Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
The interactions between parent and child.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.
Female parents, human or animal.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (1/200)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

To give or sell human gametes--the interplay between pragmatics, policy and ethics. (2/200)

The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate.  (+info)

Contribution of APOA5 gene variants to plasma triglyceride determination and to the response to both fat and glucose tolerance challenges. (3/200)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of APOA5 variants on fasting lipids and to the response to both an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The association of two APOA5 SNPs [S19W (SNP5), -1131T>C (SNP3)] and an APOA4/A5 intergenic SNP [-12238T>C (SNP4)] were examined in healthy young men (n=774) who had undergone both an OFTT and an OGTT. Both -1131T>C and S19W rare alleles were associated with triglyceride (TG)-raising effects (11%, P=0.008; 21% (in cases), P<0.026, respectively) and showed additive effects on TG. None of the variants influenced the responsiveness to the OFTT after correcting for baseline TG. Homozygosity for the -12238T>C rare allele was associated with higher waist to hip ratio (P<0.0006), systolic blood pressure (P=0.012) and AUC and peak of insulin after OGTT (P=0.003 and P=0.027, respectively), traits that define the metabolic syndrome. Our results strongly support the role of APOA5 in determining plasma TG levels in an age-independent manner and highlight the importance of the APOC3/A4/A5 gene cluster in both TG and metabolic homeostasis.  (+info)

Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring. (4/200)

It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.  (+info)

Continuity of care from a patient's point of view: context, process, relation. (5/200)

BACKGROUND: It is easy to forget about the real human experience when faced with the pressure of output measurement, organizational change, and large-scale statistical studies. This article takes a different perspective and provides a glimpse into one man's life to show the many relationships that can be involved when someone is ill. METHODS: The information in this paper is based on interviews with multiple individuals involved in the care of one patient. The theoretical framework is narrative--it takes discourse as its material base--and introduces the concept of the "signifier" to organize the data. RESULTS: The interview results demonstrate the theoretical strength of the signifier concept and reveal the process and context of the work of three particular physicians and the nature of the relations they were able to establish with this one patient and his son. CONCLUSIONS: This way of conceptionalizing the process of care from the patient's point of view enables us to reflect on the changing nature of continuity of care as a core value for family physicians  (+info)

Genetic Analysis Workshop 13: simulated longitudinal data on families for a system of oligogenic traits. (6/200)

The Genetic Analysis Workshop 13 simulated data aimed to mimic the major features of the real Framingham Heart Study data that formed Problem 1, but under a known inheritance model and with 100 replicates, so as to allow evaluation of the statistical properties of various methods. The pedigrees used were the 330 real pedigree structures (comprising 4692 individuals) with some minor changes to protect confidentiality. Fifty trait genes and 399 microsatellite markers were simulated by gene dropping on 22 autosomal chromosomes. Assuming random ascertainment of families, a system of eight longitudinal quantitative traits (designed to be similar to those in the real data) was generated with a wide range of heritabilities, including some pleiotropic and interactive effects. Genes could affect either the baseline level or the rate of change of the phenotype. Hypertension diagnosis and treatment were simulated with treatment availability, compliance, and efficacy depending on calendar year. Nongenetic traits of smoking and alcohol were generated as covariates for other traits. Death was simulated as a hazard rate depending upon age, sex, smoking, cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. After the complete data were simulated, missing data indicators were generated based on logistic models fitted to the real data, involving the subject's history of previous missing values, together with that of their spouses, parents, siblings, and offspring, as well as marital status, only-child indicators, current value at certain simulated traits, and the data collection pattern on the cohort into which each subject was ascertained.  (+info)

Variance components linkage analysis for adjusted systolic blood pressure in the Framingham Heart Study. (7/200)

We performed variance components linkage analysis in nuclear families from the Framingham Heart Study on nine phenotypes derived from systolic blood pressure (SBP). The phenotypes were the maximum and mean SBP, and SBP at age 40, each analyzed either uncorrected, or corrected using two subsets of epidemiological/clinical factors. Evidence for linkage to chromosome 8p was detected with all phenotypes except the uncorrected maximum SBP, suggesting this region harbors a gene contributing to variation in SBP.  (+info)

Use of a random coefficient regression (RCR) model to estimate growth parameters. (8/200)

We used a random coefficient regression (RCR) model to estimate growth parameters for the time series of observed serum glucose levels in the Replicate 1 of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 13 simulated data. For comparison, a two time-point interval was also selected and the slope between these two observations was calculated. This process yielded four phenotypes: the RCR growth phenotype, a two time-point slope phenotype, and Time 1 and Time 2 serum glucose level phenotypes. These four phenotypes were used for linkage analyses on simulated chromosomes 5, 7, 9, and 21, those chromosomes that contained loci affecting the growth course for serum glucose levels. The linkage analysis of the RCR-derived phenotype showed overwhelming evidence for linkage at one locus (LOD 65.78 on chromosome 5), while showing elevated but nonsignificant LOD scores for two other loci (LOD 1.25 on chromosome 7, LOD 1.10 on chromosome 9), and no evidence of linkage for the final locus. The two time-point slope phenotype showed evidence for linkage at one locus (LOD 4.16 on chromosome 5) but no evidence for linkage at any of the other loci. A parallel cross-sectional approach, using as input phenotypes the endpoints of the two-point slope phenotype, gave strong linkage results for the major locus on chromosome 5 (maximal LOD scores of 17.90 and 27.24 for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively) while showing elevated but nonsignificant linkage results on chromosome 7 (maximal LOD scores of 1.71 and 1.48) and no evidence for linkage at the two remaining loci. The RCR growth parameter showed more power to detect linkage to the major locus than either the cross-sectional or two-point slope approach, but the cross-sectional approach gave a higher maximal LOD score for one of the minor loci.  (+info)

"Adult children" is a term used to describe individuals who are typically adults in age, but who still have developmental or psychological dependencies on their parents or caregivers. This term is often used in the context of adult children of alcoholics or other dysfunctional families, where the adult child may exhibit behaviors such as:

* Difficulty setting boundaries
* Low self-esteem
* Fear of abandonment
* Difficulty with intimacy and commitment
* A tendency to assume responsibility for others' feelings and actions

These patterns often stem from childhood experiences in which the adult child took on a caretaking role or felt responsible for their parents' emotions. While "adult children" is not a formal medical term, it is widely used in psychology and social work to describe this population.

Intergenerational relations, in the context of healthcare and social sciences, refer to the interactions, relationships, and connections between different generations within a family or society. These relations can encompass various aspects such as communication, support, values, and attitudes. In the medical field, intergenerational relations may be studied to understand the impact of health policies, healthcare practices, and disease prevalence across different age groups. It can also help in identifying and addressing health disparities and creating age-friendly healthcare systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

I apologize for any confusion, but "spouses" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general, a spouse refers to a person who is united to another in a marriage contract. The term can refer to either a husband or a wife. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personal Satisfaction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the feeling of contentment or fulfillment one derives from achieving their personal goals or desires. However, in a medical context, it might be used to assess a person's quality of life or their satisfaction with their healthcare or treatment outcomes.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

A disabled child is a child who has a physical, cognitive, or developmental condition that limits their ability to perform everyday tasks and activities. This limitation can be temporary or permanent and may range from mild to severe. According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a person with a disability is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.

Disabled children may face challenges in various areas of their lives, including mobility, communication, self-care, learning, and socialization. Some common examples of disabilities that affect children include cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, hearing or vision loss, and spina bifida.

It is important to note that disabled children have the same rights and entitlements as other children, and they should be given equal opportunities to participate in all aspects of society. This includes access to education, healthcare, social services, and community activities. With appropriate support and accommodations, many disabled children can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Child rearing, also known as child care or child raising, refers to the process of caring for and raising children from infancy through adolescence. This includes providing for their physical needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, as well as their emotional, social, and intellectual development. Child rearing involves a range of activities such as feeding, bathing, dressing, educating, disciplining, and providing love and support. It is typically the responsibility of parents or guardians, but may also involve other family members, teachers, caregivers, and community institutions. Effective child rearing requires knowledge, skills, patience, and a commitment to meeting the needs of the child in a loving and supportive environment.

... an adult that lacks basic life skills Adult/Child, an unreleased album by the Beach Boys Adult Children, a 1961 Soviet comedy ... Adult child may refer to: An offspring that has reached the age of majority Vulnerable adult, ... an gender neutral term referring an adult with childish interests Cognitive deficit Learning disability Adult Children of ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Adult child. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ...
... (Russian: Взрослые дети, romanized: Vzroslye deti) is a 1961 Soviet comedy film directed by Villen Azarov. ... Взрослые дети Взрослые дети (1961) Full Cast & Crew Adult Children at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description ... and his wife and their future life seems to be just as wonderful until their daughter gets married and gives a birth to child. ...
... youth-adult partnerships are categorized by multiple adults and multiple youth and there must also be a mutuality where adults ... Youth-adult partnerships can empower youth and adults as they educate their peers and advocate for the promotion of health and ... Youth/Adult Partnerships Factsheet University of Arizona website. Youth/Adult Partnerships Tip Sheet The Freechlid Project. ... where they are typified by youth voice. Youth voice is commonly recognized as an essential element of effective youth-adult ...
Only Child of Deaf Adult(s) (no siblings) COCA-CODA - Child of CODA Adult and Child of Deaf Adult KODA - Kid of Deaf Adult(s) ... The challenges facing the hearing children of deaf adults parallel those of many second-generation immigrant children. Just as ... Children of Deaf Adults) in 1983 as a non-profit organization for the hearing children of deaf parents. Its first annual ... A child of deaf adult, often known by the acronym coda, is a person who was raised by one or more deaf parent or legal guardian ...
... & Dysfunctional Families. Retrieved 25 April 2022. Adult Children of Alcoholics®/ Dysfunctional ... "Early History of ACA Trifold published by ACA WSO" (PDF). Retrieved June 23, 2020. Adult Children of ... Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACA or ACOA) founded circa 1973 is a fellowship of people who desire to recover from the effects ... Home page of ACA WSO Home page of ACA UK 25 Questions Am I an Adult Child? Home page of ACA Arizona and the ACA Arizona Retreat ...
Child Care Food, Adult Care, or Adult Care Food Program, and is often operating in conjunction with other child and adult day- ... "Child and Adult Care Food Program - CACFP". Retrieved August 30, 2020. Child and Adult Care Food Program ... Child and Adult Care Food Program Homepage, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Child and Adult Care ... Child-care, adult day-care, and outside-school-hours centers may charge a single fee to cover tuition, meals, and all other day ...
"The children - victims of adult vices" (in Russian). Retrieved 26 December 2008. The Children - Victims Of Adult ... Children Are the Victims of Adult Vices is a group of bronze sculptures created by Russian artist Mihail Chemiakin. The ... The figures of children are surrounded by sculptures in the form of anthropomorphic monsters, personifying "adult" vices: Drug ... Sadistic And Terryfying Sculptures In Moscow Park Children are the Victims of Adult Vices, Bolotnaya Square, Moscow v t e (CS1 ...
"Children's/Young Adult Literature". Starting in 2007, it has been known as the "LGBTQ Children's/Young Adult" award. The 25th ... the Children's/Young Adult category is divided in two subcategories, "Children's/Middle Grade" and "Young Adult", which ... The Lambda Literary Award for Children's and Young Adult Literature, one of the Lammys 25 awards, was introduced during the 2nd ... "Young Adult/Children's Book Award". After not being present in the 1991 ceremonies, the award returned in the 4th edition under ...
... : A Collection of Critical Essays is a 2017 collection of essays edited by Michelle ... Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults. UP of Mississippi, 2017". Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature. New Prairie ... Romero, Erika (Summer 2018). "Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults: A Collection of Critical Essays ed. by Michelle Ann ... "Review of Graphic Novels for Children and Young Adults: A Collection of Critical Essays". ImageTexT. University of Florida ...
... young adults, and adults. The library collects knowledge and information resources on children and young adult fields and as of ... TF of the National Library for Children and Young Adults 2006 Opening of the National Library for Children and Young Adults ... for children and young adults Tasks related to strengthening the ability of librarians who serve children and young adults ... The National Library for Children and Young Adults (NLCY) is a branch library of the National Library of Korea, that aims to ...
... is a live album by the American folk music group, The Limeliters, backed ... "The Limeliters - Through Children's Eyes (Little-Folk Songs for Adults)". Discogs. Retrieved December 23, 2020. "Through ... On the liner notes of the album, Gottlieb said: "I cannot tell you what a kick it was to sing with those children...The sound ... Reviewer Cary Ginell called it "a great album" and urged, "Get it for your kids." Side A "This Train" "Marty" "Hey Jimmy Joe ...
The American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults is an organization devoted to assisting blind youth, elderly blind and, ... The American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults' name used to be just American Action Fund, but was changed to better ...
It is also known as Children used by adults in the commission of crime (CUBAC). In terms of the Worst Forms of Child Labour ... is one of the predefined worst forms of child labour in terms of the International Labour Organization's Worst Forms of Child ... The use, procuring or offering of a child by others for illegal activities, including the trafficking or production of drugs, ... Child labour, Crime, All stub articles, Law stubs, Crime stubs). ...
Novel for young adults. "New Zealand Post Children's Book Awards: Judges' Report 2010" (PDF). New Zealand Post Children's Book ... Winners of the Children's Choice overall award Winners of Children's Choice categories NB: Overall Children's Choice award ... Children and Young Adults at the Christchurch City Libraries website New Zealand Post Book Awards for Children and Young Adults ... These can be titles for children or young adults, but illustrations have to make up at least half of the content, and these ...
In 1999, Children of Heaven was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film of Academy Awards (Oscar) and honored in many ... a wide range of cultural and artistic activities in the field of mental and cultural development for children and young adults ... Ali Akbarzadeh is appointed as the General Director of Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults ... Ali Akbarzadeh is Appointed as the General Director of Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults ...
This is a list of British children's and young adults' authors active between 1900 and 1949. The authors listed here are ... W. Awdry (1911-1997) Roald Dahl (1916-1990) List of British children's and young adults' literature titles (1900-1949) ( ... 20th-century British children's literature, Lists of British writers). ...
This is a list of British children's and young adults' literature titles including the representative titles of authors listed ... 20th-century British children's literature, Lists of children's books, Lists of British books). ... in List of British children's and young adults' authors (1900-1949). This list has no more than six titles per author. The ... Five Children and It (1902) Five on a Treasure Island (1942) The Hobbit (1937) The House at Pooh Corner (1928) Just Jane (1928 ...
The South African Child Labour Programme of Action has identified Children used by adults in the commission of crime (CUBAC), ... one of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, as a priority area for action on child labour in South Africa. Accordingly the ... a programme to kickstart action on the Child Labour Programme of Action, commissioned the Children's Rights Project of the ... The following institutions are involved in the project: Department of Labour, acting as the lead department of the Child Labour ...
"Adoption and Children Act 2002". Section 49 (4). "Article 1 Adoption - Adults, Section 14-1-101 "Adoption ... Adult adoption is a form of adoption between two or more adults in order to transfer inheritance rights and/or filiation. Adult ... In the United Kingdom, only children may be adopted. The Adoption and Children Act (2002) states, "An application for an ... to formalize a step-parent/step-child relationship or a foster parent/foster child relationship; or to restore the original ...
Children and Young Adult Literature portal Adventure fiction#For children List of children's classic books Children's ... which are read to young children and read by both children and adults They are found in the teen or young adult section of ... and it was really difficult for children, and was it a children's or an adults' book, anyhow?" In 1957 the Young Adult Library ... 1970), has significantly contributed to children's and young adult literature. She was one of the first young adult authors to ...
Relationships between adults also differ in some ways from relationships between children and caregivers. The claim is not that ... The attachment orientations of adult caregivers influence the attachment bond their children have with them. Working models and ... The principles of attachment in adult relationships are fundamentally the same as the principles of attachment between children ... Hazan and Shaver noticed that interactions between adults were similar to interactions between children and caregivers. For ...
In countries like the US and the UK, specialized AYA units have started to be built in children's and adult hospitals to cater ... The UK has over 28 units in children's hospitals and adult hospitals dedicated to AYAs aged 13-24. Teenage Cancer Trust ... While many clinical trials exist for adults with cancer and children with cancer, AYAs underutilize clinical trials. Most ... Additionally, AYAs face problems that adults and children rarely see including college concerns, fertility, and sense of ...
"Young Adult Literature". Children's Literature Association Quarterly. 23 (2): 109-110. 1998. doi:10.1353/chq.0.1250. ISSN 1553- ... Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers is a book list created annually by the Young Adult Library Services Association. ... "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers". Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA). 2012-03-02. Archived from the ... Broadway, Marsha (2016-08-09). "Children's Literary Awards and Recommended Lists on the Net". Children's Book and Media Review ...
Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin ... rather than adult, treatment regimens. Young adults who have a cancer that typically occurs in children and adolescents, such ... rates among older adults declined in 26 types of cancer that also affect adolescents and young adults. Rates among older adults ... Adolescents and young adults with rhabdomyosarcoma have a much lower survival rate at 5 years than children, 27% compared with ...
... Extract from Putting Children First. 14 June 2005. pp 6-7. How to Talk to Little Girls ( ... When adults come into contact with infants, the adult often changes their persona (and communicates in a way they wouldn't with ... In other words carers must want to be with children, talk with the children and find out what they are thinking. Displaying a ... at an adult-only party] when there are kids...Once a baby's in the mix, it's almost guaranteed that all the attention ( ...
... the Binet scale items were not valid for adult test-takers because the items were chosen specifically for use with children. ... The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and ... "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised". LIST OF TESTS Available from the CPS Testing Library. Center for Psychological ... "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition Now Available From Pearson" (Press release). Pearson. 28 August 2008. ...
In 1986, the UK Parliament amended the English Marriage Act to not allow marriages between an adult and their adopted child "in ... Same-sex adult adoption involves adult adoption-the adoption of one adult by another-of a partner in order to benefit in some ... Until the late 20th century, statutes in the US did not consider sexual relations between adult adopted children to be incest, ... Keefe, Robert (2017). "Sweet Child O' Mine: Adult Adoption & Same-Sex Marriage in the Post-Obergefell Era". Florida Law Review ...
Ihebuzor, Noel (2005 01 31). "EC and UNICEF join hands to support education in Somalia". United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF ... However, Adult Commercial Secondary School (ACSS) was established in November 2006; by a group of academicians in Hodan ...
... "oversee young adult content and adult animation" for HBO Max, while Ascheim would focus on "kid-specific originals" with a ... Di Placido, Dani (5 August 2020). "Why ViacomCBS Entertainment & Youth Group Is Doubling Down On Adult Animation". Forbes. ... Schneider, Michael (2 November 2020). "Primetime Emmys Drop Children's Program Category, as All Kids Awards Move to Daytime ( ... "a YA kids' show." In the 2020s, it was announced that Netflix, Comedy Central, Disney, and HBO Max were developing adult ...
... not kids." In North America, there is children's animation, adult animation, and young adult animation, with various mature ... List of adult animated television series List of adult animated television series of the 2010s List of adult animated ... Adult animation is typically defined as animation which skews toward adults. It is also described as something that "formative ... Kunkel III, Earl Monroe (2009). Why ARE people laughing at rape? American adult animation and Adult Swim: Aqua Teen Hunger ...

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