Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Spasms, Infantile: An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Lethargy: A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Apudoma: A general term collectively applied to tumors associated with the APUD CELLS series, irrespective of their specific identification.Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests: Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.11-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 11-position.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Pituitary Gland, Intermediate: The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Adrenal Cortex HormonesThyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Petrosal Sinus Sampling: Sampling of blood levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by withdrawal of blood from the inferior petrosal sinus. The inferior petrosal sinus arises from the cavernous sinus and runs to the internal jugular vein. Sampling of blood at this level is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome, and other adrenocortical diseases.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Melanocortins: Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Lavandula: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Housing, AnimalImmobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.

Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). (1/3421)

Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled in size between Days 24 and 26 of pregnancy, and their cortisol content increased over 10-fold during this period, from 10 pg to over 100 pg per adrenal pair. After birth, neonatal adrenals continued to grow, but cortisol content fell dramatically to 20 pg. The prepartum increase in adrenal cortisol was reflected by a substantial rise in cortisol concentrations in yolk sac fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal blood, which were below 10 ng/ml on Day 24 and rose to over 40 ng/ml by Day 26. Cortisol concentrations in neonatal blood decreased postpartum, mirroring decreased cortisol content in neonatal adrenals. Cortisol production by the fetal adrenal was stimulated in vitro by ACTH and prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the in vivo increase may be stimulated by release of ACTH from the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis and prostaglandin E2 from the placenta. These results indicate that increasing cortisol production by the fetal adrenal is a characteristic of late pregnancy in the tammar wallaby and support the suggestion that fetal cortisol may trigger the initiation of parturition in this marsupial species.  (+info)

Delay of preterm delivery in sheep by omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturates. (2/3421)

A positive correlation has been shown between dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in late pregnancy and gestation length in pregnant women and experimental animals. To determine whether omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on preterm labor in sheep, a fish oil concentrate emulsion was continuously infused to six pregnant ewes from 124 days gestational age. At 125 days, betamethasone was administered to the fetus to produce preterm labor. Both the onset of labor and the time of delivery were delayed by the fish oil emulsion. Two of the omega-3-infused ewes reverted from contractions to nonlabor, an effect never previously observed for experimental glucocorticoid-induced preterm labor in sheep. Maternal plasma estradiol and maternal and fetal prostaglandin E2 rose in control ewes but not in those infused with omega-3 fatty acid. The ability of omega-3 fatty acids to delay premature delivery in sheep indicates their possible use as tocolytics in humans. Premature labor is the major cause of neonatal death and long-term disability, and these studies present information that may lead to a novel therapeutic regimen for the prevention of preterm delivery in human pregnancy.  (+info)

On the meaning of low-dose ACTH(1-24) tests to assess functionality of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (3/3421)

To analyse further the ACTH(1-24) low-dose test, which is of clinical interest, we have examined the dose-response relationship between plasma ACTH(1-24) and cortisol concentrations after i.v. administration of increasing doses (1, 5 or 250 microg) of ACTH(1-24) as a bolus. In addition, we have measured plasma ACTH(1-39) and cortisol levels after an insulin tolerance test (ITT). Although there was a dose response relationship between plasma ACTH(1-24) immunoreactivity and the dose injected, cortisol peaks were comparable, but lower than those reached after an ITT. Under these experimental conditions, an increase in plasma ACTH as low as 13 pmol/l (i.e. the increase obtained with the 1 microg dose) induced a near maximal cortisol response. Following injection of 1 microg ACTH(1-24), peak ACTH values were short lasting, similar to physiological daily bursts. After injection of 5 microg ACTH(1-24), plasma ACTH concentrations were higher than those reached during an ITT, but clearly shorter lasting. Injection of 250 microg ACTH(1-24) induced strikingly supraphysiological levels of plasma ACTH. We conclude that neither regular nor low-dose ACTH tests can fully reproduce the ITT. Our observations strongly suggest that the low-dose ACTH(1-24) test (1 microg) can be useful to estimate the adrenal sensitivity under basal, physiological conditions.  (+info)

The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (4/3421)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

Primary hypoadrenocorticism in a dog receiving glucocorticoid supplementation. (5/3421)

A 5-year-old, spayed, female husky-Labrador retriever cross was diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism, an uncommon endocrine disorder caused by a deficiency of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. Subtle clinical signs and previous treatment with exogenous glucocorticoid drugs required an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test to confirm the diagnosis.  (+info)

Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (6/3421)

Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta.  (+info)

Suppression of the secretion of luteinizing hormone due to isolation/restraint stress in gonadectomised rams and ewes is influenced by sex steroids. (7/3421)

In this study we used an isolation/restraint stress to test the hypothesis that stress will affect the secretion of LH differently in gonadectomised rams and ewes treated with different combinations of sex steroids. Romney Marsh sheep were gonadectomised two weeks prior to these experiments. In the first experiment male and female sheep were treated with vehicle or different sex steroids for 7 days prior to the application of the isolation/restraint stress. Male sheep received either i.m. oil (control rams) or 6 mg testosterone propionate injections every 12 h. Female sheep were given empty s.c. implants (control ewes), or 2x1 cm s.c. implants containing oestradiol, or an intravaginal controlled internal drug release device containing 0.3 g progesterone, or the combination of oestradiol and progesterone. There were four animals in each group. On the day of application of the isolation/restraint stress, blood samples were collected every 10 min for 16 h for the subsequent measurement of plasma LH and cortisol concentrations. After 8 h the stress was applied for 4 h. Two weeks later, blood samples were collected for a further 16 h from the control rams and ewes, but on this day no stress was imposed. In the second experiment, separate control gonadectomised rams and ewes (n=4/group) were studied for 7 h on 3 consecutive days, when separate treatments were applied. On day 1, the animals received no treatment; on day 2, isolation/restraint stress was applied after 3 h; and on day 3, an i. v. injection of 2 microg/kg ACTH1-24 was given after 3 h. On each day, blood samples were collected every 10 min and the LH response to the i.v. injection of 500 ng GnRH administered after 5 h of sampling was measured. In Experiment 1, the secretion of LH was suppressed during isolation/restraint in all groups but the parameters of LH secretion (LH pulse frequency and amplitude) that were affected varied between groups. In control rams, LH pulse amplitude, and not frequency, was decreased during isolation/restraint whereas in rams treated with testosterone propionate the stressor reduced pulse frequency and not amplitude. In control ewes, isolation/restraint decreased LH pulse frequency but not amplitude. Isolation/restraint reduced both LH pulse frequency and amplitude in ewes treated with oestradiol, LH pulse frequency in ewes treated with progesterone and only LH pulse amplitude in ewes treated with both oestradiol and progesterone. There was no change in LH secretion during the day of no stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were higher during isolation/restraint than on the day of no stress. On the day of isolation/restraint maximal concentrations of cortisol were observed during the application of the stressor but there were no differences between groups in the magnitude of this response. In Experiment 2, isolation/restraint reduced the LH response to GnRH in rams but not ewes and ACTH reduced the LH response to GnRH both in rams and ewes. Our results show that the mechanism(s) by which isolation/restraint stress suppresses LH secretion in sheep is influenced by sex steroids. The predominance of particular sex steroids in the circulation may affect the extent to which stress inhibits the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and/or the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to the actions of GnRH. There are also differences between the sexes in the effects of stress on LH secretion that are independent of the sex steroids.  (+info)

Tests of adrenal insufficiency. (8/3421)

AIM: In suspected adrenal insufficiency, the ideal test for assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is controversial. Therefore, three tests were compared in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. METHOD: Responses to the standard short Synacthen test (SSST), the low dose Synacthen test (LDST), and the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration were measured in 32 patients. A normal response to the synacthen test was defined as a peak serum cortisol of >/= 500 nmol/l and/or incremental concentration of >/= 200 nmol/l. The sensitivity and specificity of the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration compared with other tests was calculated. RESULTS: Three patients had neither an adequate peak nor increment after the SSST and LDST. All had a serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration of < 200 nmol/l. Eight patients had abnormal responses by both criteria to the LDST but had normal responses to the SSST. Three reported amelioration of their symptoms on hydrocortisone replacement. Twenty one patients had a normal response to both tests (of these, 14 achieved adequate peak and increment after both tests and seven did not have an adequate peak after the LDST but had a normal increment). The lowest 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration above which patients achieved normal responses to both the LDST and SSST was 500 nmol/l. At this cut off value (compared with the LDST), the serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration had a sensitivity of 100% but specificity was only 33%. CONCLUSION: The LDST revealed mild degrees of adrenal insufficiency not detected by the SSST. The value of a single 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration is limited.  (+info)

Synonyms for adrenocorticotrophin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenocorticotrophin. 6 synonyms for adrenocorticotrophin: ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, adrenocorticotropin, corticotrophin, corticotropin. What are synonyms for adrenocorticotrophin?
Define adrenocorticotropic hormone. adrenocorticotropic hormone synonyms, adrenocorticotropic hormone pronunciation, adrenocorticotropic hormone translation, English dictionary definition of adrenocorticotropic hormone. also adrenocorticotrophic hormone n. ACTH. a hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of steroids in the cortex of the adrenal...
Define adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone. adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone synonyms, adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone pronunciation, adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone translation, English dictionary definition of adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone. also cor·ti·co·tro·phin n. See ACTH. a hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of steroids in the cortex of the adrenal glands....
elevated ACTH - MedHelps elevated ACTH Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for elevated ACTH. Find elevated ACTH information, treatments for elevated ACTH and elevated ACTH symptoms.
Several methods for isolating adrenocorticotrophin from small quantities of porcine and bovine pituitary tissue are compared. Initial extraction of the hormone by an acid-acetone technique was simpler and more efficient than one employing acetic acid extraction and ether precipitation. Subsequent purification procedures utilizing adsorption of the peptide on to oxycellulose realized the highest yields. CM-cellulose-column chromatography followed by Sephadex-gel filtration were suitable final steps for obtaining highly purified adrenocorticotrophin. The purity of the hormone was demonstrated by determining its amino acid composition, C-terminal analysis, polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, chymotrypsin digestion and paper electrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay and bioassay. Adrenocorticotrophin was found to be rapidly destroyed in intact and especially in homogenized glands kept at room temperature. At 4° the rate of destruction was less rapid and at −20° losses were minimal.. ...
Words you can make out of adrenocorticotrophin. Anagrams of adrenocorticotrophin. Words made after you unscramble adrenocorticotrophin.
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Adrenocorticotropic hormone, β-endorphin and cortisol responses to oCRF in unipolar depressed patients pretreated with dexamethasone ...
This study proposes to provide the reference range of cortisol results when the ACTH stimulation test is done under stressful conditions. This important information is currently not available in the literature. To achieve this, we will perform the ACTH stimulation test in a cohort of patients who are booked for elective surgery. By choosing elective surgery patients, we afford ourselves the opportunity of performing the test once before surgery. The test is then repeated within 12 hours of surgery. The first test will be done on an out-patient basis under usual conditions (minimal stress) while the second will be done under intense physical stress. The 2 sets of results will be compared and the effect of stress on test results will be determined. For the sake of uniformity, we have chosen patients who are booked to undergo repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) as our study cohort.. The ACTH stimulation is an important test that suffers from limitations resulting from lack of clear ...
Synonyms for adrenotropic hormone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenotropic hormone. 6 synonyms for adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotrophin, adrenocorticotropin, corticotrophin, corticotropin. What are synonyms for adrenotropic hormone?
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The factors that affect synaptogenesis and mTORC are many of the same factors that affect depression. Let me count the ways:. 1. Life adversity causes chronic stress, biologically represented by upregulation of the HPA axis and increased corticosteroid production. A 2008 study finds that rats who are subjected to chronic stress develop atrophy of dendrites in their prefrontal cortex. Administering glucocorticoids directly mimicked some of these effects, suggesting that stress is a whole cocktail of things including glucocorticoids and other things. When humans take glucocorticoids (theyre a useful medicine for various diseases) they tend to develop hippocampal atrophy and "simplification of dendrites" there, which I think is the same as decreased synaptogenesis. They also tend to get depressed - in some studies of Cushings Syndrome (the medical name for the collection of bad things that happen when you take too much glucocorticoid medication), up to 90% of patients are depressed.. 2. I didnt ...
KAGEYAMA Kazunori , NIGAWARA Takeshi , KAMATA Yoshimasa , TAKAHASHI Toshio , ANZAI Jiichi , SUZUKI Shigeharu , OSAMURA Yoshiyuki , SUDA Toshihiro Endocrine journal 49(1), 41-47, 2002-02 J-STAGE 医中誌Web 参考文献16件 被引用文献4件 ...
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Looking for online definition of adrenocorticotropic hormone test in the Medical Dictionary? adrenocorticotropic hormone test explanation free. What is adrenocorticotropic hormone test? Meaning of adrenocorticotropic hormone test medical term. What does adrenocorticotropic hormone test mean?
Looking for online definition of adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumor in the Medical Dictionary? adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumor explanation free. What is adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumor? Meaning of adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumor medical term. What does adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumor mean?
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion is responsible for 12% to 17% of all cases of the Cushing syndrome. One of the most commonly described causes of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion is small cell carcinoma of the lung. A rare c
A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an impaired cortisol response to intramuscular aqueous tetracosactrin, but an exuberant response after priming with intramuscular tetracosactrin depot. These findings, together with the normal remaining pituitary function, led us to conclude that this patient had isolated ACTH deficiency associated with congestive cardiac failure and acute adrenal crisis.. ...
Thesis, English, AdrenoCorticoTrophic Hormone &Cortisol serum level in critically ill term and late preterm newborn for Sallam Mona Mahmoud Mustafa
Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a form of stroke which constitutes a severe trauma to the brain and often leads to serious long-term medical and psychosocial sequels which persist for years after the acute event. Recently, adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency has been identified as one possible consequence of the bleeding and is assumed to occur in around 20% of all survivors. Additionally, a number of studies report a high prevalence of post-SAH symptoms such as lack of initiative, fatigue, loss of concentration, impaired quality of life and psychiatric symptoms such as depression. The overlap of these symptoms and those of patients with untreated partial or complete hypopituitarism lead to the suggestion that neuroendocrine dysregulations may contribute to the psychosocial sequels of SAH. Therefore, one of the aims of this work is to gain insights into the role of neuroendocrine dysfunction on quality of life and the prevalence of psychiatric sequels in SAH-patients. ...
The involvement of excitatory amino acids in the control of ACTH release is well established. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has a stimulatory effect on ACTH release, while the role of...
In general, when one perceives a stressful situation, the (limbic)-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated. The HPA axis is a set of neuroendocrine responses to a stressful situation. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin, which are both part of the neuroendocrine system, classified as neurotransmitters and hormones (...animal physiology class is all coming back...). Vasopressin is an anti-diuretic, polypeptide hormone responsible for the bodys conservation of water and plays a key role in the regulation of homeostasis. CRH is also a polypeptide hormone and is responsible for stimulating further stress hormones. CRH is carried to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and vasopressin to the to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. CRH stimulates the synthesis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is then released into the bloodstream and stimulates the adrenal glands. The adrenals are two ...
At a Glance Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is caused by nonpituitary tumors that secrete either adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and/or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cause bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Clinical presentation resembles Cushings syndrome (CS): amenorrhea, hirsutism, hypertension, impotence, muscular wasting, skin atrophy, neuropsychiatric dysfunction, osteoporosis, truncal-central obesity, weight gain-water retention, moon face, weakness, fatigue, backache, headache,…. ...
Under normal conditions, the brain releases a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that stimulates the adrenal glands to release their hormones. The body has highly developed systems called feedback mechanisms that control, based on the bodys needs, how much of these hormones the adrenal glands produce and release. For example, during times of physical or emotional stress, the body tends to increase the production and release of glucocorticoids (cortisol) to help it deal with the stressful episode. In contrast, when the body is receiving cortisol from an outside source (like a cortisone pill or injection), it reduces the amount of cortisol that the adrenal glands produce.. Two medical conditions, Cushings disease and Addisons disease, occur when the bodys regulation of these hormones is altered; such alterations can cause significant illness in affected pets. Cushings disease occurs when the body produces and releases excessive amounts of cortisol. The clinical term for ...
Hypothalamic CRH neurons that control ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland have secretory terminals in the external zone of the median eminence (ZEME). These neurons can coproduce vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that potentiates the ACTH releasing effects of CRH. Recently, we found increased AVP production in adult rats weeks after single exposure to a stressor, which may play a role in event-induced stress disorders. Here, we describe the long-term changes in the HPA axis of adult male rats following a single exposure to a stressor, the cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). The effects on storage and release of AVP and CRH were established by quantitative immunocytochemistry, the effects on ACTH and corticosterone responses by radioimmunoassay. Single administration of IL-1 beta (5 micrograms/kg i.p.) induces a delayed (at least 4 d) and a long-lasting (at least 3 weeks) increase of vasopressin (AVP) stores in CRH terminals of the ZEME without affecting the CRH stores, and a marked ...
To the Editor.-Despite the recent findings of Cunningham et al,1 the synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test remains the best technique for establishi
Radiotherapy may be recommended if pituitary gland surgery doesnt achieve a cure or if youre unable to have surgery. It involves using high-energy X-rays to shrink the tumour and stop it producing adrenocorticotropin hormones (ACTH).. Normal radiotherapy is delivered daily in small doses over a period of five weeks. This helps to reduce damage to other areas of the brain.. However, a type of radiotherapy known as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly being used to treat pituitary tumours. This uses a series of movable frames to hold your head in a precise position. A computer is then used to send energy rays to the exact location of the pituitary tumour. The precise focusing of SRS is thought to minimise the chances of other parts of your brain being accidentally damaged. The whole radiation dose is delivered in just one session. As the procedure is only available at a number of specialised centres, its likely youll have to travel to receive treatment.. Both types of radiotherapy ...
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Your sympathetic ANS is responsible for your "flight or fight" reaction when presented with a stressful situation. When you are presented with a stressful situation, your hypothalamus releases a chemical messenger that travels to your pituitary gland, which is then stimulated to produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The (ACTH) then travels through you blood stream to your adrenal gland, where it stimulates the outer layer of your adrenal gland in order to produce corticoids. Corticoids help to acquire from energy stores within your body. Simultaneously, the hypothalamus activates the inner portion of the adrenal gland, which produces epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. Adrenaline causes your bodies physiological responses to become heightened for a short period of time as your body braces for action ...
Your sympathetic ANS is responsible for your "flight or fight" reaction when presented with a stressful situation. When you are presented with a stressful situation, your hypothalamus releases a chemical messenger that travels to your pituitary gland, which is then stimulated to produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The (ACTH) then travels through you blood stream to your adrenal gland, where it stimulates the outer layer of your adrenal gland in order to produce corticoids. Corticoids help to acquire from energy stores within your body. Simultaneously, the hypothalamus activates the inner portion of the adrenal gland, which produces epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. Adrenaline causes your bodies physiological responses to become heightened for a short period of time as your body braces for action ...
How often do you practice the power of appreciation and an "attitude of gratitude" throughout the day?. How often do you practice a stress management method, meditation, etc?. How often do you feel "stressed out"?. Stress is your response to unusual demands made on you. What is Your stress level? You can respond positively or negatively, which is distress. The effects of stress depend on your response to the demands. Sometimes, you are your own worst enemy when it comes to stress.. Stress causes hormones in your hypothalamus (an are of your brain stem) to be secreted. This causes the pituitary gland to stimulate the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH travels through the blood stream from the pituitary gland to the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland stimulates the release of cortisol. Cortisol activates your brains reward center and increases levels of insulin in the blood stream, stimulating the desire for high-fat high-sugar foods.. Here are some ways to be more productive ...
How often do you practice the power of appreciation and an "attitude of gratitude" throughout the day?. How often do you practice a stress management method, meditation, etc?. How often do you feel "stressed out"?. Stress is your response to unusual demands made on you. What is Your stress level? You can respond positively or negatively, which is distress. The effects of stress depend on your response to the demands. Sometimes, you are your own worst enemy when it comes to stress.. Stress causes hormones in your hypothalamus (an are of your brain stem) to be secreted. This causes the pituitary gland to stimulate the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH travels through the blood stream from the pituitary gland to the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland stimulates the release of cortisol. Cortisol activates your brains reward center and increases levels of insulin in the blood stream, stimulating the desire for high-fat high-sugar foods.. Here are some ways to be more productive ...
Until recently ACTH was regarded as a single, well-defined polypeptide of 39 amino acids. The structure of ACTH derived from the pituitary gland of several species, its physical chemistry and...
In health: In order to understand Cushings disease, one needs to understand the basics of the negative feedback loop that operates in a normal, healthy dog. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone), as directed by the hypothalamus (another part of the brain). This hormone is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the bodys two adrenal glands, located near the kidneys, to secrete glucocorticoid (cortisone-like or cortisol) hormones into the bloodstream. Cortisol helps the body respond to stress. It is necessary for life and impacts a wide variety of bodily functions including blood sugar levels, fat metabolism, skeletal muscles, kidney function, nervous system, cardiovascular system, and immune response. ACTH/cortisol secretion is increased due to stress, including infection, pain, surgery, trauma, cold temperatures. When the blood cortisol levels are high enough, the pituitary stops secreting ACTH. When the blood cortisol levels ...
The proposed studies are based on our previous findings that in late gestation, basal plasma Cortisol levels are normal in the long-term hypoxic (LTH) sheep fet...
Principal Investigator:SASANO Hironobu, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Human pathology
In the fall, measuring a horses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels is often used as a diagnostic tool for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, also known as equine Cushings disease). It peaks between mid-August to mid-October as part of the metabolic preparation for winter and results in levels anywhere up to about three times those found…
Tetracosactide (also known as Cosyntropin) is a synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment (sequence: SYSMEHFRWGKPVGKKRRPVKVYP) at the N-terminal of adrenocorticotropic hormone. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex. Tetracosactide exhibits the same activity as natural ACTH with regard to all its biological activities. The complex results in a product whose absorption in man is effected over a longer period of time as compared to corticotropin. Therefore, therapy may be maintained with less frequent administration.
Stress is what our body goes through when we perceive our environment as changing. Stress can be "good stress" or "bad stress." We all understand bad stress, everyone has experienced it and has had to deal with its negative effects. However, did you know that good stress, e.g., going on vacation, finally getting that promotion or bringing a new member into the family, can also be quite hard on our bodies?. When our brains perceive that something is about to happen it triggers several chemical reactions. First, the pituitary gland releases the hormone ACTH into the bloodstream. Once the adrenal glands detect the ACTH, they secrete hormones and natural cortisone into the bloodstream. These chemicals combine to create steroids. These steroids then do their best Paul Revere impersonation by racing through the body announcing "Be ready! Something is about to happen! Change is coming! Change is coming!". The body responds to this stimulus by preparing itself for "fight or flight." The liver releases ...
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We have shown previously that chronic administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. This effect in rats treated chronically with ACTH was not influenced by the chronic administration of imipramine, but was reversed by coadministration of imipramine and lithium. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanism underlying the effect of imipramine and lithium on hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis, by investigating the effects of treatment on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), total cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) of the CREB signaling system, as well as Wnt 3a and cyclin D1 of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of saline- and ACTH-treated rats. ACTH treatment significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1. Treatment with imipramine and lithium increased the expression of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to acth release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. T2 - 1. In vitro studies. AU - Familari, Mlary. AU - Smith, A. Ian. AU - Smith, Robin. AU - Funder, John W.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Cultured rat and ovine anterior pituitary cells were treated with a range of doses (0.01-1,000 nM) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination, and medium and cell content of immuno-reactive (ir-)ACTH determined. In rat cells, a dose-response curve to CRF was obtained, with a threshold dose of 0.1 nM\ A VP was much less effective alone, but augmented CRF responses when administered with CRF. In ovine pituitary cells AVP markedly stimulated ACTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and with a threshold of 0.1 nM\ in contrast, CRF increased ACTH release over basal only at doses , 100 nM. In combination, subthreshold doses of AVP ...
en] We aimed to investigate the dynamics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol secretion in pituitary-dependent Cushings syndrome with bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia presenting as a single adrenal macronodule, and to determine the imaging characteristics of this syndrome. Three female patients were studied. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion were studied by determining their rhythmicity and pulsatility and their responses to the administration of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, metyrapone, tetracosactrin, insulin and dexamethasone. Techniques used to localize the anatomical lesion were bilateral simultaneous inferior petrosal sinus sampling, magnetic resonance examination of the pituitary, computed tomography (CT) scanning and [75Se]cholesterol scintigraphy of the adrenal glands. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric assay. The ACTH and cortisol pulse number and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gender differences in cardiovascular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to psychological stress in healthy older adult men and women. AU - Traustadottir, Tinna. AU - Bosch, Pamela R. AU - Matt, K. S.. PY - 2003/6. Y1 - 2003/6. N2 - Gender differences in the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to psychological stress may contribute to the gender differences in the prevalence of diseases associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and hypertension. We measured plasma ACTH, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) responses in 8 men and 8 women (55-75 years) exposed to the Matt Stress Reactivity Protocol (MSRP), a psychological challenge. The MSRP elicited significant increases in HR, systolic-, and diastolic BP, ACTH and cortisol (all p , 0.01). Men had significantly greater cortisol and diastolic BP responses compared to women (p , 0.05). Additionally, a positive correlation ...
Xu, Y., Day, Trevor A. and Buller, K. M. 1999, The central amygdala modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta administration, Neuroscience, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 175-183, doi: 10.1016/S0306-4522(99)00311-5. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ionic currents in two strains of rat anterior pituitary tumor cells. AU - Dubinsky, Janet M.. AU - Oxford, Gerry S.. PY - 1984/3/1. Y1 - 1984/3/1. N2 - The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells, GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium current activated and inactivated rapidly and was blocked by tetrodotoxin. A slower-activating voltage-dependent inward calcium current was blocked by cobalt, manganese, nickel, zinc, or cadium. Barium was substituted for calcium as the inward current carrier. Calcium tail currents decay with two exponential components. The rate constant for ...
The long-term consequences of neonatal endotoxin exposure on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function were assessed in adult female and male Long-Evans rats. At 3 and 5 d of age, pups were administered endotoxin (Salmonella enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) at a dose that provokes a rapid and sustained physiological response, but with no mortality. As adults, neonatally endotoxin-treated animals exhibited significantly greater adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress than controls. In addition, dexamethasone pretreatment was less effective in suppressing ACTH responses to restraint stress in endotoxin-treated animals than in controls, suggesting decreased negative-feedback sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Neonatal endotoxin treatment elevated resting-state median eminence levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin in adult male animals, and arginine vasopressin in both adult males and females. Neonatal exposure to ...
The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells. GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium current activated and inactivated rapidly and was blocked by tetrodotoxin. A slower-activating voltage-dependent inward calcium current was blocked by cobalt, manganese, nickel, zinc, or cadmium. Barium was substituted for calcium as the inward current carrier. Calcium tail currents decay with two exponential components. The rate constant for the slower component is voltage dependent, while the faster rate constant is independent of voltage. An analysis of tail current envelopes under conditions of controlled ...
Localization, expression and control of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the nucleus preopticus and pituitary gland of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L ...
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP[8] and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the ...
The increasing availability of cortisone and pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to the medical profession merits careful consideration of possible com
The response of plasma aldosterone (PA) and plasma renin activity (PRA) to ACTH stimulation (0.25 mg Tetracosactide infusion/10 h) and to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (0.1 U/kg b.w.) has been studied in 34 essential hypertensive (EH) patients. Corticotrophin stimulation increases significantly PA, the percent increase being higher in normal PRA EH patients than in controls but comparable to controls in low PRA EH patients. PRA shows a slight and transient elevation. A significant increase in PA is observed also during the insulin test, but the percent increase is lower than that under ACTH stimulation. The possibility that aldosterone is involved, under severe and frequent stress, in the genesis of essential hypertension is discussed.
Adequate adrenocortical function is essential to survive critical illness. The goal of this study was to determine whether eosinophilia could serve as a useful and early marker of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients with severe septic shock. During a 1-year period, we prospectively studied 294 ICU patients.16 patients (5.4% of ICU admissions) with eosinophilia more than 3% of the white blood cell count and septic shock unresponsive to adequate fluid and vasopressor therapy, were included. A high dose (250 mcg i.v) corticotropin stimulation test was performed. Eosinophilia (>3%) was diagnosed in 16 patients with vasopressor-unresponsive septic shock. Eosinophilia was present 1.9±0.9d (range 8-96h) before the onset of septic shock. 11/16 patients failed to respond to corticotropin stimulation test above the critical level of 9 mcg/dL rise and 2/16 had baseline cortisol concentration ...
CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.. DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.. RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P , 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Responsiveness of Cultured Adrenal Cells to Adrenocorticotropin and Prostaglandin E1. T2 - Cell Density, Cell Division, and Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis. AU - Hornsby, Peter J.. AU - Gill, Gordon N.. PY - 1981/1. Y1 - 1981/1. N2 - In cultured bovine adrenocortical cells, responsiveness to ACTH, as assessed by the maximal rate of ACTHstimulated cAMP production, has been found to depend on cell density and cell proliferation, while the maximal rate of prostaglandin E1, (PGE1)-stimulated cAMP production was constant.The combination of low cell density and normal cell proliferation caused a specific decline in responsiveness to ACTH. Responsiveness did not decline at any density when proliferation was inhibited by mitomycin C treatment. Specific declines in responsiveness to ACTH were also seen when cultures were treated with cycloheximide or sodium butyrate. When protein synthesis was completely inhibited by cycloheximide treatment, responsiveness to ACTH declined ...
The insulin tolerance test or ITT is a laboratory diagnostic test in which the individual receives insulin through an IV to check to see if the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands are functioning properly. Insulin tolerance tests are generally done by endocrinologists who are specialists in diabetes and other endocrine disorders.. The idea behind giving insulin injections is to allow the person to become extremely hypoglycemic (levels lower than 40 mg/dL or 2.2 mmol/l). Under normal conditions, the individual will release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland as well as growth hormone.. Elevated levels of ACTH and growth hormone trigger the adrenal glands to begin the stress response, which allows for the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. In normal people, cortisol and growth hormone counteract insulin and will raise the blood glucose level.. The insulin tolerance test is believed to be one of the best ways of telling whether the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ...
The adrenal steroid hormones have a central role in maintaining homeostasis, as they have influence on almost every physiological process. Their movement across the cell membrane is still poorly understood, although this is of great interest to basic biology and medicine. Previous studies have suggested transporter(s) may participate in this process. In this study the characteristic features of the previously demonstrated ROAT1-like exchange transport system in bovine adrenal cells were investigated with representative substrates. Corticotrophin (ACTH) stimulated 3H-PAH uptake into bovine adrenocortical cells, which could be inhibited by probenecid. Cortisol, glutarate and PAH in the incubation medium also cis-inhibited 3H-PAH uptake, and preincubation with PAH trans-stimulated 3H-PAH uptake. Preliminary studies on human adrenocortical cells also provided evidence for the existence of a probenecid inhibitable PAH-transporter. These results support the concept of an organic anion/dicarboxylate ...
The hypothalamus is a small region located within the brain that controls many bodily functions, including eating and drinking, sexual functions and behaviors, blood pressure and heart rate, body temperature maintenance, the sleep-wake cycle, and emotional states (e.g., fear, pain, anger, and pleasure). Hypothalamic hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of many of those functions. Because the hypothalamus is part of the central nervous system, the hypothalamic hormones actually are produced by nerve cells (i.e., neurons). The anterior pituitary produces several important hormones that either stimulate target glands (e.g., the adrenal glands, gonads, or thyroid gland) to produce target gland hormones or directly affect target organs. The pituitary hormones include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); gonadotropins; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), also called thyrotropin; growth hormone (GH); and prolactin. The first three of those hormones ACTH, gonadotropins, and TSH act on other ...
Plasma cortisol concentrations in gilts treated with immunomodulator during early gravidity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Patients with chronic airflow obstruction were given a three-week course of prednisolone 40 mg per day. The basal plasma cortisol level and response to tetracosactrin were depressed after such a course. Basal plasma cortisol and corticotrophin (ACTH) levels were measured on five consecutive days after three weeks of treatment with prednisolone and were found to rise simultaneously to control levels within three days. Pituitary and adrenal functions were depressed for four days after short high dose courses of corticosteroids and patients may be at risk if they encounter stress during this time.. ...
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats ...
I am female, 25 and recently had an ACTH stimulation test performed. Cortisol started at 6.3 and after an hour jumped to 28.2. My doctor said this was good but everything I have read indicates that this is bad because it is a symptom of secondary adrenal insufficiency. Is my doctor right or should more tests be performed ...
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious systemic disease which left untreated or inadequately treated may have a substantial effect on the morbidity and mortality of the individuals who are afflicted. Conventional treatments include immunosuppressive medications and corticosteroids. However, there is a need for alternative therapeutic options, particularly in SLE patients who may not be adequately controlled with or who are intolerant to traditional therapies. Acthar is known to have steroidogenic mechanisms of action through endogenous production of cortisol and is also reported to have immunomodulatory properties facilitated through the interactions with melanocortin receptors found in immune effector cells and other tissues. Self-administered via subcutaneous injection, Acthar may represent a potential treatment option for those patients.. ...
1. Actions of CRH on the Fetal Adrenal Gland As discussed in Chapter 3 (see Fetal Adrenal Glands), the human fetal adrenal glands are morphologically, functionally, and physiologically remarkable organs. At term, the fetal adrenal glands weigh the same as those in the adult and are similar in size to the adjacent fetal kidney. The…
Discussion. In order to assess the level of prematurity and the presence and degree of failure of passive transfer (FPT) an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, and cortisol- and IgG level determination should be performed shortly after birth. In premature foals, FPT cannot only be the result of inadequate colostrum intake, but can also reflect gastrointestinal absorption abnormalities. That a combination of these factors was involved in the development of FPT in this case is supported by the lack of increase in blood glucose after peroral colostrum feeding. Plasma globulin status was improved when, in addition to the recommended volume of colostrum, the foal also received plasma supplementation. In this case, use of the ACTH stimulation test to determine the degree of prematurity was unnecessary, as this was apparent from the physical appearance as well as knowledge of the gestational age of the foal.. Caesarean section has been associated with neonate immaturity because of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - INFLUENCE OF THE THYMUS ON ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERACTIVITY IN. AU - FACHET, J.. AU - VALLENT, K.. AU - Palkóvits, M.. AU - ACS, Z.. PY - 1964. Y1 - 1964. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78651150870&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78651150870&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 14239404. AN - SCOPUS:78651150870. VL - 20. SP - 281. EP - 287. JO - Acta Medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. JF - Acta Medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. SN - 0001-5989. ER - ...
Glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol) and mineralocorticoids are two important types of hormones produced by the bodys adrenal glands. Under normal conditions, the brain releases a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that stimulates the adrenal glands to release their hormones. Addisons disease occurs when either the brain doesnt release adequate amounts of ACTH, or the adrenal glands fail to release their hormones in response to ACTH. The medical term for Addisons disease is hypoadrenocorticism.. Read More ...
Drs. Shames: The conventional medical evaluation for adrenal function includes measurements of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) from the pituitary, as well as cortisol (hydrocortisone) from the adrenal glands themselves. Both of these are simple blood tests. In addition, doctors will sometimes obtain a 24-hour urine sample for cortisol and related cortex hormones. This involves having patients collect urine in the same large container every time they empty their bladder for an entire 24-hour period. One drawback with this measurement is that it is not illustrative of variations within the 24-hour period, because the whole days worth of urine is mixed together in one bottle. The level of adrenal hormone is naturally high in the morning, progressively diminishing through the afternoon, reaching its lowest levels in the evening. In the case of the 24-hour urine sample, the doctor can determine if the total amount of hormone is high or low for the whole day, but will not know at what time of day ...
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BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The trans-sphenoid surgery was one of the main methods for the treatment of functional pituitary micro-adenoma for many years, while the development of radiosurgical techniques in recent years has given neurosurgeons new ways to treat functional pituitary micro-adenoma. This report aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of X-Knife stereotactic radioneurosurgery on pituitary micro-adenoma. METHODS: From June 1996 to June 2001, 143 cases of functional pituitary micro-adenoma were treated by X-Knife radiosurgery, in which 73 cases of secreting prolactin (PRL),54 cases of secreting growth hormone(GH), 13 cases of secreting adrenal corticotrophin hormone (ACTH), and 3 cases of secreting both PRL and GH ...
H.P. ACTHAR GEL (Corticotrophin) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Brain, Corticotropin, Corticotropin-releasing Factor, Crf Receptor, Gastric Emptying, Norepinephrine, Neurons, Neuropeptide, Mice, Anxiety, and Hydrogen
... ,1-beta-Alanine-17-[N-(4-aminobutyl)-L-lysinamide]-alpha1-17-corticotropin,1-beta-alanine-17-[L-2,6-diamino-N-(4-aminobutyl)hexanamide]-alpha1-17-corticotropin,[beta-ala1,lys17]corticotropin-(1-17)-heptadecapeptide-4-amino-N-butylamide,[beta-ala1,lys17]ACTH1-17-4-amino-N-butylamide,alisactide,HOE-433,Synchrodyn,Acetate,Alsactide Acetate
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX ...
Injection of 1-24 ACTH is more effective by the i.m. than i.p. route. Large doses are required to induce consistent maximal adrenal corticosterone secretion.
Free cortisol is useful in the detection of patients with Cushings syndrome for whom free cortisol concentrations are elevated.. ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the master stress hormone. When this hormone goes awry it can impact everything, from your weight, to your health, to your behavior.
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A man with Cushings disease - caused by an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma - who later developed metastases in the central nervous system without Cushings recurrence, was successfully treated over eight years with radiation and chemotherapy, according to a case report. The report, "Long-term survival following transformation of an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma to a silent corticotroph pituitary carcinoma: Case report," was published in the journal World Neurosurgery. Pituitary carcinomas make up only 0.1-0.2% of all pituitary tumors and are characterized by a primary pituitary tumor that metastasizes into cranial, spinal, or systemic locations. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of these carcinomas secrete hormones, with ACTH being the most common. Though the majority of ACTH-secreting carcinomas present with Cushings disease, about one-third do not show symptoms of the condition and have normal serum ...
The diagnosis of Cushings syndrome is usually made clinically. However to differentiate between adrenal cause and pituitary cause, tests may be required. The most common screening test to establish increased serum cortisol levels is to do 24 hours urine estimation of free cortisol. Normally, the levels are between 20-70 µg/sqm, however in case of Cushings syndrome, urinary free cortisol is elevated. To find out the cause, your doctor may do blood ACTH levels and high dose dexamethasone suppression test. In case of pituitary tumors, ACTH levels will be elevated. In case of adrenal tumors, ACTH levels will be decreased. High dose dexamethasone tests consists of given high dose dexamethasone 6 hourly for 48 hours and then doing urinary free cortisol on 2nd day. In case of suppression of secretion of cortisol in urine, it suggests a pituitary cause and in case of non suppression, it suggests adrenal cause ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test is conducted to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency. The patients cortisol levels are measured in the urine and blood before the test. Then, a man-made CRH is injected intravenously into the patient. Cortisol levels in the blood and urine are then measured 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the injection. Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency have high levels of ACTH but do not produce cortisol. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency have will have very low cortisol levels in response to the injection and absent or delayed ACTH responses. Absent ACTH response indicate that the pituitary gland is causing the disease. A delayed ACTH response indicates that the hypothalamus (part of the brain that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland) is the cause ...
We determined the effects of prenatal dexamethasone administration in early gestation on development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new era of cushing disease therapeutics. AU - Fleseriu, Maria. AU - McCartney, S.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Cushing syndrome (CS) is a severe clinical condition caused by prolonged and inappropriate exposure to cortisol. Excluding exogenous cortisol excess, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from a pituitary adenoma, also called Cushing disease (CD), represents by far the most common CS etiology. Since Harvey Cushing first reported the classical clinical syndrome over 100 years ago, much clinical progress has been made, however disease management remains a challenge both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Treatment is often complex and may require surgery, medical management and radiotherapy. Here we focus on the key findings of recent clinical trials with new therapeutic agents (1-3) and discuss how these new treatments fit in the armamentarium for patients with CD.. AB - Cushing syndrome (CS) is a severe clinical condition caused by prolonged and ...
The results of this study indicate that MA causes sex-dependent activation of the HPA axis with females showing a more prolonged elevation in plasma corticosterone compared to males. In females, the plasma corticosterone response following MA exposure peaked at 70 min post injection and subsequently decreased, but remained elevated above baseline levels at 120 min. In males, MA induced an earlier peak plasma corticosterone response at 30 min with a faster decline by 70 min and levels similar to baseline at 120 min. This sex difference in HPA axis activation with greater plasma corticosterone responses in females than males is similar to that observed in adult rodents following novelty and restraint stress (Handa et al. 1994a, 2009; Zuloaga et al. 2011), as well as administration of pharmacological agents such as the SSRI citalopram (Goel et al. 2011). Furthermore, the pattern of sex difference in HPA axis activation seen in the current study is similar to that seen following chronic exposure to ...
Rank Status Study 1 Recruiting Study to Evaluate CORT125134 in Patients With Cushings Syndrome Condition: Cushings Syndrome Intervention: Drug: CORT125134 2 Recruiting Cushings Disease Complications Condition: Cushings Disease Intervention: Other: Exams and questionnaires 3 Recruiting The Accuracy of Late Night Urinary Free Cortisol/Creatinine and Hair Cortisol in Cushings Syndrome Diagnosis Condition: Cushing Syndrome Intervention: 4 Recruiting Treatment for Endogenous Cushings Syndrome Condition: Endogenous Cushings Syndrome Intervention: Drug: COR-003 5 Recruiting Saliva Cortisol Measurement as a Screening Test for Suspicious Cushings Syndrome in Children. Condition: Cushings Syndrome Intervention: Other: Children refered to the obesity clinic 6 Recruiting Safety and Efficacy of LCI699 for the Treatment of Patients With Cushings Disease Condition: Cushings Disease Intervention: Drug: LCI699 7 Recruiting Treatment of Cushings Disease With R-roscovitine Condition: Cushings Disease ...
The most specific test to diagnose Addisons disease is the ACTH stimulation test. It measures blood and urine cortisol after receiving an injection of ATCH. There is a rapid test also where measurements of cortisol are taken after 30 and 60 minutes after injection. In a healthy person, the cortisol will rise in blood and urine; however, in a person with Addisons disease, there will be little to no change in cortisol levels.. When an abnormal response to the ACTH test is present, a longer CRH stimulation test is applied to determine the cause of the adrenal insufficiency. In this test, synthetic CRH is given intravenously and blood cortisol is measured in intervals over a two-hour period. Patients having primary adrenal insufficiency have high ACTHs but do not produce cortisol. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency have deficient cortisol responses, but absent or delayed ACTH responses. An absent ATCH response is caused by the pituitary, where a delayed response points to the ...
Traditionally, chamomile preparations such as tea and essential oil aromatherapy have been used to treat insomnia and to induce sedation (calming effects). Chamomile is widely regarded as a mild tranquillizer and sleep-inducer. Sedative effects may be due to the flavonoid, apigenin that binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain (68). Studies in preclinical models have shown anticonvulsant and CNS depressant effects respectively. Clinical trials are notable for their absence, although ten cardiac patients are reported to have immediately fallen into a deep sleep lasting for 90 minutes after drinking chamomile tea (47). Chamomile extracts exhibit benzodiazepine-like hypnotic activity (69). In another study, inhalation of the vapor of chamomile oil reduced a stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. Diazepam, co-administered with the chamomile oil vapor, further reduced ACTH levels, while flumazenile, a BDZ antagonist blocked the effect of chamomile oil vapor ...
The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab is a promising agent for treatment of several different malignancies, but as with all immunotherapy there is a potential risk of immune-related adverse events. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency and hypophysitis have been reported in patients treated with a different PD-1 inhibitor, nivolumab. However, clinical characteristics of these side effects associated with pembrolizumab have yet to be described in detail. An 85-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. The patient was treated with 200 mg pembrolizumab every three weeks as first-line therapy. Routine examination including thyroid function, complete blood count, serum cortisol and sodium levels before each pembrolizumab infusion had shown no significant changes up to the eighth cycle. However, 8 days after the eighth cycle of single-agent pembrolizumab, she presented with rapidly worsening general fatigue and appetite loss over two days.
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test is conducted to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency. The patients cortisol levels are measured in the urine and blood before the test. Then, a man-made CRH is injected intravenously into the patient. Cortisol levels in the blood and urine are then measured 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the injection. Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency have high levels of ACTH but do not produce cortisol. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency have will have very low cortisol levels in response to the injection and absent or delayed ACTH responses. Absent ACTH response indicate that the pituitary gland is causing the disease. A delayed ACTH response indicates that the hypothalamus (part of the brain that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland) is the cause ...
In its early stages, adrenal insufficiency can be difficult to diagnose. A review of a patients medical history based on the symptoms, especially the dark tanning of the skin, will lead a doctor to suspect Addisons disease.. A diagnosis of Addisons disease is made by laboratory tests. The aim of these tests is first to determine whether levels of cortisol are insufficient and then to establish the cause. X-ray exams of the adrenal and pituitary glands also are useful in helping to establish the cause.. ACTH Stimulation Test. This is the most specific test for diagnosing Addisons disease. In this test, blood cortisol, urine cortisol, or both are measured before and after a synthetic form of ACTH is given by injection. In the so-called short, or rapid, ACTH test, measurement of cortisol in blood is repeated 30 to 60 minutes after an intravenous ACTH injection. The normal response after an injection of ACTH is a rise in blood and urine cortisol levels. Patients with either form of adrenal ...
The locus coeruleus is responsible for mediating many of the sympathetic effects during stress. The locus coeruleus is activated by stress, and will respond by increasing norepinephrine secretion, which in turn will alter cognitive function (through the prefrontal cortex), increase motivation (through nucleus accumbens), activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and increase the sympathetic discharge/inhibit parasympathetic tone (through the brainstem).. Specific to the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, norepinephrine will stimulate the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor from the hypothalamus, that induces adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the anterior pituitary and subsequent cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands. Norepinephrine released from locus coeruleus will feedback to inhibit its production, and corticotropin-releasing hormone will feedback to inhibit its production, while positively feeding to the locus coeruleus to increase norepinephrine ...
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If the cortisol concentration is below 0.7, stop the trilostane until signs of Cushings recur and monitor for any signs of hypocortisolemia. If the post stimulation cortisol level is 0.7-1.5 ug/dl, stop therapy for 48 hours and then restart at a 50% reduced dosage. Monitoring dogs on trilostane involves repeating the ACTH stimulation and chemistry panel in 2 weeks and then every 3-6 months. A few dogs may continue to demonstrate clinical signs of Cushings despite appropriate ACTH stimulation results. If this occurs, the dose should be divided and given twice daily. One recent report indicates that routine twice-daily therapy achieved control of Cushings with a lower total daily dose. This twice daily dosing should be attempted if clinical signs are present despite an adequate post ACTH stimulation cortisol result (an indication that the half life in that patient is too short ...
Diagnosis of Cushings Syndrome. William Harper, MD, FRCPC Endocrinology & Metabolism Assistant Professor of Medicine McMaster University. Nomenclature. Cushings Syndrome Hypercortisolism of any cause Cushings Disease Corticotropin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma....
d) development of herbal preparations/products that have well established medicinal use in evidence-based medicine.. Some studies have indicated that certain adaptogenic substances can activate the protective mechanisms of cells (key stress mediators), which is linked to an increase in survival rate. (pubmed 10.3390/ph3010188). Research suggests that adaptogens relieve stress by modulating the release of stress hormones from the adrenal glands, specifically affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). HPA Axis: When the brain perceives danger (stress), it signals the hypothalamus to release the hormone Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), stimulating the pituitary gland to release Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex where it stimulates the release of cortisol and other glucocorticoid hormones. At the same time, the sympathetic nervous system triggers the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine (adrenaline).. When cortisol ...
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the growth years an overproduction of somatotropin causes giantism while the lack of it causes dwarfism. An overproduction after the growth years causes acromegaly, which is characterized by the development of abnormally large hands, feet, and jaw. THYROTROPIN, or the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), influences the growth, development, and secreting activities of the thyroid gland. GONADOTROPIN influences the gonads (ovaries or testes) and is essential for the normal development and functioning of both male and female reproductive systems. The ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC hormone (ACTH) acts primarily on the adrenal cortex, stimulating its growth and its secretion of corticosteroids. Removal of the pituitary leads to rapid atrophy of the adrenal cortex. The posterior lobe of the pituitary produces at least two hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin. VASOPRESSIN acts as an antidiuretic hormone (ADH), promoting the conservation of water by the kidney. When ADH is not produced in adequate amounts, the daily ...
Lack of antibodies, recurrent infections, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency and autoimmune hair loss are features in patients that have been associated with mutations in the NFKB2 gene(2,6). We therefore postulated a causative NFKB2 gene defect in two unrelated cases from Epsom & St. Helier University Hospitals, with these clinical features. To verify this, we sequenced the NFKB2 gene in these patients, measured the expression of protein p100, evaluated B- and T-cell subsets and performed quantitative functional assessment of the non-canonical NFκB signalling pathway.. Sequencing identified novel heterozygous genetic variants at position 2604 in the NFKB2 gene in both patients, causing the same amino acid change i.e tyrosine to termination at position 868 in the encoded protein p100. This resulted in a truncated form of p100, p100Δ33, which is 33 amino acids shorter than the normal form of the protein. Interestingly, this mutation in the two unrelated patients is identical to that ...
CLINICAL HISTORY AND RADIOLOGY. The patient was a 52 year old male with a history of Cushings disease, initially diagnosed at the age of 18. At that time, his symptoms included increased weight, purple abdominal striae, diabetes mellitus, and polydipsia. He underwent a resection of a pituitary microadenoma at another hospital. However, due to persistently high cortisol levels following the surgery, he later underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy. Following the operation, he began hydrocortisone therapy, lost weight, and was able to maintain glucose control without diabetes medications. At the age of 32 his diabetes recurred, but he was able to maintain good glucose control up until age 51 at which time his HbA1C was greater than 7. He also had visual problems with significant reduction in right peripheral vision and moderate impairment in left. Testing revealed a greatly elevated serum ACTH at 5,082 pg/mL (normal is 9 - 46 pg/mL), but serum cortisol within normal limits 4 ug/dL. MRI scans found a ...
How to Treat a Dog with Cushings Disease. Cushings disease is one of the most common hormonal diseases in older dogs. It occurs when the adrenal glands, which are located near the kidneys, release too much of the corticosteroid hormones...
ISBN 0-07-142280-3. Schimmer, Bernard P.; Parker, Keith L. (2006). "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenocortical Steroids and ... with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones". BJU Int. 101 (9): 1084-9. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07509.x. ... is a synthetic estrane steroid and a derivative of steroid hormones like progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone. It has ... Their Synthetic Analogs; Inhibitors of the Synthesis and Actions of Adrenocortical Hormones". In in Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo ...
DAX1 Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency; 201400; TBS19 Adrenoleukodystrophy; 300100; ABCD1 Adrenoleukodystrophy, neonatal; ... SECISBP2 Thyroid hormone resistance; 188570; THRB Thyroid hormone resistance, autosomal recessive; 274300; THRB Thyroid hormone ... HESX1 Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type IA; 262400; GH1 Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type IB; 612781; GH1 ... GHRHR Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type II; 173100; GH1 Growth hormone insensitivity with immunodeficiency; 245590; ...
The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type ... "ACTH - Clinical: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Plasma". www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Retrieved 2016-10-25. Gallo- ... adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes 18p11.2 and 20q13.2-q13.3 by fluorescence in situ ... "cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the bovine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ...
"Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 2nd ed.: Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test": 17-18. Ashley B. ... Progesterone - precursor to cortisol and aldosterone Luteinizing hormone - a pituitary hormone that stimulates sex hormone ... "GENERIC NAME: COSYNTROPIN - INJECTABLE (koe-sin-TROW-pin)". Hormones (Athens). 2012 Oct-Dec;11(4):428-35. Is the 250 μg ACTH ... assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ...
Glucagon, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and ATP encourage gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is inhibited by AMP, ADP, and insulin ... Hormones released from the pancreas regulate the overall metabolism of glucose. Insulin and glucagon are the primary hormones ...
CRH Regulates secretion of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CRH is widely distributed in the brain and periphery CRH also ... HPA axis activity and cytokines are intrinsically intertwined: inflammatory cytokines stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ... Anti-inflammatory hormones that enhance the organism's response to a stressor. Prevent the overreaction of the body's own ... Release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress. CRH is a major regulator of the ...
Krueger RJ, Orme-Johnson NR (August 1983). "Acute adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation of adrenal corticosteroidogenesis". J ... Hormones that stimulate its production depend on the cell type and include luteinizing hormone (LH), ACTH and angiotensin II. ... Srivastava VK, Vijayan E, Hiney JK, Dees WL (October 2005). "Effect of ethanol on follicle stimulating hormone-induced ... which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones. It is primarily present in steroid-producing cells, ...
It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ... Two hormones are classically considered as being related to the posterior pituitary: oxytocin and vasopressin. These hormones ... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids. Hatton, GI ( ...
It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ... the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonadal steroids. Chong S, Lee ... control the secretion of pituitary hormones, while others (the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin) are released directly into ...
At this location, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is released. ACTH binds to the receptors in the adrenal glands, which are ... Because cortisol hormone enters the cell's nucleus, the effects of change take longer to occur, and last for a longer period of ... The hormone then reacts with receptors inside of the cell. The activated receptors reach the nucleus of the cells and regulate ... The changes include an increase in heart rate and a change in hormone cortisol levels. The first day of school, a family ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540, is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. ... This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009 "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ... Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There ...
The anterior pituitary in turn releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH induces the release of corticosteriods and ... Stress hormones influence the processes carried out in the hippocampus and amygdala which are also associated with emotional ... These stress hormones are also hindering the hippocampus from receiving enough energy by diverting glucose levels to ... The varying effects of stress on performance or stress hormones are often compared to or known as "inverted-u" which induce ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormoneEdit. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a pituitary peptide, also has some stimulating effect on ... Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in ... The aldosterone mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) complex binds on the DNA to specific hormone response element, which leads to ... Sharp GUG Leaf A 1966 in; Recent Progress in Hormone Research. (Pincus G, ed. ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone was approved in 2010 to treat infantile spasms. Everolimus was approved for treatment of TSC- ...
This hormone is regulated by another major hormone - adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Arginine vasotocin not only increases ... Arginine, vasotocin, and adrenocorticotropic are hormones secreted by the adrenal glands and are a key component in a newt's ... Generally these hormones are secreted from two types of chromaffin cells, but in T. carnifex they are only secreted from one ... An increase of this hormone results in the decreased permeability of the skin as well as a reduction of active sodium uptake, ...
Two of these are adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and follicle stimulating hormone. The physiological role for responses to ... A particularly important bone-targeted hormonal regulator is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone is a protein made ... The skeleton is also modified for reproduction and in response to nutritional and other hormone stresses; it responds to ... Nicks KM, Fowler TW, Gaddy D. (2010). "Reproductive hormones and bone." Curr Osteoporos Rep. 8: 60-7. doi: 10.1007/s11914-010- ...
Urocortin acts in vitro to stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Urotensin is found in the teleost caudal ... The paraventricular nucleus transports CRH to the anterior pituitary, stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a releasing hormone found mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian ... This family includes corticotropin-releasing hormone, urotensin-I, urocortin, and sauvagine. The family can be grouped into 2 ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone. ACTH. ACTH receptor. -. PP: Other. N-Acetylaspartylglutamate. NAAG. Metabotropic glutamate ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone. GHRH. Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. -. PP: Somatostatins. Somatostatin. ... hormones, neurotransmitters) from binding to and activating it. Antagonists may be "competitive" or "irreversible". ...
p. 7 Jefferies WM, Turner JC, Lobo M, Gwaltney JM (1998). "Low plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with ...
During the disorder the patient develops macroadenomas that secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The severity of the ... disease is dependent upon the effect of ACTH release on the skin, pituitary hormone loss, and the effect the tumor has on the ...
Raikhinstein M, Zohar M, Hanukoglu I (Feb 1994). "cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the bovine adrenocorticotropic hormone ... Hanukoglu I (Dec 1992). "Steroidogenic enzymes: structure, function, and role in regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis". ... in regulating steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex, regulation of adrenal steroidogenic capacity in disease states, ... Israel isolated the mitochondrial enzymes that catalyze the first step in the synthesis of steroid hormones in all ...
... adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-lipotropin. The formation of β-endorphin is then the result of cleavage of the C- ... However, POMC also gives rise to other peptide hormones, including α- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), resulting ... β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central ... β-endorphin and other enkephalins are often released with ACTH to modulate hormone system functioning. Neuroregulation by β- ...
Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ... the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.. •The hypothalamic- ... In particular, CRH and vasopressin stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), once known as corticotropin. ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ...
Cortisol is important in signalling inhibition of adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the pituitary. Reduced cortisol in ... They do so by inhibiting the release of gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone, both hormones in the pituitary, responsible for ... activating the anterior pituitary and signalling the release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stimulating the adrenal ... Androgen is a steroid hormone, generally associated with development of male sex organs and secondary male sex characteristics ...
Minton JE, Parsons KM (March 1993). "Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol response to corticotropin-releasing factor and ... Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as ... the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), into the vascular system, through which blood carries it to the adrenal cortex. ACTH ... "Asperger's stress hormone 'link'". BBC News Online. 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2010-04-30. Mescher EJ, Platzker AC, Ballard PL, ...
The resulting excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion led to the production of large amounts of cortisol by the adrenal ... Cushing's disease is a cause of Cushing's syndrome characterised by increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ... Any intermediate values need to be cautiously interpreted and a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test is advised in order ... Administration of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) can differentiate this condition from ectopic ACTH secretion. In a ...
... from the hypothalamus or of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pitui... ... which occurs when a lack of secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ... Safety of medications and hormones used in pediatric endocrinology: adrenal. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2004 Nov. 2 Suppl 1:134-45 ... Effects of dehydroepiandrostenedione, superimposed on growth hormone substitution, on quality of life and insulin-like growth ...
This article is about adrenocorticotropic hormone as a natural hormone. For adrenocorticotropic hormone as a medication and ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and ... Reference ranges for blood tests, showing adrenocorticotropic hormone (green at left) among the hormones with smallest ... Adrenocorticotropic+Hormone at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Your pituitary is a pea-sized gland at the base of the brain that produces ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). This hormone, in ... Dartmouth-Hitchcock: "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.". Johns Hopkins Medicine: "Pituitary Gland," "Overactive Adrenal Glands/ ... Poor hormone production by your pituitary and adrenal glands. How Should I Prepare for the Test?. If you take steroids, youll ... Because your hormone levels change during the day, you may have to have this done in the morning and once more later in the day ...
... Test Overview. An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic ... An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ... ACTH is made in the pituitary gland in response to the release of another hormone, called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH ... In turn, the adrenal glands then make a hormone called cortisol, which helps your body manage stress. Cortisol is needed for ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone (a chain of 10-100 amino acids acting as a ... History of "Adrenocorticotropic hormone". Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately ... Retrieved from //www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Adrenocorticotropic_hormone&oldid=684728 ... α-MSH is a member of a class of peptide hormones, collectively called melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), that are produced ...
adrenocorticotropic hormone synonyms, adrenocorticotropic hormone pronunciation, adrenocorticotropic hormone translation, ... English dictionary definition of adrenocorticotropic hormone. also adrenocorticotrophic hormone n. ACTH. a hormone of the ... Related to adrenocorticotropic hormone: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Test, follicle stimulating hormone, Adrenocorticotropic ... Examples of secreted hormones include prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH).. Pharmacological ...
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An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood to check for problems ... An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ... post a link to Adrenocorticotropic Hormone information on Facebook. ... post a link to Adrenocorticotropic Hormone information on Twitter. ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (ACTH deficiency) is a result of a decreased or absent production of adrenocorticotropic ... hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland. It can be associated with TBX19. Symptoms include weakness, hypoglycemia, weight loss ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is used as a medication and as diagnostic agent in the ACTH stimulation test. The form that is ... Adrenocorticotropic Hormone at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cosyntropin at the US ... "Treatment of nephrotic syndrome with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel". Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 5: 147-53. ... Both versions of the hormone are also used to perform the ACTH stimulation test to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism in dogs and ...
adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone synonyms, adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone pronunciation, ... adrenocorticotrophic hormone translation, English dictionary definition of adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone. ... a hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of steroids in the cortex of the adrenal glands.... ... Adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone - definition of adrenocorticotropic, adrenocorticotrophic hormone by The Free ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone for acute gout. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of ... Chen DR, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Schlesinger N. Adrenocorticotropic hormone for acute gout. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
ACTH is made by the pituitary gland and controls the production of a hormone called cortisol. Too much or too little cortisol ... This test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ... What is an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test?. This test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/adrenocorticotropic-hormone-acth/ Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH). ...
Supradiaphragmatic ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma * * Jung Shin JUNG Shin * Departments of Neurosurgery ... Ectopic Growth Hormone-Releasing Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus : Case Report MITSUYA Koichi , NAKASU Yoko , NIOKA Hirofumi , ... Growth of hormone and prolactin secretion by a tumor of the pharyngeal pituitary WARNER BA. ...
View source for Adrenocorticotropic hormone/Advanced. ← Adrenocorticotropic hormone/Advanced. Jump to: navigation, search ...
Collect on Ice. Spin down in a refrigerated centrifuge and immediately separate plasma from cells. Morning (6 a.m. -10:30 a.m.) specimen is desirable. For Outpatients, test should only be drawn in outpatient locations within a Hospital (Akron or Beeghly) Patient Preparation: 12 hours before this blood test do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin or vitamin B7, which are commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins ...
ACTH is made in the pituitary gland in response to the release of another hormone, called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH ... An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood to check for problems ... An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood to check for problems ... An adrenocorticotropic hormone test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ...
The Archives of Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumors Questions. Listed below are our archive of questions and answers ...
Corticotropin A tropic hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland resulting in the production and release of cortisol ... 2010) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. In: Preedy V.R., Watson R.R. (eds) Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures ... Public Health Stress Response Social Policy Pituitary Gland Adrenocorticotropic Hormone These keywords were added by machine ... A tropic hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland resulting in the production and release of cortisol from the ...
... is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an essential element of the hypothalamic-pituit.. ... Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary ...
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC); CAS Number: 4037-01-8; Synonym: ACTH4-10; Linear Formula: ... Lacks adrenocorticotropic activity. Biochem/physiol Actions Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 (ACTH (4-10)) attenuates ... Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC) Synonym: ACTH4-10 ... Adrenocorticotropic Hormones (ACTH), Cell Biology, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Peptides and Proteins, Peptides for Cell ...
Corticosteroids - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Corticosteroids
Hormones. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones. beta-Endorphin. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and ... Drug: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel (H.P. Acthar®) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel, a long-acting formulation ... Drug: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel (H.P. Acthar®) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel, a long-acting formulation ... Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Effects on Myelination in Subjects With MS. The safety and scientific validity of this study ...
Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro. By Jacob Kraicer, J. V. Milligan, J. L. Gosbee, R ... Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro. By Jacob Kraicer, J. V. Milligan, J. L. Gosbee, R ... Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Incubation of rat adenohypophyses in a high concentration of potassium increases adrenocorticotropic hormone release. This ...
Twenty-four hour plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in Gulf War veterans: relationships to posttraumatic stress ... Twenty four hour plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in Gulf War veterans * ... Twenty-four hour plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in Gulf War veterans: relationships to posttraumatic stress ... followed by blood sampling every half-hour over 24 hours for the measurement of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH ...
  • Instead, extremely high levels of the precursor hormone corticosterone are produced, some of which is converted to 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), a potent mineralocorticoid not normally clinically important in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various forms of MSH are generated from different cleavages of the proopiomelanocortin protein, which also yields other important neuropeptides like adrenocorticotropic hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a frequently sampled serum luteinizing hormone (LH) profile in a male patient with Kallmann syndrome (KS) in comparison with a healthy individual. (medscape.com)
  • Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels are within reference range in patients with classic Kallmann syndrome and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (medscape.com)
  • Hormone , organic substance secreted by plants and animals that functions in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis . (britannica.com)
  • The factors involved in the first appearance of the various hormones is largely a matter for conjecture, although hormones clearly are only one mechanism for chemical regulation, diverse forms of which are found in living things at all stages of development. (britannica.com)
  • Regulation of hormone production and release from the adrenal cortex involves the pituitary gland , a small gland located at the base of the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hormone sensitive lipase: structure, function and regulation" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This study also showed that when prenatally stressed rats were stressed in adulthood the females showed an increase in corticotropin-releasing hormone suggesting it to be an up-regulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Re-examination of the sequence of the C-terminal tryptic fragment from porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone. (elsevier.com)