Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Mitotane: A derivative of the insecticide DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHANE that specifically inhibits cells of the adrenal cortex and their production of hormones. It is used to treat adrenocortical tumors and causes CNS damage, but no bone marrow depression.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Dictionaries, MedicalAldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (1/137)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours. (2/137)

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

Analysis of genomic alterations in sporadic adrenocortical lesions. Gain of chromosome 17 is an early event in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. (3/137)

Genetic changes underlying the tumorigenesis of sporadic adrenocortical tumors are poorly characterized. To search for characteristic genomic imbalances involved in adrenocortical tumors, we examined 41 adrenocortical lesions (12 carcinomas, 23 adenomas, and 6 hyperplasias) by comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show that genetic alterations are more frequent in malignant than in benign lesions and that they rarely occur in hyperplastic lesions. The most frequent DNA copy number changes in adrenocortical carcinomas included losses of 1p21-31, 2q, 3p, 3q, 6q, 9p, and 11q14-qter, as well as gains and amplifications of 5q12, 9q32-qter, 12q, and 20q. The genomic aberrations prevalently occurring in adrenocortical adenomas were gains of 17q, 17p, and 9q32-qter. Gains found in 2 of 6 adrenocortical hyperplastic lesions involved chromosome 17 or 17q only. These data indicate that oncogenes determining the early tumorigenesis of adrenocortical tumors may exist on chromosome 17 and that the number of genomic alterations is closely associated with tumor behavior in adrenocortical tumors.  (+info)

Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma. (4/137)

Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We conclude that adenomectomy is not an adequate therapy for patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.  (+info)

PET imaging of adrenal cortical tumors with the 11beta-hydroxylase tracer 11C-metomidate. (5/137)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate PET with the tracer 11C-metomidate as a method to identify adrenal cortical lesions. METHODS: PET with 11C-metomidate was performed in 15 patients with unilateral adrenal mass confirmed by CT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery, except 2 who underwent biopsy only. The lesions were histopathologically examined and diagnosed as adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 6; 3 nonfunctioning), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 2), and nodular hyperplasia (n = 1). The remaining were noncortical lesions, including 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 myelolipoma, 2 adrenal cysts, and 2 metastases. RESULTS: All cortical lesions were easily identified because of exceedingly high uptake of 11C-metomidate, whereas the noncortical lesions showed very low uptake. High uptake was also seen in normal adrenal glands and in the stomach. The uptake was intermediate in the liver and low in other abdominal organs. Images obtained immediately after tracer injection displayed high uptake in the renal cortex and spleen. The tracer uptake in the cortical lesions increased throughout the examination. For quantitative evaluation of tracer binding in individual lesions, a model with the splenic radioactivity concentration assigned to represent nonspecific uptake was applied. Values derived with this method, however, did show the same specificity as the simpler standardized uptake value concept, with similar difference observed for cortical versus noncortical lesions. CONCLUSION: PET with 11C-metomidate has the potential to be an attractive method for the characterization of adrenal masses with the ability to discriminate lesions of adrenal cortical origin from noncortical lesions.  (+info)

Expression of inhibin alpha in adrenocortical tumours reflects the hormonal status of the neoplasm. (6/137)

Inhibins are gonadal glycoprotein hormones whose main endocrine function is to inhibit pituitary FSH secretion. In addition to testes and ovaries, other steroid-producing organs are sites of inhibin alpha subunit expression. To study the role of inhibins in human adrenal gland, we screened a panel of 150 adrenals (10 normal adrenals, 25 adrenocortical hyperplasias, 65 adrenocortical adenomas, 30 adrenocortical carcinomas and 20 phaeochromocytomas) for inhibin alpha expression. mRNA levels of inhibin alpha subunit were studied in 57 samples and all tissues were stained immunohistochemically with an inhibin alpha subunit-specific antibody. Inhibin alpha mRNA was detected in all adrenocortical tissues. Virilizing adenomas possessed a 10-fold higher median inhibin alpha mRNA expression than did normal adrenals. Bilaterally and nodularly hyperplastic adrenals and other than virilizing adrenocortical tumours had their median inhibin alpha mRNA levels close to those of normal adrenals. Immunohistochemically, inhibin alpha subunit was detectable in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals, as well as in 73% of the adrenocortical tumours. However, the percentage of inhibin alpha-positive cells varied greatly in different tumour types. The median percentage of positive cells was 10 in non-functional and Conn's adenomas, 30 in Cushing's adenomas and 75 in virilizing adenomas. In malignant adrenocortical tumours the median percentage of inhibin alpha-immunopositive cells was 20 in non-functional carcinomas, 30 in Conn's carcinomas, 65 in Cushing's carcinomas and 75 in virilizing carcinomas. All phaeochromocytomas were negative for inhibin alpha subunit both at the mRNA level and immunohistochemically. Our data show that inhibin alpha subunit is highly expressed in both normal and neoplastic androgen-producing adrenocortical cells, with less expression in cortisol-producing and hardly any in aldosterone-producing cells. This suggests a specific role for inhibins in the regulation of adrenal androgen production. We did not find any significant difference in inhibin alpha expression between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours. Thus inhibin alpha gene does not seem to have a tumour suppressor role in human adrenal cortex.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in sporadic adrenal tumors. (7/137)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of the CDKN1C (P57KIP2) gene, which encodes for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDNC, and the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in adrenal tumorigenesis, as a means of investigating the molecular basis of sporadic adrenal tumors, which is unknown. DESIGN: Screening for the presence CDKN1C and TP53 mutations and analyzing the expression pattern of CDNC, P53 and its downstream effector CDN1 (P21WAF1/CIP1) in a series of 79 sporadic adrenal tumors. METHODS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used for mutation analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in blood and adrenal tissue samples. In a subgroup of 48 tissues, CDKN1C expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 and CDN1 was performed. RESULTS: No somatic mutations of CDKN1C were found in the tumors analyzed, in spite of low/absent CDNC expression in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. Mutations in the TP53 gene were present in 70% of adrenocortical carcinomas, associated with abnormal P53 and CDN1 expression, but not in benign neoplasms. In the normal adrenal cortex, CDNC expression was strictly nuclear and confined to the cortical zone (i.e. zona glomerulosa and reticularis), with no staining in the medulla. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the TP53 gene are frequent in adrenocortical carcinomas and might be used as a marker of malignancy. In the normal adrenal cortex, the zone-specific pattern of expression of CDNC suggests a role in adrenal differentiation.  (+info)

Localization of the endothelin system in aldosterone-producing adenomas. (8/137)

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) could play a role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion of the human adrenal gland. The presence of the endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and ET-1 suggests that there is a local ET system in the adrenal cortex, but the in situ synthesis of ET-1 remains to be confirmed. The cellular distribution of the whole ET system was evaluated in 20 cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Polymerase chain reaction studies gave strong signals for ECE-1 mRNA and the mRNAs for endothelin type A (ET(A)) and B (ET(B)) receptors and faint signals for prepro-ET-1 mRNA. In situ hybridization showed ET(A) receptors scattered throughout the adenoma, in both secretory cells and vascular structures (score, +). There were more ET(B) receptors (score, ++), but they were restricted mainly to the endothelium. ECE-1 mRNA and protein were ubiquitous and abundant in secretory cells (score, +++) and vascular structures (score, ++); the enzyme was active on big ET-1. There was no prepro-ET-1 mRNA in the cortex, except in the thickened precapillary arterioles present in only 30% of the aldosterone-producing adenomas studied. ET-1 immunoreactivity was detected in vascular structures (score, +), probably bound to receptors, suggesting that ET-1 has an endocrine action. The low concentrations of ET-1 could also indicate that it acts in a paracrine-autocrine fashion to control adrenal blood flow. The discrepancy between the concentrations of ECE-1 and its substrate suggests that ECE-1 has another role in the adrenal secretory cells. Our data indicate that ET probably is not a primary cause of the development or maintenance of the adenoma.  (+info)

Objective: To test the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CT/MR imaging and adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA).. Material and method: Retrospective study of 14 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PAL) who underwent both CT/MR imaging and AVS between June 2007 and June 2012 were performed. The study included 7 male and 7 female patients. Review CT/MR findings of these cases and compared with AVS results were done.. Results: Five of fourteen patients (35%) had unilateral adrenal nodules on CT, and one of fourteen patients (7.1%) had bilateral adrenal nodules on CT[D1]. The remaining eight patients had no significant nodules in both adrenal glands. Among 5 patients who had unilateral adrenal nodule detected from CT, 4 patients (80%) with nodule greater than 10 mm also presented with lateralization from AVS and finally pathological proven APA. The last patient with ...
Hypertension and albuminuria appeared in a pregnant woman simulating pre-eclamptic toxaemia. Hypertension persisted postpartum and periodic paralyses developed.
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Discussion: Adrenal cortical adenomas and carcinomas are rare tumors but with the use of high resolution imaging, such as CT and MRI, incidentally discovered adrenal masses have become a common finding. The diagnostic evaluation of incidental adrenal lesions includes imaging modalities such as CT with and without contrast, MRI and PET, hormonal evaluation, and FNA in certain clinical settings, particularly to exclude metastasis. In up to 20% of cases, these incidental lesions may cause abnormal hormone secretion without obvious clinical manifestations, while nonfunctioning incidental adrenal lesions less than 5 cm are likely to be benign. Distinguishing an adrenal cortical adenoma from carcinoma is a well-known diagnostic challenge in surgical pathology, and thus, in fine needle aspiration cytology. Proposed criteria correlating with subsequent malignant behavior include the combination of three or more of the following: high nuclear grade, greater than 5 mitoses per 50 high-power fields, ...
Exome sequencing was performed for paired tumor/normal samples from patients with corticotropin-independnet Cushings syndrome. Tumor DNA was extracted from adrenocortical adenomas and normal DNA was extracted from adjacent adrenal tissues or periphral blood ...
Ghose and colleagues (1) showed that long-term medical management (5 to 17 years) is a reasonable option for aldosterone-producing adenomas diagnosed by standard biochemistry and computed tomography in terms of blood pressure control and normalization of serum potassium levels in patients who decline or are unfit for surgery. However, I have concerns about the diagnostic accuracy in their cohort of patients. The use of computed tomography alone without adrenal venous sampling is often inadequate in differentiating between aldosterone-producing adenomas and adrenocortical hyperplasia (2, 3), the two major causes of primary hyperaldosteronism. In a series of hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, computed tomography alone had a low specificity (58%) and a positive predictive value of only 72% (4). With the additional use of adrenal venous sampling, a significant proportion of patients was found to have nonfunctional adrenal masses with coexisting adrenal hyperplasia (4) ...
A benign Neoplasm of the Adrenal Cortex. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical Adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain Lipids. Depending on the Cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce Aldosterone; Hydrocortisone; Dehydroepiandrosterone; and/or Androstenedione ...
Somatic mutations in protein kinase A catalytic α subunit (PRKACA) were found to be causative for 30-40% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state, PKA is a stable and inactive heterotetramer, consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory subunits with the latter inhibiting PKA activity. The human genome encodes three different PKA catalytic subunits and four different regulatory subunits that are preferentially expressed in different organs. In normal adrenal glands all regulatory subunits are expressed, while CPA exhibit reduced protein levels of the regulatory subunit IIβ. In this study, we linked for the first time the loss of RIIβ protein levels to the PRKACA mutation status and found the down-regulation of RIIβ to arise post-transcriptionally. We further found the PKA subunit expression pattern of different tumours is also present in the zones of the normal adrenal cortex and demonstrate that the different
definition of APA, what does APA mean?, meaning of APA, Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma, APA stands for Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas and adrenocortical cells. AU - Monticone, Silvia. AU - Hattangady, Namita G.. AU - Nishimoto, Koshiro. AU - Mantero, Franco. AU - Rubin, Beatrice. AU - Cicala, Maria Verena. AU - Pezzani, Raffaele. AU - Auchus, Richard J.. AU - Ghayee, Hans K.. AU - Shibata, Hirotaka. AU - Kurihara, Isao. AU - Williams, Tracy A.. AU - Giri, Judith G.. AU - Bollag, Roni J.. AU - Edwards, Michael A.. AU - Isales, Carlos M.. AU - Rainey, William E.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Context: Primary aldosteronism is a heterogeneous disease that includes both sporadic and familial forms. A point mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is responsible for familial hyperaldosteronism type III. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 also occur in sporadic aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). Objective: The objective of the study was to define the effect of the KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression and aldosterone production using APA tissue and human ...
Three patients with primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical carcinoma were studied, two with hyperaldosteronism alone and one also with hypercortisolism; in the later stages all three had hypersecretion of glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones. Although clinical presentations were similar to those of patients with benign adenoma, all had significantly higher concentrations of deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone and more profound hypokalemia. Stimulation with adrenocorticotropin in two patients showed a good cortisol response but no aldosterone response. The circadian rhythm for Cortisol was normal but absent for aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone. Sequential 24-hour circadian studies in one patient showed that as the disease progressed, corticosterone and finally Cortisol lost their circadian rhythms. Treatment with spironolactone, mitotane, or aminoglutethimide had transient clinical effects. The patients died 2 to 13 years later. ...
The adrenal glands are the major source in the body of the steroid hormones. In normal physiology, the pituitary hormone ACTH regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, while the secretion of mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to these two classes of steroids, the adrenal gland secretes lesser amounts of intermediate metabolites as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated product (DHEAS) and androstenedione, testosterone, estrogen, and estrone. Dysregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by sporadic adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, with the development of specific clinical syndromes depending on the identity of the hormones secreted. In at least a subset of cortisol-producing adrenocortical neoplasms, the presence of ectopic or abnormal receptors has been described, resulting in the regulation of cortisol and/or aldosterone by non-physiologic stimuli. The present study will serve as a mechanism ...
The adrenal glands are the major source in the body of the steroid hormones. In normal physiology, the pituitary hormone ACTH regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, while the secretion of mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to these two classes of steroids, the adrenal gland secretes lesser amounts of intermediate metabolites as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated product (DHEAS) and androstenedione, testosterone, estrogen, and estrone. Dysregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by sporadic adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, with the development of specific clinical syndromes depending on the identity of the hormones secreted. In at least a subset of cortisol-producing adrenocortical neoplasms, the presence of ectopic or abnormal receptors has been described, resulting in the regulation of cortisol and/or aldosterone by non-physiologic stimuli. The present study will serve as a mechanism ...
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) cause a sporadic form of primary aldosteronism and somatic mutations in the KCNJ5 gene, which encodes the G-protein-activated inward rectifier K+ channel 4, GIRK4, account for ≈40% of APAs. Additional somatic APA mutations were identified recently in 2 other genes, ATP1A1 and ATP2B3, encoding Na+/K+-ATPase 1 and Ca2+-ATPase 3, respectively, at a combined prevalence of 6.8%. We have screened 112 APAs for mutations in known hotspots for genetic alterations associated with primary aldosteronism. Somatic mutations in ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and KCNJ5 were present in 6.3%, 0.9%, and 39.3% of APAs, respectively, and included 2 novel mutations (Na+/K+-ATPase p.Gly99Arg and GIRK4 p.Trp126Arg). CYP11B2 gene expression was higher in APAs harboring ATP1A1 and ATP2B3 mutations compared with those without these or KCNJ5 mutations. Overexpression of Na+/K+-ATPase p.Gly99Arg and GIRK4 p.Trp126Arg in HAC15 adrenal cells resulted in upregulation of CYP11B2 gene expression and its ...
Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal mass lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be...
Read "Correlation between Lateralization Index of Adrenal Venous Sampling and Standardized Outcome in Primary Aldosteronism, Journal of the Endocrine Society" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Dec.09-admitted to ER, severe abdominal pain, cause unknown, thought to be apendix, it was not, however, during the ct scan,a 12mm left adrenal adenoma was found, was told to follow up w/ dr.-a week later my primary dr reffered me to an endocrinologist,who ordered blood and urine tests, which i am troubled by, not by the dr, but by the lab tech who took my 24 urine & blood, not knowing the names of the tests ordered, which tubes to use, etc..., also, when my lab results did come in, they all state fasting as NO, when in fact I did fast, when I mentioned this and the lab tech to the endo. he became defensive, even tho i stated no professional disrespect toward him, but wanted him to know my reservations, and i never did get an anser if fasting no instead of yes was a point of concern ...
Adrenal adenomas are nodules that develop on the adrenal glands. They are common, and they usually dont pose a health threat or require treatment.
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Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant TARBP2. TARBP2 (NP_599150, 141 a.a. ~ 250 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00006895-M04) - Products - Abnova
BACKGROUND: Cosyntropin and metoclopramide can affect the subtyping of primary aldosteronism when used with adrenal vein sampling by exerting hormone- and side-specific effects on cortisol and aldosterone secretion. We investigated how these stimuli affect the selectivity index, the relative aldosterone secretion index, and the lateralization index in consecutive primary aldosteronism patients submitted to adrenal vein sampling. METHODS: We recruited 171 patients; of these, 149 underwent adrenal vein sampling before and after stimulation with cosyntropin (250 µg intravenous bolus, n= 53, 73% with an aldosterone-producing adenoma) or with metoclopramide (10 mg intravenous bolus, n= 96, 65% aldosterone-producing adenoma), and 32 with an aldosterone-producing adenoma were investigated for the relative gene expression of dopamine, melanocortin 2, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 4 receptor with microarrays ...
Exacerbation of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with Cushings syndrome due to an adrenocortical adenoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma is an unusual tumor that tends to be larger than 100 g at diagnosis. Malignant adrenocortical tumors of less than 50 g have been reported rarely. We studied a small adrenocortical carcinoma that weighed 40 g and metastasized 3 1/2 years following bilateral adrenalectomy. The malignancy of adrenocortical tumors is frequently difficult to determine. Two recent studies have proposed histologic criteria for determining the malignancy of adrenal cortical tumors. Since the tumor we studied was initially judged to be benign, we sought to determine whether an extensive evaluation of this tumor using these recent criteria could have identified the tumors potential for metastasizing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The possible role of apoptosis-suppressing genes, bcl-2 and mcl-1/EAT in human adrenal tumors. AU - Ando, Takashi. AU - Shibata, Hirotaka. AU - Suzuki, Toshihiko. AU - Kurihara, Isao. AU - Hayashi, Kouichi. AU - Hayashi, Matsuhiko. AU - Saito, Ikuo. AU - Kawabe, Hiroshi. AU - Tsujioka, Minako. AU - Saruta, Takao. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - The expression levels of bcl-2, mcl-1/EAT, and bax were examined by Northern blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR method in 25 adrenal tumors, including seven adrenal pheochromocytomas (PHE), seven aldosterone- producing adenomas (APA), four adrenal cortisol-producing adenomas (CS), one deoxycorticosterone-producing adenoma (DOC) and six non-hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenomas (NF). Northern blot analysis revealed both bcl-2 and mcl-1/EAT mRNAs in all of the adrenal tumors. The expression levels differed greatly among the tumor samples. Mcl-1/EAT mRNA levels were enhanced in APA and CS compared with those in NF. In ...
The majority of people with adrenal adenomas will have no symptoms and the growths will only be discovered during a MRI or CT completed for other reasons. These non-functioning adrenal adenomas do not require follow up treatment.. Functional adrenal adenomas will increase hormones made in the adrenal gland.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopaminergic Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion. T2 - Its Pathophysiologic Significance in Subsets of Primary Aldosteronism. AU - Naruse, Mitsuhide. AU - Naruse, Kiyoko. AU - Yoshimoto, Takanobu. AU - Tanaka, Masami. AU - Tanabe, Akiyo. AU - Imaki, Toshihiro. AU - Shibasaki, Tamotsu. AU - Demura, Reiko. AU - Demura, Hiroshi. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Although aldosterone (Aldo.) secretion is regulated by various humoral factors, evidence has accumulated to support an involvement of dopaminergic system in its regulation. The pathophysiological significance of the dopaminergic system in primary aldosteronism (PA) however remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of metoclopramide (MCP) on Aldo. secretion in normal subjects (w=ll) and patients with essential hypertension (EH, w = 8), aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA, n = 10), and idiopathic hyper aldosteronism (IHA, n = 6). Plasma Aldo., prolactin (PRL), renin, Cortisol, serum sodium, and serum ...
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Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. ...
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. ...
Recent genetic examinations and multisteroid profiles have provided the basis for subclassification of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). The objective of the current study was to produce a comprehensive, high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) map of APAs in relation to morphometry, immunohistochemical profiles, mutational status, and clinical outcome. The study cohort comprised 136 patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance MSI was conducted, and metabolite profiles were analyzed with genotype/phenotype information, including digital image analysis from morphometry and IHC of steroidogenic enzymes. Distinct molecular signatures between KCNJ5- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs with significant differences of 137 metabolites, including metabolites of purine metabolism and steroidogenesis, were observed. Intratumor concentration of 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol were inversely correlated with the ...
Adrenal venous sampling probably has its greatest utility when adrenal imaging findings are completely normal despite biochemical evidence for primary aldosteronism and in settings in which bilateral ... more
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It is well known that primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension, and also that aldosterone-producing adenoma and bilateral are the most common forms of PA.
The Aldosteronoma Resolution Score (ARS) is currently the most accurate prediction model for complete resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy, taking into account 4 preoperative clinical parame... more
Adrenal CT Image shows a tumor on the left adrenal gland of 202 × 127 × 202 mm (white arrow) that displaces ipsilateral kidney and renal cysts.
AB - Steroid glucuronidation was investigated in solubilized female rat and rabbit liver microsomes and in preparations of UDP-glucuronsyltransferase (UDPGT) activity resolved from these organelles. Solubilized rabbit liver microsomes possessed
Incidentaloma is a made-up word that refers to a benign tumor discovered incidentally, usually by some imaging exam such as CT or MRI. Dangers and treatments vary.
Incidentaloma is a made-up word that refers to a benign tumor discovered incidentally, usually by some imaging exam such as CT or MRI. Dangers and treatments vary.
Incidentaloma is a made-up word that refers to a benign tumor discovered incidentally, usually by some imaging exam such as CT or MRI. Dangers and treatments vary.
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View mouse Tarbp2 Chr15:102518192-102523676 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Expression of TARBP1 (TRM3, TRP-185) in adrenal gland tissue. Antibody staining with HPA024632 and CAB020810 in immunohistochemistry.
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Introductory Statistics 9th edition by Neil A. Weiss Test bank Questions Full Chapters are included Download Free Sample Do you need Solution manual for this
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Alison Weiss, PhD is a member of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Professor of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology
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Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare entity. However, it is the most common type of cancerous adrenal gland tumor with poor prognosis. Approximately 4 to 12 per 1 million people develop this type of tumor, which begins in the adrenal cortex. Adrenocortical carcinoma can occur at any age. Women tend to be diagnosed slightly more often than men. In most cases, the cause of cancerous adrenal gland tumor remains unknown. However, people with certain hereditary conditions have a higher risk. Adrenocortical carcinoma can be a functional or nonfunctional tumor. If the tumor is functional, it may produce hormones causing symptoms such as high blood pressure, low potassium level, heart palpitations, nervousness, feelings of anxiety or panic attacks, excessive perspiration, diabetes, Cushing syndrome, unexplained weight gain or weight loss, weakness, abdominal stretch marks, excessive hair growth, changes in genitalia, change in libido, etc. If the tumor is nonfunctional, symptoms occur because the tumor ...
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"Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical ...
Examples include thyroid adenomas and adrenocortical adenomas. Although most benign tumors are not life-threatening, many types ... Adenomas of the rectum may be treated with sclerotherapy, a treatment in which chemicals are used to shrink blood vessels in ... Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, which cause ... A prominent and well studied example of this phenomenon is the tubular adenoma, a common type of colon polyp which is an ...
Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]". Endokrynologia Polska ... October 2004). "[Childhood adrenocortical tumors]". Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (in Portuguese). 48 (5 ... Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone,[28] ...
... adrenocortical adenomas and pheochromocytomas". Regulatory Peptides. 104 (1-3): 161-5. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(01)00359-7. PMID ... "Orexin A stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through activation of the adenylate cyclase-dependent ...
Functional adrenocortical adenomas are surgically curable. Most of the adrenocortical adenomas are less than 2 cm in greatest ... They should not be confused with adrenocortical "nodules", which are not true neoplasms. Adrenocortical adenomas are uncommon ... Adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex which are extremely common (present in 1-10% of persons at ... Grossly, adrenocortical adenomas are encapsulated, well-circumscribed, solitary tumors with solid, homogeneous yellow-cut ...
Unilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocarcinoma can be potentially cured surgically. ... One type is caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma or adenocarcinoma. The other type, known as idiopathic ... Bilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa or metastasized adrenocortical adenocarcinoma ...
Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. in ... "Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and ...
March 2002). "Characterization of serotonin(4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas: in vivo and in vitro ... It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis.[2] A 1998 study suggests that adrenocortical cells under pathological as ... Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Hilbers U (1998). "Neuroendocrine properties of adrenocortical cells". Horm. Metab. Res. 30 (6-7): 436-9. ... The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme ...
"Characterization of Serotonin4 Receptors in Adrenocortical Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas: In Vivo and in Vitro Studies". ... Ehrhart-Bornstein, M.; Hilbers, U. (1998). "Neuroendocrine Properties of Adrenocortical Cells". Hormone and Metabolic Research ... acts in this location The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues ... which suggests that calcium-channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in vivo. ...
... esophageal leiomyoma and adrenocortical adenoma. The original description employed the then-prevailing terminology of gastric ...
March 2002). "Characterization of serotonin(4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas: in vivo and in vitro ... All adrenocortical steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. Cholesterol is transported into the adrenal gland. The ... The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues has been predicted and ... The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme ...
"Characterization of Serotonin4 Receptors in Adrenocortical Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas: In Vivo and in Vitro Studies". ... which suggests that calcium-channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in vivo.[9] ... The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues has been predicted and ... "Basal Steroidogenic Activity of Adrenocortical Cells is Increased 10-Fold by Coculture with Chromaffin Cells". Endocrinology. ...
... adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinoma, as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary adenomas (as in ...
Other mutations and genetic alterations in the PRKACA gene have been identified in adrenocortical adenomas that also disrupt ...
"Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro ... "Orexins stimulate glucocorticoid secretion from cultured rat and human adrenocortical cells, exclusively acting via the OX1 ...
... gene selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1 in the normal adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas". J. ...
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.098.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.347.500 --- adrenal cortex neoplasms ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.347.500.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.500.263 --- addison disease MeSH ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.344.078.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.344.400.500 --- multiple endocrine ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500 ...
Holmes was familiar with a similar case that had been treated by surgical removal of an adrenocortical adenoma (a tumour of the ...
Bilateral micronodular hyperplasia is more common than unilateral adrenal adenoma. Play media It can be asymptomatic, but these ... surgery Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia: aldosterone antagonist, e.g., spironolactone Secondary hyperaldosteronism (also ... was previously thought to be most commonly caused by an adrenal adenoma, termed Conn's syndrome. However, recent studies have ... Alkalosis Investigations High serum aldosterone Low serum renin High-resolution CT abdomen Management Adrenal adenoma: ...
The presence of invasion and mitotic activity help differentiate small cancers from adrenocortical adenomas. There are several ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor, with incidence of 1-2 per million population annually. Adrenocortical carcinoma has a ... such as adrenocortical adenoma, and determining the extent of invasion of the tumor into surrounding organs and tissues. CT ... Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Adrenal medullary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma The only curative treatment is ...
A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma, or sometimes simply adrenal adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal ... adrenal tumor "Definition: adrenocortical adenoma from Online Medical Dictionary". ... Nevertheless, these apparently non-functioning adenomas are most often encountered in elder obese people. There is some debate ... Very occasionally, a true adrenal cortical adenoma is associated with the clinical manifestations of Conn's syndrome, and can ...
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.078.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C04.588.322.400 --- multiple endocrine ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.075 --- adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.085 --- adenoma, bile duct MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.140 --- adenoma, oxyphilic MeSH C04.557.470.035.155 --- adenoma, pleomorphic MeSH ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.075 --- adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.095 --- adenoma, chromophobe ...
Adrenocortical adenoma/Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Hurthle cell. Other/multiple. *Neuroendocrine tumor *Carcinoid. *Adenoid ...
Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. *Adrenoleukodystrophy. *Adult ...
Thyroid adenoma. *Struma ovarii. Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla * ...
Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome,[3] when excluding Cushing's syndrome from ... The other hypothesis was that Minnie might have suffered from Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD), which ... The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this surgery involves ... Ding D, Starke RM, Sheehan JP (May 2014). "Treatment paradigms for pituitary adenomas: defining the roles of radiosurgery and ...
Its cause was initially considered a left adrenocortical adenoma based on computer tomography imaging. The patient underwent ... We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule ... Even though primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of Cushings syndrome, it should be included in ... especially because adrenal imaging can be misleading mimicking other adrenocortical diseases. Bilateral laparoscopic ...
Villous adenoma. @. Therapy. @. Hypo-magnesemia must be corrected in order for hypokalemia correction to work properly.. Do not ... Chronic stress which increases adrenocortical hormone. Chronic diarrhea, mal-absorption syndrome. Perspiration and chronic ...
A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma, or sometimes simply adrenal adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal ... adrenal tumor "Definition: adrenocortical adenoma from Online Medical Dictionary". ... Nevertheless, these apparently non-functioning adenomas are most often encountered in elder obese people. There is some debate ... Very occasionally, a true adrenal cortical adenoma is associated with the clinical manifestations of Conns syndrome, and can ...
... Lea F. Surrey,1 Ashesh ... "ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome with bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma," ... S. K. Lau and L. M. Weiss, "The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later," Human Pathology, vol. 40 ... H. Ohtake, H. Kawamura, M. Matsuzaki et al., "Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma," Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 14, no ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. A benign Neoplasm of the Adrenal Cortex. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually ... Most adrenocortical Adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain Lipids. Depending on the Cell type ...
Gene context of Adrenocortical Adenoma. *COUP-TFI expression in human adrenocortical adenomas: possible role in steroidogenesis ... High impact information on Adrenocortical Adenoma. *In addition, adrenocortical adenomas, spontaneous to Syrian golden hamsters ... CREB protein status was studied by Western blotting in adrenocortical adenomas (AAs, n = 27) and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACs ... Urotensin II-like immunoreactivity was detected in one of eight adrenocortical adenomas, two of four adrenocortical carcinomas ...
Bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome: A case report and review ... Cases of ACTH-independent CS associated with adrenocortical adenoma are secondary to unilateral adrenocortical adenomas in ... Table 1 Endocrinological study at different periods of bilateral adrenocortical adenomas. Baseline. Low-dose dexam test. High- ... A case report of Cushings syndrome due to bilateral adrenocortical adenomas. Zhonghua Neifenmidaixie Zazhi. 2001;17:188-189. [ ...
Keyword(s) : Adrenocortical adenoma, Case report, Conn's syndrome, ECG, Endocrinology, Primary aldosteronism and Surgery ... oa South African Medical Journal - Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome) * Navigate this ...
Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case. The Journal of ... Gilman D. Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case. J Am ... Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case ... Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case ...
Resolution of the physical features of Cushings syndrome in a patient with a cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenoma after ... Resolution of the physical features of Cushings syndrome in a patient with a cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenoma after ... Histopathology results were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma (2.5 cm widest dimension). Six months after surgery, ...
... endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushings syndrome due to single adrenocortical adenomas. ... endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushings syndrome due to single adrenocortical adenomas (. ... Background: Subclinical Cushing s syndrome (SCS) due to incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas (AI) has been associated with ...
... of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state ... Differential expression of the protein kinase A subunits in normal adrenal glands and adrenocortical adenomas. ... of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state ... of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state ...
Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) is responsible for the majority of cases clinically diagnosed as primary ... Key words -- aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma; CYP11B2; gene mutation; transcription factor; 18-oxocortisol ...
Adenoma, Adrenal Cortical; Conns Disease. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ...
Adrenocortical... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most ... Adrenocortical adenoma: lt;table class=infobox cellspacing=3 style=border-spacing:3px;width:22em;,,,, ... A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex. ... Nevertheless, these apparently non-functioning adenomas are most often encountered in elder obese people. There is some debate ...
Adrenocortical carcinoma in preoperative diagnostic imaging Ziaja Jacek, Hartel Marcin, Król Robert, Kiełtyka Aleksandra, ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
Anomalous Response to Metyrapone in Cushings Syndrome Due to Adrenocortical Adenoma. Posted on June 11, 2017 by MaryO ... 24-hour urinary free cortisol 40 Days abstract ACTH Addisons disease adenoma adrenal adrenalectomy adrenal glands adrenal ... Adrenocortical Carcinoma and Pulmonary Embolism From Tumoral Extension. Cushing syndrome or a mixed picture of excess androgen ... cancer Korlym MaryO message boards mifepristone mortality MRI NIH obesity osteoporosis pasireotide pituitary Pituitary adenoma ...
Using RCRFA for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment method in selected ... From May 2006 to May 2009, 12 female patients with adrenocortical adenoma and Cushing syndrome underwent RCRFA. Ten tumors were ... Retroperitoneal laparoscopic cool-tip radiofrequency ablation of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome. View Poster ... MP03-14: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic cool-tip radiofrequ ... of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome. ...
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma. . ... The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas ACAs with somatic driver mutations and ... Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma. ... Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma - ...
Final Diagnosis -- Pheochromocytoma and Adrenocortical Adenoma. FINAL DIAGNOSIS:. CORTICOMEDULLARY TUMOR OF THE LEFT ADRENAL ... These cortical adenomas occur either as a separate tumor, or as a component of CMT consisting of both cortical adenoma cells ... GLAND WITH ELEMENTS OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA AND ADRENOCORTICAL ADENOMA. DISCUSSION:. Corticomedullary tumor (CMT) of the adrenal ... Only a few cases have been reported in the literature consisting of nests and cords of pheochromocytoma and cortical adenoma ...
... hormonally inactive adrenocortical adenoma) and 3 CPA (cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma) samples. Tissue digestion, ... microRNa expression profiling in adrenal myelolipoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenocortical adenoma. Project description: ... Overall design: miRNA sequencing of 45 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), 30 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and 3 normal adrenal ... miRNA sequencing of 45 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), 30 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and 3 normal adrenal samples. ...
Adenoma, อะดีโนมา (th); acinar cell adenoma, acinar cell adenoma (morphologic abnormality), acinic cell adenoma, adenomas (en ... Adenoma (lt); Adenóm (sk); Adenoma (tl); Gruczolak (pl); เนื้องอกต่อม (th); Adenoma (id); adenom (nn); adenom (nb); adenoom (nl ... adenoma (it); adenoma (en); adénome (fr); Adenooma (fi); Adenoom (et); Adenom (tr); Ադենոմա (hy); adenoma (ca); غدومہ (ur); ... Adenomata, Adenoma (tr); Adenomatous, ایڈینوما, ایڈینومیٹوسس, Adenoma, Adenomatosis (ur); Adenome (fr
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically- ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism ...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland ...
  • A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our Surgery Department from the Endocrinology Department for surgical treatment of ACTH-independent CS considered to be caused by an adrenocortical adenoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archived tissue samples (discovery cohort: 10 adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), 10 ACC and 10 myelolipoma) was performed by Illumina MiSeq. (omicsdi.org)
  • Lipid-poor adenomas are more difficult to diagnose because the CT density increases and approaches that of soft tissue. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In the upper right quadrant of the cortex is a dark blue nodule that is an adrenal cortical adenoma since it does not stain brown, is located within the adrenal cortex, and has cellular features consistent with the cortical cells. (jax.org)