7-13. doi:10.1300/J024v04n01_03. Gil, ...
Misinformation concerning child sexual abuse and adult survivors. Whitfield, C.L., Silberg, J., & Fink, P.J. (Eds.) (2002). New ... The adverse childhood experiences that were being asked about were described as emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, ... childhood sexual abuse, and addiction recovery, including Healing the Child Within and Memory and Abuse: Remembering and ... Discovery and Recovery for Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families A Gift to Myself: A Personal Guide to Healing My Child ...
"Adult Profiles of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Attachment Insecurity, Sexual Compulsivity, and Sexual Avoidance". Journal of ... or emotional abuse, other compulsive or addictive problems such as substance abuse, or a family history of addiction. However, ... A strong feeling of aversion toward sex may be a response to earlier trauma or abuse. The use of certain medications, such as ... Nonetheless, the data for sex addicts and sexual anorexics draw many similarities in terms of family, abuse, and medical ...
"Efficacy of emotion focused therapy for adult survivors of child abuse: a preliminary study". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 14 ( ... Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy Affectional bond Attachment in adults Attachment in children Attachment-based ... For example, a person may respond with anger at the genuine caring or concern of others because as a child he or she was ... EFT for couples is based on conceptualizations of marital distress and adult love that are supported by empirical research on ...
... child rape survivors and sexual and domestic abuse survivors, with details of their experiences included. Intended to increase ... some of whom were minors without adult guardians. Some images were criticised as exploitative and objectifying. They included a ... Batty, David (26 May 2022). "Médecins Sans Frontières apologises for using images of child rape survivor". The Guardian. ... The rate of malnutrition in children is used to determine the malnutrition rate in the population, and then to determine the ...
Many adults who were children at the commune wrote blogs confirming abuse (physical and sexual) by Schwartz at Mount Hope. A ... "From a Child of Mount Hope". Survivors of Mount Hope. Angel Fire. Retrieved 20 April 2012. Scheibner, Lisa (10 February 2010 ... Some remaining adults defend Herbert T. Schwartz as a great and holy leader while the grown children are confused and depraved ... Children and Young Adult Literature portal The Patron Saint of Butterflies on Amazon Cecilia Galante (Articles with short ...
... maintains an active sexual abuse litigation practice representing child and adult abuse survivors nationwide. ... Thanks in part to the passing of the New York Adult Survivor's Act and the California Sexual Abuse and Cover Up Accountability ... "Sobbing Montessori School Teacher Indicted on Child Abuse, Other Charges After Video Emerges: 'I'm Usually Great With Kids'". ... Videos of the abuse went viral, showing rough and aggressive handling of children. Following the viral leak, a lawyer from Levy ...
Christiane Sanderson (2006). Counselling Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1843103354. ... Psychology portal Adult-to-adult narcissistic abuse Abuse of power Battered person syndrome Blackmail Bullying Child grooming ... Trocmé, Nico; Bala, Nicholas (December 2005). "False allegations of abuse and neglect when parents separate". Child Abuse & ... The Domestic Abuse Act 2021 defines domestic abuse as controlling or coercive behaviour, economic abuse and psychological, ...
Mercer sexually abused both children and adults. Survivors reported that they subjected themselves to Mercer's abuses because ... There was also evidence that Mercer sexually abused children." Many adult members of the community participated in the abuse ... Mercer physically and sexually abused children and adults at the commune. One former commune member, Keith Loker, committed a ... Some children never recovered from the psychological abuse suffered. "In one instance, Mercer ordered that [a girl's] hair be ...
The criticisms were co-published in the 2001 book Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors. In 2002, a ... s suggestion of relabeling some forms of sexual encounters between adults and children/adolescents as adult-child (or adult- ... Misinformation concerning child sexual abuse and adult survivors. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-1901-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: ... Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors. Routledge. pp. 109-134. ISBN 978-0-7890-1901-1. Salter, Anna ...
Mercer sexually abused children and adults. Survivors reported that they subjected themselves to Mercer's abuses because of ... He also reported multiple cases of physical abuse against both adults and children in the United States and Mexico. Branham's ... There was also evidence that Mercer sexually abused children." "In one instance, Mercer ordered that [a girl's] hair be cut off ... Their first child, William "Billy" Paul Branham was born soon after their marriage; the date given for his birth varies by ...
As an adult, Feldman has claimed that he is a survivor of child sexual abuse. According to him, he was molested by a man he ... for civil claims arising out of acts of child sex abuse and would create a one-year period in which sex abuse survivors could ... In 1981, he appeared in NBC's musical comedy children's special How to Eat Like a Child alongside other future child stars ... expose the secret child sexual abuse that he claims is just as common in Hollywood as sexism and sexual assault against adults ...
... and substance abuse in the victim's adult life. Definitions used have varied widely. Child sexual abuse between siblings is ... Adjustment in Adult Women Survivors" (PDF). Families in Society. 92 (1): 77-83. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.4067. S2CID 143044253.[ ... "Sexual abuse in the national incidence study of child abuse and neglect: An appraisal". Child Abuse & Neglect. 8 (1): 23-32. ... Role of adult children." Boston: Auburn House. White, L. K., & Riedmann, A. (1992). Ties among adult siblings. "Social Forces, ...
The adult caregiver who has abused the child often seems comfortable and not upset over the child's hospitalization. While the ... In stark contrast, other reports suggest survivors of FDIA develop an avoidance of medical treatment with post-traumatic ... Even when the child is removed, the perpetrator may then abuse another child: a sibling or other child in the family. ... physical child abuse is the degree of premeditation involved. Whereas most physical abuse entails lashing out at a child in ...
The president of Adults Surviving Child Abuse, Cathy Kezelman, called his comments "outrageous", saying that they denied the ... "George Pell: Abuse survivors to travel to Rome for Cardinal's testimony after crowdfunding campaign". Australia: ABC News. 16 ... Ridsdale was convicted between 1993 and 2017 of child sexual abuse and indecent assault charges against children aged as young ... Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and was also examined in the 2013 Victorian government Inquiry into the Handling of Child Abuse ...
The center also offers individual therapy and group therapy to adult survivors of child sexual abuse and other types of trauma ... During the 1980s, the agency added services to prevent and treat child abuse and neglect, adult education, and expanded youth ... as well as give voice to the experiences of child survivors who have gone through KHCC's child sexual abuse prevention and ... In 2013, KHCC produced LISTEN TO ME: stories of child sexual abuse survivors and those who help them in collaboration with Ping ...
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse (ASCA) is a New-York based support group devoted to helping adult victims of child abuse ... In-Person) ASCA NYC (Adult Survivors of Child Abuse). September 25, 2024 @ 6:00 pm - 8:00 pm. ... ASCA meetings are exclusively for adult survivors of child abuse (mental, physical or sexual). The meetings are closed to non- ... Connect with other LGBTQ+ families at play dates and kid friendly activities ...
Directory of Services for Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse 2009 ... ARCHIVED - Family Violence Prevention Resources: Children. *Directory of Services for Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse ... Alberta: Directory of Services for Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse 2009. ... Adults Molested as Children Family Crisis Society PO Box 6165. Fort McMurray, AB T9H 4W1. Tel: (780) 743-4691. (780) 791-6708 ( ...
Our New Booklet - Child on Child Abuse and Support for Young Adult Survivors. ... Our booklet, Child on Child Abuse gives advice for young people who may have experienced abuse in childhood, as well as tips on ... This new resource is free to all and offers insights into the nature of child-on-child abuse and where to go for help. ... It also looks at abuse in educational environments and examines the relationships between organised crime and child abuse. ...
... and Abuse entitled, "The health care experiences of adult survivors of child sexual abuse: A systematic review of evidence on ... The health care experiences of adult survivors of child sexual abuse : a systematic review of evidence on sensitive practice [ ... This study was inspired by my work with adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) as a practicing social worker/therapist. ... The women I worked with spoke of the impact that abuse has had on their physical health, health care utilization, perceptions ...
... grassroots National Association of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse. Theyre available to the global community that fights ... against child abuse and trauma. I hope youll decide you want to be a part of this, and if so .. Welcome to the NAASCA family ...
... www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/features/what-to-know-adult-survivor-child-abuse ... www.okrehab.org/mental-health-guide/how-child-abuse-affects-adult-survivors/ ... Each year in this country millions of children are the victims of child abuse at the hands of parents, guardians and other ... If youre an adult who survived childhood abuse, there is help out there for you. While you cannot change the past, you can ...
Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse Many perpetrators of sexual abuse are in a position of trust or responsible for the ... government authorities respond to another report of child sexual abuse. Learning the warning signs of child sexual abuse is ... Child Sexual Abuse. When a perpetrator intentionally harms a minor physically, psychologically, sexually, or by acts of neglect ... News Statistics Tips for Interviewing Survivors Key Terms & Phrases Request to Speak with a Survivor Public Service ...
If you decide to seek support from a therapist after sexual assault or abuse, you may have some questions. Thats perfectly ... Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Many perpetrators of sexual abuse are in a position of trust or responsible for the ... News Statistics Tips for Interviewing Survivors Key Terms & Phrases Request to Speak with a Survivor Public Service ... Laws in Your State Action Center Issues We Work on Sexual Violence in 6 African Countries Campaign to Protect Child Safety ...
... adult sex abuse survivors. Placing the best interests of the child first. Free consultation. ... Award-winning legal team helping child molestation victims & ... We represent sexual abuse victims and adult survivors of ... The law defines "child abuse" as any physical injury, sexual abuse, or emotional abuse inflicted on a child other than by ... 15 million for O.B. Whaley sexual abuse survivors. $15 million for O.B. Whaley sexual abuse survivors.. ...
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - was established in St. Johns in 2011. ... Adult Survivors of Child Abuse (ASCA). June 20, 2022 @ 7:00 pm - 8:30 pm NDT ... The provinces first chapter of ASCA - Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - was established in St. Johns in 2011. ... If you are a survivor of child abuse and would like to participate in our meetings, please email [email protected] for meeting ...
Support to Adult Survivors of Child Abuse in institutional settings. SASCA is a two years project co-founded by European Union ... Το SASCA (Support to Adult Sur. vivors of Child Abuse in Insti. tutional settings) είναι ένα διετές ερευνητικό πρόγραμμα που ... from the perspective of adult survivors in order to understand the long terms effects of such events, how and if the survivors ... The project addresses the problem of child abuse in institutional settings, particularly in residential care, ...
Overview of childhood sexual abuse and the impact it has on adult survivors. ... Adults Sexually Abused as Children (Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse). Samantha Gluck ... Gluck, S. (2008, November 26). Adults Sexually Abused as Children (Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse), HealthyPlace. ... For some survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there is a minimal compromise to their adult functioning. Others will have ...
Insomnia symptom trajectories among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study. Steine, Iris Mulders; ... Participants and setting: The sample comprised 533 adult survivors of CSA (94.9% women, mean age 39.2 years, mean age of abuse ... Conclusions: We conclude that different longitudinal insomnia trajectories exist among adult CSA survivors. The overall results ... recruited from support centers for sexual abuse survivors in Norway. Methods: Latent class growth analyses were used to ...
Research has shown that many victims of child abuse will also abuse their own children. For that reason, child abuse has risen ... National Association of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. NAASCA Highlights. ... called The National Commission on Child Abuse and Neglect Deaths, which will ensure reduced child abuse, ensure deaths of child ... Support child protection act Statistics show that over 6 million children are abused every year and about 2,000 die from child ...
"These are horrible atrocities that happened between an adult and a child. And it should not be forgotten, and the diocese ... CHILD USA, in partnership with SNAP, has developed Survivor Toolkits to help survivors understand their rights and guide them ... La Rosa-Lopez is currently facing five counts of indecency with a child for allegedly abusing three children. ... The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests says the archdiocese is trying to escape responsibility by relying on a legal ...
Christiane Sanderson (2006). Counselling Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 978- ... "What is Child Abuse and Neglect?". Australian Institute of Family Studies. September 2015. "Child Sexual Abuse and the " ... sexual abuse, psychological abuse and neglect and has inability to verbalize the details of the abuse. Child grooming can be a ... Food for young children, including formula and baby food can contain pathogens that can make the child very ill and even die. ...
In-Person) ASCA NYC (Adult Survivors of Child Abuse). September 27 @ 6:00 pm - 8:00 pm ... Connect with other LGBTQ+ families at play dates and kid friendly activities ... Connect with other LGBTQ+ families at play dates and kid friendly activities ...
... describe the factors in therapy to help support adult survivors of sexual abuse. ... 2. How child sexual abuse impacts adult survivors. In How Can You Help Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse? we looked at some ... 1. Defining child sexual abuse. In many cases, adult survivors of child sexual abuse are not fully aware of what occurred, and ... The trauma of child sexual abuse can result in a range of emotions and thought process for adult survivors such as confusion, ...
A harrowing discovery in Ireland casts light on the Catholic Churchs history of abusing unwed mothers and their babies - and ... Another time, he was put in a bag, hoisted over his adult stepbrothers shoulder and carted off to the bog; told he would be ... "The abuse I got was shocking," Mr. Haverty told me during the survivors meeting. "Other children knew there wasnt something ... Irelands house of tears: Why Tuams survivors want justice for lost and abused children. ...
My wife was rejecting me for our children, and all my childhood fears of loneliness had come flooding back. The birth of my ... children had opened up a Pandoras Box and there was no place… ... Because those who abused me were adult males who played a ... Child Is Father to the Man: A Survivor of Childhood Sexual Abuse Speaks Out. by Derek Lainsbury , September 1, 1999 ... Child Is Father to the Man: A Survivor of Childhood Sexual Abuse Speaks Out. ...
Child abuse survivors. *Child abuse victims, Adult. *Grown-up abused children. Filed under: Adult child abuse victims*. Victims ... Adult child abuse victims. Here are entered works on adults who were abused as children. Works on children who are victims of ... National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, Childrens Bureau, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department ... National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, Childrens Bureau, Administration for Children Youth, and Families, Office of Human ...
Action, Engagement, Remembering: Services for Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Author(s): Kris Bein ... and remember with adult survivors of child sexual abuse with strategies in crisis intervention, counseling, holistic healing, ... Child sexual abuse is complex and can affect survivors in different ways in different areas over the years: trust, safety, ... Holistic Healing Services for Survivors. Author(s): Kris Bein. Publisher(s): National Sexual Assault Coalition Resource Sharing ...
... has launched a confronting advertising campaign aimed at highlighting the long-term affects of child abuse on over two ... People assume adults can fix their own problems but with abuse its not that simple. Shame and stigma keep survivors isolated ... Adults Surviving Child Abuse (ASCA) has launched a confronting advertising campaign aimed at highlighting the long-term affects ... of child abuse on over two million adult survivors and a further eight million Australian community members. ...
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse* * Alcohol Drinking / genetics* * Alcoholism / genetics* * DNA Methylation ... Associations Between MAOA-uVNTR Genotype, Maltreatment, MAOA Methylation, and Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult Males Alcohol ... The study focused on 53 young adult males and aimed to determine whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol- ... that epigenetic factors as well as genotype and maltreatment play a role in the development of alcohol misuse among young adult ...
Former Boy Scouts leader Fleming Weaver is accused of sexually abusing Scouts for decades, and First Baptist Church of ... ExploreNational Association of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse 323-552-6150 ... alleging Weaver might still be abusing children. Confronted by authorities, Weaver said he sexually abused several boys but ... "How many, would you say, of these kids were abused by you?" asked Hall County Lt. Judy Mecum in the 1995 interview with Weaver. ...
This page has been created to help survivors of abuse learn what they may expect to get from lawyer. A visit to see a solicitor ... If you are now an adult and the abuse happened many years ago, your case will be out of time. Your solicitor can advise you ... This page has been created to help survivors of abuse learn what they may expect to get from lawyer. A visit to see a solicitor ... For more information on the way in child abuse is carried out, and how it can be treated please watch this video produced by ...
... child sexual abuse; 4) child physical abuse; 5) adult survivor of sexual abuse; 6) survivors of homicide victims; 7) victims of ... The 10 different crime victimization types were 1) adult sexual assault; 2) domestic violence; 3) ... drunk drivers; 8) elder abuse; 9) other violent crimes; and 10) property crimes. Figures, tables, and appendixes ...
Adults with histories of sexual abuse are categorised as either resilient or non-resilient on the basis of current functioning ... Characteristics of the family of origin and its perceived contribution to the child sexual abuse are discussed. The ... This study will review the literature on resilience in adult female childhood sexual abuse survivors with specific focus on ... Adult child sexual abuse victims. , Women -- Psychology. , Resilience (Personality trait). , Dissertations -- Psychology. , ...
Cycle of child sexual abuse: Links between being a victim and becoming a perpetrator - Volume 179 Issue 6 ... In Vulnerable Populations: Evaluation and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adult Survivors (ed. Sgroi, S. M.), pp. 103 ... Lipovsky, J. A. & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1992) The child sexual abuse victim as an adult. In The Sexual Abuse of Children (vol. 2 ... The effects of child sexual abuse in later family life; mental health, parenting and adjustment of offspring. Child Abuse & ...
Advocates are called upon to serve sexual assault survivors of all ages and stages of development. ... strengthens support and healing for child survivors.. Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Survivors of child sexual abuse ... Adults and teens can be charged with the sexual abuse of a child. The same laws apply to teenage and adult offenders, although ... Parenting a Child Who Has Experienced Abuse or Neglect. *Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and ...
  • In response to the growing number of young adults disclosing instances of abuse in childhood on our support line and across the country, we've authored a new booklet addressing the challenges that young people may face. (napac.org.uk)
  • Our booklet, Child on Child Abuse gives advice for young people who may have experienced abuse in childhood, as well as tips on spotting instances of abuse for parents and professionals who are in regular contact with young people. (napac.org.uk)
  • Since the outpouring of testimonies on the Everyone's Invited page, we have seen a significant and sustained increase in the number of young people calling or emailing NAPAC to disclose their experiences of childhood abuse. (napac.org.uk)
  • The lingering effects of childhood abuse make it very difficult to trust others and form normal, healthy connections. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • Childhood abuse can eventually take a toll on our physical health and wellbeing. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • In a normal, healthy childhood, a child can emotionally attach to one or more adults who make them feel safe and secure. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • But in a childhood where the individual suffered some form of abuse, they may never have been able to form trusting bonds with others. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • If you're an adult who survived childhood abuse, there is help out there for you. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • Who can bring a lawsuit for childhood sexual abuse? (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • What is childhood sexual abuse? (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • Childhood sexual abuse is defined as any type of sexual misconduct. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • If you were a victim of childhood sexual abuse, give us a call to discuss your case. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • In addition to representing victims of sexual abuse, Mr. Allard devotes a considerable amount of time to bringing awareness to the childhood sexual abuse epidemic afflicting our society through legislative efforts. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • Overview of childhood sexual abuse and the impact it has on adult survivors. (healthyplace.com)
  • Both women and men may experience a wide array of symptoms that may be associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. (healthyplace.com)
  • For some survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there is a minimal compromise to their adult functioning. (healthyplace.com)
  • Childhood sexual abuse can be defined as any exposure to sexual acts imposed on children who inherently lack the emotional, maturational, and cognitive development to understand or to consent to such acts. (healthyplace.com)
  • The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in the United States is unknown. (healthyplace.com)
  • However, in the past 25 years, there has been increased recognition that incest and other forms of childhood sexual abuse occur with alarming frequency. (healthyplace.com)
  • Current estimates of incest and other childhood sexual abuse range from 12% to 40% depending on settings and population. (healthyplace.com)
  • Most studies have found that among women, approximately 20% - or 1 in 5 - have experienced childhood sexual abuse. (healthyplace.com)
  • Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sleep disturbances in adulthood. (uib.no)
  • I had not known that the effects of my childhood sexual abuse would continue to haunt me throughout adolescence and into adulthood, eventually taking me to face it head on at the birth of my firstborn. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • Therefore, I offer the story of my life not as a legal analysis or treatment model but as a way of preparing midwives for some of the difficulties you may be confronted with while working with parents when the father is a survivor of childhood sexual abuse. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • The first time I realised the enormity of my childhood sexual abuse was on receiving the news that I was about to become a father. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • If you - or someone you know - has been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, there are ways to seek help or even, for a limited time, pursue civil legal action. (ajc.com)
  • Our former Chair, Lee Moore experienced Satanic ritual abuse throughout childhood. (childabuselawyers.com)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study will review the literature on resilience in adult female childhood sexual abuse survivors with specific focus on incestuous abuse. (sun.ac.za)
  • A high percentage of male subjects abused in childhood by a female relative became perpetrators. (cambridge.org)
  • Sexual abuse by a female in childhood may be a risk factor for a cycle of abuse in males. (cambridge.org)
  • Survivors of childhood sexual abuse are facing another legal obstacle this year as the state court system has essentially suspended most civil filings amid the coronavirus outbreak. (legislativegazette.com)
  • This legislation builds on our previous work to protect survivors of childhood sexual abuse by ensuring that adults who have been subject to such atrocious crimes are able to seek civil redress against their abuser," Heastie said. (wskg.org)
  • More than 11,000 survivors of childhood sexual abuse filed court claims after the Child Victims Act was approved in 2019. (wskg.org)
  • In the first article of this series I discussed the commonality and damage of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including clergy sexual abuse. (ncronline.org)
  • Since the 1980s, when child abuse and domestic violence emerged from society's skeleton closet, researchers and clinicians have rightly prioritized the tremendous wounds caused by adverse childhood experiences. (ncronline.org)
  • It is time we stopped treating the symptoms of childhood trauma - such as depression, anxiety, self-harm and addictions - as stand-alone conditions and started offering people trauma-informed and focused support which addresses the childhood abuse that so often is at the root of these conditions. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Funded by the Home Office, the support group will run for 12 weeks and will aim to address all types of childhood abuse - emotional, physical, sexual and neglect - and how they impact on adult life. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • 42% of U.S. adult women report sexual victimization by an adult or older minor during childhood. (cdc.gov)
  • When a perpetrator intentionally harms a minor physically, psychologically, sexually, or by acts of neglect, the crime is known as child abuse. (rainn.org)
  • An infant or toddler is potentially vulnerable to physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse and neglect and has inability to verbalize the details of the abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • by Diane DePanfilis, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, and United States. (upenn.edu)
  • November 9, 2009 by Diane I am conducting an anonymous survey of adult survivors of child abuse and neglect. (letgoletpeacecomein.org)
  • 1. Child abuse and neglect is a global public health concern. (who.int)
  • WHO estimates that globally some 40 million children aged 0-14 years suffer some form of abuse and neglect requiring health and social care. (who.int)
  • Others are personal or family experiences of violence, for instance, child abuse, neglect, or family history of suicide and broader community conditions, such as high crime rates and violence. (who.int)
  • Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a parent, caregiver, or another person in a custodial role (eg, clergy, coach, teacher) that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Four types of maltreatment are generally recognized: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse (psychologic abuse), and neglect. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Abuse and neglect are often associated with physical injuries, delayed growth and development, and mental health issues. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About 73% of these children were victims of neglect and 43% were victims of physical abuse with or without other forms of maltreatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Assemblywoman Jessica Gonzalez- Rojas at an event celebrating accord in the Assembly on the Adult Survivors Act on May 23, 2022. (wskg.org)
  • In November 2022, the New York Adult Survivors Act (S.66A/A.648A) was signed into law by Governor Kathy Hochul. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • In December of 2022, we filed a lawsuit against Bill Cosby under the New York Adult Survivors Act. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • The law provides a one-year window for New York survivors who were sexually abused as adults to take legal action until November 24, 2023. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • Others will have a myriad of psychological, physical, and behavioral symptoms as a result of their abuse. (healthyplace.com)
  • Adult CSA survivors have a disproportionately high use of health care services, more severe symptoms with more complex patterns of presentation, and often somatic symptoms (somatic symptoms represent psychological distress that manifests itself as bodily ailments) that do not respond to routine treatment. (healthyplace.com)
  • In this blog article we set out some of these common thought processes and emotions, and describe the important factors in psychological therapy or counselling to help in supporting adult survivors of sexual abuse in their recovery. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • The psychological harm and emotional consequences repressed since the abuse were beginning to emerge. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • We have invested significant new funding in expanding mental health services, including an additional £3m to expand access to psychological therapies for adults over the past two years. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Research shows long-term housing stability results in decreased physical, psychological and economic abuse among survivors, as well as the use of their children against them as a form of abuse. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Factitious disorder imposed on another (formerly factitious disorder by proxy) has as its cardinal characteristic the production or feigning of physical or psychological symptoms in another person, usually a child or adult under the care of the person with the disorder. (medscape.com)
  • DBH addresses the psychological, emotional, cognitive, developmental, and social impacts that disasters have on survivors and responders as they respond and recover. (cdc.gov)
  • Adult Survivors of Child Abuse (ASCA) is a New-York based support group devoted to helping adult victims of child abuse transition from survivors to thrivers. (gaycenter.org)
  • ASCA meetings are exclusively for adult survivors of child abuse (mental, physical or sexual). (gaycenter.org)
  • The province's first chapter of ASCA - Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - was established in St. John's in 2011. (milesforsmilesfoundation.com)
  • Adults Surviving Child Abuse (ASCA) has launched a confronting advertising campaign aimed at highlighting the long-term affects of child abuse on over two million adult 'survivors' and a further eight million Australian community members. (marketingmag.com.au)
  • Shame and stigma keep survivors isolated and stop them from speaking up and seeking the help they need," explains ASCA Chair, Dr Cathy Kezelman. (marketingmag.com.au)
  • ASCA is one of few organisations helping adults surviving child abuse throughout Australia, an issue that is believed to cost Australians more than $10 billion annually, but does not receive ongoing government funding. (marketingmag.com.au)
  • Because of the shame and stigma associated with abuse, many victims never disclose such experiences. (healthyplace.com)
  • Survivors sometimes feel a deep sense of shame over what has occurred. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • The St. Mary's home for babies in Tuam, Ireland, was one of several facilities to deal with the perceived shame of 'illegitimate' children set up by the Irish government and run by Catholic religious orders. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Set up by the government and run by Catholic religious orders, the mother and baby homes were part of a system to deal with the perceived shame of "illegitimate" children and the women who bore them. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It is normal for survivors to feel shame about the abuse, but it's important for survivors to know the abuse is not their fault. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • Such statements shame survivors of sexual and gender-based violence into silence, leaving many to feel that they are alone in facing the issue," it said in a statement. (freemalaysiatoday.com)
  • Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted or abused may also face some additional challenges because of social attitudes and stereotypes about men and masculinity. (rainn.org)
  • Parents and caregivers experience a wide range of emotional reactions and parenting concerns after they learn their child has been sexually assaulted. (wcsap.org)
  • One victim said his abuse by Weaver began soon after. (ajc.com)
  • Among 747 males the risk of being a perpetrator was positively correlated with reported sexual abuse victim experiences. (cambridge.org)
  • by: Anonymous Who is responsible for the death of a victim of suicide following clergy abuse? (letgoletpeacecomein.org)
  • Pointing out that police data had revealed that most child sexual abuse cases involved perpetrators known to the victim, most often their biological or stepfathers, it added that a "staggering" 42% increase in child sexual abuse cases was recorded between 2020 and 2021. (freemalaysiatoday.com)
  • Sexual violence can affect survivors in many ways, including perceptions of the body and feelings of control. (rainn.org)
  • Child sexual abuse is complex and can affect survivors in different ways in different areas over the years: trust, safety, power, physical health, emotional and spiritual well being, and social relationships. (vawnet.org)
  • Visit centers.rainn.org to find a local sexual assault service provider that can connect you with resources in your area that are prepared to helps survivors of sexual assault. (rainn.org)
  • Working with trauma survivors, no matter their location, involves RISK. (giftfromwithin.org)
  • Here, I focus on the hope that most trauma survivors can heal because of inherent or learned resilience and/or through access to healing resources. (ncronline.org)
  • Recently, however, researchers also have concluded that while about two-thirds of trauma survivors will experience at least some negative outcomes after trauma, almost another third will emerge into adults who seem not to have been deeply affected by earlier traumas. (ncronline.org)
  • Many perpetrators of sexual abuse are in a position of trust or responsible for the child's care, such as a family member, teacher, clergy member, coach, or other children such as older siblings. (rainn.org)
  • Call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Referral Helpline at 1.800.662.HELP (4357) or search for a local treatment center using their locator tool. (rainn.org)
  • A high percentage of women in prostitution or with histories of substance abuse experienced incest in girlhood. (newint.org)
  • ACEs include both unhealthy home environments, such as living with a substance abusing parent, as well as harmful behaviors directed toward the child, such as emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. (cdc.gov)
  • SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities. (cdc.gov)
  • Interventions include providing a supportive presence as well as monitoring and assessing mental health and substance abuse needs. (cdc.gov)
  • Advocates can provide support regarding survivor's primary concerns, and accompany survivors to medical appointments and legal hearings where appropriate. (wcsap.org)
  • The trauma survivor's breaking point may be lower than for those not coping with past ACEs and the sexual abuse survivor's breaking point is likely to be lower still. (ncronline.org)
  • Our young adults landing page contains a variety of advice and resources for young people and Under 18s, if you would like to speak to one of our incredible support staff, please call our free confidential helpline on 0808 801 0331 or email [email protected] . (napac.org.uk)
  • If you decide to seek support from a therapist after sexual assault or abuse, you may have some questions. (rainn.org)
  • Participants and setting: The sample comprised 533 adult survivors of CSA (94.9% women, mean age 39.2 years, mean age of abuse onset 6.5 years), recruited from support centers for sexual abuse survivors in Norway. (uib.no)
  • Local programs who are interested in beginning or expanding services based on holistic healing approaches for survivors will find support for their efforts in the Why Holistic Healing section, draw inspiration from the work highlighted in the Voices from the Field section, and, more concretely, find some crucial steps to incorporate various healing approaches in the Working Together section. (vawnet.org)
  • We want to let people know there is help available and that every Australian can and should do what they can to support survivors. (marketingmag.com.au)
  • Advocates who serve youth and children may also have questions about how to best support children through legal and multi-disciplinary processes. (wcsap.org)
  • Advocates who provide support to nonoffending caregivers can provide active listening, empathy, and information about child sexual violence, medical and legal systems, and community resources and referrals. (wcsap.org)
  • Parents and caregivers also have an opportunity to meet with their own advocate to process thoughts and feelings, to safety plan, and to plan how to best support their child. (wcsap.org)
  • When advocates provide support to parents and caregivers, they assist with skill and capacity-building, which in turn, strengthens support and healing for child survivors. (wcsap.org)
  • Unless the child receives prompt support and treatment upon disclosure, much of this havoc may carry over into adulthood. (newint.org)
  • The research, published in a report today, analyses how domestic abuse support services in the UK can become more accessible to those that need them. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • Researchers found that survivors of domestic abuse valued services that were survivor-centred and enabled them to choose the pace and type of support they received, and that many needed help with parenting as well as support in their own right. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • When direct support was provided for children who had lived with domestic abuse, it could assist their mood, sleep, physical health and reduce their fear and anger. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • NAPAC are launching a survivor support group in Cardiff in January - although they claim more needs to be done to help victims recover. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • NAPAC CEO, Gabrielle Shaw, said: "We've seen a tenfold increase in demand for our survivor support groups since footballer Andy Woodward went public about the abuse he suffered. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • There is very little specialist support available for adult survivors across the UK. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • CDC's Resource for Action, formerly known as, "technical package," that highlights strategies based on the best available evidence to help states and communities prevent intimate partner violence, support survivors, and lessen the short and long-term harms of intimate partner violence. (cdc.gov)
  • It addresses a wide variety of situations and subjects such as the impact upon a child's development, what a survivor can do if they are not believed, how to respond to disclosures and finding the road to recovery. (napac.org.uk)
  • It also includes exposing a child to pornography, exposing genitals to a child, performing sexual acts in a child's presence or watching a child undress or use the bathroom. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • I did not imagine that they would be standing in a child's driveway in the middle of the night, smoking cigarettes and watching out, so when that ashen-faced child peeked out of the window, she'd see them there, keeping her safe. (naasca.org)
  • One of the most damaging effects of sexual abuse is the child's own sense of responsibility for what took place. (newint.org)
  • The caregiver interview with should elicit the child's developmental history, family history, the abuse history (if known), and the caregiver's perception of what has changed in the child since the traumatic event. (medscape.com)
  • Potential perpetrators of child maltreatment are defined slightly differently in different US states, but, in general, to legally be considered abuse, actions must be done by a person responsible for the child's welfare. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For those who wish to access self help there are quality assured books available in every public library in Wales on post-traumatic stress disorder/trauma and sexual abuse under the Book Prescription Wales scheme. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Anticipating the development of the baby and toddler aids caregivers in identifying hazards before they are discovered by the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important that caregivers recognize the potential of the abuse of their infant or toddler. (wikipedia.org)
  • Child grooming can be a concern and occurs when a perpetrator wins the trust of caregivers for the purpose of creating an opportunity for them to sexually abuse an infant or toddler. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advocates should not make promises to child survivors and their caregivers, nor should they provide legal or medical advice. (wcsap.org)
  • When a child or youth discloses sexual abuse, advocacy efforts are likely to include parents and non-offending caregivers. (wcsap.org)
  • Advocates can work with non-offending caregivers to identify behavioral responses to sexual abuse, and increase parenting skills to handle behaviors appropriately. (wcsap.org)
  • It is best practice to meet with child survivors separately from parents and caregivers, and if possible, to assign different staff advocates. (wcsap.org)
  • The interviewer should be aware that caregivers may also be involved in abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Aims to help survivors gain skills to manage distress and cope with post-disaster stress and adversity. (cdc.gov)
  • Instead of responding to an already hurting young person with kindness and mercy, abusing clergy too often became another trauma for the child or teen. (ncronline.org)
  • Parents may be unaware of or in denial of the traumatic event, and children may be afraid to disclose what happened to them. (medscape.com)
  • This paper considers the practices of rape crisis centers and coalitions as they act, engage, and remember with adult survivors of child sexual abuse with strategies in crisis intervention, counseling, holistic healing, and advocacy for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. (vawnet.org)
  • By far the most abuse - a term covering everything from suggestive petting and fondling to penetration and rape - is against girls. (newint.org)
  • Likewise, she has conducted individual and groups with rape survivors and child sexual abuse survivors. (indwes.edu)
  • A harrowing discovery in Ireland casts light on the Catholic Church's history of abusing unwed mothers and their babies - and emboldened survivors to demand accountability. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • DBH offers a set of supportive, short- and intermediate-term behavioral health interventions that address survivors' emotional responses to a natural or human-caused disaster or traumatic event. (cdc.gov)
  • The project addresses the problem of child abuse in institutional settings, particularly in residential care, from the perspective of adult survivors in order to understand the long terms effects of such events, how and if the survivors of these crimes may find protection and compensation in the existing legal framework, and how their experience may enlighten prevention strategy for the protection of children living today in residential care. (sasca.eu)
  • Whilst this resource is primarily aimed at young adults who need more information on disclosure and making sense of the abuse they experienced, it is also useful for parents, teachers, and professionals who are often around young people that are vulnerable and may be survivors. (napac.org.uk)
  • Survivors may find it particularly difficult to maintain successful romantic relationships as they may not be able to ever let their guard down and be truly vulnerable with their partner. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • When victims come forward, children and vulnerable adults are protected," Prats said. (click2houston.com)
  • Children are more vulnerable to toxicants affecting the skin because of their relatively larger surface area:body weight ratio. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO also recommends responsible media campaigns using traditional and social media to promote mental health and reduce distress need to be strengthened and conduct outreach, especially for people with a history of psychiatric disorders, COVID-19 survivors, and older adults. (who.int)
  • Ninety per cent of women in Canada's mental-health system and 80 per cent of women in prison were physically or sexually abused as children. (newint.org)
  • Conducting marriage and family counseling, seeing adult and child sexual abuse survivors, working with those struggling with eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues comprised her clinical work. (indwes.edu)
  • Many of the women using Roadmap services had high levels of health and mental health needs, indicating the importance of good communication between health services and domestic abuse organisations. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • Management includes documentation and treatment of any injuries and physical and mental health conditions, mandatory reporting to appropriate government agencies, and sometimes hospitalization and/or foster care to keep the child safe. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About two thirds of all reports to Child Protective Services were made by professionals who are mandated to report maltreatment (eg, educators, law enforcement personnel, social services personnel, legal professionals, day care providers, medical or mental health personnel, foster care providers). (msdmanuals.com)
  • If you are under the age of 40 and were sexually abused as a minor, you have the right to bring a lawsuit against the perpetrator and the institution that enabled the abuse. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • HOUSTON - The Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston has asked to throw out a federal lawsuit filed by a man and woman who claim they were abused by a Conroe priest because it was filed too late. (snapnetwork.org)
  • The lawsuit seeks $20 million in damages from the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston, claiming the church covered up allegations of abuse, and continued to allow La Rosa-Lopez access to children. (snapnetwork.org)
  • The lawsuit alleges that Cosby sexually abused Stacey Pinkerton in 1986 when she was just 21 years old. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • They may be concerned about behavioral changes they've observed in their child, as well as how the abuse has impacted family members and household dynamics. (wcsap.org)
  • But child abuse is too important to be ignored, so we have built a campaign that is intentionally confronting, a campaign that is designed to break through Australians passive indifference and bring this issue to the forefront of public debate," says O'Loughlin. (marketingmag.com.au)
  • Mary Ellen O'Loughlin, executive director of the Foundation for Survivors of Abuse, said upcoming electoral contests might have been a factor in the change in attitude toward the bill. (wskg.org)
  • O'Loughlin said if survivors shamed those Assembly members who were holdouts on the bill, then she's glad. (wskg.org)
  • Is the child safe from further victimization? (wcsap.org)
  • When children are reared by subordinate women a psychology of male domination and female victimization tends to be reproduced in their offspring. (newint.org)
  • Clinicians should be aware that children are just as much at risk of victimization from people they know as they are from strangers. (medscape.com)
  • No child deserves to live in fear. (naasca.org)
  • As a means of avoiding painful memories or situations, children may exhibit a general restriction in daily activities (eg, staying away from activities that could prompt excitement or fear) or may present with specific fears. (medscape.com)
  • The child may find it very hard to fall asleep, may exhibit pronounced fear of the dark, or may be reluctant to sleep alone. (medscape.com)
  • Domestic violence survivors are less likely to report their abuse when they fear eviction, and being evicted can impede the ability to financially escape abuse, according to the Urban Institute. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • we looked at some of the devastating impacts that child sexual abuse has on survivors throughout their lives. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • Thus, an advocate's work with a non-offending caregiver ultimately impacts the healing of the child survivor. (wcsap.org)
  • The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests says the archdiocese is trying to escape responsibility by relying on a legal technicality. (snapnetwork.org)
  • Prats is the original founder of SNAP, the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests in Houston. (click2houston.com)
  • Children known by predator priests to be in difficult home situations, or kids who came to the priests for advice or comfort about other traumas, were often selected as victims. (ncronline.org)
  • Here she served as an inpatient and outpatient addiction specialist for adults and adolescents. (indwes.edu)
  • It is surrounded by a culture of silence and stigma, especially when it occurs within the sanctuary of the home by someone the child knows and trusts. (who.int)
  • Children's capacity to heal from sexual abuse is heavily influenced by their primary caregiver's response. (wcsap.org)
  • Speaking on the Assembly floor, sponsor Linda Rosenthal said once the measure becomes law, survivors will take back their power and begin to heal. (wskg.org)
  • Even if the children appears uninjured, it is possible that internal injuries have occurred with serious consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a public crime, prevalent worldwide and associated with various consequences, which are potentially destructive, both in the short- and the long-term. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5. The aim of this document is to provide strategic direction for the prevention and management of the health consequences of child sexual abuse in Member States. (who.int)
  • A four-year evaluation led by academics at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan), in partnership with Bangor University, the University of East London and Manchester Metropolitan University, has revealed the need for flexible domestic violence and abuse services that are more tailored and responsive to survivors' changing needs. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • The evaluation, which was carried out between 2017 and 2021, involved interviews and surveys about the experiences of 300 women and 70 children affected by domestic violence and abuse, spanning five sites across England. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • In Ohio's rural counties, a widespread shortage, discrimination and cost all stack up against domestic-violence survivors and their children seeking safe long-term housing. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Takara Sanders, program manager of the Rapid Rehousing program with the Ohio Domestic Violence Network said the Rapid ReHousing grant also provides at least 6 months of rental assistance for about 200 survivors and their children in its first year. (publicnewsservice.org)
  • Applicants seeking housing on behalf of domestic violence survivors are routinely denied housing or offered less advantageous terms than applicants not associated with domestic violence, according to the National Housing Law Project . (publicnewsservice.org)
  • In a statement, Heastie said "all survivors of sexual abuse deserve justice and to have their day in court. (wskg.org)
  • The study focused on 53 young adult males and aimed to determine whether MAOA methylation moderated the association of alcohol-related problems with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment, and whether alcohol consumption moderated the association of MAOA methylation with the interaction of MAOA-uVNTR and maltreatment. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that epigenetic factors as well as genotype and maltreatment play a role in the development of alcohol misuse among young adult males. (nih.gov)
  • The causes of child maltreatment are varied. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 2020, 3.9 million reports of alleged child maltreatment were made to Child Protective Services (CPS) in the US involving 7.1 million children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many children were victims of multiple types of maltreatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About 1750 children died in the US of maltreatment in 2020, about half of whom were 1 year old. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Child sexual abuse is also often accompanied by physical and emotional abuse. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • Definitions have been expanded to include noncontact events such as coercion to watch sexual acts or posing in child pornography. (healthyplace.com)
  • In the African Region, economic poverty and affluence, armed conflicts and the breakdown of family and social systems are the main risk factors for CSA, opening the doors for child labour, child trafficking, child prostitution and child pornography. (who.int)
  • Police chiefs announced on Friday that 83 potential suspects have been identified and 98 football clubs have been impacted in the wake of historical allegations of child abuse in football. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Pinkerton is far from the first survivor to come forward with allegations of sexual assault. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • And if the children have to testify against their abusers in court, the bikers will go, too, and walk into court with them. (naasca.org)
  • The court closures come about halfway through a special one-year "lookback window" that permits sexual abuse survivors to file civil legal actions against their abusers and their employers, regardless of when the abuse took place. (legislativegazette.com)
  • The extended look-back window in bill S.7082/A.9036 , would give victims until August 14, 2021 to file lawsuits against abusers and organizations where the abuse took place, to allow individuals more time to deal with the emotional, financial, and now legal challenges as courts cannot currently take their cases. (legislativegazette.com)
  • Since the CVA look-back window opened last August, Hoylman reports that more than 1,547 civil lawsuits, as of February, have been filed against abusers and the institutions where the abuse took place. (legislativegazette.com)
  • The law, which is modeled after the Child Victims Act, would give adult survivors who have passed the statute of limitations a one-year window of opportunity to sue their alleged abusers. (wskg.org)
  • Advising the survivor and family members to not speak out about abuse to protect abusers is a blatant contradiction of the core values of Malaysian laws and government SOPs meant to eradicate sexual violence against children perpetrated by adults, including family members. (freemalaysiatoday.com)
  • They spoke of having to explain repeatedly about extensive cervical scarring resulting from years of sexual abuse and fighting to avoid invasive tests requested by providers to "explain" these anomalies. (umsystem.edu)
  • Whether this abuse is physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, it can leave scars on their heart and psyche for many years. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • 10 million jury verdict for abuse nearly 20 years ago. (childmolestationattorneys.com)
  • This is the first time the government has expressed interest in coming to hear the survivors speak in the town that marked them, years ago. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • If you are now an adult and the abuse happened many years ago, your case will be out of time. (childabuselawyers.com)
  • No less repressive an attitude was to be found 50 years later in the US, when Kinsey's 1953 report Sexual Behaviour in the Human Female also uncovered widespread girlhood sexual abuse. (newint.org)
  • The CVA also extends the period of time to press legal action for adult abuse survivors to 55-years-old for civil lawsuits, 25-years-old for criminal misdemeanor charges, and 28-years-old for criminal charges against their abuser. (legislativegazette.com)
  • The report is published by Women's Aid and SafeLives, two charities that collaborated with survivors of domestic abuse over a period of five years to develop and deliver their Roadmap Programme across England. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • Prats, who was abused by a Catholic priest when he was a teenager, listened to the homily and said the church has known about Keller for years. (click2houston.com)
  • He said the Catholic Church knew about the abuse for 22 years and did nothing. (click2houston.com)
  • At the same time, the research and my 30 years of working clinically with sexual abuse survivors convince me that healing is possible even when wounds from sexual abuse are deep and suppurating. (ncronline.org)
  • The majority of survivors of sexual abuse wait years, if not decades, to tell someone about being abused. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • clinical nutrition as a specialty goes here HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition FX - Diet FX - Food DH - Child Nutrition DI - 052504 MN - SP6.021.062 MS - Nutrition of children aged 2-10 years. (bvsalud.org)
  • AN - check the tag INFANT HN - 2008 FX - Child Nutrition FX - Infant Nutrition Physiology FX - Milk FX - Milk, Human DH - Adolescent Nutrition DI - 052508 MN - SP6.021.067 MS - Nutrition of persons 10 through 19 years of age. (bvsalud.org)
  • Advocates say they don't know how many survivors will come forward and file lawsuits. (wskg.org)
  • Child and youth survivors may experience increased distress, anxiety, and distrust while navigating their community and other systems. (wcsap.org)
  • In fact, an NIH study suggests that certain symptoms are common in abuse victims, particularly in women who experienced sexual abuse as a child. (johnrigolimft.com)
  • Children who have experienced trauma may exhibit sleep difficulties, attention deficit disorders , aggressive and defiant behavior (leading to the misdiagnosis of a conduct disorder), anxiety symptoms, phobias, and social avoidance, as well as depression, agitation, or learning difficulties. (medscape.com)
  • Of all the girls who experienced sexual abuse, 65% reported the abuse occurred more than once, 57% reported the abuser was a family member, and 53% reported the abuse occurred at home. (healthyplace.com)
  • Even family pets have been known to harm familiar children. (wikipedia.org)
  • I had made many attempts to give countless reasons why not having children was preferable to having a family. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • Characteristics of the family of origin and its perceived contribution to the child sexual abuse are discussed. (sun.ac.za)
  • Unlike boys, who tend to be abused by a teacher or coach outside the family, girls are usually abused by someone within it: fathers, brothers, male partners of their mothers, uncles, cousins, grandfathers. (newint.org)
  • Participants were all in the action stage of the change, but aggressor's expectation/promise to change, the existence of children and maintaining the family or marriage, as well as economic difficulties are the main factors that contribute to both remaining in, or returning to, the abusive relationship. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main responsibility for protecting the child lies with the family. (who.int)
  • However, the perpetrator may be a family member, close family friend or an adult in a position of authority over the child. (who.int)
  • The women I worked with spoke of the impact that abuse has had on their physical health, health care utilization, perceptions about their bodies and health, and experiences with health care providers. (umsystem.edu)
  • The changes achieved by services for women and children generated considerable social value. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • This was enhanced by the use of volunteers - many of whom were survivors - including those who volunteered as Women's Aid Ask Me Ambassadors, who provide advice to women experiencing domestic abuse in their local communities. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • Evelyn Yang is one of over 200 women who say they were abused by former Columbia University gynecologist Robert Hadden. (wskg.org)
  • 2015. The increase is attributed to natural population growth and the inclusion in the statistics compiled by UNRWA of children of Palestine refugee women married to non-refugees, who, though not registered as Palestine refugees, are eligible to register to receive UNRWA services. (who.int)
  • Household Dysfunction, Emotional/Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the results also suggest potential benefits to estimating 3 separate composite scores to estimate the specific effects of exposure to Household Dysfunction, Emotional/Physical Abuse, and Sexual Abuse. (cdc.gov)
  • Confusion: Many survivors are not sure exactly how to interpret what happened to them and whether it counts as abuse. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • If you survived a trauma like sexual assault or abuse, it can be helpful to know that your therapist has experience working with your specific challenges. (rainn.org)
  • Ask about their experience working with survivors of sexual assault and how they've helped them overcome issues specific to this kind of trauma. (rainn.org)
  • It is common for survivors to experience increased economic disadvantage throughout their lives. (ajbstevens.com.au)
  • Although I considered looking at the issue of such abuse from a clinical viewpoint, after battling with my feelings I decided to share my personal experience of how such abuse can affect men in later life, particularly around parenthood. (midwiferytoday.com)
  • I had never heard of Bikers Against Child Abuse, even though I have covered child-welfare issues for decades, and the bikers had been doing their work in Arizona since 2006. (naasca.org)
  • The Boy Scouts of America filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy last month, to lessen their financial burden of incoming lawsuits as decades of abuse are being reported with the age-less look-back window. (legislativegazette.com)
  • For nearly four decades, we have represented survivors who have been sexually abused. (andersonadvocates.com)
  • Just as every occurrence of sexual abuse within families - incest - is characterized by secrecy and suppression, so has the history of this reality been subjected to the most rigorous denial. (newint.org)