A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
A derivative of the insecticide DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHANE that specifically inhibits cells of the adrenal cortex and their production of hormones. It is used to treat adrenocortical tumors and causes CNS damage, but no bone marrow depression.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
Vanilmandelic acid (VMA) is a major metabolite of catecholamines, specifically normetanephrine and metanephrine, which are produced by the adrenal gland and can be measured in urine to help diagnose pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (1/137)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours. (2/137)

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

Analysis of genomic alterations in sporadic adrenocortical lesions. Gain of chromosome 17 is an early event in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. (3/137)

Genetic changes underlying the tumorigenesis of sporadic adrenocortical tumors are poorly characterized. To search for characteristic genomic imbalances involved in adrenocortical tumors, we examined 41 adrenocortical lesions (12 carcinomas, 23 adenomas, and 6 hyperplasias) by comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show that genetic alterations are more frequent in malignant than in benign lesions and that they rarely occur in hyperplastic lesions. The most frequent DNA copy number changes in adrenocortical carcinomas included losses of 1p21-31, 2q, 3p, 3q, 6q, 9p, and 11q14-qter, as well as gains and amplifications of 5q12, 9q32-qter, 12q, and 20q. The genomic aberrations prevalently occurring in adrenocortical adenomas were gains of 17q, 17p, and 9q32-qter. Gains found in 2 of 6 adrenocortical hyperplastic lesions involved chromosome 17 or 17q only. These data indicate that oncogenes determining the early tumorigenesis of adrenocortical tumors may exist on chromosome 17 and that the number of genomic alterations is closely associated with tumor behavior in adrenocortical tumors.  (+info)

Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma. (4/137)

Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We conclude that adenomectomy is not an adequate therapy for patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.  (+info)

PET imaging of adrenal cortical tumors with the 11beta-hydroxylase tracer 11C-metomidate. (5/137)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate PET with the tracer 11C-metomidate as a method to identify adrenal cortical lesions. METHODS: PET with 11C-metomidate was performed in 15 patients with unilateral adrenal mass confirmed by CT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery, except 2 who underwent biopsy only. The lesions were histopathologically examined and diagnosed as adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 6; 3 nonfunctioning), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 2), and nodular hyperplasia (n = 1). The remaining were noncortical lesions, including 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 myelolipoma, 2 adrenal cysts, and 2 metastases. RESULTS: All cortical lesions were easily identified because of exceedingly high uptake of 11C-metomidate, whereas the noncortical lesions showed very low uptake. High uptake was also seen in normal adrenal glands and in the stomach. The uptake was intermediate in the liver and low in other abdominal organs. Images obtained immediately after tracer injection displayed high uptake in the renal cortex and spleen. The tracer uptake in the cortical lesions increased throughout the examination. For quantitative evaluation of tracer binding in individual lesions, a model with the splenic radioactivity concentration assigned to represent nonspecific uptake was applied. Values derived with this method, however, did show the same specificity as the simpler standardized uptake value concept, with similar difference observed for cortical versus noncortical lesions. CONCLUSION: PET with 11C-metomidate has the potential to be an attractive method for the characterization of adrenal masses with the ability to discriminate lesions of adrenal cortical origin from noncortical lesions.  (+info)

Expression of inhibin alpha in adrenocortical tumours reflects the hormonal status of the neoplasm. (6/137)

Inhibins are gonadal glycoprotein hormones whose main endocrine function is to inhibit pituitary FSH secretion. In addition to testes and ovaries, other steroid-producing organs are sites of inhibin alpha subunit expression. To study the role of inhibins in human adrenal gland, we screened a panel of 150 adrenals (10 normal adrenals, 25 adrenocortical hyperplasias, 65 adrenocortical adenomas, 30 adrenocortical carcinomas and 20 phaeochromocytomas) for inhibin alpha expression. mRNA levels of inhibin alpha subunit were studied in 57 samples and all tissues were stained immunohistochemically with an inhibin alpha subunit-specific antibody. Inhibin alpha mRNA was detected in all adrenocortical tissues. Virilizing adenomas possessed a 10-fold higher median inhibin alpha mRNA expression than did normal adrenals. Bilaterally and nodularly hyperplastic adrenals and other than virilizing adrenocortical tumours had their median inhibin alpha mRNA levels close to those of normal adrenals. Immunohistochemically, inhibin alpha subunit was detectable in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals, as well as in 73% of the adrenocortical tumours. However, the percentage of inhibin alpha-positive cells varied greatly in different tumour types. The median percentage of positive cells was 10 in non-functional and Conn's adenomas, 30 in Cushing's adenomas and 75 in virilizing adenomas. In malignant adrenocortical tumours the median percentage of inhibin alpha-immunopositive cells was 20 in non-functional carcinomas, 30 in Conn's carcinomas, 65 in Cushing's carcinomas and 75 in virilizing carcinomas. All phaeochromocytomas were negative for inhibin alpha subunit both at the mRNA level and immunohistochemically. Our data show that inhibin alpha subunit is highly expressed in both normal and neoplastic androgen-producing adrenocortical cells, with less expression in cortisol-producing and hardly any in aldosterone-producing cells. This suggests a specific role for inhibins in the regulation of adrenal androgen production. We did not find any significant difference in inhibin alpha expression between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours. Thus inhibin alpha gene does not seem to have a tumour suppressor role in human adrenal cortex.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in sporadic adrenal tumors. (7/137)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of the CDKN1C (P57KIP2) gene, which encodes for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDNC, and the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in adrenal tumorigenesis, as a means of investigating the molecular basis of sporadic adrenal tumors, which is unknown. DESIGN: Screening for the presence CDKN1C and TP53 mutations and analyzing the expression pattern of CDNC, P53 and its downstream effector CDN1 (P21WAF1/CIP1) in a series of 79 sporadic adrenal tumors. METHODS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used for mutation analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in blood and adrenal tissue samples. In a subgroup of 48 tissues, CDKN1C expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 and CDN1 was performed. RESULTS: No somatic mutations of CDKN1C were found in the tumors analyzed, in spite of low/absent CDNC expression in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. Mutations in the TP53 gene were present in 70% of adrenocortical carcinomas, associated with abnormal P53 and CDN1 expression, but not in benign neoplasms. In the normal adrenal cortex, CDNC expression was strictly nuclear and confined to the cortical zone (i.e. zona glomerulosa and reticularis), with no staining in the medulla. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the TP53 gene are frequent in adrenocortical carcinomas and might be used as a marker of malignancy. In the normal adrenal cortex, the zone-specific pattern of expression of CDNC suggests a role in adrenal differentiation.  (+info)

Localization of the endothelin system in aldosterone-producing adenomas. (8/137)

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) could play a role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion of the human adrenal gland. The presence of the endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and ET-1 suggests that there is a local ET system in the adrenal cortex, but the in situ synthesis of ET-1 remains to be confirmed. The cellular distribution of the whole ET system was evaluated in 20 cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Polymerase chain reaction studies gave strong signals for ECE-1 mRNA and the mRNAs for endothelin type A (ET(A)) and B (ET(B)) receptors and faint signals for prepro-ET-1 mRNA. In situ hybridization showed ET(A) receptors scattered throughout the adenoma, in both secretory cells and vascular structures (score, +). There were more ET(B) receptors (score, ++), but they were restricted mainly to the endothelium. ECE-1 mRNA and protein were ubiquitous and abundant in secretory cells (score, +++) and vascular structures (score, ++); the enzyme was active on big ET-1. There was no prepro-ET-1 mRNA in the cortex, except in the thickened precapillary arterioles present in only 30% of the aldosterone-producing adenomas studied. ET-1 immunoreactivity was detected in vascular structures (score, +), probably bound to receptors, suggesting that ET-1 has an endocrine action. The low concentrations of ET-1 could also indicate that it acts in a paracrine-autocrine fashion to control adrenal blood flow. The discrepancy between the concentrations of ECE-1 and its substrate suggests that ECE-1 has another role in the adrenal secretory cells. Our data indicate that ET probably is not a primary cause of the development or maintenance of the adenoma.  (+info)

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that develops in the outer layer of the adrenal gland, known as the adrenal cortex. The adrenal glands are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. They produce important hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex steroids.

ACC is a malignant tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Symptoms of ACC depend on the size and location of the tumor and whether it produces excess hormones. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, a mass in the abdomen, weight loss, and weakness. Excessive production of hormones can lead to additional symptoms such as high blood pressure, Cushing's syndrome, virilization (excessive masculinization), or feminization.

The exact cause of ACC is not known, but genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals, and radiation therapy may increase the risk of developing this cancer. Treatment options for ACC include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy. The prognosis for ACC varies depending on the stage and extent of the disease at diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

17-Hydroxycorticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They are formed from the metabolism of cortisol, which is a hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response. 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids include compounds such as cortisone and corticosterone.

These hormones have various functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
* Suppression of the immune system
* Modulation of the stress response
* Influence on blood pressure and electrolyte balance

Abnormal levels of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids can indicate problems with the adrenal gland or pituitary gland, which regulates adrenal function. They are often measured in urine or blood tests to help diagnose conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Adrenal cortex diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the adrenal glands, which are small glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and sexual development.

Diseases of the adrenal cortex can result from an overproduction or underproduction of these hormones. Some common adrenal cortex diseases include:

1. Addison's disease: a condition characterized by insufficient production of hormones by the adrenal glands, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin.
2. Cushing's syndrome: a condition caused by an excess of cortisol in the body, which can result from taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or from a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands. Symptoms include weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a group of inherited disorders that affect the production of hormones by the adrenal glands. Depending on the specific type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, symptoms can range from ambiguous genitalia in newborns to precocious puberty, short stature, and infertility in older children and adults.
4. Adrenal tumors: benign or cancerous growths that develop in the adrenal glands and can cause hormonal imbalances. Symptoms depend on the type of tumor and the hormones it produces.

Treatment for adrenal cortex diseases depends on the specific condition and its underlying cause. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Adrenal cortex function tests are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate the proper functioning of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing several essential hormones. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

There are several types of adrenal cortex function tests, including:

1. Cortisol testing: This test measures the levels of cortisol in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulation test: This test measures the adrenal gland's response to ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. The test involves administering synthetic ACTH and measuring cortisol levels before and after administration.
3. Aldosterone testing: This test measures the levels of aldosterone in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
4. Dexamethasone suppression test: This test involves administering dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, to suppress cortisol production. The test measures cortisol levels before and after administration to determine if the adrenal glands are overproducing cortisol.
5. Androgen testing: This test measures the levels of androgens, such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing excessive amounts of these hormones.

Abnormal results from adrenal cortex function tests may indicate conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytoma.

Progesterone reductase is not a widely recognized or used term in medical literature. However, based on the terms "progesterone" and "reductase," it can be inferred that progesterone reductase might refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing or converting progesterone into another form through a reduction reaction.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. Reductases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor, often resulting in the reduction of a substrate. In this context, progesterone reductase could potentially refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing progesterone into a different steroid hormone or metabolite.

However, it is essential to note that there is no widely accepted or established definition of "progesterone reductase" in medical literature. If you are looking for information on a specific enzyme related to progesterone metabolism, I would recommend consulting primary scientific literature or seeking guidance from a medical professional.

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase, also known as CYP17A1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the adrenal glands and gonads. This enzyme catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and subsequent lyase cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone, converting them into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively. These steroid intermediates are essential for the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and sex steroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens, and testosterone.

Defects in the CYP17A1 gene can lead to several disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased production of cortisol and sex steroids and increased mineralocorticoid levels. This condition results in sexual infantilism, electrolyte imbalances, and hypertension.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Mitotane is not a general medical term, but it is a specific medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Medically, Mitotane is known as an adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitor. It works by blocking the production of certain hormones in the adrenal glands, which can help to control the growth of some types of cancer cells.

Mitotane is primarily used in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare type of cancer that develops in the outer layer of the adrenal gland. It may also be used in the management of other hormone-related cancers, such as certain types of thyroid or prostate cancer.

The medication is available in capsule form and is typically taken several times a day. Mitotane has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is only a small range between an effective dose and a toxic one. Therefore, patients taking Mitotane require regular monitoring of their blood levels to ensure they remain within the safe range.

Common side effects associated with Mitotane include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, and changes in appetite or weight. More severe side effects may include neurological problems, such as confusion, disorientation, or memory loss, as well as an increased risk of infection due to its effect on the immune system.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. These tumors produce excessive amounts of hormones called catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline. This can lead to a variety of symptoms such as high blood pressure, sweating, headaches, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.

Pheochromocytomas are typically slow-growing and can be benign or malignant (cancerous). While the exact cause of these tumors is not always known, some genetic factors have been identified that may increase a person's risk. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control blood pressure before and after surgery.

Adrenocortical hyperfunction, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a condition characterized by the overproduction of cortisol hormone from the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress.

In Adrenocortical hyperfunction, the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol, leading to a range of symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, muscle weakness, mood changes, and high blood pressure. The condition can be caused by several factors, including tumors in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, long-term use of corticosteroid medications, or genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands.

Treatment for Adrenocortical hyperfunction depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include surgery to remove tumors, medication to reduce cortisol production, or radiation therapy. It is essential to diagnose and treat this condition promptly, as long-term exposure to high levels of cortisol can lead to serious health complications such as diabetes, osteoporosis, and heart disease.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

A villous adenoma is a type of polyp (a growth that protrudes from the lining of an organ) found in the colon or rectum. It is named for its appearance under a microscope, which reveals finger-like projections called "villi" on the surface of the polyp.

Villous adenomas are typically larger than other types of polyps and can be several centimeters in size. They are also more likely to be cancerous or precancerous, meaning that they have the potential to develop into colon or rectal cancer over time.

Because of this increased risk, it is important for villous adenomas to be removed surgically if they are found during a colonoscopy or other diagnostic procedure. Regular follow-up colonoscopies may also be recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps or recurrence of previous ones.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

A liver cell adenoma is a benign tumor that develops in the liver and is composed of cells similar to those normally found in the liver (hepatocytes). These tumors are usually solitary, but multiple adenomas can occur, especially in women who have taken oral contraceptives for many years. Liver cell adenomas are typically asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons. In rare cases, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, or complications such as bleeding or rupture. Treatment options include monitoring with periodic imaging studies or surgical removal of the tumor.

Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase is a crucial enzyme involved in the steroidogenesis pathway, specifically in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone, which are vital hormones produced by the adrenal glands. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP11B1 gene in humans.

The enzyme's primary function is to catalyze the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone through the process of hydroxylation at the 11-beta position of the steroid molecule. Cortisol is a critical glucocorticoid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, while aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone responsible for maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in the CYP11B1 gene can lead to various disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which may result in impaired cortisol and aldosterone production, causing hormonal imbalances and associated symptoms.

Cosyntropin is a synthetic form of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is used in medical testing to assess the function of the adrenal glands. ACTH is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands.

Cosyntropin is typically administered as an injection, and its effects on cortisol production are measured through blood tests taken at various time points after administration. This test, known as a cosyntropin stimulation test or ACTH stimulation test, can help diagnose conditions that affect the adrenal glands, such as Addison's disease or adrenal insufficiency.

It is important to note that while cosyntropin is a synthetic form of ACTH, it is not identical to the natural hormone and may have slightly different effects on the body. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

The Zona Fasciculata is a region within the adrenal gland, which is a small gland located on top of the kidneys. It plays an essential role in endocrine function. The adrenal gland is divided into two main parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex itself is further divided into three zones: the Zona Glomerulosa, the Zona Fasciculata, and the Zona Reticularis.

The Zona Fasciculata is the middle layer of the adrenal cortex. It is primarily responsible for producing and releasing steroid hormones, particularly glucocorticoids such as cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, among other functions. The Zona Fasciculata contains large, column-shaped cells called fasciculated cells that contain lipid droplets filled with cholesterol esters. These cells convert cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is then converted into cortisol through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, the Zona Fasciculata is a crucial region within the adrenal gland that produces and releases cortisol, a vital glucocorticoid hormone involved in various physiological processes.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Myelolipoma is a type of benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland, which is located on top of each kidney. This tumor is composed of both fatty tissue (lipoma) and cells that are similar to those found in the bone marrow (myeloid). Myelolipomas are usually small and asymptomatic, but they can grow larger and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, depending on their size and location.

Myelolipomas are rare tumors that typically affect middle-aged to older adults, with a slight female predominance. They are usually discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical conditions. In most cases, myelolipomas do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or grow large enough to pose a risk of bleeding or rupture. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for symptomatic or complicated myelolipomas.

A lipoma is a common, benign (non-cancerous) soft tissue growth. It is composed of adipose or fatty tissue and typically found just beneath the skin, but they can also occur deeper within the body. Lipomas are usually round, moveable, and painless, although they may cause discomfort if they grow large enough to put pressure on nearby nerves or if they're located in a sensitive area. They generally grow slowly over time. Surgical removal is an option if the lipoma becomes bothersome or grows significantly in size. It's important to note that while lipomas are typically harmless, any new lumps or bumps should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other more serious conditions.

Vanilmandelic acid (VMA) is a metabolite produced in the body as a result of the breakdown of catecholamines, which are hormones such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Specifically, VMA is the major end product of epinephrine and norepinephrine metabolism.

In clinical medicine, measurement of VMA in urine is often used as a diagnostic test for pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor that arises from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland and can cause excessive production of catecholamines. Elevated levels of VMA in the urine may indicate the presence of a pheochromocytoma or other conditions associated with increased catecholamine secretion, such as neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroma.

It's important to note that while VMA is a useful diagnostic marker for pheochromocytoma and related conditions, it is not specific to these disorders and can be elevated in other medical conditions as well. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Lipomatosis is a medical term that refers to a condition characterized by the abnormal growth of fatty tumors (lipomas) in various parts of the body. These lipomas are benign, soft, and rubbery masses made up of adipose or fatty tissue. Unlike isolated lipomas, which occur as solitary lumps under the skin, lipomatosis is a more widespread condition where multiple lipomas develop in a diffuse pattern, affecting a particular region or area of the body.

There are different types of lipomatosis, including:

1. Diffuse Lipomatosis: This type involves the growth of numerous small lipomas distributed throughout the subcutaneous tissue, giving the affected area a doughy feel and appearance.
2. Adiposis Dolorosa or Dercum's Disease: A rare condition characterized by painful and tender lipomas typically found in the trunk, arms, and legs. It primarily affects middle-aged women and can be accompanied by other systemic symptoms like fatigue, memory problems, and depression.
3. Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis (MSL) or Madelung's Disease: This condition predominantly affects middle-aged men, particularly those with a history of alcohol abuse. It is characterized by the growth of large, symmetrical lipomas around the neck, shoulders, and upper trunk, leading to a "horse collar" appearance.
4. Familial Multiple Lipomatosis: An inherited condition where multiple benign fatty tumors develop in various parts of the body, usually appearing during adulthood. It tends to run in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.

Treatment for lipomatosis typically involves surgical removal of the lipomas if they cause discomfort, limit mobility, or negatively impact a person's appearance. Regular monitoring and follow-up appointments with healthcare professionals are essential to ensure that no malignant changes occur in the lipomas over time.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

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Imaging to detect an Adrenocortical adenoma may also be considered.[citation needed] Aldosterone deficiency should be treated ...
"Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical ...
"Expression of CYP11B2 in Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Adenoma: Regulatory Mechanisms and Clinical Significance". The ...
Unilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocarcinoma can be potentially cured surgically. ... One type is caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma or adenocarcinoma. The other type, known as idiopathic ... Bilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa or metastasized adrenocortical adenocarcinoma ...
Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. in ... "Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and ...
Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. mir-210 ... "Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and ...
Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]". Endokrynologia Polska ... Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone, that ... October 2004). "[Childhood adrenocortical tumors]". Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (in Portuguese). 48 (5 ...
March 2002). "Cellular localization of orexin receptors in human adrenal gland, adrenocortical adenomas and pheochromocytomas ... "Orexin A stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through activation of the adenylate cyclase-dependent ...
Adrenocortical adenoma 3: Undetermined 4-9: Adrenocortical carcinoma The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision ... Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Pheochromocytoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Adrenocortical carcinomas are most ... The presence of invasion and mitotic activity help differentiate small cancers from adrenocortical adenomas. Several relatively ... such as adrenocortical adenoma, and determining the extent of invasion of the tumor into surrounding organs and tissues. On CT ...
In people with hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma, adrenalectomy should be ...
"Characterization of Serotonin4 Receptors in Adrenocortical Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas: In Vivo and in Vitro Studies". ... Ehrhart-Bornstein, M.; Hilbers, U. (1998). "Neuroendocrine Properties of Adrenocortical Cells" (PDF). Hormone and Metabolic ... acts in this location The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues ... which suggests that calcium-channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in vivo. ...
... esophageal leiomyoma and adrenocortical adenoma. The original description employed the then-prevailing terminology of gastric ...
... endocrine tumors such as thyroid adenomas and adrenocortical adenomas may overproduce certain hormones. Many types of benign ... Adenomas of the rectum may be treated with sclerotherapy, in which chemicals are used to shrink blood vessels in order to cut ... Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, which cause ... A prominent and well studied example of this phenomenon is the tubular adenoma, a common type of colon polyp which is an ...
March 2002). "Characterization of serotonin(4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas: in vivo and in vitro ... The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme ... Adrenal insufficiency (e.g. due to Addison's disease) Cushing's syndrome Cushing's disease Conn's syndrome Adrenocortical ... "Neuroendocrine properties of adrenocortical cells". Horm. Metab. Res. 30 (6-7): 436-9. doi:10.1055/s-2007-978911. PMID 9694576 ...
Functional adrenocortical adenomas are surgically curable.[citation needed] Most of the adrenocortical adenomas are less than 2 ... They should not be confused with adrenocortical "nodules", which are not true neoplasms. Adrenocortical adenomas are uncommon ... Grossly, adrenocortical adenomas are encapsulated, well-circumscribed, solitary tumors with solid, homogeneous yellow-cut ... Most adrenal pheochromocytomas and all adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors, which do not metastasize or invade nearby ...
... adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinoma, as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary adenomas (as in ... Radi, Suhaib; Tamilia, Michael (2019-12-30). "Adrenocortical carcinoma: an ominous cause of hirsutism". BMJ Case Reports. 12 ( ... "Sex steroids in androgen-secreting adrenocortical tumors: clinical and hormonal features in comparison with non-tumoral causes ...
Other mutations and genetic alterations in the PRKACA gene have been identified in adrenocortical adenomas that also disrupt ...
"Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro ... "Orexins stimulate glucocorticoid secretion from cultured rat and human adrenocortical cells, exclusively acting via the OX1 ...
... gene selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1 in the normal adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas". J. ...
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.347.500.750 - adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.500.263 - addison disease MeSH C19.053. ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19. - adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.347.500 - adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.344.078.265.750 - adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.344.400.500 - multiple endocrine neoplasia ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 - insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 - carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500.124 ...
Holmes was familiar with a similar case that had been treated by surgical removal of an adrenocortical adenoma (a tumour of the ...
Bilateral micronodular hyperplasia is more common than unilateral adrenal adenoma. It can be asymptomatic, but these symptoms ... surgery Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia: aldosterone antagonist, e.g., spironolactone Secondary hyperaldosteronism (also ... was previously thought to be most commonly caused by an adrenal adenoma, termed Conn's syndrome. However, recent studies have ... Alkalosis Investigations High serum aldosterone Low serum renin High-resolution CT abdomen Management Adrenal adenoma: ...
... pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. Pancreatic tumours ... and adrenocortical cancers. In vitro studies have shown that menin is localized to the nucleus, possesses two functional ... Variations in the MEN1 gene can cause pituitary adenomas, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, gastrinoma, ... of sporadic pituitary adenomas. Consequently, alterations of the gene represent a candidate pathogenetic mechanism of pituitary ...
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.078.265.750 - adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C04.588.322.400 - multiple endocrine ... adenoma, bile duct MeSH C04.557.470.035.095 - adenoma, chromophobe MeSH C04.557.470.035.100 - adenoma, islet cell MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.012 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.025 - adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma, oxyphilic MeSH C04.557.470.035.155 - adenoma, pleomorphic MeSH C04.557.470.035.175 - adenoma, sweat gland MeSH C04.557 ...
"Adrenocortical Carcinoma". National Cancer Institute. 27 February 2019. "Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland". Genetic and Rare ... In rare cases, however, some adrenal adenomas may become activated. When activated, the adenoma begins to produce hormones in ... Adrenal adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal gland. In most cases, the tumors display no symptoms and require no treatment ... Adrenocortical carcinoma occurs rarely; the average incidence rate is estimated to be 1-2 cases per million annually. The ...
2010) The role of microRNA deregulation in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer. (2011) Primary ... primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma. (2006) Evaluación del impacto funcional e intensidad del dolor antes y después ... 2004) Expression Profiling of Adrenocortical Tumors Suggests a Molecular Signature of Malignancy. (2005) Differential RNA ... 2008) Transcriptional profiling enables molecular classification of adrenocortical tumours. European Journal of Endocrinology ...
... tubulovillous adenoma - tumor - tumor antigen vaccine - tumor board review - tumor burden - tumor debulking - tumor ... adrenocortical - Adriamycin - adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - AE-941 - AEE788 - aerobic metabolism - aerobic respiration - ... villous adenoma - villus - vinblastine - vinca alkaloid - vincristine - vindesine - vinorelbine - viral vector - virotherapy - ... adenoma - adenopathy - adenosine triphosphate - adenovirus - adjunct agent - adjunctive therapy - adjuvant therapy - ...
These mutations tend to occur in young women with the adenoma in the cortisol secreting zona fasciculata. Adenomas without this ... of cases Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma: < 0.1% of cases 40% of people with an adrenal aldosterone producing ... About 33% of cases are due to an adrenal adenoma that produces aldosterone, and 66% of cases are due to an enlargement of both ... Some cases may be cured by removing the adenoma by surgery after localization with adrenal venous sampling (AVS). A single ...
Adrenal adenoma, a benign tumor of the adrenal gland which may result in overproduction of one or more adrenal hormones, or may ... be inactive Adrenocortical carcinoma, cancer of the adrenal cortex Adrenal incidentaloma, an adrenal tumor (of any type) ...
Adrenocortical adenoma with focal high grade nuclear atypia Adrenocortical adenoma with focal necrosis Adrenocortical adenomas ... Adrenocortical adenoma 3: Undetermined 4-9: Adrenocortical carcinoma Non-functioning cases of adrenocortical adenoma can be ... Like most adenomas, the adrenocortical adenoma is considered a benign tumor since the majority of them are non-functioning and ... An adrenocortical adenoma or adrenal adenoma is commonly described as a benign neoplasm emerging from the cells that comprise ...
Sugawara A, Takeuchi K, Suzuki T, Itoi K, Sasano H, Ito S. A case of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma associated ... Sugawara, A, Takeuchi, K, Suzuki, T, Itoi, K, Sasano, H & Ito, S 2003, A case of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma ... Dive into the research topics of A case of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma associated with a probable post- ... N2 - We describe a case of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) associated with a probable post-operative adrenal ...
Adrenocortical adenoma containing a fat component: CT and MR image evaluation. Abdom Imaging. 1995 Sep-Oct. 20(5):489-90. [QxMD ... The patients underwent adrenalectomy, and histology identified adrenocortical adenomas with widespread myelolipomatous ... and 1 lesion was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma. All 3 lesions contained myelolipomatous foci throughout the neoplasm ... Benign adrenocortical masses: diagnosis with chemical shift MR imaging. Radiology. 1992 Nov. 185(2):345-51. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Computed tomography-guided percutaneous acetic acid injection therapy for functioning adrenocortical adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol ... unregulated aldosteronism with a histologic picture of mixed hyperplasia and adenomas in the affected adrenocortical tissue. ... Pure aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinomas (very rare; physiologically behave as APAs). Scintigram obtained by using ... Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are more common in women than in men, with a female-to-male ratio of 2:1. The typical ...
Adrenocortical tumors encompass a spectrum of diseases with often seamless transition from benign (adenoma) to malignant ( ... Unlike in adult adrenocortical tumors, histologic differentiation of pediatric adenomas and carcinomas is difficult. However, ... The incidence of adrenocortical tumors in children is extremely low (only 0.2% of pediatric cancers). Adrenocortical tumors ... Adrenocortical tumors are generally considered to be radioresistant. Furthermore, because many children with adrenocortical ...
PKA catalytic subunit mutations in adrenocortical Cushing`s adenoma impair association with the regulatory subunit. Nat Commun ...
Other differential diagnoses include Cushings syndrome, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical adenoma, aldosteronoma, and ... clinically apparent functioning adrenocortical adenoma, or a tumor size greater than 4 cm. Consultation with an endocrinologist ... The majority of pituitary adenomas secrete prolactin (30% to 40%) or are nonsecreting (30% to 40%). Adenomas secreting ... Broad categories of etiologies should be considered: pituitary adenoma, nonpituitary tumors, vascular lesions, infiltrative ...
A parallel rise in the incidence of benign, nonfunctional adrenocortical tumors, known as adrenal incidentalomas, has also been ... as well as adrenocortical cells, are endowed by an intrinsic heterogeneity regarding their growth potential, in response to ... Hedeland, H.; Osterg, G.; Hokfelt, B. On the prevalence of adrenocortical adenomas in an autopsy material in relation to ... humoral and hormonal evaluation in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas before and after surgery. Eur. J. ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adrenoleukodystrophy. Aldosteronoma. Arcus Senilis. Benign adrenal tumors. ...
... and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed an adrenocortical adenoma. Two weeks after surgery, serum concentrations of ... Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor ...
Adrenal (adrenocortical) adenoma/adenocarcinoma: While benign tumors (adenomas) are most common here, the malignant version ( ... Perianal adenoma/adenosarcoma: Originating in the tiny skin glands around the anus, this tumor is typically benign (adenoma), ... Insulinomas, adenomas, and others can be deadly.. Lungs. Primary lung tumors: Though most tumors of the lungs in dogs spread ... Pituitary adenoma: Strictly speaking, these are benign and usually so small as to be microscopic. Which is a good thing seeing ...
C) Enhanced CT scanning for Case 3 with two adrenocortical adenomas. It revealed a 19×36 mm2 irregular mass in left adrenal ... from adrenocortical adenoma (Case 3). (B) Immunohistochemistry staining results of pheochromocytoma (esPHEO_T1 and PHEO_T) and ... The abdomen revealed bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia and multiple masses in the left adrenal and around the left kidney. ... sustentacular cells) and the right end corresponds to transition ending point (adrenocortical cells). Color scheme represents ...
An Ectopic Cortisol-Producing Adrenocortical Adenoma Masquerading as a Liposarcoma in the Pararenal Space Kang S, Park SS, Bae ...
Alterations of DNA methylation were associated with the rapid growth of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma during ...
... quantitative polymerase chain reaction in ACC and adrenocortical adenoma samples. It was identified that the nuclear division ... Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease associated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the underlying molecular ... The search for pituitary adenoma aggressive behaviour markers is still a matter of debate.. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study ... The relation of pituitary adenomas invasiveness and the proliferative index measured by immunoexpression of topoisomerase IIα. ...
Nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenal cysts must be differentiated from pheochromocytomas ... Renal adenomas are potentially premalignant. These adenomas are usually smaller than 3 cm, are subcapsular cortical, and are ... Differentiating a renal cell adenoma from a renal cell carcinoma may not be possible. Similarly, difficulties may be ... There are 2 enhancing lesions suggestive of microcystic adenomas. View Media Gallery ...
Patients with both unilateral macro-adenoma and hypokalemia are more prone to acquire postoperative BP normalization. ... Image macro-adenoma and hypokalemia history were found to be the two strongest predictors for postoperative BP normalization ... 22 Li J, Ji Z, Huang Z, [Clinical diagnosis and treatment of adrenocortical adenoma in patients aged 60 years or above]. ... 65%, P = 0.001), compared with patients with image macro-adenoma. All above implies that unilateral macro-adenoma, no matter if ...
... showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment. ... Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission ... examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours. MTO-PET was performed before and 3 days after starting per oral ...
... and adrenocortical adenomas; CT, therefore, is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). CT appears to be a genetic ... ARMC5 regulates SIRT1 expression in adrenocortical cells. Berthon Annabel , Fabio Faucz , Benjamin Feldman , Ludivine Drougat , ... histologically characterized by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). There is significant genetic and ...
O Adrenocortical abnormality,O Adrenocortical adenoma,O Adrenocortical carcinoma,O Adrenocortical cytomegaly,O Adrenocortical ... O Thyroid macrofollicular adenoma,O Thyroid microfollicular adenoma,O Thyroid nodule,O Thyroid papillary adenoma,O Thyroid- ... O Secretory adrenocortical adenoma,O Secretory diarrhea,O Sectoral retinitis pigmentosa,O Secundum atrial septal defect,O ... O Non-secretory adrenocortical adenoma,O Non-small cell lung carcinoma,O Nonarteriosclerotic cerebral calcification,O ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma - 18 Studies Found. Status. Study Recruiting. Study Name: Study to Evaluate CORT125134 in Patients With ... Condition: Adrenocortical Adenoma Endometrial Stromal Sarcomas Date: 2014-05-15. Interventions: Procedure: MRI, CT or ... Condition: Adrenal Incidentaloma Adrenocortical Carcinoma Date: 2014-12-19. Completed. Study Name: Medical Safety Follow-up ... Study Name: Radiofrequency Ablation for Aldosterone-producting Adenoma in Patients With Primary Aldosteronism. Condition: ...
... pituitary adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) in the thymus, the bronchi, or the stomach. ... pituitary adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, and neuroendocrine tumo … ...
PUBLISHED: Right Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy (PRA) for Adrenocortical Adenoma. November 17, 2022. Nikita ... Right Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy (PRA) for Adrenocortical Adenoma. Neeta Erinjeri, MD; Tobias Carling, MD, ... AdrenalectomyAndrenocortical AdenomaendocrinologyPRA. Otolaryngology, Print Release PUBLISHED: Myringoplasty and Tympanostomy ...
A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell ... Diagnostic accuracy of virtual non-contrast enhanced dual-energy CT for diagnosis of adrenal adenoma: A systematic review and ... Genomic and Clinical Correlates of Adrenocortical Carcinoma in an Adult Patient with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: A Case Report ... A surgical approach to adrenocortical tumors in children: the mainstay of treatment Conferences ...
Development of Human Adrenocortical Adenoma (HAA1) Cell Line from Zona Reticularis. Ghayee, H. K., Xu, Y., Hatch, H., Brockway ...
... criteria and immunohistochemical markers have been discovered which help to differentiate between adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) ... Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors is not always easy. Several ... in adult adrenocortical tumors (ACT) diagnosed using the Weiss criteria. In this cohort, we have also analyzed Ki67 and p53 ... and adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Our aim here was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of steroidogenic factor-1 ( ...
Adrenal Adenoma, Adrenal Surgery, Adrenalectomy, Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC), Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Cervical Lymph Node ...
... adrenocortical carcinoma (1), and lacrimal gland adenoma (1). This model can now be used to compare the carcinogenicity of ... adrenocortical carcinoma (1), and lacrimal gland adenoma (1). This model can now be used to compare the carcinogenicity of ... hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma, and bronchoalveolar adenoma/carcinoma in various rodent models. Current small animal models ... hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma, and bronchoalveolar adenoma/carcinoma in various rodent models. Current small animal models ...
Adenoma, Adrenal Cortical Adrenocortical Adenoma. Carcinoma, Adrenal Cortical. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Fibrocystic Disease of ...

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