A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

Stress-level cortisol treatment impairs inhibitory control of behavior in monkeys. (1/78)

Most studies of cortisol-induced cognitive impairments have focused on hippocampal-dependent memory. This study investigates a different aspect of cognition in a randomized placebo-controlled experiment with monkeys that were treated with cortisol according to a protocol that simulates a prolonged stress response. Young adult and older adult monkeys were assigned randomly to placebo or chronic treatment with cortisol in a 2 x 2 factorial design (n = 8 monkeys per condition). Inhibitory control of behavior was assessed with a test shown previously in primates to reflect prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Failure to inhibit a specific goal-directed response was evident more often in older adults. Treatment with cortisol increased this propensity in both older and young adult monkeys. Age-related differences in response inhibition were consistent across blocks of repeated test trials, but the treatment effects were clearly expressed only after prolonged exposure to cortisol. Aspects of performance that did not require inhibition were not altered by age or treatment with cortisol, which concurs with effects on response inhibition rather than nonspecific changes in behavior. These findings lend support to related reports that cortisol-induced disruptions in prefrontal dopamine neurotransmission may contribute to deficits in response inhibition and play a role in cognitive impairments associated with endogenous hypercortisolism in humans.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid resistance/hypersensitivity syndromes. (2/78)

Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids regulate diverse functions important to maintain central nervous system, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune homeostasis. The actions of these hormones are mediated by their specific intracellular receptors: the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Pathologic conditions associated with changes of tissue sensitivity to these hormones have been described. The syndrome of familial glucocorticoid resistance is characterized by hypercortisolism without Cushing's syndrome stigmata. The molecular defects of four kindreds and one sporadic case have been elucidated as inactivating mutations in the ligand-binding domain of GR. Two cases developed glucocorticoid resistance at the heterozygous state. In these patients, mutant receptors possessed transdominant negative activity upon the wild type receptor. Insensitivity to mineralocorticoids (which may also be caused by loss of function mutations of the MR gene) was found in one sporadic case and four autosomal dominant cases of Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. These included two frameshift mutations and a premature termination codon in exon 2, leading to gene products lacking the entire DNA- and ligand-binding domains, and a single base-pair deletion in the intron-5 splice donor site. Tissue hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids was recently hypothesized in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 infection via the accessory proteins Vpr and Tat which enhance GR transactivation. Since HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and glucocorticoid-responsive promoters use the same set of coactivators, these proteins may stimulate HIV-1-LTR and glucocorticoid-inducible genes concurrently. The former may directly stimulate viral proliferation, while the latter may indirectly enhance viral propagation by suppressing the host immune system through glucocorticoid-mediated mechanisms.  (+info)

Uptake ratio of (19-1311) cholesterol by adrenal glands as observed by a scintigraphic method. (3/78)

The adrenal scintigram was performed after administration of [19-131I] cholesterol. A high/low ratio of both adrenal glands was calculated to evaluate whether there is a difference between the left and right sides in adrenal diseases. During scanning, information was stored in a 64 X 64 matrix and then punched out on a computer compatible paper tape. This paper tape was processed with a small digital computer. The areas of interest were selected over adrenal glands. The computer decided mean counts per unit area. After subtraction of background counts, a high/low ratio of adrenal gland was calculated. In five patients with Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral hyperplasia, a high/low ratio ranged from 1.0 to 2.0. In four patients with primary aldosteronism due to adenoma, a high/low ratio ranged from 1.33 to 4.0. This method may be useful to differentiate bilateral hyperplasia from unilateral adrenocortical adenoma.  (+info)

From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a review of 16-year experience. (4/78)

OBJECTIVE: To review the experience with adrenal surgery which was associated with significant morbidity and notable mortality in the past, although laparoscopic approach is beginning to be accepted as the procedure of choice. METHODS: The indications and results of adrenalectomy in 104 patients (36 men, 68 women) over the past 16 years were reviewed. Any potential improvement of surgical results over time was analyzed. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (89%) had functional problems while malignancy was present in 11 patients (11%). Anterior approach was employed in 27 patients, posterior in 56, lateral in 10, and laparoscopic in 11. One patient required conversion from laparoscopic to anterior approach. No operative mortality was seen, but the morbidity occurred in 16.7%. Complication rate decreased significantly in this study period (1981-1990 versus 1991-1996, 22% versus 5%; P = 0.02). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was successfully performed for 59% of the patients requiring adrenalectomy recently, compared to 68% of posterior adrenalectomy in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal surgery is a safe procedure, associated with acceptable morbidity, which has decreased over time. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is becoming the preferred approach for the majority of patients requiring adrenalectomy.  (+info)

Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic human endogenous hypercortisolism. (5/78)

Osteoporosis is a common manifestation of Cushing's syndrome, but the mechanisms responsible for this abnormality have not been defined. With the objective of analyzing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in chronic hypercortisolism (CH), we evaluated 11 healthy subjects and 8 patients with CH, 6 with Cushing's disease and 2 with adrenal adenoma. These volunteers were submitted to tests of PTH stimulation through hypocalcemia (EDTA), PTH suppression through hypercalcemia (iv and oral calcium), and evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) by DEXA. During the test of PTH stimulation, the calcium and magnesium concentrations of the normal and CH groups were similar. Patients with CH showed an increased PTH response to the hypocalcemic stimulus compared to controls. PTH values were significantly higher in the CH group at 70 (17.5 +/- 3.5 vs 10.2 +/- 1.3 pmol/l, P = 0.04), and 120 min (26.1 +/- 5.9 vs 11.3 +/- 1.9 pmol/l, P = 0.008) of EDTA infusion. The area under the curve for PTH during EDTA infusion was also significantly higher in patients with CH than in normal subjects (1867 +/- 453 and 805 +/- 148 pmol l(-1) 2 h(-1), P = 0.02). During the test of PTH suppression, calcium, magnesium and PTH levels of the patients with hypercortisolism and controls were similar. BMD was decreased in patients with hypercortisolism in the spine (0.977 +/- 0.052 vs 1.205 +/- 0.038 g/cm2 in controls, P<0.01). In conclusion, our results show that subjects with CH present decreased bone mass mainly in trabecular bone. The use of dynamic tests permitted the detection of increased PTH secretion in response to a hypocalcemic stimulus in CH patients that may probably be involved in the occurrence of osteoporosis in this state.  (+info)

Arterial lesions in repeatedly bred spontaneously hypertensive rats. (6/78)

Repeatedly bred male and female rats of many strains develop hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis spontaneously. The intensity of their arterial disease and related metabolic derangements appear to be related to their reproductive activity. Repeatedly bred spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were found to have severe hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT, SGPT), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as high circulating corticosterone levels. Despite these atherogenic metabolic derangements and their severe hypertension, the breeder SHR did not develop the severe, generalized arteriosclerosis found in other strains of breeder rats. Instead, the arterial lesions, consisting of intimal hyalinization and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy, and occlusion of the lumen, were found only in male breeder SHR and were confined to the intratubular arteries of the testes. It is suggested that the severe hypertension, genetic influences, or differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal function in breeder SHR may not have been conducive to the development of arteriosclerosis in this particular strain of rats.  (+info)

Osteoporosis is more prevalent in adrenal than in pituitary Cushing's syndrome. (7/78)

Osteoporosis is the most common complication of Cushing's syndrome. We retrospectively examined the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in 42 female patients with Cushing's syndrome. Osteoporosis and atraumatic fractures were assessed by bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebral spine (L2-L4) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and X-ray examination. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture were 54.8% and 21.4%, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis (69.6% vs. 37.8%) and atraumatic bone fracture (26.1% vs. 15.8%) were significantly higher in patients with adrenal Cushing's than in those with pituitary Cushing's. AP and lateral BMD was significantly higher in patients with pituitary origin than in those with adrenal origin. Among several variables examined by multiple logistic regression, the etiology of Cushing's syndrome (adrenal vs. pituitary origin) was a significant factor affecting the prevalence of osteoporosis. Neither age, body mass index, duration of amenorrhea, nor extent of hypercortisolism were significant factors in this analysis. Plasma DHEA-S and urinary 17-KS excretion were significantly higher in pituitary Cushing's than in adrenal Cushing's. The present study shows that the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome is influenced by its etiology. A factor associated with pituitary Cushing's syndrome, such as adrenal androgen, may protect these patients from glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.  (+info)


A case of severe hypercalcemia secondary to carcinoma of the lung is described in which hypokalemic alkalosis, renal failure and pancreatitis were also present. The relative importance of the few bone metastases found at autopsy is considered, and a probable endocrine-like effect of the tumour in the development of the hypercalcemia is postulated. Treatment of the hypercalcemia included administration of corticosteroids and disodium EDTA, peritoneal dialysis and subtotal parathyroidectomy; the most effective of these was peritoneal dialysis. Subtotal parathyroidectomy failed to produce a further decrease in serum calcium values. The occurrence of hypokalemic alkalosis in the presence of increased adrenocortical function and its relationship to the carcinoma of the lung are discussed. The possibility that this neoplasm produced two factors which caused systemic effects ordinarily associated with the function of endocrine glands must be considered.  (+info)

Adrenocortical hyperfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Cushing's syndrome: This is a rare hormonal disorder caused by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. It can be caused by a benign tumor in the pituitary gland or an adrenal gland, or by taking too much corticosteroid medication.
2. Adrenocortical carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. It can cause excessive production of cortisol and other hormones.
3. Familial Cushing's syndrome: This is a genetic disorder that causes excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands.
4. Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production of hormones by the adrenal glands, leading to excessive production of cortisol and aldosterone.
5. Licorice ingestion: Consuming large amounts of licorice can cause an increase in the production of cortisol and other hormones by the adrenal glands.
6. Primary aldosteronism (PA): This is a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the production of hormones by the adrenal glands, leading to excessive production of aldosterone and cortisol.
7. Secondary adrenocortical hyperfunction: This can occur due to various conditions such as thyroid disorders, pituitary tumors, or other endocrine disorders that affect the regulation of hormone production by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of adrenocortical hyperfunction may include:

1. Weight gain and central obesity
2. Increased appetite and food cravings
3. Fatigue and weakness
4. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
5. Insomnia and sleep disturbances
6. High blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors
7. Easy bruising and poor wound healing
8. Muscle weakness and fatigue
9. Thinning of the skin and bones (osteoporosis)
10. Increased risk of infections and decreased immune function.

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have adrenocortical hyperfunction, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A doctor may perform several tests, including:

1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels in the body, such as cortisol and aldosterone.
2. Saliva tests to measure cortisol levels throughout the day.
3. Urine tests to measure cortisol levels over a 24-hour period.
4. Imaging tests, such as CT scans or MRI scans, to examine the adrenal glands and look for any signs of tumors or other abnormalities.
5. Other tests to assess the body's response to stress, such as a corticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test.

Treatment options for adrenocortical hyperfunction depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include:

1. Medications to reduce hormone production in the adrenal glands, such as metyrapone or ketoconazole.
2. Surgery to remove any tumors or cysts in the adrenal glands.
3. Radiation therapy to shrink tumors and reduce hormone production.
4. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, stress management techniques, and regular exercise.
5. Monitoring of hormone levels and other health markers to ensure that the condition is under control.

Adrenocortical carcinoma can be subdivided into three main types based on their histological features:

1. Typical adrenocortical carcinoma: This is the most common type and accounts for about 70% of all cases. It is characterized by a large, irregular tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.
2. Adenomatous adrenocortical carcinoma: This type is less aggressive than typical adrenocortical carcinoma and accounts for about 20% of cases. It is characterized by a small, well-circumscribed tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.
3. Adrenocortical sarcoma: This is the least common type and accounts for about 10% of cases. It is characterized by a rare, malignant tumor that grows in the cortex of the adrenal gland.

Adrenocortical carcinoma can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue, and skin changes. The diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans and MRI, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor.

Overall, adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve patient outcomes.

Types of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC): A rare and aggressive malignant tumor that originates in the adrenal cortex. It is often associated with virilization (excessive masculinization) in women.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma (ACA): A benign tumor that originates in the adrenal cortex. It is less common than ACC and may not cause any symptoms.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that originates in the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland. It can secrete excessive amounts of hormones that regulate blood pressure and heart rate.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that originates in the paraganglia, which are clusters of cells located near the adrenal glands. These tumors can produce excessive amounts of hormones and cause similar symptoms as pheochromocytoma.

Symptoms of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Virilization (excessive masculinization) in women, such as deepening of the voice, excessive body hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
2. Headache, fatigue, and weight gain due to excessive production of steroid hormones.
3. High blood pressure and heart rate due to excessive production of catecholamines (hormones that regulate blood pressure and heart rate).
4. Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting due to the tumor's size and location.

Diagnosis of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to visualize the tumor and determine its size and location.
2. Laboratory tests to measure hormone levels in the blood, including cortisol, aldosterone, and catecholamines.
3. Biopsy to obtain a tissue sample for further examination under a microscope.

Treatment of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor, which is usually curative.
2. Medications to control symptoms such as high blood pressure and hormone levels.
3. Radiation therapy may be used in cases where surgery is not feasible or if there is a risk of recurrence.

Prognosis of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

The prognosis for adrenal cortex neoplasms depends on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the extent of hormone production. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with benign tumors that are removed surgically. However, malignant tumors can have a poorer prognosis and may require additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Prevention of Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms:

There is no known prevention for adrenal cortex neoplasms, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and imaging tests can help detect tumors at an early stage.

Lifestyle Changes:

1. Reduce stress: High levels of cortisol can be caused by stress, so finding ways to manage stress can help prevent adrenal cortex neoplasms.
2. Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help support overall health and well-being.
3. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help reduce stress and improve overall health.
4. Get enough sleep: Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep per night to help regulate hormone levels.
5. Limit caffeine and alcohol: Both substances can disrupt hormone levels and contribute to the development of adrenal cortex neoplasms.

Dysphonia can manifest in different ways, including:

1. Hoarseness: A raspy, strained, or rough quality to the voice.
2. Breathy voice: A weak, airy, or faint voice.
3. Harsh voice: A loud, screeching, or grating voice.
4. Rough voice: A scratchy, raw, or bumpy voice.
5. Stuttering: Repetition or prolongation of sounds, syllables, or words.
6. Slurred speech: Difficulty articulating words or speaking clearly.
7. Monotone speech: Speaking in a flat, emotionless tone.

Dysphonia can be acute or chronic, and it can affect individuals of all ages and backgrounds. In some cases, dysphonia may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as a viral infection, allergies, or a neurological disorder. In other cases, it may be caused by overuse or misuse of the voice, such as shouting, singing, or speaking loudly for extended periods.

Treatment options for dysphonia depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Voice therapy: Techniques to improve breath support, vocal technique, and speech clarity.
2. Medications: To reduce inflammation, allergies, or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to dysphonia.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct structural problems in the vocal cords or other areas of the voice box.
4. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG): A test used to evaluate the function of the vocal cords and surrounding muscles.
5. Speech therapy: To improve communication skills and address any language or cognitive impairments that may be contributing to dysphonia.
6. Botulinum toxin injections (Botox): Injected into the vocal cords to reduce spasms and improve voice quality.
7. Vocal cord paralysis: In some cases, injection of a local anesthetic or botulinum toxin may be used to paralyze one or both vocal cords, allowing for rest and healing.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe changes in your voice, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term vocal cord damage. A healthcare professional will be able to assess your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment options based on the underlying cause of your dysphonia.

Some common types of voice disorders include:

1. Dysphonia: A term used to describe difficulty speaking or producing voice sounds.
2. Aphonia: A complete loss of voice.
3. Spasmodic dysphonia: A neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the vocal cords, causing a strained or breaking voice.
4. Vocal fold paralysis: A condition in which the muscles controlling the vocal cords are weakened or paralyzed, leading to a hoarse or breathy voice.
5. Vocal cord lesions: Growths, ulcers, or other injuries on the vocal cords that can affect voice quality and volume.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and loss of voice.
7. Chronic laryngitis: A persistent form of laryngitis that can last for months or even years.
8. Acid reflux laryngitis: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that causes stomach acid to flow up into the throat, irritating the vocal cords and causing hoarseness.
9. Vocal fold nodules: Growths on the vocal cords that can cause hoarseness and other voice changes.
10. Vocal cord polyps: Growths on the vocal cords that can cause hoarseness and other voice changes.

Voice disorders can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, as they may experience difficulty communicating effectively, loss of confidence, and emotional distress. Treatment options for voice disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Adrenocortical adenomas are typically slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as they grow, they can begin to produce excessive amounts of hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone, which can lead to a variety of symptoms including:

* Weight gain and central obesity
* Buffalo hump (a fat deposit on the back of the neck)
* Moon face (a rounded, full face)
* Stretch marks and thin skin
* Easy bruising and poor wound healing
* Fatigue, weakness, and decreased muscle mass
* Increased blood pressure and salt craving
* Decreased potassium levels

If the adenoma becomes large enough, it can also cause compression of nearby structures such as the surrounding blood vessels and nerves, leading to additional symptoms such as:

* Pain in the abdomen or flank
* Nausea and vomiting
* Feeling of fullness after eating only a small amount
* Fever and chills

If left untreated, adrenocortical adenomas can continue to grow and potentially lead to complications such as:

* Adrenal crisis (a life-threatening condition caused by the sudden release of large amounts of hormones into the bloodstream)
* Heart problems, such as hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias
* Kidney damage and failure
* Osteoporosis and bone fractures

The exact cause of adrenocortical adenomas is not known, but they are believed to be related to genetic mutations that occur during fetal development. They can also be associated with certain medical conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma is based on a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans or MRI, and laboratory tests to assess hormone levels in the blood and urine. The imaging studies can help identify the size and location of the adenoma, while the laboratory tests can help confirm the presence of excess hormones in the body.

Treatment options for adrenocortical adenomas include:

* Surgery to remove the adenoma: This is the primary treatment for most adrenocortical adenomas. The surgery may be performed through a laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera and light on the end) or through an open incision in the abdomen.
* Radiation therapy: This may be used in cases where the adenoma cannot be removed completely by surgery or if it has spread to other parts of the body.
* Hormone therapy: Medications such as metyrapone or ketoconazole can be used to reduce hormone production by the adrenal gland.

It is important to note that not all adrenocortical adenomas are cancerous, and some may not require treatment. Your doctor will discuss the best course of treatment for you based on the specific characteristics of your adenoma and your overall health.

In summary, the diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma is based on a combination of imaging studies and laboratory tests, and treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. It is important to work closely with your doctor to determine the best course of treatment for you.

The exact cause of fibrous dysplasia is unknown, but genetic factors are suspected to play a role. It can occur sporadically or as part of certain inherited medical conditions. Fibrous dysplasia is more common in males than females and typically affects children and young adults.

The symptoms of fibrous dysplasia depend on the bones affected and may include pain, limb deformity, and difficulty moving or using affected limbs. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the presence of fibrous tissue in affected bones.

Treatment for fibrous dysplasia depends on the severity of symptoms and the specific bones involved, but may include medications such as bisphosphonates to slow bone growth, surgery to remove affected bone tissue or correct deformities, or radiation therapy to reduce pain and improve function. In some cases, surgical removal of affected bone tissue may be necessary.

Prognosis for fibrous dysplasia varies depending on the severity of symptoms and the specific bones involved, but in general, with appropriate treatment, most individuals with this condition can achieve significant improvement in symptoms and function. However, some individuals may experience chronic pain or disability despite treatment.

In summary, fibrous dysplasia is a developmental disorder that affects multiple bones in the body, causing pain, deformity, and impaired function of affected limbs. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and biopsy, and treatment options include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. Prognosis varies depending on severity and specific bones involved.

... is a condition where there is an overexpression of products of the adrenal cortex. When cortisol ... "Growth in disorders of adrenal hyperfunction". Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER. 1 Suppl 3: 484-489. ISSN 1565-4753. ...
Lada G, Gyódi E, Gláz E (1977). "HLA antigens in patients with adrenocortical hyperfunction". Acta Med Acad Sci Hung. 34 (4): ... Among these were coeliac disease, autoimmune active chronic hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, Adrenocortical hyperfunction- ...
... familial Adrenal cancer Adrenal disorder Adrenal gland hyperfunction Adrenal gland hypofunction Adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal ... X-linked Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis Adrenal medulla neoplasm Adrenocortical ...
Adrenal disorders may cause hyperfunction or hypofunction, and may be congenital or acquired. The adrenal gland produces ... or may be inactive Adrenocortical carcinoma, cancer of the adrenal cortex Adrenal incidentaloma, an adrenal tumor (of any type ...
Most notably she discovered with her husband Webb E. Haymaker that Cushing's disease is caused by hyper function of the adrenal ... adreno-cortical thyroid hormone or ACTH) in 1934. Evelyn Anderson was born in Willmar, Minnesota, to Swedish immigrants parents ...
Endocrine gland hyperfunction/hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess) Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands ... acute adrenocortical insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma crisis, hypercalcemic crisis, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma and pituitary ...
Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or ... Pohorecky LA, Wurtman RJ (March 1971). "Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis". Pharmacological Reviews. 23 (1): 1-35 ...
The 2014 Ju-Jitsu World Championship were the 12th edition of the Ju-Jitsu World Championships, and were held in Paris, France from November 28 to November 30, 2014. 28.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Men's Duo System - Classic 29.11.2014 - Men's and Women's Fighting System, Men's and Women's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Women's Duo System - Classic 30.11.2014 - Men's Jiu-Jitsu (ne-waza), Mixed Duo System - Classic, Team event Vincent MATCZAK (2014-09-30). "4TH INVITAION TO WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-11-28.[dead link] Online results Official results (PDF) Mixed team event results (PDF) (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from April 2022, Ju-Jitsu World Championships, 2014 in French sport ...
Bolley L. "Bo" Johnson (born November 15, 1951) is an American politician from the state of Florida. A member of the Democratic Party, Johnson was a member of the Florida House of Representatives, and served as the Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Johnson is from Milton, Florida. His father and grandfather served as county commissioners for Santa Rosa County, Florida. Johnson graduated from Milton High School, and became the first member of his family to attend college. He received his bachelor's degree from Florida State University. Johnson volunteered for Mallory Horne when Horne served as the president of the Florida Senate. At the age of 22, Johnson met Lawton Chiles, then a member of the United States Senate, who hired him as a legislative aide in 1973. Johnson was elected to the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 4th district from November 7, 1978 to November 3, 1992. He also served the 1st district from November 3, 1992 to November 8, 1994. He became the ...
... may refer to: Don't Say No (Billy Squier album), a 1981 album by American rock singer Billy Squier, and its title track Don't Say No (Seohyun EP), a 2016 extended play by South Korean pop singer Seohyun, and its title track "Don't Say No" (Tom Tom Club song), from the 1988 album Boom Boom Chi Boom Boom "Don't Say No", by Robbie Williams from the 2005 album Intensive Care "Don't Say No Tonight", a 1985 single by Eugene Wilde This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Don't Say No. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. (Disambiguation pages with short descriptions, Short description is different from Wikidata, All article disambiguation pages, All disambiguation pages, Disambiguation pages ...
The Dewoitine 37 was the first of a family of 1930s French-built monoplane fighter aircraft. The D.37 was a single-seat aircraft of conventional configuration. Its fixed landing gear used a tailskid. The open cockpit was located slightly aft of the parasol wing. The radial engine allowed for a comparatively wide fuselage and cockpit. Design of this machine was by SAF-Avions Dewoitine but owing to over work at that companies plant at the time, manufacture of the D.37/01 was transferred to Lioré et Olivier. They were high-wing monoplanes of all-metal construction with valve head blisters on their engine cowlings. The first prototype flew in October 1931. Flight testing resulted in the need for multiple revisions in both engine and airframe, so it was February 1934 before the second prototype flew. Its performance prompted the French government to order for 28 for the Armée de l'Air and Aéronavale. The Lithuanian government ordered 14 that remained in service with their Air Force until 1936, ...
The Noor-ul-Ain (Persian: نور العين, lit. 'the light of the eye') is one of the largest pink diamonds in the world, and the centre piece of the tiara of the same name. The diamond is believed to have been recovered from the mines of Golconda, Hyderabad in India. It was first in possession with the nizam Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, later it was given as a peace offering to the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb when he defeated him in a siege. It was brought into the Iranian Imperial collection after the Persian king Nader Shah Afshar looted Delhi in the 18th century.[citation needed] The Noor-ul-Ain is believed to have once formed part of an even larger gem called the Great Table diamond. That larger diamond is thought to have been cut in two, with one section becoming the Noor-ul-Ain and the other the Daria-i-Noor diamond. Both of these pieces are currently part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. The Noor-ul-Ain is the principal diamond mounted in a tiara of the same name made for Iranian Empress Farah ...
The Benoist Land Tractor Type XII was one of the first enclosed cockpit, tractor configuration aircraft built. Benoist used "Model XII" to several aircraft that shared the same basic engine and wing design, but differed in fuselage and control surfaces. The Type XII was a tractor-engined conversion of the model XII headless pusher aircraft that resembled the Curtiss pusher aircraft. Demonstration pilots used Benoist aircraft to demonstrate the first parachute jumps, and the tractor configuration was considered much more suitable for the task. The first example named the "Military Plane" had a small box frame covered fuselage that left the occupants mostly exposed to the wind. The later model XII "Cross Country Plane" had a full fuselage that occupants sat inside of. The first tractor biplane used a wooden fuselage with a small seat on top. The wings were covered with a Goodyear rubberized cloth. The first model XII was built in the spring of 1912. On 1 March 1912, Albert Berry used a headless ...
... (also known as Yalmotx in Qʼanjobʼal) is a town, with a population of 17,166 (2018 census), and a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango. It is situated at 1450 metres above sea level. It covers a terrain of 1,174 km². The annual festival is April 29-May 4. Barillas has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with heavy to very heavy rainfall year-round and extremely heavy rainfall from June to August. Citypopulation.de Population of departments and municipalities in Guatemala Citypopulation.de Population of cities & towns in Guatemala "Climate: Barillas". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved July 26, 2020. Muni in Spanish Website of Santa Cruz Barillas Coordinates: 15°48′05″N 91°18′45″W / 15.8014°N 91.3125°W / 15.8014; -91.3125 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Q'anjob'al-language text, Coordinates on Wikidata, ...
Maria Margaret La Primaudaye Pollen (10 April 1838 - c. 1919), known as Minnie, was a decorative arts collector. As Mrs John Hungerford Pollen, she became known during the early-twentieth century as an authority on the history of textiles, publishing Seven Centuries of Lace in 1908. Maria Margaret La Primaudaye was born into a Huguenot family on 10 April 1838, the third child of the Revd Charles John La Primaudaye, a descendant of Pierre de La Primaudaye. She was educated in Italy. Her family converted to Catholicism in 1851, and it was in Rome that her father met another recent English convert, John Hungerford Pollen, previously an Anglican priest and a decorative artist. She became engaged to Pollen, who was then seventeen years her senior, in the summer of 1854, and was married in the church of Woodchester monastery, near Stroud, Gloucester, on 18 September 1855. The Pollens initially settled in Dublin, where John Hungerford Pollen had been offered the professorship of fine arts at the ...
Ronald Robert Fogleman (born January 27, 1942) is a retired United States Air Force general who served as the 15th Chief of Staff of the Air Force from 1994 to 1997 and as Commanding General of the United States Transportation Command from 1992 to 1994. A 1963 graduate from the United States Air Force Academy, he holds a master's degree in military history and political science from Duke University. A command pilot and a parachutist, he amassed more than 6,800 flying hours in fighter, transport, tanker and rotary wing aircraft. He flew 315 combat missions and logged 806 hours of combat flying in fighter aircraft. Eighty of his missions during the Vietnam War were as a "Misty FAC" in the F-100F Super Sabre at Phù Cát Air Base, South Vietnam between 25 December 1968 and 23 April 1969. Fogleman was shot down in Vietnam in 1968, while piloting an F-100. He was rescued by clinging to an AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter that landed at the crash site. In early assignments he instructed student pilots, ...
Peachtree Street" is a 1950 song co-written and recorded by Frank Sinatra in a duet with Rosemary Clooney. The song was released as a Columbia Records single. Frank Sinatra co-wrote the song with Leni Mason and Jimmy Saunders. Mason composed the music while Sinatra and Saunders wrote the lyrics. The song was arranged by George Siravo The song was released as an A side Columbia 10" 78 single, Catalog Number 38853, Matrix Number CO-43100-1 and as a 7" 33, 1-669. The B side was the re-issued "This Is the Night." Neither of the songs charted. The subject of the song is a stroll down the street in Atlanta, Georgia of the same name. Sinatra originally intended Dinah Shore to sing the duet with him. When Shore declined, Clooney was asked. The song was recorded on April 8, 1950. The song features spoken asides by Sinatra and Clooney. Rosemary Clooney asks: "Say, Frank, you wanna take a walk?" Frank Sinatra replies: "Sure, sweetie, just pick a street." He noted how there were no peach trees on the ...
... is a painting by American illustrator Norman Rockwell that depicts a Boy Scout in full uniform standing in front of a waving American flag. It was originally created by Rockwell in 1942 for the 1944 Brown & Bigelow Boy Scout Calendar. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest to be in the painting and personally delivered a print to the Vice President of the United States at the time, Henry A. Wallace. The painting was created to encourage Scouts to participate in the war effort during World War II. The name of the painting, We, Too, Have a Job to Do, comes from a slogan that the Boy Scouts of America used in 1942 to rally scouts to support the troops by collecting metal and planting victory gardens. The model, Bob Hamilton, won a contest with his local council in Albany, New York, to be depicted in the painting. He traveled to Rockwell's studio in Arlington, Vermont, to model for Rockwell. Since Hamilton was a scout, the uniform shown in the painting was his, unlike some ...
At least 33[failed verification] people were killed by a fuel tanker explosion in Tleil, Akkar District, Lebanon on 15 August 2021. The disaster was reportedly exacerbated by the ongoing Lebanese liquidity crisis; in which the Lebanese pound has plummeted and fuel has been in short supply. The survivors were evacuated by the Lebanese Red Cross. An investigation is underway. The fuel tanker had been confiscated by the Lebanese Armed Forces from black marketeers, the fuel was then distributed/taken by the locals. The son of the man whose land the fuel tanker was located on, was later arrested, accused of deliberately causing the explosion. Agencies (2021-08-15). "At least 20 killed and 79 injured in fuel tank explosion in Lebanon". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon fuel explosion kills 22 and injures dozens more". The Independent. 2021-08-15. Archived from the original on 2021-08-15. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Lebanon: At least 20 dead and dozens injured after fuel tank explodes as ...
The Straubing Tigers are a professional men's ice hockey team, based in Straubing, Germany, that competes in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Straubing plays its home games at the Eisstadion am Pulverturm, which has a capacity of 5,800 spectators. Promoted to the DEL in 2006, and operating with one of the league's smallest budgets, the team could finish no better than twelfth before the 2011-12 DEL season, when it reached the semi-finals of the playoffs. Their greatest success so far is the qualification for the season 2020-21 of the Champions Hockey League. In 1941, the then 14-year-old Max Pielmaier and his friends Max Pellkofer and Harry Poiger founded the first hockey team in Straubing. The first official game took place on the first of February 1942 in Hof and was lost by a score of 0:1. In the following year there were several games against other Bavarian teams. The game against Landshut on 31 January. 1943 was the last game during the second World War, because the young players also had to ...
Leina is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County in western Estonia. Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Pihtla Parish. "Lisa. Asustusüksuste nimistu" (PDF). haldusreform.fin.ee (in Estonian). Rahandusministeerium. Retrieved 5 December 2017. "Saaremaa külad endiste valdade piires". www.saaremaa.ee (in Estonian). Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017. Coordinates: 58°17′10″N 22°46′26″E / 58.28611°N 22.77389°E / 58.28611; 22.77389 v t e (CS1 Estonian-language sources (et), Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Saaremaa Parish, Coordinates on Wikidata, Villages in Saare County, All stub articles, Saare County geography stubs ...
A sestiere (plural: sestieri) is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities. The word is from sesto ('sixth'), so it is thus used only for towns divided into six districts. The best-known example is the sestieri of Venice, but Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Milan and Rapallo, for example, were also divided into sestieri. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, on the island of Euboea, was also at times divided into six districts, each with a separate ruler, through the arbitration of Venice, which were known as sestieri. The island of Crete, a Venetian colony (the "Kingdom of Candia") from the Fourth Crusade, was also divided into six parts, named after the sestieri of Venice herself, while the capital Candia retained the status of a comune of Venice. The island of Burano north of Venice is also subdivided into sestieri. A variation of the word is occasionally found: the comune of Leonessa, for example, is divided into sesti or sixths. Other Italian towns with fewer than six official districts are ...
The Island Image is a Chesapeake Bay log canoe, built in 1885 at Elliot's Island, Maryland, by Herman Jones and Isaac Moore. She is 29'-8½" long with a beam of 5-10¼", and has a straight, raking stem and a sharp stern. It is privately owned, and races under No. 17. She one of the last 22 surviving traditional Chesapeake Bay racing log canoes that carry on a tradition of racing on the Eastern Shore of Maryland that has existed since the 1840s. She is located at Chestertown, Kent County, Maryland. She was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008. "Maryland Historical Trust". ISLAND IMAGE (log canoe). Maryland Historical Trust. 2008-06-14. "Island Image #17 , CBLCSA". Island Image. Chesapeake Bay Log Sailing Canoe Association. 2010-07-24. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-07-29. ISLAND IMAGE (log canoe), Kent County, including photo in 1984, ...
... (Persian: دهستان بردخون) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Bord Khun District of Deyr County, Bushehr Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,115, in 234 families. The rural district has 14 villages. "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Coordinates: 27°58′N 51°32′E / 27.967°N 51.533°E / 27.967; 51.533 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no map, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Persian-language text, Coordinates on Wikidata, Rural Districts of Bushehr Province, Deyr County, All stub articles, Deyr County geography stubs ...
... is a disease of camels caused by the camelpox virus (CMPV) of the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and the genus Orthopoxvirus. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected will die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally more mild. Although rare, the infection may spread to the hands of those that work closely with camels. The camelpox virus that causes camelpox is an orthopoxvirus that is very closely related to the variola virus that causes smallpox. It is a large, brick-shaped, enveloped virus that ranges in size from 265-295 nm. The viral genetic material is contained in a linear double-stranded DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. The DNA is encased in the viral core. Two lateral bodies are found outside the viral core, and are believed to hold the enzymes required for viral reproduction. The camelpox virus most often affects members of family Camelidae. However, ...
... s (/ˈfɛzənt/ FEH-zənt) are birds of several genera within the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Although they can be found all over the world in introduced (and captive) populations, the pheasant genera native range is restricted to Eurasia. The classification "pheasant" is paraphyletic, as birds referred to as pheasants are included within both the subfamilies Phasianinae and Pavoninae, and in many cases are more closely related to smaller phasianids, grouse, and turkey (formerly classified in Perdicinae, Tetraoninae, and Meleagridinae) than to other pheasants. Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly decorated with bright colours and adornments such as wattles. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. A pheasants call or cry can be recognised due to the fact it sounds like a rusty sink or valve being turned. Pheasants eat mostly seeds, grains, roots, and berries, while in the ...
Paul S. Mischel (born July 13, 1962) is an American physician-scientist whose laboratory has made pioneering discoveries in the pathogenesis of human cancer. He is currently a Professor and Vice Chair of Research for the Department of Pathology and Institute Scholar of ChEM-H, Stanford University. Mischel was elected into the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), serving as ASCI president in 2010/11. He was inducted into the Association of American Physicians, and was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mischel was born on July 13, 1962. After losing his father to cancer, he became committed to a career in cancer research. He attended the University of Pennsylvania and received his M.D. from Cornell University Medical College in 1991, graduating Alpha Omega Alpha. Mischel completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology and Neuropathology at UCLA, followed by post-doctoral research training with Louis Reichardt at HHMI-UCSF. Mischel ...
... is a moth of the family Sphingidae. It is known from highland forest in central Kenya and also in Zimbabwe. The length of the forewings is about 24 mm for males and 26 mm for females. It is similar to Temnora griseata griseata but the upperside of the head has a dark brown median longitudinal crest, the forewing apex and tornus are more acute and the outer margin is more deeply excavated below the apex. The forewing upperside ground colour is dark brown and the pattern of transverse lines is more contrasted. Temnora subapicalis subapicalis Temnora subapicalis hayesi Darge, 1975 (Rwanda) "CATE Creating a Taxonomic eScience - Sphingidae". Cate-sphingidae.org. Retrieved 2011-10-25.[permanent dead link] Carcasson, R. H. (1967). "Revised Catalogue of the African Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) with Descriptions of the East African species". Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society and National Museum. 26 (3): 1-173 - via Biodiversity Heritage Library. v t e (All articles with ...
... is a name under which singer-songwriter Dan Michaelson records and performs. They have previously stated that they are inspired by Leonard Cohen, Johnny Cash, Etta James and Dusty Springfield. Following the release of Blindspot in 2013 and Sudden Fiction in 2011, the band released Distance in August 2014. Memory was released in May 2016. Albums Singles Simpson, Dave (5 May 2016). "Dan Michaelson and the Coastguards: Memory review - magical, melancholy songs". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 21 October 2020. Dan Michaelson and The Coastguards official site Dan Michaelson and The Coastguards myspace page The state51 Conspiracy official site Official YouTube (Use dmy dates from June 2020, Use British English from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from October 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with hCards, Pages using infobox musical artist with associated acts, Articles with ISNI identifiers, Articles with MusicBrainz ...
The Edmonton Drillers were a North American Soccer League team that played both outdoors and indoors from 1979 to 1982, at the peak of the league's success. The team was brought to Edmonton by local entrepreneur and Edmonton Oilers owner Peter Pocklington, after witnessing the strong support for Brian Rice's Edmonton Black Gold team in 1978. Previous to playing in Edmonton, the team was known as the Oakland Stompers, Hartford Bicentennials and Connecticut Bicentennials. Joe Petrone was the Drillers general manager for their entire existence. The Drillers were coached in 1979 and 1980 by Hans Kraay, who brought a number of players with him from the Netherlands. After Kraay, Timo Liekoski took over as coach in 1981, while Patrone would serve as the team's final caretaker coach until the team folded at the end of the 1982 season. During the outdoor season, the Drillers played their home games at Commonwealth Stadium, but dwindling crowds during the final year saw the team move to much older and ...
Diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction. Cerebral edema of diverse etiologies in conjunction with adequate ... Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; synthetic analogs may be ... Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative ... Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery, or illness ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction;. Adrenogenital Syndrome;. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital;. Metabolism, Inborn Errors;. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction;. Adrenogenital Syndrome;. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital;. Metabolism, Inborn Errors;. ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Preferred Term Term UI T569771. Date01/22/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2005). ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Preferred Concept UI. M0000483. Scope Note. Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ... Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction Term UI T001006. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1968). ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Tree Number(s). C19.053.800. Unique ID. D000308. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/ ...
Diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction, trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement, tuberculous ... Dexamethasone, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is stable ... Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; may be used in ... Adrenocortical insufficiency may result from too rapid withdrawal of corticosteroids and may be minimized by gradual reduction ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Entry term(s). Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction Hyperadrenalism Hyperadrenocorticism Hypercorticism ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction - Preferred Concept UI. M0000483. Scope note. Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ... Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction. Hyperadrenalism. Hyperadrenocorticism. Hypercorticism. Hyperfunction, Adrenal Gland. Hyperfunction ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Preferred Term Term UI T569771. Date01/22/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2005). ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Preferred Concept UI. M0000483. Scope Note. Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ... Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction Term UI T001006. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1968). ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Tree Number(s). C19.053.800. Unique ID. D000308. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/ ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction 1 0 Asthma 1 0 Breast Neoplasms 1 0 Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 1 0 ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction1. *Africa, Western1. *African Americans1. *Aged2. *Aging -- drug effects1 ...
Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction See Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Adrenal Gland Hypofunction See Adrenal Insufficiency ...
Unspecified adrenocortical insufficiency E2749 Other adrenocortical insufficiency E275 Adrenomedullary hyperfunction E321 ... Other hyperfunction of pituitary gland E229 Hyperfunction of pituitary gland, unspecified E230 Hypopituitarism E232 Diabetes ... Other adrenocortical overactivity E271 Primary adrenocortical insufficiency E272 Addisonian crisis E273 Drug-induced ... Postprocedural adrenocortical (-medullary) hypofunction E89810 Postprocedural hemorrhage and hematoma of an endocrine system ...
... suprarenal adrenocortical failure primary,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical hyperactivity,adrenal cortical hyperfunction ... adrenocortical hypofunction,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical insufficiency primary,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical, ... adenomas adrenal adenoma adrenocortical,adenomas adrenal adenomas adrenocortical,adenomas adrenal adenomas,adenoma adenomatous, ... hyperemia hyperfunction adrenal gland,adrenal cortical hyperfunction hyperglycaemia,hyperglycemia hyperglycemia,glucose greater ...
Cortrophin Gel is contraindicated in patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency or adrenocortical hyperfunction. ... Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary insufficiency, particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness. ... Relative adrenocortical insufficiency induced by prolonged corticotropin therapy may be minimized by gradual reduction of ... Although the action of corticotropin is similar to that of exogenous adrenocortical steroids the quantity of adrenocorticoid ...
... process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. *Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. *Ovarian ...
... suprarenal adrenocortical failure primary,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical hyperactivity,adrenal cortical hyperfunction ... adrenocortical hypofunction,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical insufficiency primary,adrenal insufficiency adrenocortical, ... adenomas adrenal adenoma adrenocortical,adenomas adrenal adenomas adrenocortical,adenomas adrenal adenomas,adenoma adenomatous, ... hyperemia hyperfunction adrenal gland,adrenal cortical hyperfunction hyperglycaemia,hyperglycemia hyperglycemia,glucose greater ...
Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Amenorrhea -- diagnosis 149. The search: University of Minnesota heart disease research ... Diagnosis of amenorrhea with clinical manifestations of adrenal hyperfunction Publication: Fort Sam Houston, Tex. : The Academy ...
Adrenocortical hyperfunction. Androgens. Hyperandrogenism. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Subjects (LCSH). Endocrinology Gynecology ...
adrenocortical disorder 255.2. *. cleft scrotum 752.7. *. feminizing testis 259.51. *. gonadal disorder 257.9 ... hyperfunction 257.0. *. hypofunction 257.2. *. specified type NEC 257.8. *Pseudohermaphroditism 752.7. *. male (without gonadal ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma Adrenocortical Carcinoma Adrenocortical Hyperfunction Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Adrenodoxin ...
Diminished production of adrenocortical hormones due to a condition originating in the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland. ... Adrenal hyperfunction associated with multiple bilateral adrenal nodules, usually less than one centimeter in diameter. C34360 ... Adrenal hyperfunction associated with multiple bilateral adrenal nodules, usually more than one centimeter in diameter. C34360 ... Diminished production of adrenocortical hormones due to presumed insufficient secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone from ...
E27.4 Other and unspecified adrenocortical insufficiency E27.5 Adrenomedullary hyperfunction E27.8 Other specified disorders of ... E22.8 Other hyperfunction of pituitary gland E22.9 "Hyperfunction of pituitary gland, unspecified" E23 Hypofunction and other ... E27.0 Other adrenocortical overactivity E27.1 Primary adrenocortical insufficiency E27.2 Addisonian crisis E27.3 Drug-induced ... E22 Hyperfunction of pituitary gland E22.0 Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism E22.1 Hyperprolactinemia E22.2 Syndrome of ...
1987). Assessment of adrenocortical activity in term newborn infants using salivary cortisol determinations. J of Pediatrics, ... Migeon, C.J., & Lanes, R.L. (1990). Adrenal cortex: hypo- and hyperfunction. In F. Lifshitz (ed.), Pediatric endocrinology, a ...
8. Association between contralateral adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in benign adrenocortical tumors.. Zhu H; ... Clinical features, risk of mass enlargement, and development of endocrine hyperfunction in patients with adrenal incidentalomas ...
E89.6 Postprocedural adrenocortical (-medullary) hy.... * E89.8 Other postprocedural endocrine and metabolic ...* E89.81 ... be used as additional codes to indicate either functional activity by neoplasms and ectopic endocrine tissue or hyperfunction ...
  • may be used as additional codes to indicate either functional activity by neoplasms and ectopic endocrine tissue or hyperfunction and hypofunction of endocrine glands associated with neoplasms and other conditions classified elsewhere. (icd10data.com)
  • Purified Cortrophin Gel is the anterior pituitary hormone which stimulates the functioning adrenal cortex to produce and secrete adrenocortical hormones. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenal cortex: hypo- and hyperfunction. (salimetrics.com)
  • 12. Clinical features, risk of mass enlargement, and development of endocrine hyperfunction in patients with adrenal incidentalomas: a long-term follow-up study. (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids, naturally occurring and synthetic, are adrenocortical steroids that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
  • Although the action of corticotropin is similar to that of exogenous adrenocortical steroids the quantity of adrenocorticoid may be variable. (nih.gov)
  • Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white or slightly yellow crystalline powder. (nih.gov)
  • Purified Cortrophin Gel is contraindicated in patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency or adrenocortical hyperfunction. (nih.gov)
  • 1987). Assessment of adrenocortical activity in term newborn infants using salivary cortisol determinations. (salimetrics.com)
  • Preoperatively, and in the event of serious trauma or illness, in patients with known adrenal insufficiency or when adrenocortical reserve is doubtful. (nih.gov)
  • Purified Cortrophin Gel is the anterior pituitary hormone which stimulates the functioning adrenal cortex to produce and secrete adrenocortical hormones. (nih.gov)
  • McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) consists of at least two of the following three features: (1) polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (PFD), (2) café-au-lait skin pigmentation (see the image below), and (3) autonomous endocrine hyperfunction (eg, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty ). (medscape.com)