Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques: The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectTetraphenylborate: An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC ResinsSpectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.
(1/3424) Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis.

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

(2/3424) Surface-induced polymerization of actin.

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

(3/3424) Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems.

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

(4/3424) Evidence that the neck appendages are adsorption organelles in Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29.

A mutant of Bacillus subtilis unable to adsorb phage phi29 efficiently has been isolated. This mutant can be infected by host range mutants of the phage. Since the host range mutations map in cistron 12, which codes for neck appendage protein, this would tend to confirm that these organelles are involved in viral adsorption.  (+info)

(5/3424) Modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation through substrate-dependent changes in fibronectin conformation.

Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrices provides signals essential for cell cycle progression and differentiation. We demonstrate that substrate-dependent changes in the conformation of adsorbed fibronectin (Fn) modulated integrin binding and controlled switching between proliferation and differentiation. Adsorption of Fn onto bacterial polystyrene (B), tissue culture polystyrene (T), and collagen (C) resulted in differences in Fn conformation as indicated by antibody binding. Using a biochemical method to quantify bound integrins in cultured cells, we found that differences in Fn conformation altered the quantity of bound alpha5 and beta1 integrin subunits but not alphav or beta3. C2C12 myoblasts grown on these Fn-coated substrates proliferated to different levels (B > T > C). Immunostaining for muscle-specific myosin revealed minimal differentiation on B, significant levels on T, and extensive differentiation on C. Differentiation required binding to the RGD cell binding site in Fn and was blocked by antibodies specific for this site. Switching between proliferation and differentiation was controlled by the levels of alpha5beta1 integrin bound to Fn, and differentiation was inhibited by anti-alpha5, but not anti-alphav, antibodies, suggesting distinct integrin-mediated signaling pathways. Control of cell proliferation and differentiation through conformational changes in extracellular matrix proteins represents a versatile mechanism to elicit specific cellular responses for biological and biotechnological applications.  (+info)

(6/3424) Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain.

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

(7/3424) Differential mechanisms of retinoid transfer from cellular retinol binding proteins types I and II to phospholipid membranes.

Cellular retinol-binding proteins types I and II (CRBP-I and CRBP-II) are known to differentially facilitate retinoid metabolism by several membrane-associated enzymes. The mechanism of ligand transfer to phospholipid small unilamellar vesicles was compared in order to determine whether differences in ligand trafficking properties could underlie these functional differences. Unidirectional transfer of retinol from the CRBPs to membranes was monitored by following the increase in intrinsic protein fluorescence that occurs upon ligand dissociation. The results showed that ligand transfer of retinol from CRBP-I was >5-fold faster than transfer from CRBP-II. For both proteins, transfer of the other naturally occurring retinoid, retinaldehyde, was 4-5-fold faster than transfer of retinol. Rates of ligand transfer from CRBP-I to small unilamellar vesicles increased with increasing concentration of acceptor membrane and with the incorporation of the anionic lipids cardiolipin or phosphatidylserine into membranes. In contrast, transfer from CRBP-II was unaffected by either membrane concentration or composition. Preincubation of anionic vesicles with CRBP-I was able to prevent cytochrome c, a peripheral membrane protein, from binding, whereas CRBP-II was ineffective. In addition, monolayer exclusion experiments demonstrated differences in the rate and magnitude of the CRBP interactions with phospholipid membranes. These results suggest that the mechanisms of ligand transfer from CRBP-I and CRBP-II to membranes are markedly different as follows: transfer from CRBP-I may involve and require effective collisional interactions with membranes, whereas a diffusional process primarily mediates transfer from CRBP-II. These differences may help account for their distinct functional roles in the modulation of intracellular retinoid metabolism.  (+info)

(8/3424) Lysozyme sorption in hydrogel contact lenses.

PURPOSE: To examine the processes involved in formation of protein deposits on hydrogel contact lenses. METHODS: The adsorption and/or penetration of lysozyme on or into three types of contact lenses, etafilcon A, vifilcon A, and tefilcon, were investigated in vitro using a radiolabel-tracer technique, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Binding of lysozyme to high-water-content, ionic contact lenses (etafilcon A and vifilcon A) was dominated by a penetration process. The extent of this penetration was a function of charge density of the lenses, so that there was a higher degree of penetration of lysozyme in etafilcon A than in vifilcon A lenses. In contrast, the binding of lysozyme to tefilcon lenses was a surface adsorption process. The adsorption and desorption kinetics showed similar trends to those found in human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption on lens surfaces. However, the extent of lysozyme adsorption on tefilcon is much higher than HSA adsorption, probably because of the self-association of lysozyme on the tefilcon lens surface. Furthermore, either penetration or adsorption of lysozyme involved reversible and irreversible processes and were both time dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Binding of lysozyme to hydrogel lenses involves surface adsorption or matrix penetration. These processes may be reversible or irreversible. The properties of the lens materials, such as charge density (ionicity) and porosity (water content) of the lenses, determine the type and rates of these processes.  (+info)

*  Portable water purification
... activated charcoal adsorption, chemical disinfection (e.g. chlorination, iodine, ozonation, etc.), ultraviolet purification ( ...
*  Polymer adsorption
Adsorption is the adhesion of ions or molecules onto the surface of another phase. Adsorption may occur via physisorption and ... From the enthalpy of adsorption, the entropy of adsorption can be calculated: Δ S a d = Δ H a d T , {\displaystyle \Delta S_{ad ... Protein adsorption influences the interactions that occur at the tissue-implant interface. Protein adsorption can lead to blood ... The Gibbs energy of adsorption, Δ G a d {\displaystyle \Delta G_{ad}} , can be determined from the adsorption equilibrium ...
*  Coordination polymer
Active surface guests can also be used contribute to adsorption. For example, the large-pore MOF-177, 11.8 Å in diameter, can ... To modify the pore size in order to achieve effective adsorption, nonvolatile guests are intercalated in the porous ... or polymers with a highly conjugated system in order to increase the surface area for H2 adsorption. Flexible porous ...
*  3-Pyridylnicotinamide
It can be used to synthesize polymers that have potentially useful gas adsorption properties. Zheng, X.; Salgia, S. R.; ... Cooperative Guest Adsorption Based on Square Grids Connected by Amide−Amide Hydrogen Bonds". Journal of the American Chemical ... Coordination Polymers That Show Selective Guest Adsorption Based on the Switching of Hydrogen-Bond Pairs of Amide Groups". ...
*  Adsorption refrigeration
Adsorption refrigerators are available in the marketplace and are mainly used to produce chilled water from waste heat. For ... Adsorption refrigeration is very similar to absorption refrigeration (note that the second letter is different.) The difference ... With these differences in mind, most of what is said in the absorption refrigerator article applies to adsorption refrigerators ... is that in adsorption refrigeration, the working fluid molecules adsorb onto the surface of a solid instead of dissolving into ...
*  Cryo-adsorption
Hydrogen tank Hydrogen economy Cryo-Adsorption Hydrogen cryo-adsorption; comparing low pressure and isosteric heats. ... Cryo-adsorption is a method used for hydrogen storage where gaseous hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures (150 - 60 K) is ...
*  Protein adsorption
The fundamental idea behind spontaneous protein adsorption is that adsorption occurs when more energy is released than gained ... Adsorption (not to be mistaken for absorption) is the accumulation and adhesion of molecules, atoms, ions, or larger particles ... The adsorption of larger biomolecules such as proteins is of high physiological relevance, and as such they adsorb with ... Taking this a step further, implantable devices can be coated with a bioactive material to encourage adsorption of specific ...
*  Supercritical adsorption
Competitive adsorption equilibria of CO2 and CH4 on a dry coal. Adsorption-Journal of the International Adsorption Society. 14 ... Supercritical Adsorption also referred to as the adsorption of supercritical fluids, is the adsorption at above-critical ... rendering new insights into the nature of supercritical adsorption. According to the adsorption behavior, the adsorption of ... A larger amount of sample results in considerable adsorption and usually provides a larger void space in the adsorption cell, ...
*  Selective adsorption
... is the effect when minima associated with bound-state resonances occur in specular intensity in atom- ... The selective adsorption binding energies can supply information on the gas-surface interaction potentials by yielding the ...
*  Vacuum swing adsorption
... (VSA) is a non-cryogenic gas separation technology. Using special solids, or adsorbents, VSA segregates ... VSA differs from cryogenic distillation techniques of gas separation as well as pressure swing adsorption (PSA) techniques ... March 2001 Adsorption Research, Inc., "Absorption is the Solid Solution,"[1] Ruthven, Douglas M., Principles of Absorption and ... Pressure Swing Adsorption. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 9780471188186. Santos, João C.; Magalhães, Fernão D.; and Mendes, Adélio, "Pressure ...
*  Random sequential adsorption
... (RSA) refers to a process where particles are randomly introduced in a system, and if they do not ... Adsorption Particle deposition Percolation threshold Rényi, A. (1958). "On a one-dimensional problem concerning random space ... The blocking process has been studied in detail in terms of the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. The simplest RSA ... doi:10.1016/0022-5193(80)90358-6. Brosilow, B. J.; R. M. Ziff; R. D. Vigil (1991). "Random sequential adsorption of parallel ...
*  Pressure swing adsorption
Adsorption Gas separation Hydrogen pinch Hydrogen purifier Industrial gas Oxygen concentrator Air dryer Vacuum swing adsorption ... Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure ... Pressure swing adsorption processes utilize the fact that under high pressure, gases tend to be attracted to solid surfaces, or ... Rapid pressure swing adsorption or RPSA is frequently used in portable oxygen concentrators. It allows a significant reduction ...
*  Langmuir adsorption model
The model assumes adsorption and desorption as being elementary processes, where the rate of adsorption rad and the rate of ... The Langmuir adsorption model explains adsorption by assuming an adsorbate behaves as an ideal gas at isothermal conditions. At ... The heat of adsorption ΔHad is defined as: [ A a d ] p A [ S ] = K e q A ∝ e − Δ G a d / R T = e Δ S a d / R e − Δ H a d / R T ... Assuming the Langmuir Adsorption isotherm still applied to the adsorbed layer, K e q A {\displaystyle K_{eq}^{A}} is expected ...
*  Continuous adsorption-regeneration
Polluted effluent is added into the bottom of the cell and mixed with the adsorbent in the adsorption zone 1.1 where adsorption ... As a result of its properties Nyex can undergo quick adsorption and fast electrochemical regeneration in a combined adsorption- ... Continuous adsorption-electrochemical regeneration encompasses the adsorption and regeneration steps, typically separated in ... The adsorption regeneration process is divided into three key elements which occur in different parts of the cell. All three ...
*  Expanded bed adsorption
"Expanded-bed adsorption", at Modern Drug Discovery Introduction to Expanded Bed Adsorption. ... After the adsorption step is complete, the fluidized bed is washed to flush out any remaining particulates. Elution of the ... Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a preparative chromatographic technique which makes processing of viscous and particulate ... Hence EBA can be modelled as frontal adsorption in a packed bed, rather than as a well-mixed, continuous-flow adsorber. ...
*  Sodium adsorption ratio
The Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is an irrigation water quality parameter used in the management of sodium-affected soils. It ... The formula for calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is: SAR = N a + 1 2 ( C a 2 + + M g 2 + ) {\displaystyle {\text{ ... Irrigation using water with high sodium adsorption ratio may require soil amendments to prevent long-term damage to the soil. ... The effect of potassium can be similarly treated by means of the potassium adsorption ratio (PAR). To take into account ...
*  Iron oxide adsorption
... is a water treatment process that is used to remove arsenic from drinking water. Arsenic is a common ... Iron oxide adsorption treatment for arsenic in groundwater is a commonly practiced removal process which involves the chemical ... HCl lowers pH, assuring arsenic adsorption, and the disassociated chlorine oxidizes iron in solution from Fe+2 to Fe+3, which ... which will bond with hydroxide for further adsorption. The filter media usually consists of anthracite, iron-manganese ...
*  Henry adsorption constant
The Henry adsorption constant is the constant appearing in the linear adsorption isotherm, which formally resembles Henry's law ... In the case of weak adsorption, for example, when the potential is close to the stepwise, it is logical to choose x ′ {\ ... This is the simplest adsorption isotherm in that the amount of the surface adsorbate is represented to be proportional to the ... It is typically taken as valid for low surface coverages, and the adsorption energy being independent of the coverage (lack of ...
*  Adsorption/Bio-oxidation process
... was invented in the mid-1970s by the professor of the RWTH Aachen University Botho Böhnke. It ... The adsorption/bio-oxidation process is a two-stage modification of the activated sludge process used for wastewater treatment ... Adsorption/bio-oxidation process is used for grey water treatment to increase sludge production. Sludge, produced in both ... The adsorption/bio-oxidation process is used for treatment of industrial wastewater with high COD, including wastewater from: ...
*  DNA separation by silica adsorption
The highest DNA adsorption efficiencies occur in the presence of buffer solution with a pH at or below the pKa of the surface ... DNA separation by silica adsorption is a method of DNA separation that is based on DNA molecules binding to silica surfaces in ... Driving Forces for DNA Adsorption to Silica in Perchlorate Solutions. J Colloid and Interface Science 181, 635-644 (1996). Tian ...
*  Protein adsorption in the food industry
Protein adsorption can also occur as a direct result of heating a mixture. Protein adsorption in milk processing is often used ... The common trend in all examples of protein adsorption in the food industry is that of adsorption to minerals adsorbed to the ... Protein adsorption refers to the adhesion of proteins to solid surfaces. This phenomenon is an important issue in the food ... Excessive adsorption, or protein fouling, can lead to health and sanitation issues, as the adsorbed protein is very difficult ...
*  Adsorption Method for Sampling of Dioxins and Furans
... (AMESA) is an automatic system for continuous monitoring of emissions of ...
*  Industrial enzymes
Enzyme adsorption onto carriers functions based on chemical and physical phenomena such as van der Waals forces, ionic ... Many immobilization techniques exist, such as adsorption, covalent binding, affinity, and entrapment. Ideal immobilization ... Jesionowski, Teofil; Zdarta, Jakub; Krajewska, Barbara (2014-08-01). "Enzyme immobilization by adsorption: a review". ... and high adsorption capacity. Enzymes typically constitute a significant operational cost for industrial processes, and in many ...
*  Chromatography
Die Adsorption." (Physical-chemical studies of chlorophyll. Adsorption.) Berichte der Deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft, vol. ... In expanded bed adsorption, a fluidized bed is used, rather than a solid phase made by a packed bed. This allows omission of ... Expanded-bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography is a convenient and effective technique for the capture of proteins directly from ... When we make one solvent immobile (by adsorption on a solid support matrix) and another mobile it results in most common ...
*  Mikhail Tsvet
He used liquid-adsorption column chromatography with calcium carbonate as adsorbent and petrol ether/ethanol mixtures as eluent ... It's still not known whether in the case of Tsvet's adsorption analysis ([which functions] on a small scale), this change of ... Adsorption.), Berichte der Deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft, 24 : 316-323. On page 322, Tsvet coins the term "chromatography ... Adsorption analysis and chromatographic method. Application to the chemistry of chlorophyll.), Berichte der Deutschen ...
Adsorption Properties of Montmorillonite and Synthetic Saponite as Packing Materials in Liquid-Column Chromatography  Adsorption Properties of Montmorillonite and Synthetic Saponite as Packing Materials in Liquid-Column Chromatography
Abstract: The adsorption of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)32+) by two kinds of colloidally dispersed clays, ... Adsorption Properties of Montmorillonite and Synthetic Saponite as Packing Materials in Liquid-Column Chromatography. Yuji ... Key Words: Adsorption • Electronic absorption • Liquid-column chromatography • Montmorillonite • Ruthenium phenanthroline • ... The electronic spectrum measurements suggested that the electronic states of the complex were more perturbed on adsorption by ...
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iRepository at Perpustakaan UniMAP: Adsorption of heavy metals solution on commercial activated carbon adsorbent: Batch studies  iRepository at Perpustakaan UniMAP: Adsorption of heavy metals solution on commercial activated carbon adsorbent: Batch studies
The kinetic data for the adsorption process obeyed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting that the adsorption process ... The adsorption of lead onto commercial activated carbon has been found to depend on adsorbent dose, initial concentration and ... Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 23.81 mg of Pb/ ... The kinetic processes of Pb2+ adsorption on commercial activated carbon were described by applying pseudo-first-order and ...
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First Aid Uses for Charcoal  First Aid Uses for Charcoal
Maximum Rate Of Adsorption -. Charcoal reaches its maximal rate of adsorption extremely fast, within one minute. Thus, in ... And that is the case: there is approximately a 50 percent reduction in effectiveness of adsorption with charcoal due to stomach ... One caution here is that charcoal adsorption will be hindered by digestive enzymes, amino acids, and other nutrients from the ...
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Adsorption - Wikipedia  Adsorption - Wikipedia
Polymer adsorption[edit]. Main article: polymer adsorption. Adsorption of molecules onto polymer surfaces is central to a ... Portal site mediated adsorption[edit]. Portal site mediated adsorption is a model for site-selective activated gas adsorption ... Polymers may also be adsorbed to surfaces through polyelectrolyte adsorption. Adsorption in viruses[edit]. Adsorption is the ... Adsorption enthalpy[edit]. Adsorption constants are equilibrium constants, therefore they obey the van 't Hoff equation: (. ∂. ...
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Carbon adsorption | chemistry |  Carbon adsorption | chemistry |
... or colours is adsorption by activated carbon. Adsorption is the capacity of a solid particle to attract molecules to its ... Carbon adsorption: An effective method for removing dissolved organic substances that cause tastes, odours, ... Other articles where Carbon adsorption is discussed: water supply system: ... Adsorption is the capacity of a solid particle to attract molecules to its surface. Powdered carbon mixed with water can adsorb ...
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Methanol Adsorption on Graphene  Methanol Adsorption on Graphene
We determine the adsorption energy per adsorbate, , as the difference in total energies of the full system and each fragment ... Included is the adsorption energy , the distance of the methanol O atom from graphene, , the adsorption configuration (C-O axis ... By use of the first-principles vdW-DF method, we calculate adsorption energies and determine adsorption geometries of methanol ... and thus the adsorption properties of methanol affect the adsorption of the other molecule. Gaining access to detailed ...
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Methanol Adsorption on Graphene  Methanol Adsorption on Graphene
Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis ... The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol ... Methanol Adsorption on Graphene. Elsebeth Schröder Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, ... The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene is studied at various coverages. ...
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Adsorption - Wikipedia  Adsorption - Wikipedia
Polymer adsorptionEdit. Main article: polymer adsorption. Adsorption of molecules onto polymer surfaces is central to a number ... Portal site mediated adsorptionEdit. Portal site mediated adsorption is a model for site-selective activated gas adsorption in ... Adsorption enthalpyEdit. Adsorption constants are equilibrium constants, therefore they obey the van 't Hoff equation: (. ∂. ln ... as the fraction of the adsorption sites occupied, in the equilibrium we have: K. =. k. k. −. 1. =. θ. (. 1. −. θ. ). P. ,. {\ ...
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Warm Triple Adsorption  Warm Triple Adsorption
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ...
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Immune adsorption definition |  Immune adsorption definition |
Definition of immune adsorption. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions ...
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Adsorption - New World Encyclopedia  Adsorption - New World Encyclopedia
Portal site mediated adsorption. Portal site mediated adsorption is a model for site-selective activated gas adsorption in ... Adsorption of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, the first step is adsorption of the viral particle (virion) on the cell ... Langmuir suggested that adsorption takes place through this mechanism: , where A is a gas molecule and S is an adsorption site ... Isotherms: Quantification of adsorption. Adsorption may be described quantitatively by the use of isotherms. An isotherm shows ...
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Adsorption Properties of Thiocontaining Schungite | SpringerLink  Adsorption Properties of Thiocontaining Schungite | SpringerLink
The Ea values of these compounds have appeared to be several times lower than the heats of their adsorption on carbon black ... Standard Test Method for Carbon Black-Iodine Adsorption Number. Intr. 1998. PA, USA: ASTM Int., 2013.Google Scholar ... It has been shown that sulfur present in schungite has no effect on the results of determining its adsorption activity and does ... The influence of these compounds on the adsorption activity of schungite with respect to iodine has been investigated. ...
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Adsorbent, adsorption column and apparatus for pressure swing adsorption separation. February, 2002. Tatsumi et al. ... Next Patent: ADSORPTION COMPOSITION AND PROCESS FOR REMOVING CO FROM MATERIAL STREAMS ...
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Adsorption Modeling with ACM: ISS CDRA Simulation  Adsorption Modeling with ACM: ISS CDRA Simulation
... 2002-01-2345. A dynamic simulation of the ISS CDRA hardware was created using ... Citation: Anderson, M. and Jeng, F., "Adsorption Modeling with ACM: ISS CDRA Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2345, ...
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Jl 3616371641 | Adsorption | Polarization (Waves)  Jl 3616371641 | Adsorption | Polarization (Waves)
The adsorption of n-hexane in a silicalite-1 film developed from seeds and found that the saturation capacity was in superior ... A thorough facts of the adsorption is basic in all these applications. In the present work, two systems that have been widely ... Several groups have studied the n-hexane/MFI system, and an inflection in the adsorption isotherm has been reported at a ... 0.7 mmol/g, corresponding to about half the saturation loading [1,2]. The inflection was credited to adsorption on dissimilar ...
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activated carbon adsorption  News  | Environmental XPRT  activated carbon adsorption News | Environmental XPRT
Get the latest activated carbon adsorption news , the world's largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... activated carbon adsorption News. Related terms for "activated carbon adsorption ": activated carbon news , carbon adsorption ... it has an enormous surface area of miscroscopic pores which boast excellent adsorption capabilities. These adsorption ... Activated Carbon Adsorption System tackles MIB & Geosmin UMI-2000 worked with the Engineering firms from grant application for ...
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Sour pressure swing adsorption process (Patent) | DOepatents  Sour pressure swing adsorption process (Patent) | DOepatents
Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption Patent Wegeng, Robert S. ; Rassat, Scot D. ... Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption Patent Wegeng, Robert S. ; Rassat, Scot ... Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects ... Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects ...
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Adsorption of Phosphonylated Polyelectrolytes on Hydroxyapatite | SpringerLink  Adsorption of Phosphonylated Polyelectrolytes on Hydroxyapatite | SpringerLink
The adsorption of phosphonylated polyphenylene oxide onto hydroxyapatite was investigated as a basis for biomedical ... Rawls H.R., Cabasso I. (1984) Adsorption of Phosphonylated Polyelectrolytes on Hydroxyapatite. In: Misra D.N. (eds) Adsorption ... M. Kresak, E.C. Moreno, R.T. Zahradnik and D.I. Hay, Adsorption of amino acids onto hydroxyapatite, J. Colloid Interface Sci. ... A.C. Juriaanse, M. Booij, J. Arends and J.J. ten Bosch, The adsorption in vitro of purified salivary proteins on bovine dental ...
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ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Adsorption Study  ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Adsorption Study
The H2S adsorption characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles has also been assayed. ... Prasad, K. and K. Jha, A. (2009) ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Adsorption Study. Natural Science, 1, 129-135. doi: 10.4236/ ... Haimour, N., El-Bishtawi, R. and Ail-Wahbi, A. (2005) Equilibrium adsorption of hydrogen sulfide onto CuO and ZnO. Desalination ...
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  • Calgon Carbon Corporation (CCC: NYSE) announced it has been awarded a three-year contract by a petroleum refining company in the Midwest to supply 30 carbon adsorption systems and reactivation services to control vapor emissions. (
  • This book provides a selected overview of some of the most interesting scientific results regarding the outstanding properties of carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption and of interest both for basic research and technological applications. (
  • Pharmaceutical industry applications, which use adsorption as a means to prolong neurological exposure to specific drugs or parts thereof, [ citation needed ] are lesser known. (
  • Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. (
  • Gas phase contaminant removal processes based on adsorption are used for: indoor air cleaning, cabin air purification, odor removal, personal protective equipment (respirators impregnated clothing), and various air sampling devices. (
  • For this we determine basic information about adsorbed methanol on graphene, such as the optimal orientation the interaction (adsorption) energy at various coverages and distances from graphene. (
  • The adsorption energies and orientation of methanol on graphene are determined from first-principles density functional calculations. (
  • The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). (
  • Previously, the adsorption energies of methanol from graphene or flakes of graphene were calculated [ 7 ] by the semiempirical theory method DFT-D [ 8 ]. (
  • The adsorption performances are some times modified drastically when a second component is adsorbed, interfering with the initial vapor or gas. (
  • if the adsorption capacity for the individual vapor or gas of a mixture at low concentration is known, what would be its adsorption capacity for the same component when present in a binary mixture of various proportion? (
  • The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. (
  • The initial work was designed to learn the relative magnitude and flexibility of adsorption due to the following factors: (1) The atomic structure of the mineral grain. (
  • Chemical pretreatment to remove noncrystalline and crystalline oxide contaminants affected the magnitude of CrO 4 2- adsorption, but not the pH range over which CrO 4 2- adsorbed. (
  • These results can be explained by an adsorption mechanism that is controlled by the degree of charge neutralization along the polymer chain. (
  • The influence of these compounds on the adsorption activity of schungite with respect to iodine has been investigated. (
  • The E a values of these compounds have appeared to be several times lower than the heats of their adsorption on carbon black calculated by the molecular-statistical method. (
  • Most adsorption models can be applied successfully to explain single component adsorption at low concentrations. (
  • Chromate adsorption at different sorbate and sorbent concentrations increased below the pH zpc for the kaolinite edge, suggesting the formation of weak surface complexes. (
  • Adsorption is present in many natural, physical, biological and chemical systems and is widely used in industrial applications such as heterogeneous catalysts , activated charcoal , capturing and using waste heat to provide cold water for air conditioning and other process requirements ( adsorption chillers ), synthetic resins , increasing storage capacity of carbide-derived carbons and water purification . (
  • Many research groups are now producing or using such materials for gas adsorption, storage, purification, and sensing. (
  • In this paper, we calculate by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) the adsorption energy of methanol on graphite at various degrees of coverage (less than one molecular monolayer) and we determine the distance from and the optimal angle of the methanol molecule C-O axis with the plane of graphene. (
  • These data are then available as input to and/or for fine-tuning of molecular dynamics simulations of the methanol adsorption process. (
  • The adsorption of both chromate and sulfate can be described in terms of a site-binding model of the kaolinite edge, in which the edge is viewed as composite layers of Al and Si oxide. (
  • In the study [ 7 ] the adsorption of methanol on to very small flakes of graphene-benzene and coronene-was also calculated by the higher-accuracy correlation method second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). (
  • Prasad, K. and K. Jha, A. (2009) ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Adsorption Study. (
  • Intrachain charge repulsion results in an extended random-coil conformation and adsorption in a thin layer with binding at many polymer sites. (
  • A collapsed conformation occupies only a relatively few binding sites and thus adsorption results in the formation of a thick layer. (
  • The inflection was credited to adsorption on dissimilar sites by Smit and Maesen , who studied the system using Monte Carlo simulations. (
  • Adsorption increased with decreasing pH because of protonation of chromate and/or variable charge sites on kaolinite. (
  • From a consideration of this order and of the absolute amount of adsorption in each case we find very little reason to place much credence in Schulze's law. (