An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.

Luteinization and proteolysis in ovarian follicles of Meishan and Large White gilts during the preovulatory period. (1/164)

This experiment was conducted to determine why follicles luteinize faster in the Meishan breed than in the Large White breed of pig. Follicles were recovered during the late follicular phase from ovaries of both breeds before and after administration of hCG given to mimic the LH surge. First, the patterns of cholesterol transporters (high and low density lipoproteins: HDL and LDL) were compared. Cholesterol transporters detected in follicular fluid consisted of HDL only. Similar amounts of Apolipoprotein A-I were found in all samples. There was no obvious breed effect on minor lipoproteins found in the HDL-rich fraction, and this pattern was altered similarly by hCG in the two breeds. The LDL-rich samples of serum from both breeds contained similar amounts of protein. Second, three steroidogenic enzymes, adrenodoxin, 17 alpha-hydroxylase-lyase (P450(17) alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis on sections of the two largest follicles. Before hCG treatment, theca interna cells demonstrated immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin (strong), P450(17) alpha and 3 beta-HSD (very strong), whereas granulosa cells displayed immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin only. After hCG treatment, the localization of the enzymes was unchanged but the staining intensity of adrenodoxin on granulosa cells and 3 beta-HSD on theca cells increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breed effects were detected for the amounts of adrenodoxin in theca cells (Meishan > Large White; P < 0.05) and of 17 alpha-hydroxylase (Large White > Meishan, P < 0.01). Breed x treatment interactions were never detected. Finally, gelatinases, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were visualized by direct or reverse zymography or western blotting. Whatever the stage relative to LH administration, follicular fluid from Large White gilts contained more TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). No breed effect was detected for the amounts of gelatinases and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. However, for these parameters, a significant breed x time interaction was obvious, as the Meishan follicles had a greater response to hCG (P < 0.01). Since proteolysis plays a key role in the bioavailability of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, which have the ability to alter gonadotrophin-induced progesterone production in pigs, the differences observed in its control in the present study may explain, at least in part, the different patterns of luteinization observed in Meishan and Large White follicles.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of vesicle-reconstituted human cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) differences in functioning of the mitochondrial electron-transfer chain using human and bovine adrenodoxin and activation by cardiolipin. (2/164)

The recently reported heterologous expression and purification of both human cytochrome P450SCC and adrenodoxin [Woods, S.T., Sadleir, J., Downs, T., Triantopoulos, T., Haedlam, M.J. & Tuckey, R.C. (1998) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 353, 109-115] has enabled us to perform studies with the membrane-reconstituted human enzymes to better understand the side-chain cleavage reaction in humans. Human P450SCC was successfully reconstituted into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with and without cardiolipin and its enzymatic properties characterized in the membrane-bound state. Enhancement of the P450SCC activity and significant activation by cardiolipin were observed when human adrenodoxin instead of bovine adrenodoxin was used as electron donor. In the absence of cardiolipin, Km for cholesterol was decreased twice in the case of human adrenodoxin indicating enhanced cholesterol binding. On the other hand, in the presence of cardiolipin in the membrane both Km and V for cholesterol were decreased with human adrenodoxin as electron donor. Kinetic analysis of the interaction between human P450SCC and its redox partners provided evidence for enhanced binding of the human electron donor to human P450SCC indicated by both an increased V and decreased Kd for human adrenodoxin compared with the values with bovine adrenodoxin. Because no similar effects were observed in Tween 20 micelles, these results suggest that the phospholipid membrane may play an important role in the interaction of human adrenodoxin with human P450SCC.  (+info)

Interaction of CYP11B1 (cytochrome P-45011 beta) with CYP11A1 (cytochrome P-450scc) in COS-1 cells. (3/164)

The interactions of CYP11B1 (cytochrome P-45011beta), CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450aldo) and CYP11A1 (cytochrome P-450scc) were investigated by cotransfection of their cDNA into COS-1 cells. The effect of CYP11A1 on CYP11B isozymes was examined by studying the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone. It was shown that when human or bovine CYP11B1 and CYP11A1 were cotransfected they competed for the reducing equivalents from the limiting source contained in COS-1 cells; this resulted in a decrease of the CYP11B activities without changes in the product formation patterns. The competition of human CYP11A1 with human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 could be diminished with excess expression of bovine adrenodoxin. However, the coexpression of bovine CYP11B1 and CYP11A1 in the presence of adrenodoxin resulted in a stimulation of 11beta-hydroxylation activity of CYP11B1 and in a decrease of the 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone formation. These results suggest that the interactions of CYP11A1 with CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 do not have an identical regulatory function in human and in bovine adrenal tissue.  (+info)

Modulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by adrenodoxin mutants with different electron transport efficiencies. (4/164)

Aldosterone biosynthesis is highly regulated on different levels by hormones, potassium, lipid composition of the membrane and the molecular structure of its gene. Here, the influence of the electron transport efficiency from adrenodoxin (Adx) to CYP11B1 on the activities of bovine CYP11B1 has been investigated using a liposomal reconstitution system with truncated mutants of Adx. It could be clearly demonstrated that Adx mutants Adx 4-114 and Adx 4-108, possessing enhanced electron transfer abilities, produce increases in corticosterone and aldosterone biosynthesis. Based on the Vmax values of corticosterone and aldosterone formation, Adx 4-108 and Adx 4-114 enhance corticosterone synthesis 1.3-fold and aldosterone formation threefold and twofold, respectively. The production of 18-hydroxycorticosterone was changed only slightly in these Adx mutants. The effect of Adx 1-108 on the product patterns of bovine CYP11B1, human CYP11B1 and human CYP11B2 was confirmed in COS-1 cells by cotransfection of CYP11B- and Adx-containing expression vectors. It could be shown that Adx 1-108 enhances the formation of aldosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and by human CYP11B2, and stimulates the production of corticosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 also.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase coexpression with adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase in Escherichia coli. (5/164)

We have cloned human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase cDNAs from normal subjects and patients with pseudovitamin D-deficient rickets (PDDR), and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Kinetic analysis of normal 1alpha-hydroxylase in the reconstituted system revealed that Km values for 25(OH)D3 and (24R), 25(OH)2D3 were 2.7 and 1.1 microM, respectively. The lower Km value and higher Vmax/Km value for (24R),25(OH)2D3 indicated that it is a better substrate than 25(OH)D3 for 1alpha-hydroxylase. These results are quite similar to those of mouse 1alpha-hydroxylase. To establish a highly sensitive in vivo system, 1alpha-hydroxylase, adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase were coexpressed in E. coli cells. The recombinant E. coli cells showed remarkably high 1alpha-hydroxylase activity, suggesting that the electrons were efficiently transferred from NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase through adrenodoxin to 1alpha-hydroxylase in E. coli cells. Using this system, the activities of four mutants of 1alpha-hydroxylase, R107H, G125E, R335P and P382S, derived from patients with PDDR were examined. Although no significant reduction in expression of these mutants was observed, none showed detectable activity. These results strongly suggest that the mutations found in the patients with PDDR completely abolished 1alpha-hydroxylase activity by replacement of one amino acid residue.  (+info)

A mitochondrial ferredoxin is essential for biogenesis of cellular iron-sulfur proteins. (6/164)

Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster-containing proteins catalyze a number of electron transfer and metabolic reactions. The components and molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of the Fe/S clusters have been identified only partially. In eukaryotes, mitochondria have been proposed to execute a crucial task in the generation of intramitochondrial and extramitochondrial Fe/S proteins. Herein, we identify the essential ferredoxin Yah1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria as a central component of the Fe/S protein biosynthesis machinery. Depletion of Yah1p by regulated gene expression resulted in a 30-fold accumulation of iron within mitochondria, similar to what has been reported for other components involved in Fe/S protein biogenesis. Yah1p was shown to be required for the assembly of Fe/S proteins both inside mitochondria and in the cytosol. Apparently, at least one of the steps of Fe/S cluster biogenesis within mitochondria requires reduction by ferredoxin. Our findings lend support to the idea of a primary function of mitochondria in the biosynthesis of Fe/S proteins outside the organelle. To our knowledge, Yah1p is the first member of the ferredoxin family for which a function in Fe/S cluster formation has been established. A similar role may be predicted for the bacterial homologs that are encoded within iron-sulfur cluster assembly (isc) operons of prokaryotes.  (+info)

Construction and characterization of a catalytic fusion protein system: P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin. (7/164)

Cortisol is an important intermediate for the production of steroidal drugs and can only be synthesized chemically by rather complicated multi-step procedures. The most critical step is the 11beta-hydroxylation of 11-deoxycortisol, which is catalyzed by a mitochondrial enzyme, P-450(11beta). Various fusion constructs of P-450(11beta) with its electron transfer components, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, were produced by cDNA manipulation and were successfully expressed in COS-1 cells from which the hydroxylation activities were assayed. It was demonstrated that the fusion protein required both adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin for its activity and was not able to receive electrons from an external source. The fusion protein with all three components had less activity than P-450(11beta) alone, receiving electrons from coexpressed or internal electron transfer components. The activities of the fusion proteins were determined mainly by the fusion sequence. The fusion protein with a sequence of P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin was more active than that of P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin-adrenodoxin reductase, 1.5- and 3-fold for bovine and human P-450(11beta), respectively. Modification of the linker region by extending the size of the linker with various peptide sequences in the bovine P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin fusion protein indicated that the linker did not have significant effect on the P-450 activity. Taken together, the fusion protein obtained here can serve as a model for the investigation of electron transfer in P-450 systems and is of potential importance for biotechnological steroid production.  (+info)

Dual metabolic pathway of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 catalyzed by human CYP24. (8/164)

Human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its enzymatic and spectral properties were revealed. The reconstituted system containing the membrane fraction prepared from recombinant E. coli cells, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase was examined for the metabolism of 25(OH)D3, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and their related compounds. Human CYP24 demonstrated a remarkable metabolism consisting of both C-23 and C-24 hydroxylation pathways towards both 25(OH)D3 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, whereas rat CYP24 showed almost no C-23 hydroxylation pathway [Sakaki, T. Sawada, N. Nonaka, Y. Ohyama, Y. & Inouye, K. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 262, 43-48]. HPLC analysis and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that human CYP24 catalyzed all the steps of the C-23 hydroxylation pathway from 25(OH)D3 via 23S, 25(OH)2D3, 23S,25,26(OH)3D3 and 25(OH)D3-26,23-lactol to 25(OH)D3-26, 23-lactone in addition to the C-24 hydroxylation pathway from 25(OH)D3 via 24R,25(OH)2D3, 24-oxo-25(OH)D3, 24-oxo-23S,25(OH)2D3 to 24,25,26,27-tetranor-23(OH)D3. On 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 metabolism, similar results were observed. These results strongly suggest that the single enzyme human CYP24 is greatly responsible for the metabolism of both 25(OH)D3 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. We also succeeded in the coexpression of CYP24, adrenodoxin and NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase in E. coli. Addition of 25(OH)D3 to the recombinant E. coli cell culture yielded most of the metabolites in both the C-23 and C-24 hydroxylation pathways. Thus, the E. coli expression system for human CYP24 appears quite useful in predicting the metabolism of vitamin D analogs used as drugs.  (+info)

There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Adrenodoxin protein (ab87670). Please download our general protocols booklet
Polycistronic expression of mitochondrial steroidogenic p450scc system in the hek293t cell line / V. Efimova, L. Isaeva, A. Labudina et al. // Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. - 2019. - Vol. 120, no. 3. - P. 3124-3136. Abstract The cholesterol hydroxylase/lyase (CHL) system, which consists of cytochrome P450scc, adrenodoxin (Adx) and adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), initiates mammalian steroidogenesis, converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. The FMDV 2A-based method allows for the expression of multiple proteins from a single transcript. We developed a 2A-based multicistronic system for the co-expression of three bovine CHL system proteins as the self-processing polyprotein pCoxIV-P450scc-2A-Adx-2A-AdR-GFP (pCoxIV-CHL-GFP), with a cleavable N-terminal mitochondrial targeting presequence. HEK293-T cells transfected with plasmid, containing cDNA for pCoxIV-CHL-GFP, efficiently performed the expression of P450scc-2A, which was localized in mitochondria, and Adx-2A, AdR-GFP and the fusion protein ...
Adrenodoxin, Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase, Hydrogen Bonding, Kinetics, Molecular Weight, Protein Conformation, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Ultracentrifugation, ...
1E1M: Crystal Structures of Adrenodoxin Reductase in Complex with Nadp+ and Nadph Suggesting a Mechanism for the Electron Transfer of an Enzyme Family
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This gene encodes a small iron-sulfur protein that transfers electrons from NADPH through ferredoxin reductase to mitochondrial cytochrome P450, involved in steroid, vitamin D, and bile acid metabolism. Pseudogenes of this functional gene are found on chromosomes 20 and 21. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Summary The data concerning the structure of the mitochondrial desmolase complex, which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone has been described. The desmolase contains: NADPH dependent adrenodoxin reductase (AdxR), soluble adrenodoxin (Adx) and cytochrom P450 of the CYP 11 gene family. The crystal structure of the desmolase components, as well as the electron transportmechanism conducted by this complex, were recently established; the mechanisms which regulate the desmolase activity are fragmentally recognized, however, tissue specific regulatory systems exist. The main factor limiting desmolase activity, recently discovered, is the delivery of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. This system depends on a permanent synthesis of cholesterol transporting protein StAR (in adrenals) or proteins with a similar function in other tissues (eg. placenta ...
The first step of the synthesis of cardiac glycosides is the cleavage of the side-chain of the sterol serving as the substrate of the reaction. Radio-labelled cholesterol is metabolised in Digitalis-plants to pregnenolone and further to cardiac glycosides. Nothing is known of the mechanism of side-chain cleavage in the plant. The side-chain cleavage is the first step of the synthesis of sex hormones, mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in vertebrates. The components of these system of side-chain cleavage are well known. It consists of adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin and the side-chain cleaving enzyme CYP11A1. Aim of the work presented here was to gain the sequence of the side-chain cleaving enzyme of Digitalis lanata by use of bovine adrenodoxin as a bait in a two-hybrid screening. The two-hybrid cDNA library that was to be used was generated. Homology search of the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana with the sequence of bovine adrenodoxin resulted in the finding of two sequences of ...
A heme-thiolate protein (cytochrome P-450). The reaction proceeds in three stages, with two hydroxylations at C-22 and C-20 preceding scission of the side-chain between carbons 20 and 22. The initial source of the electrons is NADPH, which transfers the electrons to the adrenodoxin via EC, adrenodoxin-NADP+ reductase ...
Adrenodoxin, Escherichia Coli, Kinetics, Molecular Cloning, Point Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Protein Binding, Recombinant Proteins, Structure-Activity ...
Residues 10-304 span seven regions of similarity to blocks BL00573 A-E, which encompass pyridine nucleotide disulphide oxidoreductases class-II proteins. Residues 6-174 span several regions of similarity to blocks for aromatic-ring hydrolases, pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases class-I, bacterial-type phytoene dehydrogenases, adrenodoxin reductase family signatures, FMO signatures, fumarate reductase/succinate dehydrogenase FAD-binding site proteins, flavin-containing amine oxidase signatures ...
Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I...
S cerevisiae YAH1 protein: homologous to adrenodoxin; isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; amino acid sequence in first source
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Pregnenolone is biochemically, the mother hormone, made directly from cholesterol within the mitochondria of the adrenal glands and, in small part, of the nervous system, with the help of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc. Pregnenolone being a precursor to various hormones, such as progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens, can help the body to maintain normal hormone levels, which in turn help numerous body functions. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 capsule Servings Per Container 100 Amount Per Serving Pregnenolone 100 mg Dosage and Use Take one capsule daily preferably early in the day on an empty stomach, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner. Warning Keep out of reach of childern. Do not exceed recommended dose. Do not purchase if outer seal is broken or damaged. If you have a bad reaction to product discontinue use immediately. When using nutritional supplements, please inform your physician if you are undergoing treatment
Unscramble ferredoxins, Unscramble letters ferredoxins, Point value for ferredoxins, Word Decoder for ferredoxins, Word generator using the letters ferredoxins, Word Solver ferredoxins, Possible Scrabble words with ferredoxins, Anagram of ferredoxins
MSF兔多克隆抗体(ab114099)可与人样本反应并经IP, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in human granulosa cells. AU - Kim, Joung W.. AU - Havelock, Jon C.. AU - Carr, Bruce R.. AU - Attia, George R.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - After ovulation, there is a shift in ovarian steroidogenesis from an estrogen-producing ovarian follicle to a progesterone-producing corpus luteum. The first step in human ovarian steroidogenesis is catalyzed by cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) enzyme. Steroidogenic factor-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates several steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A1. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is another orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed in the human ovary. After ovulation there is a down-regulation in steroidogenic factor-1, which is associated with an up-regulation of LRH-1 expression. These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. AU - Ohashi, Masao. AU - Simpson, Evan R.. AU - Kramer, Robert E.. AU - Carr, Bruce R.. N1 - Funding Information: 1 Supported, in part, by USPHS Grants HD13234 and HD11149. Supported, in part, by a Grant-in-Aid from the Chilton Foundation. Abbreviations used: BAC, bovine adrenocortical cells; ACTH, corticotropin; LDL, low-density lipo-. PY - 1982/4/15. Y1 - 1982/4/15. N2 - Bovine adrenocortical cells in monolayer culture produce cortisol and respond to corticotropin (ACTH) by an increase in cortisol secretion. Several lines of evidence are indicative that much of the cholesterol that serves as precursor for steroid hormone biosynthesis by these cells is derived from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that is taken up endocytotically by means of specific receptors localized in bovine adrenocortical plasma membranes. ACTH stimulated this process concomitant with an increase in steroid ...
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17, EC 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and the adrenal corticosteroids. The first, rate-limiting and hormonally regulated step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is accomplished by the cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, catalyzed by a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme termed P450scc where scc designates Side Chain Cleavage. All steroid hormones are made from the pregnenolone produced by P450scc; thus, the presence or absence of each of the activities of CYP17 directs this pregnenolone towards its final metabolic pathway. While all cytochrome P450 enzymes can catalyze multiple reactions on a single active site, CYP17 is the only one described to date in which ...
Adrenavive II, Bovine Adrenal Cortex 125mg (90 Capsules) Adrenavive II contains 125mg of freeze-dried Bovine Adrenal Cortex per capsule, from Procepts proprietary farm sources in Europe. Our grass-fed cattle are reared as nature intended, without the use of growth-promoting hormones or antibiotics. For most of the year they are free to range on natural grass pastures and whilst protected indoors during the winter months, they are fed naturally fermented grass (silage). The whole adrenal glands are collected by EU approved abattoirs, before careful removal of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is then freeze-dried and processed at low temperatures to carefully preserve its raw nutritional value. Pure, Simple, Quality Nutrition Free-range bovine adrenal cortex Grass fed on natural pastures Reared without the use of growth promoting hormones or antibiotics No solvent, enzymatic or heat-based removal of fats Nothing is removed. Just raw, premium quality, adrenal cortex, processed at
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by mutations in cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 and old name, SCC). Errors in cholesterol side chain cleavage by the mitochondrial resident CYP11A1 results in an inadequate amount of pregnenolone production. This study was performed to evaluate the cause of salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure in a pediatric patient whose mother had a history of two previous stillbirths and loss of another baby within a week of birth. CAH can appear in any population in any region of the world. The study was conducted at Memorial University Medical Center and Mercer University School of Medicine. The patient was admitted to Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic due to salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. The patient had CAH, an autosomal recessive disease, due to a novel mutation in exon 5 of the CYP11A1 gene, which generated a truncated protein of 286 amino acids compared with wild-type protein that has 521 amino acids (W286X). ...
proteopedia link. proteopedia link. Israel Hanukoglu, Ph.D. Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel Fields of expertise: Epithelial sodium channel, steroidogenic enzymes, keratin and intermediate filament structure, mitochondrial cytochromes P450 Personal web site: ...
Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
The biosynthesis of steroid hormones is an integral component of insect growth, development and reproduction. Although there is an abundance of biochemical data implicating both microsomal and mitochondrial cytochrome P450s in steroid metabolism, molecular genetic information on mitochondrial P450s is almost entirely limited to vertebrate sequences. In the current study, a degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer was targeted to the highly conserved region of P450 genes that encodes the heme-binding decapeptide. Using a 5 rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, seven novel cytochrome P450 genes were isolated from Drosophila acanthoptera, including one sequence (CYP12B1) with high regional homology to vertebrate mitochondrial P450s. Sequence analysis of the conceptual translation of the full length gene, obtained by 5RACE, revealed an amphipathic NH2-terminus rich in basic and hydrophilic amino acids, a characteristic feature of mitochondrial P450s that distinguishes them ...
Malaviya et al.[10] present a mechanism for the biotransformation of β-sitosterol to AD by the Mycobacterium. The side chain cleavage, which is the main step, requires the regeneration of cofactors such as NAD+ and FAD. This process starts by hydroxylating the C27, which is then oxidized to a carbonyl group. Then the C28 is carboxylated.[10] The numbering convention can be seen in Figure 6. The presence of sitosterol helps to induce the two enzymatic reactions. The first of these is catalyzed by three enzymes, while the second is dependent on the dissolved CO2 concentration. In Mycobacterium, side chain cleavage of β-sitosterol can be induced by propionate or by propinyl-SCoA. Dissolved CO2 (1%) affects the yield of AD positively, possibly because excess aeration changes the way the cell metabolizes the substrate. Through the cleavage of one sitosterol, 3 molecules of propionyl-SCoA, 3 molecules of FADH2 , 3 molecules of NADH, and one molecule of acetic acid were created. These products can ...
1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC-HCl or EDAC-HCl) is a zero-length crosslinker (CAS # 25952-53-8) used to conjugate carboxyl functional groups to primary amines as found in peptides and proteins.
MSF Paediatric Days The MSF Paediatric Days is an event for paediatric field staff, policy makers and academia to exchange ideas, align efforts, inspire and share frontline research to advance urgent paediatric issues of direct concern for the humanitarian field.. GO TO SITE MSF Paediatric Days ...
Evaluation reports are either openly accessible via download, or accessible via MSFs internal Sharepoint, which is mainly due to the sensitive nature of the operational contexts and resulting content. If you are an association member in MSF, reports are made available on various associate platforms such as
Evaluation reports are either openly accessible via download, or accessible via MSFs internal Sharepoint, which is mainly due to the sensitive nature of the operational contexts and resulting content. If you are an association member in MSF, reports are made available on various associate platforms such as
Evaluation reports are either openly accessible via download, or accessible via MSFs internal Sharepoint, which is mainly due to the sensitive nature of the operational contexts and resulting content. If you are an association member in MSF, reports are made available on various associate platforms such as
Evaluation reports are either openly accessible via download, or accessible via MSFs internal Sharepoint, which is mainly due to the sensitive nature of the operational contexts and resulting content. If you are an association member in MSF, reports are made available on various associate platforms such as
S.; Hoshita, N.; Okuda, K.: Enzymatic characteristics of CO-sen - sitive 26-hydroxylase system for 5b-cholestane-3a,7a,12a-triol in rat-liver mitochondria and its intramitochondrial localization.. Recently Uploaded Slideshows. ...
In a new report, No time to lose, MSF reveals how the AIDS deaths toll is stagnating due to a lack of basic testing at a community level.
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0081]The term self-antigen refers to an immunogenic peptide derived from a protein of said individual. It may be, by way of example, an auto-antigen of the following non-limiting list: acetylcholine receptor, actin, adenin nucleotide translocator, β-adrenoreceptor, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, asioaloglycoprotein receptor, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPi), calcium sensing receptor, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, collagen type IV Oy-chain, cytochrome P450 2D6, desmin, desmoglein-1, desmoglein-3, F-actin, GM-gangliosides, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate receptor, H/K ATPase, 17-[alpha]-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, IA-2 (ICAS 12), insulin, insulin receptor, intrinsic factor type 1, leucocyte function antigen 1, myelin associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, myosin, P80-coilin, pyruvate deshydrogenase complex E2 (PDC-E2), sodium iodide symporter, SOX-10, thyroid and eye muscle shared protein, thyroglobulin, thyroid ...
The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are located within the mitochondria and require adrenodoxin as a cofactor (except 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase). Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is either mediated by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they share 11β-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation functions). But aldosterone synthase is also able to perform a 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is found in the zona fasciculata and reticularis. Note: aldosterone synthase is absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. ...
Following the release of Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)s report, Haiti One Year After: A Review of Médecins Sans Frontières Humanitarian Aid Operations, Dr. Unni Karunakara, MSF International President; Stefano Zannini, MSF Head of Mission in Haiti; and Kate Alberti, MSF Epidemiologist discuss the issues facing Haiti and MSF one year after the earthquake. Avril Benoit, Director of Communications for MSF Canada, moderates. ...

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