The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.
A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Acrylic resins are a type of polymer used in medical applications such as dentures, orthodontic brackets, and surgical instruments.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (1/3424)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (2/3424)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (3/3424)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

Evidence that the neck appendages are adsorption organelles in Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29. (4/3424)

A mutant of Bacillus subtilis unable to adsorb phage phi29 efficiently has been isolated. This mutant can be infected by host range mutants of the phage. Since the host range mutations map in cistron 12, which codes for neck appendage protein, this would tend to confirm that these organelles are involved in viral adsorption.  (+info)

Modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation through substrate-dependent changes in fibronectin conformation. (5/3424)

Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrices provides signals essential for cell cycle progression and differentiation. We demonstrate that substrate-dependent changes in the conformation of adsorbed fibronectin (Fn) modulated integrin binding and controlled switching between proliferation and differentiation. Adsorption of Fn onto bacterial polystyrene (B), tissue culture polystyrene (T), and collagen (C) resulted in differences in Fn conformation as indicated by antibody binding. Using a biochemical method to quantify bound integrins in cultured cells, we found that differences in Fn conformation altered the quantity of bound alpha5 and beta1 integrin subunits but not alphav or beta3. C2C12 myoblasts grown on these Fn-coated substrates proliferated to different levels (B > T > C). Immunostaining for muscle-specific myosin revealed minimal differentiation on B, significant levels on T, and extensive differentiation on C. Differentiation required binding to the RGD cell binding site in Fn and was blocked by antibodies specific for this site. Switching between proliferation and differentiation was controlled by the levels of alpha5beta1 integrin bound to Fn, and differentiation was inhibited by anti-alpha5, but not anti-alphav, antibodies, suggesting distinct integrin-mediated signaling pathways. Control of cell proliferation and differentiation through conformational changes in extracellular matrix proteins represents a versatile mechanism to elicit specific cellular responses for biological and biotechnological applications.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain. (6/3424)

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

Differential mechanisms of retinoid transfer from cellular retinol binding proteins types I and II to phospholipid membranes. (7/3424)

Cellular retinol-binding proteins types I and II (CRBP-I and CRBP-II) are known to differentially facilitate retinoid metabolism by several membrane-associated enzymes. The mechanism of ligand transfer to phospholipid small unilamellar vesicles was compared in order to determine whether differences in ligand trafficking properties could underlie these functional differences. Unidirectional transfer of retinol from the CRBPs to membranes was monitored by following the increase in intrinsic protein fluorescence that occurs upon ligand dissociation. The results showed that ligand transfer of retinol from CRBP-I was >5-fold faster than transfer from CRBP-II. For both proteins, transfer of the other naturally occurring retinoid, retinaldehyde, was 4-5-fold faster than transfer of retinol. Rates of ligand transfer from CRBP-I to small unilamellar vesicles increased with increasing concentration of acceptor membrane and with the incorporation of the anionic lipids cardiolipin or phosphatidylserine into membranes. In contrast, transfer from CRBP-II was unaffected by either membrane concentration or composition. Preincubation of anionic vesicles with CRBP-I was able to prevent cytochrome c, a peripheral membrane protein, from binding, whereas CRBP-II was ineffective. In addition, monolayer exclusion experiments demonstrated differences in the rate and magnitude of the CRBP interactions with phospholipid membranes. These results suggest that the mechanisms of ligand transfer from CRBP-I and CRBP-II to membranes are markedly different as follows: transfer from CRBP-I may involve and require effective collisional interactions with membranes, whereas a diffusional process primarily mediates transfer from CRBP-II. These differences may help account for their distinct functional roles in the modulation of intracellular retinoid metabolism.  (+info)

Lysozyme sorption in hydrogel contact lenses. (8/3424)

PURPOSE: To examine the processes involved in formation of protein deposits on hydrogel contact lenses. METHODS: The adsorption and/or penetration of lysozyme on or into three types of contact lenses, etafilcon A, vifilcon A, and tefilcon, were investigated in vitro using a radiolabel-tracer technique, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Binding of lysozyme to high-water-content, ionic contact lenses (etafilcon A and vifilcon A) was dominated by a penetration process. The extent of this penetration was a function of charge density of the lenses, so that there was a higher degree of penetration of lysozyme in etafilcon A than in vifilcon A lenses. In contrast, the binding of lysozyme to tefilcon lenses was a surface adsorption process. The adsorption and desorption kinetics showed similar trends to those found in human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption on lens surfaces. However, the extent of lysozyme adsorption on tefilcon is much higher than HSA adsorption, probably because of the self-association of lysozyme on the tefilcon lens surface. Furthermore, either penetration or adsorption of lysozyme involved reversible and irreversible processes and were both time dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Binding of lysozyme to hydrogel lenses involves surface adsorption or matrix penetration. These processes may be reversible or irreversible. The properties of the lens materials, such as charge density (ionicity) and porosity (water content) of the lenses, determine the type and rates of these processes.  (+info)

In the medical field, adsorption refers to the process by which a substance adheres or sticks to the surface of another substance. This can occur when a drug or other therapeutic agent is adsorbed onto a surface, such as a medical device or a patient's skin. Adsorption can also occur when a substance is adsorbed onto the surface of a cell or tissue, which can affect its ability to interact with the body's immune system or other cells. Adsorption can be an important factor in the development and delivery of medical treatments, as it can affect the effectiveness and safety of a drug or other therapeutic agent.

Bentonite is a type of clay that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a natural clay that is formed from volcanic ash and is rich in minerals such as silica, aluminum, and iron. Bentonite has a high adsorption capacity, which means that it can absorb and hold onto other substances, including toxins and heavy metals. In the medical field, bentonite is often used as a detoxifying agent to help remove toxins and heavy metals from the body. It is sometimes used in conjunction with other detoxifying agents, such as activated charcoal, to enhance its effectiveness. Bentonite is also sometimes used as a binding agent to help bind together other substances in the body, such as medications or supplements. Bentonite is available in various forms, including powders, capsules, and suppositories. It is typically taken orally, although it can also be applied topically to the skin or used in enemas. It is important to note that bentonite should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.

In the medical field, aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that is commonly used as an antacid and an adsorbent. They work by neutralizing stomach acid and binding to toxins and other substances in the digestive tract, which helps to prevent their absorption into the bloodstream. Aluminum silicates are often used to treat conditions such as heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion. They are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders, and can be taken orally or used topically. It is important to note that while aluminum silicates are generally considered safe for short-term use, long-term use or high doses may have potential side effects, such as constipation, nausea, and abdominal pain. As with any medication, it is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider and to report any adverse reactions.

Polystyrenes are a class of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their lightweight, durability, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In the medical field, polystyrenes are used in a variety of applications, including as components of medical devices, such as syringes, catheters, and test tubes, as well as in packaging materials for medical equipment and supplies. Polystyrene is also used in the production of medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, and as a component of dental prosthetics. Polystyrenes are also used in the production of medical laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges and microtiter plates, and in the manufacturing of medical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps. Additionally, polystyrene is used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as trays and bags, to protect medical equipment and supplies during transportation and storage.

Charcoal is a black, porous material that is made by heating wood or other organic materials in the absence of air. In the medical field, charcoal is often used as an adsorbent to remove toxins and other harmful substances from the body. It is commonly used to treat poisoning from drugs, alcohol, or other substances, as well as to treat certain digestive disorders such as diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. Charcoal is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, and powders, and is typically taken orally. It is important to note that charcoal should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment, and that it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hydroxyapatite is a mineral that is commonly found in bone and tooth enamel. In the medical field, hydroxyapatite is often used as a biomaterial for various medical applications, such as bone grafting, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. It is also used in the production of medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and prosthetic devices. Hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and can be easily modified to enhance its properties for specific medical applications.

Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate within bacteria. They are one of the most abundant biological entities on the planet and are found in virtually every environment where bacteria exist. In the medical field, bacteriophages have been studied for their potential use as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Unlike antibiotics, which target all types of bacteria, bacteriophages are highly specific and only infect and kill the bacteria they are designed to target. This makes them a promising option for treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, which are becoming increasingly common. Bacteriophages have also been used in research to study bacterial genetics and to develop new vaccines. In addition, they have been proposed as a way to control bacterial populations in industrial settings, such as food processing plants and water treatment facilities. Overall, bacteriophages have the potential to play an important role in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, and ongoing research is exploring their potential applications in medicine and other fields.

Biofouling in the medical field typically refers to the accumulation of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and algae, on medical devices or implants. This can occur during the manufacturing, storage, or use of the device, and can lead to infections or other complications for the patient. Biofouling can also refer to the accumulation of biological material, such as blood or tissue, on medical devices or implants. This can interfere with the device's function and can also lead to infections or other complications. In the medical field, biofouling is a significant concern, as it can compromise the effectiveness of medical devices and implants and can lead to serious health problems for patients. To prevent biofouling, medical devices and implants are often treated with antimicrobial coatings or stored in sterile conditions.

In the medical field, "air" typically refers to the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere, which is composed primarily of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with trace amounts of other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, and neon. In medical contexts, air can refer to the inhalation of air into the lungs, which is necessary for respiration and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Air can also refer to the presence of air in the body, such as in the case of pneumothorax, where air leaks into the space between the lung and the chest wall, causing the lung to collapse. In some medical procedures, such as bronchoscopy or endoscopy, air is used to inflate the airways and create a clear view of the inside of the body. In other cases, air may be used as a contrast medium to help visualize certain structures on medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.

In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

Zeolites are naturally occurring or synthetic microporous aluminosilicate minerals that have a unique three-dimensional structure with interconnected channels and cavities. In the medical field, zeolites are used as adsorbents, which means they can bind to and remove certain substances from the body. One of the most common uses of zeolites in medicine is as a dietary supplement for detoxification. Zeolites are believed to bind to toxins, heavy metals, and other harmful substances in the body and help eliminate them through the digestive system. Some studies have suggested that zeolites may be effective in reducing symptoms of certain conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although more research is needed to confirm these findings. Zeolites are also used in some medical treatments, such as in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Zeolites have been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of cancer cells or even cause them to die. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using zeolites in cancer treatment. It is important to note that the use of zeolites as a dietary supplement or in medical treatments should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Zeolites can interact with certain medications and may not be safe for everyone to use.

In the medical field, "gold" typically refers to the use of gold compounds in the treatment of certain medical conditions. Gold has been used in medicine for centuries, and it is still used today in the treatment of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Gold therapy involves the administration of gold compounds, usually in the form of a pill or injection, to help reduce inflammation and pain. The exact mechanism of action of gold therapy is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the modulation of the immune system and the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Gold therapy is generally considered safe and effective, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes. It is important to note that gold therapy is not suitable for everyone, and it should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Kaolin is a naturally occurring clay mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent and absorbent. It is often used in the preparation of medications, such as liquid suspensions and ointments, to help them retain their consistency and prevent them from separating or settling out. Kaolin is also used as an absorbent in various medical applications, such as in the treatment of diarrhea and as a dressing for wounds. In addition, kaolin has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer.

Coated materials that are biocompatible are materials that have been designed and formulated to be safe and non-reactive with living tissues in the human body. These materials are typically used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications where it is important to minimize the risk of adverse reactions or tissue damage. Biocompatible coatings are often applied to the surface of medical devices to improve their performance and reduce the risk of complications. For example, a biocompatible coating may be used to reduce friction and wear on an artificial joint, or to prevent corrosion and infection on an implant. To be considered biocompatible, a material must meet certain criteria, including being non-toxic, non-allergenic, and non-immunogenic. It must also be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids and enzymes. Overall, the use of biocompatible coated materials in the medical field is an important step in improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of complications associated with medical devices and implants.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. It is a long, fibrous polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. In the medical field, cellulose is used in a variety of ways. For example, it is often used as a thickening agent in medications, such as tablets and capsules, to help them maintain their shape and prevent them from dissolving too quickly in the stomach. It is also used as a binding agent in some medications to help them stick together and form a solid mass. In addition, cellulose is used in wound dressings and other medical products to help absorb excess fluid and promote healing. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help slow down the absorption of other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals. Overall, cellulose is an important component of many medical products and plays a crucial role in their function and effectiveness.

Silica gel is a desiccant, which is a substance that absorbs moisture from the air. It is commonly used in the medical field to remove moisture from medical equipment, such as syringes, vials, and other medical devices, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms that thrive in moist environments. Silica gel is also used in the production of certain medications, such as insulin, to maintain the stability and potency of the medication. In addition, silica gel is sometimes used in wound dressings to absorb excess moisture and promote healing.

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as shrimp and crab. Chitosan has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to absorb and retain water, its biocompatibility, and its ability to modulate immune responses. In the medical field, chitosan is used in a variety of ways, including as a wound dressing, a drug delivery system, and a biofilm inhibitor. As a wound dressing, chitosan can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that promotes cell growth and reduces inflammation. As a drug delivery system, chitosan can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving their effectiveness and reducing side effects. As a biofilm inhibitor, chitosan can help to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms, which can be difficult to treat and can lead to chronic infections. Chitosan has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor properties and can help to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, chitosan has been used in the development of medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and promote tissue integration.

Cetrimonium compounds are a class of quaternary ammonium compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as antiseptics, preservatives, and skin conditioners. They are typically composed of a quaternary ammonium salt attached to a fatty acid chain, which allows them to interact with and disrupt the lipid bilayer of bacterial cell membranes, leading to cell death. Cetrimonium compounds are often used in shampoos, conditioners, and other personal care products to help prevent scalp infections and dandruff. They are also used in some topical antiseptic products to help kill bacteria and prevent the spread of infection. In addition, cetrimonium compounds have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant properties, which may make them useful in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. It is important to note that while cetrimonium compounds are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, they can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some people. As with any product, it is always a good idea to patch test a small area of skin before using a new cetrimonium-containing product to check for any potential adverse reactions.

Enzymes, immobilized, refer to enzymes that have been chemically or physically attached to a solid support, such as a plastic or glass surface, or encapsulated within a matrix. This immobilization allows the enzymes to be used repeatedly in a variety of applications, such as in industrial processes, environmental remediation, and medical diagnostics. In the medical field, immobilized enzymes are used in a variety of diagnostic tests and therapeutic applications. For example, they can be used to detect specific molecules in biological samples, such as glucose in blood or proteins in urine. They can also be used to catalyze specific chemical reactions, such as the conversion of one molecule into another, which can be useful in drug development and production. One advantage of immobilized enzymes is that they can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and reused, which can reduce costs and increase efficiency. Additionally, immobilization can protect the enzymes from degradation or denaturation, which can improve their stability and activity over time.

Durapatite is a synthetic bone substitute material that is used in orthopedic and dental surgeries. It is a type of calcium phosphate ceramic that is similar in composition to natural bone and is designed to promote bone growth and regeneration. Durapatite is typically used in procedures such as bone grafting, where it is placed in the body to help fill in gaps or defects in bone tissue. It can also be used as an alternative to autografts (bone taken from the patient's own body) or allografts (bone taken from a donor) in certain cases. Durapatite has several advantages over other bone substitute materials, including its ability to promote bone growth and its biocompatibility with the body. It is also relatively easy to shape and can be customized to fit the specific needs of each patient. Overall, Durapatite is a useful tool for surgeons and dentists who are looking for a safe and effective way to promote bone growth and regeneration in the body.

In the medical field, "quartz" typically refers to a type of mineral that is commonly used in the production of medical devices and instruments. Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral that is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is known for its high refractive index, which makes it useful for producing lenses and other optical components. Quartz is often used in the production of medical devices such as microscopes, spectrometers, and lasers. It is also used in the manufacture of surgical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps, due to its durability and resistance to corrosion. In addition to its use in medical devices, quartz is also used in the production of certain types of medical implants, such as dental fillings and orthopedic implants. However, it is important to note that the use of quartz in medical implants is relatively uncommon, and other materials such as titanium and stainless steel are more commonly used for this purpose.

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in the human mouth, gut, and skin. They are known to be part of the normal flora of the oral cavity and are often present in dental plaque. However, some species of Actinomyces can cause infections, particularly in the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Actinomyces infections are typically chronic and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. They can cause a range of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and discharge from the affected area. Infections can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, bones, and joints. Actinomyces infections are usually treated with antibiotics, although the specific treatment depends on the type and severity of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have an Actinomyces infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.

Aluminum hydroxide is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and an adsorbent. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and reducing symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. It works by binding to phosphate and preventing it from being absorbed by the body. Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter as well as by prescription. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but long-term use at high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to neurological and bone problems.

Tetraphenylborate is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a diuretic and to treat hypertension. It works by increasing the amount of sodium and water that is excreted by the kidneys, which helps to lower blood pressure and reduce fluid retention. Tetraphenylborate is usually administered as a salt, such as sodium tetraphenylborate, and is typically given orally. It is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for hypertension, but may be used in cases where other diuretics are not effective or are not well-tolerated.

Silanes are a group of compounds that contain a silicon atom covalently bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. They are not typically used in the medical field, as they are primarily used in the production of electronic and optical materials, as well as in the synthesis of other organic compounds. However, there are some silanes that have been studied for their potential medical applications. For example, certain silanes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases. Additionally, some silanes have been used as adhesives and sealants in medical devices, such as dental fillings and orthopedic implants. Overall, while silanes are not commonly used in the medical field, they have the potential to be useful in the development of new treatments and medical technologies.

Graphite is not typically used in the medical field. Graphite is a naturally occurring mineral that is composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure. It is commonly used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in the production of electrodes for electrochemical cells. In the medical field, graphite is not commonly used for any medical purposes.

Biocompatible materials are materials that are designed to interact with living tissues in a way that is safe and non-toxic. These materials are used in a variety of medical applications, including implants, prosthetics, and drug delivery systems. Biocompatible materials must be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids, enzymes, and bacteria. They must also be able to integrate with the surrounding tissue and promote healing, rather than causing inflammation or rejection. Some examples of biocompatible materials include metals such as titanium and stainless steel, polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene, and ceramics such as hydroxyapatite. These materials are often used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. It is important to note that while a material may be biocompatible, it may not be suitable for all medical applications. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the intended use of the device, the patient's individual needs and health status, and the specific requirements of the medical procedure.

Muramidase is an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as lysozyme or muramidase lysozyme. The enzyme cleaves the bond between the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues in the peptidoglycan chain, leading to the breakdown of the cell wall and ultimately the death of the bacterium. Muramidase is found in various organisms, including humans, and is used as an antimicrobial agent in some medications. It is also used in laboratory research to study bacterial cell wall structure and function.

Acrylic resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically made from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, which are then polymerized to form a solid, durable material. One common use of acrylic resins in medicine is in the production of dental prosthetics, such as dentures and dental bridges. Acrylic resins are used to create the artificial teeth and gums that are used to replace missing teeth or to improve the appearance of the smile. Acrylic resins are also used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and surgical instruments. They are often used because of their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In addition, acrylic resins are sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, they may be used to create implants for the treatment of joint disorders or to reinforce weakened bones. Overall, acrylic resins are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field, with a range of applications in dentistry, medical devices, and other areas.

In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.

In the medical field, "buffers" typically refer to substances that help regulate the pH of bodily fluids, such as blood and urine. Buffers work by neutralizing excess acid or base in the body, helping to maintain a stable pH level. This is important because many enzymes and other biological processes in the body require a specific pH range in order to function properly. There are several different types of buffers that can be used in the medical field, including bicarbonate buffers, phosphate buffers, and protein buffers. Bicarbonate buffers are the most common type of buffer used in the body, and they are primarily found in the blood and extracellular fluid. Phosphate buffers are also commonly used in the body, and they are found in the blood, urine, and other bodily fluids. Protein buffers are less common, but they can be used in certain medical situations where bicarbonate or phosphate buffers are not effective. In addition to regulating pH, buffers can also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as acidosis (a condition in which the blood is too acidic) or alkalosis (a condition in which the blood is too alkaline). Buffers may be administered intravenously or orally, depending on the specific condition being treated and the needs of the patient.

In the medical field, sewage refers to the waste water that is generated from households, industries, and commercial establishments. It contains a mixture of water, solid waste, and various contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and chemicals. Sewage is considered a potential source of disease transmission and can pose a risk to public health if not properly treated and disposed of. Therefore, the collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage are important public health measures to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases.

In the medical field, "Resins, Synthetic" refers to a group of synthetic polymers that are derived from petrochemicals or other organic compounds. These resins are used in a variety of medical applications, including as adhesives, coatings, and as components in medical devices. Some examples of synthetic resins used in the medical field include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polystyrene. These resins are often used to make medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and containers for medical supplies. Synthetic resins are also used in medical coatings to provide a barrier against bacteria and other microorganisms, as well as to improve the durability and performance of medical devices. For example, some medical implants are coated with synthetic resins to reduce the risk of infection and to improve their biocompatibility with the body. Overall, synthetic resins play an important role in the medical field by providing a range of useful properties and applications in the development and production of medical devices and supplies.

In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.

Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a choline molecule attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, phosphatidylcholines are often used as a dietary supplement or in various medical treatments. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving liver function, reducing inflammation, and improving cognitive function. Phosphatidylcholines are also used in some medical treatments, such as liposuction, where they are injected into the fat cells to help break them down and remove them from the body. They are also used in some types of chemotherapy to help reduce side effects and improve treatment outcomes.

Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a naturally occurring sedimentary rock made up of the fossilized remains of diatoms, which are tiny aquatic organisms. In the medical field, DE is sometimes used as a natural remedy for various conditions, including: 1. Acne: DE is believed to help unclog pores and remove excess oil, making it a popular ingredient in acne-fighting skincare products. 2. Allergies: DE is sometimes used as a natural dehumidifier to help reduce indoor allergens like dust mites and mold. 3. Insect bites: DE is believed to have antiseptic properties and can be used to soothe insect bites and stings. 4. Skin conditions: DE is sometimes used as a natural exfoliant to help remove dead skin cells and improve skin texture. However, it's important to note that the medical use of DE is not well-established and more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety. Additionally, DE can be harmful if inhaled or ingested in large quantities, so it's important to use it properly and follow all safety guidelines.

At the maximum adsorption, only a monolayer is formed. Adsorption only occurs on localized sites on the surface, not with other ... As an adsorption chiller requires no compressor, it is relatively quiet. Portal site mediated adsorption is a model for site- ... The adsorption of ensemble molecules on a surface or interface can be divided into two processes: adsorption and desorption. If ... The typical overall adsorption rate is thus often a combined result of the adsorption and desorption. Since 1980 two theories ...
An example of selective adsorption can be demonstrated in the growth of Rochelle salt crystals. If copper ions are added to ... In surface science, selective adsorption is the effect when minima associated with bound-state resonances occur in specular ... In crystal growth, selective adsorption refers to the phenomenon where adsorbing molecules attach preferentially to certain ... The selective adsorption binding energies can supply information on the gas-surface interaction potentials by yielding the ...
The fundamental idea behind spontaneous protein adsorption is that adsorption occurs when more energy is released than gained ... Adsorption (not to be mistaken for absorption) is the accumulation and adhesion of molecules, atoms, ions, or larger particles ... The adsorption of larger biomolecules such as proteins is of high physiological relevance, and as such they adsorb with ... Taking this a step further, implantable devices can be coated with a bioactive material to encourage adsorption of specific ...
Competitive adsorption equilibria of CO2 and CH4 on a dry coal. Adsorption-Journal of the International Adsorption Society. 14 ... Supercritical adsorption also referred to as the adsorption of supercritical fluids, is the adsorption at above-critical ... rendering new insights into the nature of supercritical adsorption. According to the adsorption behavior, the adsorption of ... A larger amount of sample results in considerable adsorption and usually provides a larger void space in the adsorption cell, ...
Since charge plays a key role in polyelectrolyte adsorption, the initial rates of polyelectrolyte adsorption to charged ... The adsorption of polyelectrolytes can be used to stabilize suspensions, such as in the case of dyes and paints. It can also be ... This drop in adsorption rates can be countered by exploiting the tendency for charge overcompensation to occur. In the case of ... Adsorption of polyelectrolytes on solid substrates is a surface phenomenon where long-chained polymer molecules with charged ...
Gas adsorption heat pumps are not currently available in the UK, but are just being introduced in Europe as small water or ... In an adsorption system, an adsorber adsorbs the refrigerant vapour into a solid, while in an absorption system, an absorber ... Adsorption is sometimes referred to as solid sorption. It is very similar to absorption refrigeration (note that the second ... For example, an adsorption refrigeration device with active carbon fiber as the adsorbent and ammonia as the refrigerant was ...
Hydrogen tank Hydrogen economy Cryo-Adsorption. Hydrogen cryo-adsorption; comparing low pressure and isosteric heats ( ... Cryo-adsorption is a method used for hydrogen storage where gaseous hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures (150-60 K) is physically ...
Adsorption is the adhesion of ions or molecules onto the surface of another phase. Adsorption may occur via physisorption and ... From the enthalpy of adsorption, the entropy of adsorption can be calculated: Δ S a d = Δ H a d T , {\displaystyle \Delta S_{ad ... Protein adsorption influences the interactions that occur at the tissue-implant interface. Protein adsorption can lead to blood ... The Gibbs energy of adsorption, Δ G a d {\displaystyle \Delta G_{ad}} , can be determined from the adsorption equilibrium ...
The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is an irrigation water quality parameter used in the management of sodium-affected soils. It ... The formula for calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is: SAR = N a + 1 2 ( C a 2 + + M g 2 + ) {\displaystyle {\text{ ... Irrigation using water with high sodium adsorption ratio may require soil amendments to prevent long-term damage to the soil. ... The effect of potassium can be similarly treated by means of the potassium adsorption ratio (PAR). To take into account ...
... (RSA) refers to a process where particles are randomly introduced in a system, and if they do not ... The blocking process has been studied in detail in terms of the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. The simplest RSA ... Araujo, N. A. M.; Cadilhe, A. (2006). "Gap-size distribution functions of a random sequential adsorption model of segments on a ... Manna, S. S.; Svrakic, N. M. (1991). "Random sequential adsorption: line segments on the square lattice". J. Phys. A: Math. Gen ...
"Expanded-bed adsorption", at Modern Drug Discovery Introduction to Expanded Bed Adsorption v t e v t e (Biochemistry methods, ... After the adsorption step is complete, the fluidized bed is washed to flush out any remaining particulates. Elution of the ... Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a preparative chromatographic technique which makes processing of viscous and particulate ... Hence EBA can be modelled as frontal adsorption in a packed bed, rather than as a well-mixed, continuous-flow adsorber. ...
Polluted effluent is added into the bottom of the cell and mixed with the adsorbent in the adsorption zone 1.1 where adsorption ... As a result of its properties Nyex can undergo quick adsorption and fast electrochemical regeneration in a combined adsorption- ... Continuous adsorption-electrochemical regeneration encompasses the adsorption and regeneration steps, typically separated in ... The adsorption regeneration process is divided into three key elements which occur in different parts of the cell. All three ...
... (PSA) is a technique used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases (typically air) under ... Pressure swing adsorption process (PSA) is based on the phenomenon that under high pressure, gases tend to be trapped onto ... Vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) segregates certain gases from a gaseous mixture at near ambient pressure; the process then swings ... Adsorption - Phenomenon of surface adhesion Compressed air dryer - Filter systems to reduce humidity of compressed air Gas ...
The model assumes adsorption and desorption as being elementary processes, where the rate of adsorption rad and the rate of ... The Langmuir adsorption model explains adsorption by assuming an adsorbate behaves as an ideal gas at isothermal conditions. ... This equation describes the adsorption of one adsorbate to two or more distinct types of adsorption sites. Each binding site ... On the other hand, heterogeneous adsorption (multi-site) have a variable Δ H {\displaystyle \Delta H} of adsorption depending ...
The Henry adsorption constant is the constant appearing in the linear adsorption isotherm, which formally resembles Henry's law ... In the case of weak adsorption, for example, when the potential is close to the stepwise, it is logical to choose x ′ {\ ... This is the simplest adsorption isotherm in that the amount of the surface adsorbate is represented to be proportional to the ... It is typically taken as valid for low surface coverages, and the adsorption energy being independent of the coverage (lack of ...
... is a water treatment process that is used to remove arsenic from drinking water. Arsenic is a common ... Iron oxide adsorption treatment for arsenic in groundwater is a commonly practiced removal process which involves the chemical ... HCl lowers pH, assuring arsenic adsorption, and the disassociated chlorine oxidizes iron in solution from Fe+2 to Fe+3, which ... which will bond with hydroxide for further adsorption. The filter media usually consists of anthracite, iron-manganese ...
The highest DNA adsorption efficiencies occur in the presence of buffer solution with a pH at or below the pKa of the surface ... DNA separation by silica adsorption is a method of DNA separation that is based on DNA molecules binding to silica surfaces in ... In order to conduct DNA separation by silica adsorption, a sample (this may be anything from purified cells to a tissue ... The mechanism behind DNA adsorption onto silica is not fully understood; one possible explanation involves reduction of the ...
Protein adsorption can also occur as a direct result of heating a mixture. Protein adsorption in milk processing is often used ... The common trend in all examples of protein adsorption in the food industry is that of adsorption to minerals adsorbed to the ... Protein adsorption refers to the adhesion of proteins to solid surfaces. This phenomenon is an important issue in the food ... Excessive adsorption, or protein fouling, can lead to health and sanitation issues, as the adsorbed protein is very difficult ...
... (AMESA) is an automatic system for continuous monitoring of emissions of ...
Enzyme adsorption onto carriers functions based on chemical and physical phenomena such as van der Waals forces, ionic ... Many immobilization techniques exist, such as adsorption, covalent binding, affinity, and entrapment. Ideal immobilization ... Jesionowski, Teofil; Zdarta, Jakub; Krajewska, Barbara (2014-08-01). "Enzyme immobilization by adsorption: a review". ... and high adsorption capacity. Enzymes typically constitute a significant operational cost for industrial processes, and in many ...
He used liquid-adsorption column chromatography with calcium carbonate as adsorbent and petrol ether/ethanol mixtures as eluent ... It's still not known whether in the case of Tsvet's adsorption analysis ([which functions] on a small scale), this change of ... Adsorption]. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft. 24: 316-323. doi:10.1111/j.1438-8677.1906.tb06524.x. S2CID ... Anwendung auf die Chemie des Chlorophylls" [Adsorption analysis and chromatographic method. Application to the chemistry of ...
Adsorption. 22 (4): 366-375. doi:10.1007/s10450-015-9740-2. S2CID 100692983. (Articles without KEGG source, Articles with ...
Adsorption. 16 (4-5): 183-184. doi:10.1007/s10450-010-9222-5. (Articles with ISNI identifiers, Articles with VIAF identifiers, ...
Adsorption, 2016. 22 (8): 1147-1155. DOI:10.1007/s10450-016-9838-1. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple ...
Molecularly imprinted materials of insulin and other drugs at the nanoscale were shown to exhibit high adsorption capacity for ... Nishide, H.; Tsuchida, E. (1976). "Selective adsorption of metal ions on poly (4‐vinylpyridine) resins in which the ligand ... Dickey, Frank (1955). "Specific Adsorption". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 59 (8): 695-707. doi:10.1021/j150530a006. ...
Jeong J, Jeon H, Ko K, Chung B, Choi G (2012). "Production of anhydrous ethanol using various PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) ... Pressure swing adsorption. Pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed as psychoactive drugs, but ethanol has many ...
Plasma change the adsorption/desorption equilibrium on the catalyst surface leading to higher adsorption capabilities. An ... Higher adsorption probability. Change in the catalyst oxidation state. Some metallic catalyst (e.g. Ni, Fe) are more active in ...
Two methods in common use are pressure swing adsorption and membrane gas separation. Pressure swing adsorption oxygen ... This type of adsorption system is therefore functionally a nitrogen scrubber leaving the other atmospheric gases to pass ... This type of adsorption system is therefore functionally a nitrogen scrubber leaving the other atmospheric gases to pass ... To meet that need, another process, called vacuum swing adsorption (VSA), has been developed by Air Products. This process uses ...
Better surface adsorption. Atomically thin boron nitride has been found to have better surface adsorption capabilities than ... The synergic effect of the atomic thickness, high flexibility, stronger surface adsorption capability, electrical insulation, ... atomically thin boron nitride as an adsorbent experiences conformational changes upon surface adsorption of molecules, ... "Molecule-Induced Conformational Change in Boron Nitride Nanosheets with Enhanced Surface Adsorption". Advanced Functional ...
United States Grant US4477264A, Wilbur C. Kratz & Shivaji Sircar, "Pressure swing adsorption process for a medical oxygen ... Filter surfaces are zeolite (microporous, crystalline aluminosilicate) that attract (via adsorption) nitrogen molecules more ... pressure swing adsorption. The basic set up of a POC is a miniaturized air compressor, a cylinder filled containing the sieve, ... "Pressure Swing Adsorption". Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41 (6): 1389-92. doi:10.1021/ie0109758. ...
We examine here the micellization of mono-rhamnolipids and di-rhamnolipids in aqueous solutions and their adsorption on solid ... An improved fundamental understanding of biosurfactant self-assembly and adsorption properties is important for their ...
... Water-Resources ... Adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride onto crushed tuffs from the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada. ...
Pressure swing adsorption nitrogen generators rental * Onsite nitrogen generation with a purity of up to 99.999% purity (NGP). ... Rental NGP pressure swing adsorption nitrogen generators Onsite nitrogen generation with a purity of up to 99.999% purity (NGP ...
Upon adsorption on oppositely charged surfaces, PYP yielded similar achiral spectra. However, the VSFG signal intensity ... Nanometer-thick polyelectrolyte layers served as the substrate for PYP adsorption, with 6.5-pair layers providing the most ... suggesting increased adsorption for PGA compared to PEI. At low wavenumbers, both the backbone and the side chains of PYP ...
Kolb, Brant U., "Synthesis of specifically functionalized polymers and their adsorption at the solid-solution interface/" (1993 ... Synthesis of specifically functionalized polymers and their adsorption at the solid-solution interface/ ...
Enhance adsorption capacity by 51% for Acid Green 25 and 160% for Acid Green 27. Explore the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin ... Experience higher dye adsorption capacities compared to pristine clay. Optimal results achieved with 5.9% alginate clay- ... Uncover insights into adsorption kinetics with normal first order and Lagergren first order kinetic models. ... Discover the superior adsorption properties of layered anionic clay-composites for removing anionic dyes from water. ...
Adsorption kinetics data showed that Pb(II) adsorption onto nZVFe-RSAC was fitted well according to a pseudo-second-order model ... Based on the results of the adsorption isotherm studies, the adsorption of Pb(II) on nZVFe-RSAC is consistent with the Langmuir ... and spontaneous nature of adsorption. Adsorption enthalpy and entropy values were determined as 32.2 kJ mol−1 and 216.9 J mol−1 ... The maximum adsorption capacities of the RS, RSAC, and nZVFe-RSAC were 23.3, 67.8, and 140.8 (mg g−1), respectively. ...
The irreversible adsorption on a patterned substrate is studied through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. As a pattern, we ... Particles attempting adsorption can only stick to the substrate if they do not overlap previously adsorbed ones (excluded ... Abstract: A9.00006 : Random Sequential Adsorption on patterned substrates: jammed state structure and kinetic properties. 9:00 ... thus representing an extended random sequential adsorption model. The distribution of particles sizes follows a truncated ...
nbsp; Key words: Pollutants, computational chemistry, adsorption, molecular dynamics. ... nbsp; Key words: Pollutants, computational chemistry, adsorption, molecular dynamics. ... the adsorption became viable. This study corroborates the present understanding on this type of phenomenon. & ... the adsorption became viable. This study corroborates the present understanding on this type of phenomenon. & ...
Adsorption of Globulin to the Cuticle of Larvae and Adults of Trichinella Spiralis published on Nov 1967 by The American ... In vitro adsorption of globulins onto the cuticle of a nematode was originally reported by Soulsby, who demonstrated this with ... Adsorption of Globulin to the Cuticle of Larvae and Adults of Trichinella Spiralis ...
The kinetics and isotherm of the adsorption were investigated in detail. Maximum sorption capacities of 1666, 1111, 227 and 29 ... Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of methylene blue and rhodamine B onto metal organic framework MIL ... Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of methylene blue and rhodamine B onto metal organic framework MIL ... initial RhB concentration and adsorption time affecting both single and binary dye removal was developed by Central Composite ...
Adsorption of a positively charged apo A-I macroion to the surface of the membrane modifies the electric field within the head ... Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. A statistical mechanical model. Eitan Gross(a) ... Differential adsorption of a membrane skeletal protein, spectrin, in phospholipid membranes EPL, 118 (2017) 58002. ... Model predictions for the change in free energy of adsorption to zwitterionic membrane are in good agreement with previously ...
The ad- sorption kinetics is rapid and quickly leads to loose monolayers of low coverage featuring a liquid- like structure. ...
Gee, Adam Timothy (1999) The role of steps in the dynamics of dissociative adsorption at surfaces. University of Southampton, ... Oxygen adsorption of Pt(533) proceeds in the main part via the sequential precursor route to dissociation proposed for ... Oxygen adsorption of Pt(533) proceeds in the main part via the sequential precursor route to dissociation proposed for ... At incident energies up to 150meV a third channel to adsorption exists. This channel is direct in nature, and may either be due ...
An initial example of such a material was realized in mmen-Mg2(dobpdc), which exhibits step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms ... efforts to expand the scope of cooperative adsorption have led to new metal-organic frameworks containing: (i) chains of high- ... as well as regeneration via steam stripping.4 This type of cooperative mechanism has been extended to the selective adsorption ... binuclear metal complexes that enable the cooperative adsorption of NH3 through a ligand insertion mechanism. ...
Common ways to characterise porous carbons include gas adsorption and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption isotherms measured using ... has been shown to have a significant impact on the adsorption isotherms [24]. In the case of gas adsorption, small micropores ... Modeling adsorption in microporous carbons: Bridging methods and crossing boundaries between applications. Location: Meriadeck ... Once adsorption properties are known, elucidation of transport properties is the key step to assess the efficiency of the ...
Investigation of the adsorption of reactive dyes and heavy metal ions from synthetic textile effluent by eggshell membrane. ...
The adsorption isotherm analysis of methylene blue on hydrogel showed that the adsorption process was consistent with Langmuir ... The prepared hydrogel had a good adsorption effect on methylene blue; the adsorption of methylene blue by the hydrogel was ... Preparation of Peanut Shell Cellulose Double-Network Hydrogel and Its Adsorption Capacity for Methylene Blue. Yalin Li1,*, Lei ... 2023). Preparation of Peanut Shell Cellulose Double-Network Hydrogel and Its Adsorption Capacity for Methylene Blue. Journal of ...
... ... Browsing G- Faculté de Technologie by Subject "Kaolin : 2- chlorophénol : Adsorption : Isotherme : Cinétique". Login ...
Due to the growth of Xebec Adsorption Inc. an opportunity has arisen for a Business Developer to join the rapidly expanding ... Xebec Adsorption Inc., 730 Boul. Industriel, Blainville, PQ, J7C 3V4 / +1 450 979 8700 ...
contact-form-7 id="21342″ title="Applications Contact Form"]. ...
The adsorption of Fe (III) ions on CTPP b ... The adsorption of Fe (III) ions on CTPP beads was found to be ... Therefore, chemical adsorption may be the limiting step that controls the continuous adsorption process. The Adams-Bohart model ... Modeling of breakthrough curves for aqueous iron (III) adsorption on chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate Dalia I. Sánchez-Machado ... adsorption, breakthrough curves, fixed bed column, heavy metals, shrimp waste, sodium tripolyphosphate ...
... allowing to intensify the processes by increasing the adsorption capacities in flow and by increasing the adsorption kinetics ... Transport and Adsorption in MultiScale Porous Materials - TAMTAM. Transport and Confinement in Porous Materials. Multiscale ... In particular, none of the existing approaches offers the ground for a bottom up model of adsorption/transport in multiscale ... Owing to the use of data that capture the many adsorption/transport regimes upon varying pressure, pore size, etc., this ...
Adsorption equilibrium was approached within 80 min. The adsorption kinetics data were described by pseudo-second-order ... The adsorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solution onto alkali lignin extracted from Hagenia abyssinica was investigated by ... A maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 80.41 mg g-1 of the dry weight of lignin. ... Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using lignin from Hagenia abyssinica ...
accidents adsorption aluminum chromium energy gallium gases indium iron krypton scandium surface area texture topology vanadium ... adsorption of Xe is found to be stronger as compared to adsorption of Kr, and the binding energy is found to increase with ... Confinement-Directed Adsorption of Noble Gases (Xe/Kr) in MFM-300(M)-Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials 2019. ... Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) gained immense research interest for adsorption and separation of various important gases ...
The Adsorption of Toluenediamine from the Wastewater by Activated Carbon in Batch and Fixed Bed Systems. ... The Adsorption of Toluenediamine from the Wastewater by Activated Carbon in Batch and Fixed Bed Systems ...
Adsorption processes, pore size distribution, activated carbons, chemical contaminant, partial pressure, air purification, ... Application of adsorption processes for air purification requires an approach, which accounts for the presence of humidity. ... Chapter 2: An Adsorption Equilibrium Model for Type 5 Isotherms. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Model Development. 2.3 Results. 2.4 ... Chapter 4: Studies of Temperature Swing Adsorption. 4.1 Background. 4.2 Fixed Bed Model. 4.3 Laboratory-Scale Experimental TSA ...
However, the adsorption of base metals on IR200 is sensitive to chloride concentration, with a rapid reduction in adsorption at ... The model predicted adsorption of each component compares well with the actual measured values. In batch adsorption tests the ... However, the adsorption quantity is reduced at higher ruthenium concentrations. The adsorption quantity of iridium on IRA900 is ... High solution concentrations of the target adsorption component increase the adsorption quantity. It has been established that ...
  • The objective of this project is to evaluate the adsorption properties of CNC for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by changing the parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and salt concentration. (
  • M. Auta and B. H. Hameed, "Chitosan-Clay Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Batch and Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Methylene Blue," Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 237, 2014, pp. 352-361. (
  • the adsorption of methylene blue by the hydrogel was 1.259 mg/g at 25°C when the initial concentration of methylene blue was 5 mg/L. The adsorption kinetics of the hydrogel fit the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Eovich model and particle diffusion model. (
  • The adsorption isotherm analysis of methylene blue on hydrogel showed that the adsorption process was consistent with Langmuir and Freundlich models. (
  • The correlation coefficient of the Freundlich isotherm model was higher, indicating that the adsorption of methylene blue on hydrogel was mainly chemisorption. (
  • The dye adsorption capacities of the composites were higher than the pristine clay. (
  • Using this method , six strains with high Pd adsorption capacities have sorted from a yeast library with metal -binding peptides displayed (up to 107 strains ) based on SSC signal intensity. (
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2019.102061] We examine here the micellization of mono-rhamnolipids and di-rhamnolipids in aqueous solutions and their adsorption on solid surfaces, and discuss the effects of rhamnolipid headgroup, rhamnolipid purification, and presence of salt in water. (
  • S. Mandal and S. Mayadevi, "Cellulose Supported Layered Double Hydroxides for the Adsorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution," Chemosphere, Vol. 72, No. 6, 2008, pp. 995-998. (
  • The adsorption of gases and solutes is usually described through isotherms, that is, the amount of adsorbate on the adsorbent as a function of its pressure (if gas) or concentration (for liquid phase solutes) at constant temperature. (
  • The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to evaluate the feasibility of the adsorption process. (
  • Adsorption isotherms measured using small molecules such as argon, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, are usually exploited to determine the pore size distributions of the porous materials. (
  • The term sorption encompasses both adsorption and absorption, and desorption is the reverse of sorption. (
  • In all these applications knowing the structure of the carbon, both in the pristine state and under operation, usually involving adsorption/desorption of species, is key to understanding and predicting the performance of the process. (
  • The accurate characterisation of microporous carbons and their evolution upon adsorption/desorption presents a number of challenges associated with the disordered nature of these materials and the multiphysics, and often multi-scale, character of the processes at play. (
  • The regards amongst others determination of the adsorption/desorption behaviour of the substances, determination of bioaccumulation, determination of the ready biodegradability, determination of the long-term fish toxicity, and other tests. (
  • Common ways to characterise porous carbons include gas adsorption and X-ray diffraction. (
  • Multiple experimental techniques, including proximate/ultimate analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser diffraction, and low-pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, were used to investigate the chemical and physical properties of micron-/nano-coal particles comprehensively. (
  • Adsorption kinetics was analyzed using normal first order and Lagergren first order kinetic models. (
  • The kinetics and isotherm of the adsorption were investigated in detail. (
  • The high surface area and the presence of permanent negative charge on the surface makes cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) an excellent candidate for the adsorption of basic (cationic) dyes. (
  • Adsorption of cationic dendrimers. (
  • Irving Langmuir was the first to derive a scientifically based adsorption isotherm in 1918. (
  • The adsorption capacity of CNC was determined using the linearized form of Langmuir model. (
  • The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. (
  • Adsorption is present in many natural, physical, biological and chemical systems and is widely used in industrial applications such as heterogeneous catalysts, activated charcoal, capturing and using waste heat to provide cold water for air conditioning and other process requirements (adsorption chillers), synthetic resins, increasing storage capacity of carbide-derived carbons and water purification. (
  • Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface. (
  • British Library EThOS: Investigation of the adsorption of reactive dyes and heavy metal ions from synthetic textile effluent by eggshell membrane. (
  • The adsorption of Fe (III) ions on CTPP beads was found to be dependent on operating conditions, such as the flow rate, adsorbent bed length, and feed concentration. (
  • The parameters obtained from the continuous adsorption assays may be used as a basis for designing columns packed with CTPP beads for the removal of Fe (III) ions. (
  • Adsorption properties of layered anionic clay-composites for the removal of anionic dyes from water were studied. (
  • The clay-alginate composite with 5.9% alginate showed highest adsorption for both the dyes. (
  • Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. (
  • Particles attempting adsorption can only stick to the substrate if they do not overlap previously adsorbed ones (excluded volume interaction) and if their geometrical centers land inside a cell. (
  • Zobell [7] reported that bacteria attached themselves to inert particles and hypothesized that adsorption was beneficial for the growth of bacteria. (
  • In this work, the adsorption of benzene, toluene and p -xylene on activated carbon was verified through a computer simulation. (
  • Once a particle is adsorbed, it does not detach from or diffuse on the substrate, thus representing an extended random sequential adsorption model. (
  • Oxygen adsorption of Pt(533) proceeds in the main part via the sequential precursor route to dissociation proposed for adsorption on the Pt(111) surface. (
  • After the oxidation, the adsorption capacity increased from 118 to 769 mg/g. (
  • The maximum adsorption capacity of the composite was enhanced by 51% for Acid Green 25 and 160% for Acid Green 27, compared to the pristine layered clay sample. (
  • Conventionally, the measurement of metal ion adsorption capacity in biosorbent relies on expensive and time -consuming ICP-OES technique . (
  • Herein, a semi-quantitative method to measure Pd(II) adsorption capacity of single cells has been presented by analyzing side scatter (SSC) intensity in flow cytometry . (
  • In summary, our study proposes an alternative high-throughput method for analyzing the Pd(II) adsorption capacity of individual yeast cells , enabling the screening of specific peptides / proteins with high Pd(II) affinity from extensive libraries . (
  • Nanometer-thick polyelectrolyte layers served as the substrate for PYP adsorption, with 6.5-pair layers providing the most homogeneous surfaces. (
  • Upon adsorption on oppositely charged surfaces, PYP yielded similar achiral spectra. (
  • However, the VSFG signal intensity increased for PGA surfaces with a concomitant redshift of the chiral Cα-H and N-H stretching bands, suggesting increased adsorption for PGA compared to PEI. (
  • Flow cytometry-based high-throughput screening of synthetic peptides for palladium adsorption. (
  • It was found that the adsorption is independent of pH, however increase in temperature and ionic strength decreased the removal percentage slightly. (
  • N. Bleiman and Y. G. Mishael, "Selenium Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorption to Chitosan-Clay Composites and Oxides: Batch and Columns Tests," Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 183, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 590-595. (
  • Optimization of significant variables such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial MB concentration, initial RhB concentration and adsorption time affecting both single and binary dye removal was developed by Central Composite Design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized values for these parameters in binary solutions were found to be 6.45, 0.014 g, 60 mg L −1 , 15 mg L −1 and 9.9 min, respectively. (
  • The Bureau of Mines estimated the methane content of a coal, which depends primarily upon rank and pressure, from the adsorption equation V = kPn, where k and n are constants related to rank. (
  • Pore volume and surface area estimated by low-pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption have more than five-time increase for the nano-coal dust. (
  • Adsorption is a surface phenomenon and the adsorbate does not penetrate through the surface and into the bulk of the adsorbent, while absorption involves transfer of the absorbate into the volume of the material, although adsorption does often precede absorption. (
  • It is based on four assumptions: All of the adsorption sites are equivalent, and each site can only accommodate one molecule. (
  • The exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is generally classified as physisorption (characteristic of weak van der Waals forces) or chemisorption (characteristic of covalent bonding). (
  • Therefore, chemical adsorption may be the limiting step that controls the continuous adsorption process. (
  • The Adams-Bohart model presented a good fit to the experimental data, showing that external mass transfer was controlling the adsorption process in the initial part of the breakthrough curves. (
  • Adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I to biological membranes. (
  • Once suitable atomistic models have been generated, additional challenges come with the simulation of adsorption processes. (
  • Model predictions for the change in free energy of adsorption to zwitterionic membrane are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data with liposomes. (
  • The nature of the adsorption can affect the structure of the adsorbed species. (
  • An improved fundamental understanding of biosurfactant self-assembly and adsorption properties is important for their utilization in environmental and consumer products applications. (
  • Adsorption of a positively charged apo A-I macroion to the surface of the membrane modifies the electric field within the head group region and induces lateral demixing of phospholipid molecules in the membrane. (
  • It is the most common isotherm equation to use due to its simplicity and its ability to fit a variety of adsorption data. (
  • At the maximum adsorption, only a monolayer is formed. (
  • After analyzing the results, it was found that the groups: ether, lactone and carbonyl (ketone) present in the carbon structure provided acidic character and due to this fact, and the carbon's complex network of micropores, the adsorption became viable. (
  • Among the present methods, adsorption has been preferred to other conventional techniques due to the simple design and operation, low initial investment, effectiveness and insensitivity to toxic substances. (
  • Advanced theoretical treatment of chromatographic separation and the underlying distribution and adsorption equilibria. (
  • F. D. Alsewailem and S. A. Aljlil, "Recycled Polymer/ Clay Composites for Heavy-Metals Adsorption," Materials Technology, Vol. 47, 2013, pp. 525-529. (
  • Due to the growth of Xebec Adsorption Inc. an opportunity has arisen for a Business Developer to join the rapidly expanding business. (
  • and ii) cholesterol reduces macroion adsorption to the membrane by reducing the surface area of the membrane and restricting the dipoles range of rotation. (
  • Le présent article examine ces facteurs, en s'attachant plus particulièrement au sérotype nouvellement identifié de Vibrio cholerae qui a provoqué des épidémies en Inde et au Bangladesh. (
  • It possessed a value of 118 mg/g at pH 9 and 25 °C. To enhance the adsorption, CNC was oxidized with TEMPO reagent to convert primary hydroxyl groups to carboxyl groups that provides more negative charge. (