Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Voice Training: A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).Pigmentation DisordersMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.

Stress-level cortisol treatment impairs inhibitory control of behavior in monkeys. (1/78)

Most studies of cortisol-induced cognitive impairments have focused on hippocampal-dependent memory. This study investigates a different aspect of cognition in a randomized placebo-controlled experiment with monkeys that were treated with cortisol according to a protocol that simulates a prolonged stress response. Young adult and older adult monkeys were assigned randomly to placebo or chronic treatment with cortisol in a 2 x 2 factorial design (n = 8 monkeys per condition). Inhibitory control of behavior was assessed with a test shown previously in primates to reflect prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Failure to inhibit a specific goal-directed response was evident more often in older adults. Treatment with cortisol increased this propensity in both older and young adult monkeys. Age-related differences in response inhibition were consistent across blocks of repeated test trials, but the treatment effects were clearly expressed only after prolonged exposure to cortisol. Aspects of performance that did not require inhibition were not altered by age or treatment with cortisol, which concurs with effects on response inhibition rather than nonspecific changes in behavior. These findings lend support to related reports that cortisol-induced disruptions in prefrontal dopamine neurotransmission may contribute to deficits in response inhibition and play a role in cognitive impairments associated with endogenous hypercortisolism in humans.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid resistance/hypersensitivity syndromes. (2/78)

Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids regulate diverse functions important to maintain central nervous system, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune homeostasis. The actions of these hormones are mediated by their specific intracellular receptors: the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Pathologic conditions associated with changes of tissue sensitivity to these hormones have been described. The syndrome of familial glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by hypercortisolism without Cushing's syndrome stigmata. The molecular defects of four kindreds and one sporadic case have been elucidated as inactivating mutations in the ligand-binding domain of GR. Two cases developed glucocorticoid resistance at the heterozygous state. In these patients, mutant receptors possessed transdominant negative activity upon the wild type receptor. Insensitivity to mineralocorticoids (which may also be caused by loss of function mutations of the MR gene) was found in one sporadic case and four autosomal dominant cases of Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. These included two frameshift mutations and a premature termination codon in exon 2, leading to gene products lacking the entire DNA- and ligand-binding domains, and a single base-pair deletion in the intron-5 splice donor site. Tissue hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids was recently hypothesized in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 infection via the accessory proteins Vpr and Tat which enhance GR transactivation. Since HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and glucocorticoid-responsive promoters use the same set of coactivators, these proteins may stimulate HIV-1-LTR and glucocorticoid-inducible genes concurrently. The former may directly stimulate viral proliferation, while the latter may indirectly enhance viral propagation by suppressing the host immune system through glucocorticoid-mediated mechanisms.  (+info)

Uptake ratio of (19-1311) cholesterol by adrenal glands as observed by a scintigraphic method. (3/78)

The adrenal scintigram was performed after administration of [19-131I] cholesterol. A high/low ratio of both adrenal glands was calculated to evaluate whether there is a difference between the left and right sides in adrenal diseases. During scanning, information was stored in a 64 X 64 matrix and then punched out on a computer compatible paper tape. This paper tape was processed with a small digital computer. The areas of interest were selected over adrenal glands. The computer decided mean counts per unit area. After subtraction of background counts, a high/low ratio of adrenal gland was calculated. In five patients with Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral hyperplasia, a high/low ratio ranged from 1.0 to 2.0. In four patients with primary aldosteronism due to adenoma, a high/low ratio ranged from 1.33 to 4.0. This method may be useful to differentiate bilateral hyperplasia from unilateral adrenocortical adenoma.  (+info)

From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a review of 16-year experience. (4/78)

OBJECTIVE: To review the experience with adrenal surgery which was associated with significant morbidity and notable mortality in the past, although laparoscopic approach is beginning to be accepted as the procedure of choice. METHODS: The indications and results of adrenalectomy in 104 patients (36 men, 68 women) over the past 16 years were reviewed. Any potential improvement of surgical results over time was analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (89%) had functional problems while malignancy was present in 11 patients (11%). Anterior approach was employed in 27 patients, posterior in 56, lateral in 10, and laparoscopic in 11. One patient required conversion from laparoscopic to anterior approach. No operative mortality was seen, but the morbidity occurred in 16.7%. Complication rate decreased significantly in this study period (1981-1990 versus 1991-1996, 22% versus 5%; P = 0.02). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was successfully performed for 59% of the patients requiring adrenalectomy recently, compared to 68% of posterior adrenalectomy in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal surgery is a safe procedure, associated with acceptable morbidity, which has decreased over time. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is becoming the preferred approach for the majority of patients requiring adrenalectomy.  (+info)

Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic human endogenous hypercortisolism. (5/78)

Osteoporosis is a common manifestation of Cushing's syndrome, but the mechanisms responsible for this abnormality have not been defined. With the objective of analyzing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in chronic hypercortisolism (CH), we evaluated 11 healthy subjects and 8 patients with CH, 6 with Cushing's disease and 2 with adrenal adenoma. These volunteers were submitted to tests of PTH stimulation through hypocalcemia (EDTA), PTH suppression through hypercalcemia (iv and oral calcium), and evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) by DEXA. During the test of PTH stimulation, the calcium and magnesium concentrations of the normal and CH groups were similar. Patients with CH showed an increased PTH response to the hypocalcemic stimulus compared to controls. PTH values were significantly higher in the CH group at 70 (17.5 +/- 3.5 vs 10.2 +/- 1.3 pmol/l, P = 0.04), and 120 min (26.1 +/- 5.9 vs 11.3 +/- 1.9 pmol/l, P = 0.008) of EDTA infusion. The area under the curve for PTH during EDTA infusion was also significantly higher in patients with CH than in normal subjects (1867 +/- 453 and 805 +/- 148 pmol l(-1) 2 h(-1), P = 0.02). During the test of PTH suppression, calcium, magnesium and PTH levels of the patients with hypercortisolism and controls were similar. BMD was decreased in patients with hypercortisolism in the spine (0.977 +/- 0.052 vs 1.205 +/- 0.038 g/cm2 in controls, P<0.01). In conclusion, our results show that subjects with CH present decreased bone mass mainly in trabecular bone. The use of dynamic tests permitted the detection of increased PTH secretion in response to a hypocalcemic stimulus in CH patients that may probably be involved in the occurrence of osteoporosis in this state.  (+info)

Arterial lesions in repeatedly bred spontaneously hypertensive rats. (6/78)

Repeatedly bred male and female rats of many strains develop hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis spontaneously. The intensity of their arterial disease and related metabolic derangements appear to be related to their reproductive activity. Repeatedly bred spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were found to have severe hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT, SGPT), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as high circulating corticosterone levels. Despite these atherogenic metabolic derangements and their severe hypertension, the breeder SHR did not develop the severe, generalized arteriosclerosis found in other strains of breeder rats. Instead, the arterial lesions, consisting of intimal hyalinization and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy, and occlusion of the lumen, were found only in male breeder SHR and were confined to the intratubular arteries of the testes. It is suggested that the severe hypertension, genetic influences, or differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal function in breeder SHR may not have been conducive to the development of arteriosclerosis in this particular strain of rats.  (+info)

Osteoporosis is more prevalent in adrenal than in pituitary Cushing's syndrome. (7/78)

Osteoporosis is the most common complication of Cushing's syndrome. We retrospectively examined the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in 42 female patients with Cushing's syndrome. Osteoporosis and atraumatic fractures were assessed by bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebral spine (L2-L4) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and X-ray examination. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture were 54.8% and 21.4%, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis (69.6% vs. 37.8%) and atraumatic bone fracture (26.1% vs. 15.8%) were significantly higher in patients with adrenal Cushing's than in those with pituitary Cushing's. AP and lateral BMD was significantly higher in patients with pituitary origin than in those with adrenal origin. Among several variables examined by multiple logistic regression, the etiology of Cushing's syndrome (adrenal vs. pituitary origin) was a significant factor affecting the prevalence of osteoporosis. Neither age, body mass index, duration of amenorrhea, nor extent of hypercortisolism were significant factors in this analysis. Plasma DHEA-S and urinary 17-KS excretion were significantly higher in pituitary Cushing's than in adrenal Cushing's. The present study shows that the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome is influenced by its etiology. A factor associated with pituitary Cushing's syndrome, such as adrenal androgen, may protect these patients from glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.  (+info)

CARCINOMA OF LUNG WITH ADRENAL HYPERFUNCTION AND HYPERCALCEMIA TREATED BY PARATHYROIDECTOMY. (8/78)

A case of severe hypercalcemia secondary to carcinoma of the lung is described in which hypokalemic alkalosis, renal failure and pancreatitis were also present. The relative importance of the few bone metastases found at autopsy is considered, and a probable endocrine-like effect of the tumour in the development of the hypercalcemia is postulated. Treatment of the hypercalcemia included administration of corticosteroids and disodium EDTA, peritoneal dialysis and subtotal parathyroidectomy; the most effective of these was peritoneal dialysis. Subtotal parathyroidectomy failed to produce a further decrease in serum calcium values. The occurrence of hypokalemic alkalosis in the presence of increased adrenocortical function and its relationship to the carcinoma of the lung are discussed. The possibility that this neoplasm produced two factors which caused systemic effects ordinarily associated with the function of endocrine glands must be considered.  (+info)

Naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Hyperadrenocorticism is caused by either excessive pituitary ACTH secretion, as in pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). Primary adrenocortical neoplasia has been diagnosed in 10 to 20% of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. The prevalence of adenomas and carcinomas in dogs with functioning adrenocortical tumors is approximately equal, and the right and left glands appear to be involved with equal frequency. Bilateral adrenocortical tumors resulting in hyperadrenocorticism are exceedingly rare in dogs. In a retrospective study conducted between 1983 and 1988 of 41 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism caused by adrenocortical neoplasia, 3 dogs (7%) were found to have bilateral adrenocortical neoplasia. The following is a case report of a dog that was diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism due to ...
Adrenocortical hyperfunction has occurred in association with carcinomas not originating in the adrenal glands. These cancers included those from the bronchus, thymus, pancreas, and prostate. The syndrome has been characterized by an acute onset, occurrence in young adults, and a short duration of life. The fulminating course appears to be due to the adrenal cortical overactivity.. Three patients have been studied: (1) a 23-year-old female with a small-cell carcinoma of the thyroid with extensive metastases, bilateral pheochromecytoma, and hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex; (2) a 33-year-old male with Hodgkins disease and adrenal hyperfunction; and (3) a 57-year-old male with metastatic ...
Trilostane. Currently the most common method for treating pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in Europe is oral administration of trilostane on a daily basis. Trilostane is a synthetic, orally active steroid analogue that competitively inhibits 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and hence synthesis of several steroids, including cortisol and aldosterone. This competitive inhibition is reversible and seems to be dose-related. There is also increasing evidence to suggest that trilostane may modify peripheral conversion of cortisol to cortisone and cause some degree of adrenocortical destruction in dogs with PDH.. In dogs peak trilostane concentrations are seen within 1.5 hours of dosing and decrease to baseline values in about 18 hours. Trilostane is variably absorbed after oral administration, at least partly due to its poor water solubility. Absorption may be enhanced by administering the drug with food although this phenomenon has not been investigated in dogs with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum Inhibin Concentration in Dogs with Adrenal Gland Disease and in Healthy Dogs. AU - Brömel, C.. AU - Nelson, Richard W. AU - Feldman, Edward C. AU - Munro, C. J.. AU - Kass, Philip H. AU - Vico, A. E.. AU - Labelle, P.. AU - Conley, Alan J. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Background: Studies in humans identified the synthesis and secretion of inhibin from adrenocortical tumors, but not pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Inhibin has not been examined in dogs as a serum biomarker for adrenal gland tumors. Objective: To determine serum inhibin concentration in dogs with adrenal gland disease and in healthy dogs. Animals: Forty-eight neutered dogs with adrenal disease including pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH, 17), adrenocortical tumor (18), and PHEO (13), and 41 healthy intact or neutered dogs. Methods: Prospective observational study. Dogs were diagnosed with PDH, adrenocortical tumor (hyperadrenocorticism or noncortisol secreting), or PHEO based on clinical signs, ...
Unfortunately, there is no perfect diagnostic test or test protocol for hyperadrenocorticism. The line between physiologic adrenal stress responses to non-adrenal illness and pathologic hyperfunction of the pituitary-adrenal axis can be fine indeed. As a consequence, false positive and false negative test results occur. The different available diagnostic protocols available have different properties, advantages and disadvantages but none is perfect. In establishing confidence that hyperadrenocorticism is confirmed or ruled out more than one diagnostic test protocol may be required. ACTH stimulation is a good screening test in the first instance and is the test of choice for diagnosing iatrogenic Cushings and monitoring anti-adrenal therapy. It has a lower false positive rate than the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test but a significant false negative rate. It will reliably diagnose about 85% of PDH cases but only 50% of ADH cases. It is quick and simple to perform and is less affected by ...
Vetoryl Capsules are indicated for the treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs and for the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenocortical tumor in dogs. It is also used for the treatment of Canine Cushings Syndrome. It is an adrenocortical suppressant for oral use in dogs only. Vetoryl is FDA approved. Prescription drugs are NONRETURNABLE and NONREFUNDABLE.
Hyperadrenocorticism is a rare condition in the cat, much more so than in the dog. The scarcity of true clinical cases means that there are few studies of diagnostic accuracy for the different screening tests. Unlike the situation in the dog, we do not have good information on diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In its absence, recommendations have been derived from studies in healthy cats and some extrapolated from the dog.. The clinical appearance of reported cases has been dramatic. Alopecia has not been a feature but potbelly and dramatic skin thinning have been. The skin may become so thin that it tears spontaneously or on handling.. The cat does not have a steroid induced iso-enzyme of alkaline phosphatase like that in the dog.. If feline hyperadrenocorticism is being considered as a differential diagnosis for insulin resistance in a diabetic, an investigation for acromegally (by IGF-1) may prove more fruitful.. ...
BACKGROUND: Serum cystatin C (sCysC) is used as biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on renal function in dogs are unclear. Some renal variables have been evaluated in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), but not sCysC. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was the validation ... read more of a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) for measuring canine sCysC, and to assess renal function in dogs with DM or HAC. METHODS: A PENIA was analytically validated for canine sCysC by determining imprecision and linearity. In a longitudinal 6-month study, renal function of 14 DM dogs was assessed, using serum creatinine, GFR, urinary protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio, urinary markers, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and sCysC, and compared to 17 healthy dogs at baseline. Furthermore, sCysC was measured at initial presentation and during a 12-month follow-up in 22 HAC dogs. RESULTS: The sCysC intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients were , ...
Chapman, P S and Kelly, D F and Archer, J and Brockman, D J and Neiger, R (2004) Adrenal necrosis in a dog receiving trilostane for the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism. JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, 45 (6). pp. 307-310. Full text not available from this repository ...
Small Breed Raw-Infused Superfood for Dogs Only Natural Pet PowerFusion Small Breed Feast features the specialty nutrition your small breed dog needs to thrive. Formulated specifically for dogs less than 50 lbs., this small breed dog food combines three amazing foods into one convenient, exceptionally tasty and nutriti
BACKGROUND. Adrenal tumors are uncommon in dogs and very rare in cats. Adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytoma are the most common adrenal tumors. Adrenocortical tumors cause hyperadrenocorticism (or Cushings disease). Pheochromocytomas can be an incidental finding or produce various non-specific signs because of the release of catecholamines. Both types of adrenal tumors can invade into the adjacent caudal vena cava (major abdominal vein) and kidney. Metastasis is uncommon.. DIAGNOSIS. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors can be difficult. Screening tests (such as urine cortisol-to-creatinine ratio, low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, and ACTH stimulation test) can confirm the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism and differentiate whether a pituitary or adrenal tumor is responsible for causing clinical signs. Abdominal ultrasound is necessary to document the presence of an adrenal mass. Ultrasound, contrast vascular radiographs, or CT scans may be necessary to determine invasion of the tumor into ...
Possible side effects of Posatex Otic Suspension: Side effects associated with this medication are related to the individual ingredients. The systemic administration of quinolones such as orbifloxacin has been shown to produce cartilage erosion of weight bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. Mometasone is a corticosteroid but is applied topically. Long term use of topical otic corticosteroids has been associated with adrenocortical suppression and iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism (Cushings disease). Posaconazole is an antifungal. Other side effects may also occur. Talk to your veterinarian about any side effect that seems unusual or bothersome to your pet ...
AvoDerm® Natural Revolving Menu Small Breed Dog Food - Grain Free, Limited Ingredient, Beef at PetSmart. Shop all dog dry food online
Shop Chewy for low prices and the best Silicone 2 Stars and Up Small Breeds Dog! We carry a large selection and the top brands like Frisco, PetSafe, and more. Find everything you need in one place. FREE shipping on orders $49+ and the BEST customer service!
Cushings Disease, which is common is dogs, is unfortunately very tricky to diagnose and is often discovered through a mix of symptom assessments and blood ...
This blog has been so helpful. I have an 11.5 year old male neutered min pin who weighs 18.6 lbs. His cushings was diagnosed 12 months ago with an acth stim test post corstisol sample of 34 (after a full blood screen with high alk phospates). In hindsight he probably had cushings for 2 years earlier as he was given up to the shelter where we got him and was there for some time with the same symptoms that led to the cushings diagnosis (frequent water drinking and urination, ravenous appetite, panting, pot belly). He has been on vetoryl 10mg once daily dosing for the past 12 months. His post acth samples have been 14, 12, 12 and 10.4. The recent test (pre: 3.3 / post 10.4) was done last week. We have seen some improvement in terms of drinking and urination lessening (used to urinate 10 times a day and now goes 6-7), however his ravenous eating has not improved and he still has such weakness in his hind legs. Do you think it is safe to raise the dose? Our vet feels he might crash but the vetoryl ...
This blog has been so helpful. I have an 11.5 year old male neutered min pin who weighs 18.6 lbs. His cushings was diagnosed 12 months ago with an acth stim test post corstisol sample of 34 (after a full blood screen with high alk phospates). In hindsight he probably had cushings for 2 years earlier as he was given up to the shelter where we got him and was there for some time with the same symptoms that led to the cushings diagnosis (frequent water drinking and urination, ravenous appetite, panting, pot belly). He has been on vetoryl 10mg once daily dosing for the past 12 months. His post acth samples have been 14, 12, 12 and 10.4. The recent test (pre: 3.3 / post 10.4) was done last week. We have seen some improvement in terms of drinking and urination lessening (used to urinate 10 times a day and now goes 6-7), however his ravenous eating has not improved and he still has such weakness in his hind legs. Do you think it is safe to raise the dose? Our vet feels he might crash but the vetoryl ...
We would like to send you information about relevant academic and professional offerings. Please check the box if you wish to receive such information. See our Privacy Policy. ...
Ark Naturals Sensitive Gums Brushless Toothpaste is a vet recommended dental solution for pets. The chew is an easily digestible gluten free dental chew with clinically proven, natural herbal ingredients that help your pet care for their own teeth between cleanings. Made with all-natural fresh flavors of alfalfa, vanilla and clove to help freshen breath. For small breed dogs between the weights of 8-20 pounds.FORMULATED FOR SMALL BREED DOGS: Our Vet recommended dental chew is specifically formulated for small to medium breed puppies and adult dogs between the weight of 8-20 pounds ...
Nutrition Facts Limited Ingredient Diets Chicken & Sweet Potato Formula Small Breed Bites® Dry Dog Food is a grain-free diet thats also designed to maintain your small breed dogs digestive health while supporting healthy skin and a shiny, luxurious coat. Smaller kibble is designed to accommodate the unique needs
With mighty souls but little bodies, your small breed dog has a unique physical composition that creates special nutritional needs. Our Small Breed Senior Recipe is designed to support the unique health needs of smaller dogs through nutrient-rich whole foods.
I have been a successful pet store manager of a major chain for over 14 years. I am passionate about pet health to the point where I am annoying to those around me. I am a huge believer in omega fatty acids for dogs and cats, especially after seeing the wonders they did for my own health. These vital nutrients are in very short supply in most typical dog and cat food, even the better brands. Within a month youll see a shinier coat, which is the exterior manifestation of good things happening from the inside out. Iherb is an excellent company to do business with: great selection and prices, and fast, reliable shipping. Click my reviewer name to see how you can save up to $10 off your first order (free shipping too!). Iherb is the place I trust for all my health needs: low prices, huge selection, unbeatable service, and fast, free shipping. You cant go wrong! ...
HDL and LDL determinations used in human medicine; values reported for HDL and LDL in dogs and cats cannot be assumed to be reliable.  Chylomicron test obtain serum sample after a 12-hour fast and refrigerate for 12-14 hours; do not freeze; chylomicrons rise to the surface and form a creamy layer.  Lipoprotein electrophoresis separates LDL, VLDL, HDL1, and HDL2  LPL activity collect serum for triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations and lipoprotein electrophoresis before and 15 min after IV administration of heparin (90 IU/kg); if there is no change in values before and after heparin administration, a defective LPL enzyme system should be suspected.  T and T determinations indicated if hypothyroidism is suspected  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test indicated if hyperadrenocorticism is DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES ...
Introduction. Hypertension may be defined as a chronic increasing of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systemic blood pressure is proportional to both cardiac output and total peripheral resistance, while physiological control depends on the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, prostaglandin, adrenergic and neurogenic factors. Moreover, many factors may interfere with blood pressure measurement values (such as age, sex, breed, behavior or environment and in particular, the system and place of measurement.) It is generally assumed that an animal is hypertensive when systolic/diastolic evaluation exceeds 180/100 mm Hg.. Hypertension may be primary (also defined as essential or idiopathic) due to multifactorial causes, including cardiac, neurological, renal, endocrine and metabolic aspects. Hypertension is defined as secondary when it occurs as a consequence of some underlying disease: renal problems or endocrine abnormalities (e.g., hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, ...
Treatment for candidiasis heavily involves improving and strengthening the immune system. In the case of diabetes, there is also an acute need to regulate the conditions complications and control hyperadrenocorticism. If the dog has any indwelling catheters, these must be removed. Medications that are typically used to treat candidiasis are applied to the skin or otherwise affected area.. ...
A Cytological Study of the Kidney Cell in Long Continued Hyperfunction with Relation to Hypertrophy and the Mitochondrial Apparatus (Classic ...
LABA monotherapy (without ICS) may increase risk of asthma-related events (death, hospitalizations, intubations). Do not initiate in rapidly or acutely deteriorating asthma. Not for use with other long-acting β2-agonists. Do not exceed recommended dose. Prescribe a short-acting, inhaled β2-agonist for acute symptoms; monitor for increased need. Monitor for signs/symptoms of pneumonia. Immunosuppressed. Tuberculosis. Systemic infections. Ocular herpes simplex. If exposed to chickenpox or measles, consider immune globulin prophylaxis or antiviral -treatment. Monitor for adrenal insufficiency when transferring from systemic steroids. May need supplemental systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or a severe asthma attack. May unmask previously suppressed allergic conditions. Reevaluate periodically. Monitor for hypercorticism and HPA axis suppression (if occurs, discontinue gradually), growth in children, IOP, glaucoma, or cataracts. Consider eye exams if ocular symptoms develop or in ...
Cookies are important for the proper functioning of a website. In order to improve your experience, we use cookies to keep the login information and provide a secure connection, collect the statistics to optimize the functionality of the website and adapt the content to your interests. Click on "Accept and Continue" to accept cookies and access to the website or you can refer to our Privacy Policy.. ...
Grain free from james wellbeloved now available at feedem.co.uk, buy james wellbeloved grain free senior small breed in 1.5kg bags to save
Whenever I start to see any of my Pomeranians coughing, gagging, or anything similar regularly, I instantly start to think what could be the issue. When it comes to Pomeranians and other small breeds, its very common for it to be a collapsed trachea, but there are other health issues that can lead to these symptoms.. But be aware, whenever you see your Pomeranian coughing regularly (especially in a loud honking noise), gagging after drinking or eating, or breathing heavily, any of the following issues could be the reason.. A collapsed trachea is one of the most common Pomeranian health problems out there. As is the case with other small breeds, the cartilage around their windpipe can easily degrade over time causing the windpipe to collapse on itself. Thankfully, this isnt a painful situation for our Pomeranians, but it certainly an uncomfortable one.. One of the easiest ways to reduce the degradation of your Pomeranians windpipe cartilage is to use a no-pull dog harness instead of a collar ...
Only The Good Stuff!65% pure animal ingredients & nutritious oils35% fruits, vegetables and other wholesome ingredientsRich in Omega Fatty AcidsMinimally processed & easily digestibleResponsibly sourced animal proteinsAdded probiotics for optimal digestionIndustry leading levels of glucosamine & chondroitin
DISCUSSION In this report a case of SEBD associated with keratoconjunctivitis and severe facial scarring in a dog and its successful treatment with prednisone and MMF as steroid sparing agent is described. After slowly tapering prednisone, over 6 months, to a very low dose on alternate days, the skin lesions remained well controlled for another 10 months when the dog was lost to follow-up. During that time, prednisone therapy could probably have been discontinued if the keratoconjuctivitis, which was of much concern to the owner, had responded to its specific treatment or if clinical signs of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism had been present. Clinical differential diagnoses for SEBD in the dog include BP, MMP, EBA, linear IgA dermatosis and bullous drug eruptions6. Precise differentiation among these dermatoses requires demonstration of circulating autoantibodies and their targeted antigens in the basement membrane zone. Other vesiculobullous dermatosis such as pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus ...
Natures Variety® Instinct® Raw Bites Small Breed Dog Food- Natural, Grain Free, Frozen Raw, Chicken at PetSmart. Shop all dog frozen food online
Generic Cialis online from authorised, on-line pharmacy in the U. Buy Ciprofloxacin (Travelers Diarrhea) for the lowest price guaranteed at UK Meds, an online doctor service. It is used for treating bone and joint infections as well. Ciprofloxacin,buy,online,uk Ciprofloxacin Buy Online Uk Buy Cialis/Viagra/Levitra Online! It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) is used to treat bacterial infections. It is used for treating bone and joint infections as well. S. Cleocin Ovuli 100 Mg At Treated. Org/? It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections. Whilethe term "Cushings disease" indicates the pituitary form of hyperadrenocorticism buy ciprofloxacin Where To Buy Fluconazole (Diflucan) online uk it isoften used interchangeably for all forms of hyperadrenocorticism Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) is used to treat bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin Cost Of Daily Cialis Prescription 500mg tablets available to dispense from a GPhC registered pharmacy with ...
Replied on 04/19/2011 Dogs with Cushings Disease (hyperadrenocorticism) often have suppressed immune systems because of the increased amount of cortisol in their bloodstreams produced by their adrenal glands. Wounds that would usually heal quickly in a normal patient may not heal or may get a secondary bacterial infection easily in a Cushings patient. It is also possible that this isnt just a benign cyst but a more malignant variant. Its probably best to have your dog rechecked by her veterinarian. If her hyperadrenocorticism has been well controlled previously its possible it no longer is and she needs an adjustment in her medication or that she has developed complications, such as diabetes, secondary to her Cushings disease. If all looks normal on her bloodwork its probably best to have this cyst surgically removed and a biopsy evaluated by a veterinary pathologist to make sure it isnt malignant. -Kara, DVM ...
Cushings syndrome (hyperadrenocorticism) is a condition in which there is an excess of cortisol. It may be caused by drugs, such as prednisone, or by an excess of the bodys own cortisol, caused by a pituitary or adrenal tumor.
Cushings disease, also called hyperadrenocorticism, is a condition that occurs mostly in dogs aged six years or more. This disease is characterised by cortisol overproduction in the adrenal glands. The disease can progress slowly, and dogs may not appear to be seriously ill for a long time.
Cushings Disease or Hyperadrenocorticism is a common endocrine disease in older dogs. The adrenal gland is located at the top of the kidney and is one of
A condition which leads to the overproduction of a steroid hormone, cortisol, Cushings disease in dogs or hyperadrenocorticism, usually affects middle-aged or older dogs.
Disease associated with hyperactivity of the adrenal gland is common in ferrets in North America that are more than 3 - 4 years old. In dogs and cats, this is condition is called hyperadrenocorticism or Cushings disease. It usually results from a pituitary gland tumor that produces a hormone causing the adrenal glands to produce excessive amounts of a steroid called cortisol. In ferrets, true Cushings disease does not occur. Although hyperactive adrenal glands and adrenal gland tumors occur, the overactive glands do not produce excessive cortisol levels. Instead, there is an increased production of other hormones (especially various sex hormones like estradiol and progesterone). When ferrets have adrenal gland disease, the most common initial sign is hair loss on the flanks, with or without pruritus (itchiness). Affected female ferrets develop an enlarged vulva, while males often have problems with urination due to prostate enlargement. Hair loss and a swollen vulva are also common signs of ...
Elevated cortisol and skin problems - Cushings (Hyperadrenocorticism) - Long Beach Animal Hospital. Revitol Skin Brightener Cream is your safe, herbal-based solution for a beautiful, glowing complexion.
Is Amnesia a common side effect of Spiractin? View Amnesia Spiractin side effect risks. Female, 60 years of age, was diagnosed with hyperadrenocorticism and took Spiractin 25 Mg Daily Oral.
The company said its Super5Mix Small Breed line now includes Small Breed Just for Puppy and Small Breed Healthy Weight varieties that provide necessary nutrition for growing dogs and those that need help achieving weight loss, respectively.. The Small Breed Just for Puppy recipe includes high-quality carbohydrates, proteins and fats to keep up with high-energy needs; antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables; and vitamins and minerals to help support healthy growth. A smaller kibble size for more petite mouths and teeth also is available. The Small Breed Healthy Weight, on the other hand, is made especially for overweight dogs and includes quality proteins - such as deboned turkey and salmon meal to help maintain lean muscle mass; pea fiber to naturally satisfy a dogs appetite; guaranteed levels of L-carnitine to help reduce overall body fat; and glucosamine and chondroitin to support hip and joint health.. The company said the products also cater to the special nutritional needs of small dogs, ...
Cushings Syndrome also called hypercortisolism: symptoms, cause, treatment, long-term outlook, complications, prevention, risks
Increased risk of asthma-related events (death, hospitalizations, intubations) with LABA monotherapy (without ICS). Do not initiate in rapidly or acutely deteriorating asthma. Not for use with other long-acting β2-agonists. Do not exceed recommended dose. Prescribe a short-acting, inhaled β2-agonist for acute symptoms; monitor for increased need. Immunosuppressed. Tuberculosis. Systemic infections. Ocular herpes simplex. If exposed to chickenpox or measles, consider immune globulin prophylaxis or antiviral -treatment. Monitor for adrenal insufficiency when transferring from systemic steroids. May need supplemental systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or severe asthma attack. May unmask previously suppressed allergic conditions. Reevaluate periodically. Monitor for hypercorticism and HPA axis suppression (if occurs, discontinue gradually), growth in children, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, or cataracts. Discontinue if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs; use alternative therapy. ...
Find local small breed puppies in dogs and puppies for sale and rehoming in Cheshire. Rehome buy and sell, and give an animal a forever home with Preloved!
To support their rapid physical development, small breed puppies benefit from a diet rich in proteins and fats from a diversity of fresh whole meats.
North of Edmonton, Breeding short & long coat CKC Registered Chihuahua pups & dogs as well as boarding small breed dogs in a home environment.
Royal Canin Vet Diet Satiety Small Dog is a complete feed for small breed dogs who suffer from obesity. Key Benefits: Satietogenic effect - Contains a...
Hills Prescription Diet Canine z/d Mini Food Sensitivities is a hypoallergenic food for small breed dogs, proven to help reduce skin and digestive problems.
What is Protein-Focused Nutrition?. › Wellness® CORE® is based on the nutritional philosophy that pets, based on their primal ancestry, thrive on a diet mainly comprised of meat. Each formula is packed with a high concentration of quality animal protein, without fillers or grains, along with a proprietary blend of botanicals and nutritional supplements.. ›This unique, grain-free recipe supports and nurtures your pets inside…their essence…their core.. › To create a protein-focused diet the Wellness Way, we carefully control the quality and quantity of the ingredients we use, and pay close attention to the individual properties of each inclusion. From source to bowl, we make no exceptions!. › If you are looking for a food with more meat and no grains, CORE is truly a more thoughtful alternative. This diet delivers the meat content youre looking for, while creating a balanced profile of high quality, natural ingredients appropriate for everyday feeding.. › Supporting your pets ...
Although weight gain and obesity are nearly universal features of Cushings syndrome, we hypothesized that screening results would have poor specificity in an ob...
Cavachon. Like its parents, the cavachon is a small breed of dog. The dog typically weighs between 15 and 18 pounds. Although these dogs ar
Canine Arthritis found in: Joint Rescue Super Strength Chewable for Dogs, Agile Joints - Dog Arthritis and Joint Support, Agile Joints PLUS for Dogs with MSM, Nupro Joint Support Supplement - Small Breed, Nupro Joint Support..
Sara Stoneburg - PITUITARY-DEPENDENT HYPERADRENOCORTICISM IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (Leontopithecus rosalia). Rachel Jania - FIVE YEARS OF HORMONE-ASSISTED CAPTIVE PROPAGATION IN HOUSTON TOADS (Anaxyrus houstonensis): MEDICAL CHALLENGES AND LESSONS LEARNED. Ainjil Bills - ESTABLISHING NORMAL THYROID HORMONE VALUES FOR THE MALE GIANT PANDA (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Holly Wojciechowski - SPINAL OSTEOARTHRITIS IN MALE LIONS (Panthera leo). Lauren Kane - EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TERRAPENE HERPESVIRUS 1 IN FREE-RANGING BOX TURTLES. Sarah Wahlstrom - OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY AND MANAGEMENT OF POST-OPERATIVE INCISIONAL COMPLICATIONS IN A NORTHERN SEA OTTER (Enhydra lutris). Megan Hirano - GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITE BURDEN OF CAPTIVE PRZEWALSKIS HORSES (Equus przewalskii) IN NATURALLY VERSUS TRADITIONALLY MANAGED HERDS. 2016 - Veterinary Student Accepted Manuscript Presenters and Posters:. Kelleen Johnson - Trends of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus spp. Latirostris) rehabilitation efforts at Tampas Lowry Park ...
Author(s): Couper JJ, Hutson JM, Warne GL. Source: European Journal of Pediatrics. 1993 January; 152(1): 9-11. cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=A bstract&list_uids=8444215 • Hydrops of placental stem villi complicated with fetal congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Author(s): Furuhashi M, Oda H, Nakashima T. Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2000 September; 264(2): 101-4. cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=A bstract&list_uids=11045335 • Hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis in salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2003 April; 38(4): 633-4. Review. cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=A bstract&list_uids=12677584 32 Adrenal Hyperplasia • Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia caused by a novel splicing mutation in the gene for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Author(s): Gonzalez AA, Reyes ML, Carvajal CA, Tobar JA, Mosso LM, Baquedano P, Solar A, Venegas A, Fardella CE. Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2004 February; ...
Patellar Luxation (or "loose knees") is a common condition in dogs, especially small breeds. The dog knee is very similar in structure to the human knee, with the patella (kneecap) sliding in a groove in the femur (thigh bone) within the patellar tendon. Depending on the severity of the condition, when the patella luxates, or slides out of its groove, it may be sudden and painful, or it may become chronic and spend most of its time out on either side of the knee. In small-breed dogs, the patella most often slides medially, or towards the dogs midline, is usually seen in both knees, and can produce a bow-legged deformity of the rear legs. This medial sliding of the patella puts abnormal forces on the bones and muscles of the leg, causing progressive deterioration of the cartilage in the knee joint and eventual arthritis. These abnormal forces also cause the tibia (calf bone) to rotate inward, further worsening the condition. Read More... ...
What Is Cushings? Cushings syndrome, also known as hypercortisolism or hyperadrenocorticism, is an endocrine disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the bodys tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol (in the blood) from a variety of causes, including primary pituitary adenoma (known as Cushings disease), primary adrenal hyperplasia or neoplasia, ectopic ACTH production (e.g., from a small cell lung cancer), and iatrogenic (steroid use). It is relatively rare and most commonly affects adults aged 20 to 50. An estimated 10 to 15 of every million people are affected each year. Cushings was discovered by American physician, surgeon and endocrinologist Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) and reported by him in 1932. Normally, cortisol is released from the adrenal glands in response to ACTH being released from the pituitary gland. Both Cushings syndrome and Cushings disease are characterized by elevated levels of cortisol in the blood, but the cause of elevated cortisol differs between the two. ...
human endocrine system - Endocrine hyperfunction: Endocrine glands that produce increased amounts of hormone are considered hyperfunctional and may undergo hypertrophy (increase in the size of each cell) and hyperplasia (increase in the number of cells). The hyperfunction may be primary, caused by some abnormality within the gland itself, or...
Synonyms for Cushing Disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cushing Disease. 1 synonym for Cushings syndrome: hyperadrenocorticism. What are synonyms for Cushing Disease?
Some endocrine diseases (i.e. diseases that are due to a hormonal dysfunction) that can cause polyuria and polydipsia in dogs are diabetes, Cushings disease (hyperadrenocorticism) and Addisons disease (hypoadrenocorticism). There are blood and urine tests that your vet can carry out to try to establish whether or not your dog has one of these conditions.. One of the other electrolyte imbalances that can cause your dog to drink and urinate more is hypercalcaemia, which is when there is too much calcium in the blood which causes damage to the kidneys. This can happen for different reasons, including as an effect of some cancers, which is one reason why its important to investigate if you notice this problem in your pet.. Another cause of polyuria and polydipsia that it is important to know (especially if you own a female dog that has not been neutered) is pyometra, which is an infection of the uterus that usually occurs 2 to 12 weeks following a season and can be life-threatening if left ...
Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication used for the treatment of serious, deep fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis in dogs, cats, and other pets. It may also be used against some yeast and dermatophyte (ringworm) infections. It has also been used to treat Cushings disease (hyperadrenocorticism) in dogs. Contact your veterinarian if your pet experiences lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, liver toxicity (jaundice - yellowing of gums, skin, or eyes) or bleeding problems while being treated with ketoconazole. Itraconazole, a similar medication, generally produces fewer side effects although it is more expensive.. ...
In the beginning the owners may notice hair loss in places where the leash contacts the skin, thinning fur , loss of coat . The coat of the animal begins to remind " baby hair " or look discolored. Some dogs with complete loss of hair showed a strong hyperpigmentation of the skin, it is believed that is a reaction by exposure to sunlight . Characteristically there is growth of hair in places of skin biopsy or operative wounds.. Except for the cosmetic effect of the disease , the animals show no other clinical signs and no evidence of systemic pathological changes.. Diagnosis of this disease is placed on the basis of exclusion. The main diseases that should be excluded from the list of differential diagnoses are hyperadrenocorticism , hypothyroidism, hiperestrogenizam , seasonal alopecia and other breed - specific diseases of the hair cycle. After excluding systemic diseases , skin biopsy can show off disease and inflammatory diseases such as seborrhea adenitis and folliculitis.. Your ...
Shop Chewy for low prices and the best Buckle-Down Small Breeds Polyester Multi Dog Collars! We carry a large selection and the top brands like Blueberry Pet, Buckle-Down, and more. Find everything you need in one place. FREE shipping on orders $49+ and the BEST customer service!
Looking for Wellness Small Breed Super5mix Dry Dog Food, Adult Health Recipe? Order from FreshDirect now for fast delivery. 100% happiness guarantee!
Get Purina Pro Plan FOCUS Small Breed Formula Adult Dry Dog Food, 34 Pound Bag at Pet Supplies Plus, Your Convenient Neighborhood Pet Store
The abnormal development and formation of the mandibular tooth, a molar located three teeth away from the midline of the jaw, is an oral health issue seen primarily in small breed dogs.
VETERINARY CASE STUDY: Hepatic encephalopathy can be associated with extra-hepatic portosystemic shunts and/or hepatic microvascular dysplasia in small breed dogs. Pending surgical intervention, if an option, medical management of hepatic encephalopathy can help prevent secondary sequela.
Natural omega 3 fish oil for dogs cats soft chew rebatekey dr bill s feline optimum skin coat pet supplement with type omega fatty acid for cats small breed dogs 60 capsules natural omega 3 fish oil for dogs cats soft chew rebatekey kala health dermatrix for dogs and cats 180 ct helps treat dry. ...
|h4|Royal Canin Mini Adult Beauty Wet Cans (12x195g)|/h4| |p| Small dogs (up to 10kg - adult weight) with sensitive skin |/p| |p| HEALTHY SKIN|br /| Beauty has been specially formulated for small breed dogs (up to 10kg - adult weight) to support s
The Wolf Prize in Mathematics for foundation of algebraic analysis, theories of hyperfunction and micro-local hyperfunction, Holonomic quantum field theory, and creation of algebraic analysis including a unified theory of soliton equations ...
The founders of an Osbournby-based pet rescue charity are seeing more and more cases needing their help due to an aging population.
Glucosamine For Dogs found in: Nupro Joint Support Supplement - Small Breed, Sea Mobility Joint Rescue - Chicken Jerky, Agile Joints - Dog Arthritis and Joint Support, Nupro Joint Support Supplement - Large Breed, Joint Rescue..
Sometimes blood work is also recommended at the yearly exam for animals that seem perfectly healthy. Geriatric patients are generally dogs over 6 years of age for larger breeds and 8 years of age for small breeds and cats. With these older patients we often recommend baseline blood work as up to 40% of geriatric patients may have abnormal blood work despite not showing any outward signs of disease. This allows us to make an earlier diagnosis and start treatment before the condition is as severe. Even if blood work is perfectly normal we have gained valuable information in knowing the pets "normal values" so that if he or she does become sick we can monitor any changes or trends ...
YOUR SMALL BREED AND HYPOGLYCEMIA Hypoglycemia? Even the word sounds complicated! But, hypoglycemia isnt a virus or a disease. Hypoglycemia is a reacti
Any http://orderretin-aonline.online/ order retin a online segment, retin a cream gummatous dapsone, ensured wards, http://20mg-noprescription-cialis.store/ cialis.com stringing cialis 20 mg salvageable, standards medication salt-losing http:// ...
Q: How should we report hydration services that run past midnight into the next calendar day along with other drug administration services on a UB04 claim form?
When the colorful 1980s on their download midnight cowboy and is their print, you will Now be an facet Study. I is; family please to Explore participants. being immensely s real readers.
The epub abarat absolute midnight 2011 you direct been played an development: date cannot create formed. Your bank were a role that this Ft. could notably make. The proxy does well adopted.
Economic calendar widget forex factory #### MIDNIGHT TRADING STRATEGY Solforex #### Conglomerate diversification strategy examples
υπότιτλοι Greys Anatomy In the Midnight Hour - υπότιτλοι Ελληνικά. Επιφάνεια εργασίας, 1CD (ell). Ανέβηκε 2008-11-24, Κατέβηκε 572x.
Making things even more complicated, Julians brother Mark-who was captured by the faeries five years ago-has been returned as a bargaining chip. The faeries are desperate to find out who is murdering their kind-and they need the Shadowhunters help to do it. But time works differently in faerie, so Mark has barely aged and doesnt recognize his family. Can he ever truly return to them? Will the faeries really allow it ...
Lada G, Gyódi E, Gláz E (1977). "HLA antigens in patients with adrenocortical hyperfunction". Acta Med Acad Sci Hung. 34 (4): ... Among these were coeliac disease, autoimmune active chronic hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, Adrenocortical hyperfunction- ...
... is a condition where there is an overexpression of products of the adrenal cortex. When cortisol ...
Other adrenocortical overactivity (E27.1) Primary adrenocortical insufficiency Addison's disease (E27.2) Addisonian crisis ( ... Polyglandular hyperfunction (E32) Diseases of thymus (E32.0) Persistent hyperplasia of thymus Hypertrophy of thymus (E32.1) ... E27.3) Drug-induced adrenocortical insufficiency (E27.4) Other and unspecified adrenocortical insufficiency Hypoaldosteronism ... Adrenocortical insufficiency NOS (E27.5) Adrenomedullary hyperfunction (E28) Ovarian dysfunction (E28.0) Estrogen excess (E28.1 ...
... familial Adrenal cancer Adrenal disorder Adrenal gland hyperfunction Adrenal gland hypofunction Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital ... hypoplasia Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis Adrenal medulla neoplasm Adrenocortical ...
Adrenocortical carcinoma, cancer of the adrenal cortex Adrenal incidentaloma, an adrenal tumor (of any type) discovered ... Adrenal disorders may cause hyperfunction or hypofunction, and may be congenital or acquired. The adrenal gland produces ...
Most notably she discovered with Webb E. Haymaker that Cushing's disease is caused by hyper function of the Adrenal cortex. ... adreno-cortical thyroid hormone or ACTH) in 1934. Evelyn Anderson was born in Willmar, Minnesota to Swedish immigrants parents ...
Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or ... Pohorecky LA, Wurtman RJ (March 1971). "Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis". Pharmacological Reviews. 23 (1): 1-35 ...
Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or ... "Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis". Pharmacological Reviews. 23 (1): 1-35. PMID 4941407 ...
Other endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasms including adrenocortical and thyroid tumors, visceral and cutaneous lipomas, ... Hyperfunction. *aldosterone: Hyperaldosteronism/Primary aldosteronism *Conn syndrome. *Bartter syndrome. *Glucocorticoid ...
... acute adrenocortical insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma crisis, hypercalcemic crisis, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma and pituitary ... Hyperfunction. *aldosterone: Hyperaldosteronism/Primary aldosteronism *Conn syndrome. *Bartter syndrome. *Glucocorticoid ...
Adrenocortical hyperfunction has occurred in association with carcinomas not originating in the adrenal glands. These cancers ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction in Cancer. B. J. Kennedy, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction in Cancer.. Ann Intern Med. 1961;54:1045. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-54-5-1045_2 ... a 33-year-old male with Hodgkins disease and adrenal hyperfunction; and (3) a 57-year-old male with metastatic ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Melanosis. Hyperpigmentation. Pigmentation ... Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism ... Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism ... Defining the Genetic Basis for the Development of Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) and the Carney ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. *Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). *Anterior Segment Inflammation. *Aspiration Pneumonitis. *Asthma ...
It may cause masculinization in girls, precocious puberty in boys, and adrenocortical failure (see Addisons disease) in both ... this leads to a hyperfunction and increased size (hyperplasia) of the adrenals. ...
Adrenocortical hyperfunction is a condition where there is an overexpression of products of the adrenal cortex. When cortisol ...
ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION. D000308. EFO:1000797. ADRENAL GLAND HYPERFUNCTION. 4. DailyMed. BURSITIS. D002062. EFO:1000941. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland ... Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically- ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Pathologic Processes. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. Congenital ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Hyperpituitarism. Pituitary Diseases. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Disorders of Sex Development. Endocrine System Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Gonadal ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Hyperplasia. Pathologic Processes. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. ... Adrenocortical function. Adrenal hyperplasia, Congenital. 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Adrenogenital Syndrome. Adolescents. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Hyperandrogenism. Pathologic Processes. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. ...
CT and MR imaging of massive macronodular adrenocortical disease: a rare cause of autonomous primary adrenal hypercortisolism. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System Diseases. ... Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction Adrenal Gland Hypofunction Cushings Syndrome Healthy Drug: Ovine Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone ( ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Pathologic Processes. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. Congenital ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Growth Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Hormones. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. ... Suspected or known adrenocortical cancer or adenomas, as judged by ACTH values less than 10 pg/ml and adrenal mass ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Eplerenone. Spironolactone. Mineralocorticoid ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Mifepristone. Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cushing's Syndrome ACTH-secreting Pituitary Adenoma Adrenocortical ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Hormones. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Epinephrine. Racepinephrine. Epinephryl borate ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Hyperandrogenism. Oligomenorrhea. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Ovarian Cysts. Cysts. Neoplasms ... The adrenal glands are the only source in the body of adrenocortical steroids. In normal physiology, the pituitary hormone ACTH ... Dysregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by the development of hyperplasia of the adrenocortical tissue, ... Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia (BAH) is now an increasingly diagnosed cause of adrenal dysfunction. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Pathologic Processes. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. Congenital ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Dementia. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Tauopathies. ...
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Results: In neutered dogs, median inhibin concentration was significantly higher in dogs with adrenocortical tumors (0.82 ng/mL) and PDH (0.16 ng/mL) than in dogs with PHEO and healthy dogs (both undetectable). (elsevier.com)
  • Median inhibin concentration was significantly higher in dogs with adrenocortical tumors than in those with PDH and decreased after adrenalectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • Other than this broad ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent categories, the syndrome may be caused by ectopic CRH secretion, PPNAD, MAH, ectopic action of GIP or catecholamines, and other adrenel-dependent processes associated with adrenocortical hyperfunction. (pubfacts.com)