Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques: Methods used to induce premature oocytes, that are maintained in tissue culture, to progress through developmental stages including to a stage that is competent to undergo FERTILIZATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Nucleus Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Oogonia: Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTESCleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Research Embryo Creation: The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Genes, mos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.DairyingSubcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Mice, Inbred ICRProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An oocyte can reprogram an adult nucleus into an embryonic state after somatic cell nuclear transfer, so that a new organism ... Cell. 126 (4): 663-76. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024. PMID 16904174. Baker, Monya (2007-12-06). "Adult cells reprogrammed to ... During somatic cell nuclear transfer, the oocyte turns off tissue specific genes in the Somatic cell nucleus and turns back on ... Yamanaka was the first to demonstrate (in 2006) that this somatic cell nuclear transfer or oocyte-based reprogramming process ( ...
Researchers took adult somatic cells from the tissue and fused them with oocytes from goats that had their nuclei removed. The ... The biotechnology company Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. announced on October 8, 2000, that the Spanish government had agreed ... purpose of removing the nuclei from the goats' oocytes was to extract all the DNA of the goat, so there would be no genetic ... and it is not known whether this will be feasible at all without irreparable damage to the cell. Three teams of scientists, two ...
Transplantation of nuclei taken from somatic cells into an oocyte (egg cell) lacking its own nucleus (removed in lab) Fusion of ... "Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ... human PSC-derived insulin-expressing cells resemble human fetal β cells rather than adult β cells. In contrast to adult β cells ... Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The process ...
PCL consists in introducing a somatic adult or senescent cell nucleus or entire cell with enlarged membrane pores in an ( ... of somatic cells to stem cells and then the artificial re-differentiation of stem cells to the desired differentiated cell type ... activated) oocyte and to withdraw this treated cell before its de-differentiation and first cell division occurs. Thus, the ... In the field of cell biology, the method of partial cloning (PCL) converts a fully differentiated old somatic cell into a ...
... in the localization of the oocyte nucleus becomes a difference in the signaling state of the surrounding follicle cells which ... Cells that make Engrailed can make the cell-to-cell signaling protein Hedgehog (green in Figure 7). The motion of Hedgehog is ... The germ line segregates from the somatic cells through the formation of pole cells at the posterior end of the embryo. After ... Cells that will produce adult structures are put aside in imaginal discs. During the pupal stage, the larval body breaks down ...
In interphase, the cell gets itself ready for mitosis or meiosis. Somatic cells, or normal diploid cells of the body, go ... Most cells of adult mammals spend about 20 hours in interphase; this accounts for about 90% of the total time involved in cell ... whereas diploid germ cells (i.e., primary spermatocytes and primary oocytes) go through meiosis in order to create haploid ... However, since mitosis is the division of the nucleus, prophase is actually the first stage. ...
The nuclei of these somatic cells was then transferred into an empty oocyte, as in the procedure of nuclear transfer, and this ... successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell where there was no genetic modification carried out on the adult donor nucleus. ... Polly and Molly (born 1997), two ewes, were the first mammals to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell and ... In the case of Dolly the Sheep, the nucleus that was transferred came from mammary gland cells from a 6-year-old ewe; in the ...
"Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ... but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for ... In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg ... After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte with a micropipette, the somatic cell genetic ...
... by observing their nuclei. Oogonial nuclei contain randomly dispersed fibrillar and granular material whereas the somatic cells ... It is thought that these germ cell might be necessary for the upkeep of the reproductive follicles and oocyte development, well ... The discovery of these active germ cells and oogonia in the adult female could be very useful in the advancement of fertility ... Normal oogonia in human ovaries are spherical or ovoid in shape and are found amongst neighboring somatic cells and oocytes at ...
Finally, after the 13th division, cell membranes slowly invaginate, dividing the syncytium into individual somatic cells. Once ... Each photoreceptor cell consists of two main sections, the cell body and the rhabdomere. The cell body contains the nucleus, ... DSX-F causes transcription of Yolk proteins 1 and 2 in somatic cells, which will be pumped into the oocyte on its production. ... Imaginal discs develop to form most structures of the adult body, such as the head, legs, wings, thorax, and genitalia. Cells ...
... oocytes develop in individual egg chambers that are supported by nurse cells and surrounded by somatic follicle cells. The ... Ooplasm (also: oöplasm) is the yolk of the ovum, a cell substance at its center, which contains its nucleus, named the germinal ... "Egg-producing stem cells isolated from adult human ovaries". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 28 March 2017. Regan, Carmen L. (2001). " ... 15 nurse cells die for every oocyte that is produced. In addition to this developmentally regulated cell death, egg cells may ...
"Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells". Nature. 510 (7506): 533-6 ... 1], Nature Stem Cell Blog. [2], The Scientist 19 June 2007 Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells Cell Stem Cell ... the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell. The ovum, now containing the somatic cell's nucleus, is ... The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. Skin cells, fat cells, and liver cells are only a ...
She was created using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred ... into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its cell nucleus removed. The hybrid cell is then stimulated to ... 1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature. 385 (6619): 810-3. Bibcode:1997Natur.385..810W ... 24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell (journal). doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 ...
Noggle, Scott (6 October 2011). "Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state". Nature. 478 (7367): 70-5. doi: ... reprogramming adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. This work, the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells, led to Dr. ... the team removed the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell and replaced it with the nucleus of another donor's egg cell, but, ... which may thereafter be reprogrammed into other cell types (e.g. heart cells, liver cells, and brain cells). These cells ...
The adult hermaphrodite has 959 somatic cells, while the male C. elegans has 1031 cells. The number of cells does not change ... Research into meiosis has been considerably simplified since every germ cell nucleus is at the same given position as it moves ... The hermaphroditic gonad acts as an ovotestis with sperm cells being stored in the same area of the gonad as the oocytes until ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ...
The nuclear material of these blastocyst cells would be transferred into an unfertilized sheep egg cell, an oocyte where the ... are not to be confused with Dolly the Sheep which was the first animal to be successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell or ... In order to achieve this they decided to try to transfer the nucleus from one cell to another and stimulate this new cell to ... "Production of gene-targeted sheep by nuclear transfer from cultured somatic cells". Nature. 405 (6790): 1066-1069. doi:10.1038/ ...
At cell cycle level there is an increase of complexity of the mechanisms in somatic stem cells. However, it is observed a ... In somatic cells it binds to receptors in nucleus; however, in spermatozoon its receptors are present in plasmatic membrane. ... There are evidences that these cells promote tumor growth and metastasis. The oocyte is the female cell involved in ... Mitogen stimulation mobilizes these cells into cycle by activating cyclin D expression. In old adult stem cells, let-7 microRNA ...
... where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its ... "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. Retrieved 24 ... 1997). "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature. 385 (6619): 810-3. Bibcode:1997Natur.385..810W ... Dolly (5 July 1996 - 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, ...
Communication between the oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells, such as the granulosa cells and the theca cells, is ... Due to its' important role in the cell cycle, it is found within the nucleus of mice oocytes in primordial and primary ... as well as developed adult follicles at both developmental stages. BMP15 has been shown to stimulate granulosa cell growth by ... "The initiation of follicle growth: the oocyte or the somatic cells?". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 187 (1-2): 11-18. ...
2005). "Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells". Nature. 436 (7051): 641. doi:10.1038/436641a. PMID 16079832. Bin Lee, J.; Park, ... The enucleated egg is then fused together with the nucleus of the cloning subject's cell using electricity. This creates an ... In an interview, Schatten commented that "my decision is grounded solely on concerns regarding oocyte (egg) donations in ... In February 2004, Hwang and his team announced that they had successfully created an embryonic stem cell with the somatic cell ...
... the tapetal cells have one diploid nucleus which divides while the cell remains undivided. The two diploid nuclei may undergo ... mature eggs that are produced subsequent to the two meiotic divisions have the same ploidy as the somatic cells of the adult ... Endoreplication is commonly observed in cells responsible for the nourishment and protection of oocytes and embryos. It has ... In endoreplication cells skip M phase completely, resulting in a mononucleated polyploid cell. Endomitosis is a type of cell ...
"A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... It will eventually translocate to the nucleus to bind TCF3 in order to activate several genes that induce dorsal cell ... Zelarayan L, Gehrke C, Bergmann MW (September 2007). "Role of beta-catenin in adult cardiac remodeling". Cell Cycle. 6 (17): ... Somatic mutations of APC in colorectal cancer are also not uncommon. Beta-catenin and APC are among the key genes (together ...
... interacts physically with BRCA1 in the nucleus of living cells". DNA Cell Biol. 19 (5): 253-63. doi:10.1089/10445490050021168. ... Primordial follicles contain oocytes that are at an intermediate (prophase I) stage of meiosis. Meiosis is the general process ... Similarly, BRCA1 mutations are only seen in about 18% of ovarian cancers (13% germline mutations and 5% somatic mutations). ... and as of 2015 only two adults were known to have loss-of-function mutations in both alleles; both had congenital or ...
In somatic cell nuclei, however, actin filaments cannot be observed using this technique.[104] The DNase I inhibition assay, so ... For example, in Xenopus oocytes (with higher nuclear actin level in comparison to somatic cells) actin forms filaments, which ... "Hsp27 and axonal growth in adult sensory neurons in vitro". BMC Neuroscience. 6 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-6-24. PMC ... Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells through ...
In somatic cell nucleus however we cannot observe any actin filaments using this technique. The DNase I inhibition assay, so ... For example, in Xenopus oocytes (with higher nuclear actin level in comparison to somatic cells) actin forms filaments, which ... Williams KL, Rahimtula M, Mearow KM (2005). "Hsp27 and axonal growth in adult sensory neurons in vitro". BMC Neuroscience. 6 (1 ... Cell division in animal cells and yeasts normally involves the separation of the parent cell into two daughter cells through ...
All the nuclei in the syncytium are identical, just as all the nuclei in every somatic cell of any multicellular organism are ... "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells". Nature. 385 (6619): 810-813. doi:10.1038/385810a0. PMID 9039911 ... The protein is concentrated in the nuclei of cleavage stage embryos. It cannot be detected in oocytes, indicating temporal ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ...
nuclear cloning, transfer of diploid nucleus from adult donor somatic cell into an oocyte cytoplasm. ... uses embryonic stem cells generated by nuclear trnsplantation to form mature differentiated cell types in culture, for ... Usually target cell must undergo mitosis, but Lentiviruses (eg. HIV) work in non-dividing cells. ... 1. somatic rearrangements in T-cell receptor & IgG, 2. X-chromosome inactivation. ...
Granulosa cells from adult sheep were heated to nonphysiological temperatures (55°C or 75°C) before their nuclei were injected ... We report that oocyte maturation is altered under all experimental conditions examined. In cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) ... Nuclei of Nonviable Ovine Somatic Cells Develop into Lambs after Nuclear Transplantation ... Here we report on the successful reprogramming of nuclei from somatic cells rendered nonviable by heat treatment. ...
In order to clone the animals researchers collected oocytes and surro...The mice obtained by researchers at UAB in addition to ... Researchers at the Department of Cell Biology Physiology and Immunolo...All three mice were or are being suckled with other non ... removed their chromosomes and substituted them for the nucleus of an adult somatic cell. The cloning of mice is part of a ... In order to clone the animals, researchers collected oocytes and surrounding cumulus cells from several female mice. The ...
2001 Fertilizable oocytes reconstructed from patients somatic cell nuclei and donor ooplasts. Reproductive Biomedicine Online ... 2000) in mice (immature adult Sertoli cells), and Wells et al. (1999) in cattle (adult mural granulosa cells). True, many ... 2002 Cloned rabbits produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells. Nature Biotechnology 20, 366-369. ... 2000 Cloned pigs produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells. Nature 407, 86-90. ...
Modelling Zika Virus Infection of the Developing Human Brain In Vitro Using Stem Cell Derived Cerebral Organoids ... In contrast, cloning from embryonic stem cell donor nuclei is significanty more efficient than from adult donor cells. However ... production of embryonic stem cell lines by somatic cell nuclear transfer have relied on introducing nuclei into meiotic oocytes ... cells and from somatic donor cell nuclei and find substantial gene dysregulation. Our results suggest that faulty reprogramming ...
The promise of generating truly pluripotent stem cells from terminally differentiated adult cell types continues to captivate ... primary methods involve either the replacement of oocyte nuclei with adult somatic cell nuclei-a process known as somatic cell ... The promise of generating truly pluripotent stem cells from terminally differentiated adult cell types continues to captivate ... In Somatic Cell Reprogramming Informed by the Oocyte,Elena González-Muñoz, PhD, Andalusian Center for Nanomedicine and ...
Nuclear transplantation to eggs and oocytes can reprogram somatic cell nuclei from an adult pattern of gene expression to that ... This is the first stage of a procedure by which replacement cells can be formed from adult cells of the same individual, ... aim of recent work in this field is to analyze the mechanisms by which eggs and ooctyes can rejuvenate a cell from an adult to ... Is nuclear reprogramming a route to cell replacement therapy?. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ...
Only one cell in the 16-cell Drosophila cyst becomes an oocyte; the other 15 cells become highly polyploid `nurse cells that ... a few somatic cells called sheath cells partially surround the gonad. Throughout most of the gonad, germ nuclei are located at ... subsequent adult germ cells differentiate as oocytes. The oocytes begin to enlarge in the loop area, and finally sever their ... the pachytene cells appear to function transiently as nurse cells. Somatic gonadal cells that surround the germ cells do not ...
By injecting a nucleus from an adult cell into an oocyte from which the ... ... Somatic cell. Somatic cells are any cells forming the body of an organism, as opposed to germline cells. In mammals, germline ... have succeeded in obtaining somatic stem cells from fully differentiated somatic cells. Stem cell researcher ... ... the cells from which they are made (gametocytes) and undifferentiated stem cells-is a somatic cell: internal organs, skin, ...
Dieter Egli has created the first disease-specific embryonic stem cell line with two sets of chromosomes, using somatic cell ... embryonic stem cells by adding the nuclei of adult skin cells to unfertilized donor oocytes using a process called somatic cell ... and disease-specific stem cell lines to be generated by genetically reprogramming adult cells into becoming pluripotent cells. ... The generation of pluripotent stem cell lines by SCNT uses human oocytes, while iPS cells use recombinant DNA, RNA, or ...
Scientists then remove the nucleus from the donated oocyte and replace it with the nucleus from a somatic cell, a ... Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs): Reprogramming Adult Somatic Cells to Become Pluripotent Stem Cells. In 2007, two ... Successful reprogramming of adult somatic cells could also lead to the development of stem cell lines from patients who suffer ... were breakthroughs because they used adult somatic cells to create pluripotent stem cells that featured hallmarks of ES cells. ...
NYSCF is turning stem cells from diabetes patients into the pancreatic beta cells affected by the disease, helping us study its ... Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei to diploid pluripotent stem cells.. Yamada M, Johannesson B, Sagi I, Burnett LC, ... This paper outlines how NYSCF scientists created stem cells from diabetic patients through a process called somatic cell ... What are beta cells?. Pancreatic beta cells are the cells in the pancreas that produce and release insulin. They are a ...
... cells by transferring the nucleus of an adult somatic cell into a hollowed out oocyte, Woo Suk Hwang became a scientific ... In a new twist, George Daley and colleagues now report in Cell Stem Cell that Hwang and co-workers unwittingly achieved a ... Single cells, though multi-cell organisms naturally self-assemble from them. Its rather easy to set up conditions so that the ... Further examination of the chromosomes of these cells show indicators of parthenogenesis in those extracted stem cells, similar ...
Note the lack of RLIM immunoreactivity in nuclei and pronuclei of both somatic cell types and oocytes in RlimcKO/Δ-SC females, ... while evidence for X/A upregulation was observed not only in adult mouse tissues but also in mouse ES cells and epiblast cells ... ranging between 1 cell to most cells (Figure 2B,D). As few cells of 8-cell staged female embryos lacking RLIM display Xist ... Studies of various adult somatic cell types have revealed general X/A expression ratios of around 1, indicating that gene ...
... a single piglet was reported after transfer of a blastomere nucleus from a four-cell embryo to an enucleated oocyte; however, ... Cloned pigs produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells.. Polejaeva IA1, Chen SH, Vaught TD, Page RL, Mullins J, Ball ... we investigate some of these factors and report the successful production of cloned piglets from a cultured adult somatic cell ... 1), successful development has been obtained in sheep, cattle, mice and goats using a variety of somatic cell types as nuclear ...
Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells. Nature 2014;510:533-536 ... From cloned frogs to patient matched stem cells: induced pluripotency or somatic cell nuclear transfer? Curr Opin Genet Dev ... β-Cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of ... In a comparison of NT-ES cell lines and iPSC lines, we found that β-cells could be derived from both cell types, though iPSC ...
... stem cells by nuclear transfer has been reported as a breakthrough by scientists from the US and the Hebrew University of ... The capacity to reprogram adult patient cells into pluripotent, embryonic-like, ... More information: "Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells." ... pluripotent cell types and their comparison to other stem cells. "Human pluripotent stem cells generated from adult cells may ...
... of the cell) in order to replace it with the nucleus from either an adult somatic (body) cell that has been "stressed" (via ... combining pig oocytes and human somatic cells (see "Human-Pig Embryo Accusation Provokes Debate," 2000). ... 2001), "Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer," Science, 292:740- ... As the nucleus side of the cell began to divide into a 16-cell stage, the nucleus slipped over to the cytoplasm on the other ...
In this process the nucleus of an oocyte (ovum) is removed; the nucleus of somatic cell with its full set of genes is placed ... Only adult stem cells have shown significant success in therapeutic uses; to date embryonic stem cells have had no therapeutic ... The nucleus of a somatic cell will be joined to an enucleated oocyte (as in cloning), but before that, certain genes in the ... these genes will be to ensure that the product of the fusion of the somatic cells nucleus with the enucleated (and altered) ...
... such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE ... Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS. ... Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is ... The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process ...
Twenty-two pregnancies were confirmed in 42 surrogates for SCNT using adult monkey cumulus cells, yielding two babies that were ... Genetic analysis in both cases confirmed that the nuclear DNA of the offspring originated from the nucleus donor cell, and ... mitochondria DNA of the offspring originated from the oocyte donor monkey.. "This study demonstrated that cloning of non-human ... is feasible by somatic cell nuclear transfer using fetal fibroblasts, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in Cell.. ...
Yamada, M., et al. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells. Nature ... Filter cells through a 40 µm cell strainer.. *Spin cells 3 min with 500 x g, remove supernatant and re-suspend cells in 10 ml ... Spin cells 3 min with 500 x g at 4 °C, remove supernatant and re-suspend cells in 1 ml L1- buffer / 1 x 106 cells. ... For the differentiation use the NSCB#8534 (H9) cell line. Culture cells on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as feeder cells. ...
Pluripotent stem cells generated from adult skin cells for example behave similarly to an embryonic stem cell with the ability ... During this process, the nucleus from a skin cell can be reprogrammed by an egg cell (oocyte) so that a new organism can be ... Clones are genetically identical organisms that are produced using the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer. ... the resulting cells change into all of the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, blood cells ...
... transfer enables the generation of cells genetically identical to an adult animal by the transfer of a somatic cell nucleus (in ... this case from a skin fibroblast) into an enucleated oocyte to generate a cloned embryo (reviewed by Hochedlinger and Jaenisch ... Embryonic stem (ES) cells, with their ability to generate all, or nearly all, of the cell types in the adult body and a ... hematopoietic stem cell; BMSC, bone marrow-derived stem cell; MAPC, multipotent adult progenitor cell; NOD/SCID, nonobese ...
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - embryos can be created by transferring the nucleus of a donor cell into an enucleated oocyte. ... Adult stem cells give the bodys ability to repair and replace the cells and tissues of some organs. Adult stem cells are rare ... Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - embryos can be created by transferring the nucleus of a donor cell into an enucleated oocyte ... Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - embryos can be created by transferring the nucleus of a donor cell into an enucleated oocyte ...
  • Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
  • Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • During early embryogenesis, the germ lineage inherits germ plasm, the specialized cytoplasm containing maternally encoded mRNAs and proteins, and gives rise to the primordial germ cell (PGC) lineage. (biologists.org)
  • The finding that METT-10 functions to inhibit germ-cell proliferative fate, despite promoting mitotic cell cycle progression of those germ cells that do proliferate, separates the specification of proliferative fate from its execution. (genetics.org)
  • Although glp-1 signaling is a central component controlling the specification of germ-cell proliferative fate, regulation of this decision is not fully understood. (genetics.org)
  • Cysts are surrounded by and receive signals from somatic cells which promote germ cell divisions and shape oocyte morphology. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also show a dual role for Sox5 during sex determination: first, as an evolutionarily conserved regulator of germ-cell number in medaka, and second, by de novo regulation of dmrt1 transcriptional activity during primary sex determination due to exaptation of the Rex1 transposable element. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NYSCF laboratory is one of the few places in the world that pursues all types of stem cell research. (medindia.net)
  • The rising concept of cell-based therapeutics has provided a framework around which new approaches are being generated, and its combination with advances in stem cell research stands to bring both fields to clinical fruition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • A stem cell is defined by two properties (see A stem cell research lexicon ). (jci.org)
  • Only few groups had access to oocytes for stem cell research. (researchsquare.com)
  • Some Catholic leaders, activists in the pro-life movement, and legislators oppose embryonic stem cell research, while others believe certain forms of the research present morally acceptable means of achieving long-sought medical gains. (natcath.org)
  • Rudolf Jaenisch of the Whitehead Institute conducted embryonic stem cell research on mice for years before abandoning it. (lifenews.com)
  • However, researchers Satoshi Kamimura, Atsuo Ogura and colleagues at the RIKEN BioResource Center in Tsukuba, Japan wanted to explore the efficacy of white blood cells, or leukocytes, as donor cells. (redorbit.com)
  • They have, however, mentioned that their future studies will focus not on the cause but rather on improving the future performance of granulocyte donor cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Immunogenic - potential immune rejection if donor cells are derived from another individual. (edu.au)
  • Key regulatory events lead to the specification of mature oocytes and initiate a switch to the meiotic cell cycle program. (frontiersin.org)
  • About 5,000 nuclei accumulate in the unseparated cytoplasm of the oocyte before they migrate to the surface and are encompassed by plasma membranes to form cells surrounding the yolk sac. (bionity.com)
  • The investigators overcame the final hurdle in making personalized stem cells that can be used to develop personalized cell therapies. (medindia.net)
  • We then study how cells generated from type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients behave, identifying cellular mechanisms that may drive the disease, testing drugs on the cells, and developing strategies to engineer healthy cells for replacement therapies. (nyscf.org)
  • In this article, NYSCF researchers discuss the promise of cell replacement therapies for treating diabetes. (nyscf.org)
  • This budding partnership is presently in its very early stages, but an examination of the cell-based therapies currently under development clearly shows the magnitude of the role that stem cells will ultimately play. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The first stem cell therapies were with bone marrow stem cells, and bone marrow transplants for patients with the likes of leukaemia are now a standard hospital treatment. (kidney.org.uk)
  • In many organs, including the kidney, the identity of stem cells has proved elusive, thus our ability to isolate and expand them for therapies has been severely compromised. (kidney.org.uk)
  • The production of cellular therapies requires the optimization of four steps: first, isolating and culturing cells that can be readily obtained from a patient in a non-invasive fashion. (stembook.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell‐derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. (embopress.org)
  • This suggests that both methods of producing stem cells need to be further investigated before determining their suitability for the development of new therapies for chronic diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • We do not yet know which technique will allow scientists to create the best cells for new cellular therapies," said Susan L. Solomon, NYSCF CEO and co-founder. (eurekalert.org)
  • These cells have been sought after as potential therapies for diseases ranging from heart disease to Parkinson's to cancer. (blogspot.com)
  • Here we show that an increased synthesis of lamins B1 and B2 in amphibian oocytes induces the formation of intranuclear membrane structures that form extensive arrays of stacked cisternae. (biologists.org)
  • In females, this process is made further complex by two additional processes: the selection of a single oocyte from a pool of precursor cells and the subsequent loading of maternally-derived transcripts and nutrients necessary post-fertilization for early embryonic development. (frontiersin.org)
  • In sheep and goat pre-activated oocytes have also proved successful as cytoplast recipients. (nih.gov)
  • The full term development of sheep, cows, goats, pigs and mice has been achieved through the transfer of somatic cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes. (embl.it)
  • The Federal Circuit noted that Keith Henry Stockman Campbell and Ian Wilmut successfully produced the first mammal ever cloned from an adult somatic cell: Dolly the Sheep. (blogspot.com)
  • It explained the technology used to create Dolly the Sheep as follows: a clone is an identical genetic copy of a cell, cell part or organism. (blogspot.com)
  • Campbell, McWhir, Ritchie, and Wilmut conducted experiments in which they cloned sheep from an established embryonic cell line experiments that produced the sheep named Megan and Morag. (asu.edu)
  • The scientists developed techniques and concepts from the sheep experiments, including how transferring nuclei during the resting state in the cell cycle called quiescence improves success rates. (asu.edu)
  • However, after the sheep experiments in 1996 showed the success of transplanting cells in quiescence, the scientists at the Roslin Institute hypothesized that they could clone a mammal from adult cells, despite Gurdon's results that indicated otherwise. (asu.edu)
  • Derivation of embryonic cell lines from laboratory and farm animals (mouse, rabbit, sheep). (edu.pl)