Dictionaries, MedicalAdrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Interrenal Gland: Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.Paralyses, Familial Periodic: A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Cortex HormonesResearch Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Vanilmandelic AcidLipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
(1/137) Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman.

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

(2/137) The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours.

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

(3/137) Analysis of genomic alterations in sporadic adrenocortical lesions. Gain of chromosome 17 is an early event in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

Genetic changes underlying the tumorigenesis of sporadic adrenocortical tumors are poorly characterized. To search for characteristic genomic imbalances involved in adrenocortical tumors, we examined 41 adrenocortical lesions (12 carcinomas, 23 adenomas, and 6 hyperplasias) by comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show that genetic alterations are more frequent in malignant than in benign lesions and that they rarely occur in hyperplastic lesions. The most frequent DNA copy number changes in adrenocortical carcinomas included losses of 1p21-31, 2q, 3p, 3q, 6q, 9p, and 11q14-qter, as well as gains and amplifications of 5q12, 9q32-qter, 12q, and 20q. The genomic aberrations prevalently occurring in adrenocortical adenomas were gains of 17q, 17p, and 9q32-qter. Gains found in 2 of 6 adrenocortical hyperplastic lesions involved chromosome 17 or 17q only. These data indicate that oncogenes determining the early tumorigenesis of adrenocortical tumors may exist on chromosome 17 and that the number of genomic alterations is closely associated with tumor behavior in adrenocortical tumors.  (+info)

(4/137) Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.

Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We conclude that adenomectomy is not an adequate therapy for patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.  (+info)

(5/137) PET imaging of adrenal cortical tumors with the 11beta-hydroxylase tracer 11C-metomidate.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate PET with the tracer 11C-metomidate as a method to identify adrenal cortical lesions. METHODS: PET with 11C-metomidate was performed in 15 patients with unilateral adrenal mass confirmed by CT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery, except 2 who underwent biopsy only. The lesions were histopathologically examined and diagnosed as adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 6; 3 nonfunctioning), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 2), and nodular hyperplasia (n = 1). The remaining were noncortical lesions, including 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 myelolipoma, 2 adrenal cysts, and 2 metastases. RESULTS: All cortical lesions were easily identified because of exceedingly high uptake of 11C-metomidate, whereas the noncortical lesions showed very low uptake. High uptake was also seen in normal adrenal glands and in the stomach. The uptake was intermediate in the liver and low in other abdominal organs. Images obtained immediately after tracer injection displayed high uptake in the renal cortex and spleen. The tracer uptake in the cortical lesions increased throughout the examination. For quantitative evaluation of tracer binding in individual lesions, a model with the splenic radioactivity concentration assigned to represent nonspecific uptake was applied. Values derived with this method, however, did show the same specificity as the simpler standardized uptake value concept, with similar difference observed for cortical versus noncortical lesions. CONCLUSION: PET with 11C-metomidate has the potential to be an attractive method for the characterization of adrenal masses with the ability to discriminate lesions of adrenal cortical origin from noncortical lesions.  (+info)

(6/137) Expression of inhibin alpha in adrenocortical tumours reflects the hormonal status of the neoplasm.

Inhibins are gonadal glycoprotein hormones whose main endocrine function is to inhibit pituitary FSH secretion. In addition to testes and ovaries, other steroid-producing organs are sites of inhibin alpha subunit expression. To study the role of inhibins in human adrenal gland, we screened a panel of 150 adrenals (10 normal adrenals, 25 adrenocortical hyperplasias, 65 adrenocortical adenomas, 30 adrenocortical carcinomas and 20 phaeochromocytomas) for inhibin alpha expression. mRNA levels of inhibin alpha subunit were studied in 57 samples and all tissues were stained immunohistochemically with an inhibin alpha subunit-specific antibody. Inhibin alpha mRNA was detected in all adrenocortical tissues. Virilizing adenomas possessed a 10-fold higher median inhibin alpha mRNA expression than did normal adrenals. Bilaterally and nodularly hyperplastic adrenals and other than virilizing adrenocortical tumours had their median inhibin alpha mRNA levels close to those of normal adrenals. Immunohistochemically, inhibin alpha subunit was detectable in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals, as well as in 73% of the adrenocortical tumours. However, the percentage of inhibin alpha-positive cells varied greatly in different tumour types. The median percentage of positive cells was 10 in non-functional and Conn's adenomas, 30 in Cushing's adenomas and 75 in virilizing adenomas. In malignant adrenocortical tumours the median percentage of inhibin alpha-immunopositive cells was 20 in non-functional carcinomas, 30 in Conn's carcinomas, 65 in Cushing's carcinomas and 75 in virilizing carcinomas. All phaeochromocytomas were negative for inhibin alpha subunit both at the mRNA level and immunohistochemically. Our data show that inhibin alpha subunit is highly expressed in both normal and neoplastic androgen-producing adrenocortical cells, with less expression in cortisol-producing and hardly any in aldosterone-producing cells. This suggests a specific role for inhibins in the regulation of adrenal androgen production. We did not find any significant difference in inhibin alpha expression between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours. Thus inhibin alpha gene does not seem to have a tumour suppressor role in human adrenal cortex.  (+info)

(7/137) Molecular analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in sporadic adrenal tumors.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of the CDKN1C (P57KIP2) gene, which encodes for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDNC, and the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in adrenal tumorigenesis, as a means of investigating the molecular basis of sporadic adrenal tumors, which is unknown. DESIGN: Screening for the presence CDKN1C and TP53 mutations and analyzing the expression pattern of CDNC, P53 and its downstream effector CDN1 (P21WAF1/CIP1) in a series of 79 sporadic adrenal tumors. METHODS: Single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing were used for mutation analysis of CDKN1C and TP53 in blood and adrenal tissue samples. In a subgroup of 48 tissues, CDKN1C expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 and CDN1 was performed. RESULTS: No somatic mutations of CDKN1C were found in the tumors analyzed, in spite of low/absent CDNC expression in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. Mutations in the TP53 gene were present in 70% of adrenocortical carcinomas, associated with abnormal P53 and CDN1 expression, but not in benign neoplasms. In the normal adrenal cortex, CDNC expression was strictly nuclear and confined to the cortical zone (i.e. zona glomerulosa and reticularis), with no staining in the medulla. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the TP53 gene are frequent in adrenocortical carcinomas and might be used as a marker of malignancy. In the normal adrenal cortex, the zone-specific pattern of expression of CDNC suggests a role in adrenal differentiation.  (+info)

(8/137) Localization of the endothelin system in aldosterone-producing adenomas.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) could play a role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion of the human adrenal gland. The presence of the endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and ET-1 suggests that there is a local ET system in the adrenal cortex, but the in situ synthesis of ET-1 remains to be confirmed. The cellular distribution of the whole ET system was evaluated in 20 cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Polymerase chain reaction studies gave strong signals for ECE-1 mRNA and the mRNAs for endothelin type A (ET(A)) and B (ET(B)) receptors and faint signals for prepro-ET-1 mRNA. In situ hybridization showed ET(A) receptors scattered throughout the adenoma, in both secretory cells and vascular structures (score, +). There were more ET(B) receptors (score, ++), but they were restricted mainly to the endothelium. ECE-1 mRNA and protein were ubiquitous and abundant in secretory cells (score, +++) and vascular structures (score, ++); the enzyme was active on big ET-1. There was no prepro-ET-1 mRNA in the cortex, except in the thickened precapillary arterioles present in only 30% of the aldosterone-producing adenomas studied. ET-1 immunoreactivity was detected in vascular structures (score, +), probably bound to receptors, suggesting that ET-1 has an endocrine action. The low concentrations of ET-1 could also indicate that it acts in a paracrine-autocrine fashion to control adrenal blood flow. The discrepancy between the concentrations of ECE-1 and its substrate suggests that ECE-1 has another role in the adrenal secretory cells. Our data indicate that ET probably is not a primary cause of the development or maintenance of the adenoma.  (+info)

*  Hyperaldosteronism
Bilateral micronodular hyperplasia is more common than unilateral adrenal adenoma. Play media It can be asymptomatic, but these ... surgery Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia: aldosterone antagonist, e.g., spironolactone Secondary hyperaldosteronism (also ... was previously thought to be most commonly caused by an adrenal adenoma, termed Conn's syndrome. However, recent studies have ... Alkalosis Investigations High serum aldosterone Low serum renin High-resolution CT abdomen Management Adrenal adenoma: ...
*  Adrenocortical adenoma
A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma, or sometimes simply adrenal adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal ... adrenal tumor "Definition: adrenocortical adenoma from Online Medical Dictionary". ... Nevertheless, these apparently non-functioning adenomas are most often encountered in elder obese people. There is some debate ... Very occasionally, a true adrenal cortical adenoma is associated with the clinical manifestations of Conn's syndrome, and can ...
*  Benign tumor
Examples include thyroid adenomas and adrenocortical adenomas. Although most benign tumors are not life-threatening, many types ... Adenomas of the rectum may be treated with sclerotherapy, a treatment in which chemicals are used to shrink blood vessels in ... Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, which cause ... A prominent and well studied example of this phenomenon is the tubular adenoma, a common type of colon polyp which is an ...
*  Leuprorelin
"Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical ...
*  Adrenal tumor
Functional adrenocortical adenomas are surgically curable. Most of the adrenocortical adenomas are less than 2 cm in greatest ... They should not be confused with adrenocortical "nodules", which are not true neoplasms. Adrenocortical adenomas are uncommon ... Adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex which are extremely common (present in 1-10% of persons at ... Grossly, adrenocortical adenomas are encapsulated, well-circumscribed, solitary tumors with solid, homogeneous yellow-cut ...
*  Secondary hypertension
Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]". Endokrynologia Polska ... Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone, that ... October 2004). "[Childhood adrenocortical tumors]". Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (in Portuguese). 48 (5 ...
*  Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2
... adrenocortical adenomas and pheochromocytomas". Regulatory Peptides. 104 (1-3): 161-5. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(01)00359-7. PMID ... "Orexin A stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through activation of the adenylate cyclase-dependent ...
*  Feline hyperaldosteronism
Unilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocarcinoma can be potentially cured surgically. ... One type is caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma or adenocarcinoma. The other type, known as idiopathic ... Bilateral primary hyperaldosteronism due to hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa or metastasized adrenocortical adenocarcinoma ...
*  Mir-181 microRNA precursor
Mir-210 has been suggested as a useful biomarker to distinguish adrenocortical carcinoma from adrenocortical adenoma. in ... "Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and ...
*  Carney's triad
... esophageal leiomyoma and adrenocortical adenoma. The original description employed the then-prevailing terminology of gastric ...
*  Adrenocortical carcinoma
The presence of invasion and mitotic activity help differentiate small cancers from adrenocortical adenomas. There are several ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor, with incidence of 1-2 per million population annually. Adrenocortical carcinoma has a ... such as adrenocortical adenoma, and determining the extent of invasion of the tumor into surrounding organs and tissues. CT ... Adrenocortical adenoma Renal cell carcinoma Adrenal medullary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma The only curative treatment is ...
*  Hirsutism
... adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinoma, as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary adenomas (as in ...
*  Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1
"Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro ... "Orexins stimulate glucocorticoid secretion from cultured rat and human adrenocortical cells, exclusively acting via the OX1 ...
*  PRKACA
Other mutations and genetic alterations in the PRKACA gene have been identified in adrenocortical adenomas that also disrupt ...
*  24-Dehydrocholesterol reductase
... gene selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1 in the normal adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas". J. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C19)
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.098.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.347.500 --- adrenal cortex neoplasms ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.347.500.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.053.500.263 --- addison disease MeSH ... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.344.078.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C19.344.400.500 --- multiple endocrine ... adenoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249.500 --- insulinoma MeSH C19.344.421.500 --- carcinoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.500 ...
*  Lennox Broster
Holmes was familiar with a similar case that had been treated by surgical removal of an adrenocortical adenoma (a tumour of the ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C04)
... adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.078.265.750 --- adrenocortical carcinoma MeSH C04.588.322.400 --- multiple endocrine ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.075 --- adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.470.035.085 --- adenoma, bile duct MeSH C04.557. ... adenoma, liver cell MeSH C04.557.470.035.140 --- adenoma, oxyphilic MeSH C04.557.470.035.155 --- adenoma, pleomorphic MeSH ... adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.075 --- adenoma, basophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.095 --- adenoma, chromophobe ...
*  Zona glomerulosa
"Characterization of Serotonin4 Receptors in Adrenocortical Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas: In Vivo and in Vitro Studies". ... Ehrhart-Bornstein, M.; Hilbers, U. (1998). "Neuroendocrine Properties of Adrenocortical Cells". Hormone and Metabolic Research ... acts in this location The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues ... which suggests that calcium-channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in vivo. ...
*  Adrenal cortex
March 2002). "Characterization of serotonin(4) receptors in adrenocortical aldosterone-producing adenomas: in vivo and in vitro ... All adrenocortical steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. Cholesterol is transported into the adrenal gland. The ... The expression of neuron-specific proteins in the zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues has been predicted and ... The primary mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, is produced in the adrenocortical zona glomerulosa by the action of the enzyme ...
*  David Velázquez Fernández
2010) The role of microRNA deregulation in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer. (2011) Primary ... primary parathyroid hyperplasia versus adenoma. (2006) Evaluación del impacto funcional e intensidad del dolor antes y después ... 2004) Expression Profiling of Adrenocortical Tumors Suggests a Molecular Signature of Malignancy. (2005) Differential RNA ... 2008) Transcriptional profiling enables molecular classification of adrenocortical tumours. European Journal of Endocrinology ...
*  Index of oncology articles
... tubulovillous adenoma - tumor - tumor antigen vaccine - tumor board review - tumor burden - tumor debulking - tumor ... adrenocortical - Adriamycin - adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - AE-941 - AEE788 - aerobic metabolism - aerobic respiration - ... villous adenoma - villus - vinblastine - vinca alkaloid - vincristine - vindesine - vinorelbine - viral vector - virotherapy - ... adenoma - adenopathy - adenosine triphosphate - adenovirus - adjunct agent - adjunctive therapy - adjuvant therapy - ...
*  Primary aldosteronism
These mutations tend to occur in young women with the adenoma in the cortisol secreting zona fasciculata. Adenomas without this ... of cases Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma-. < 0.1% of cases 40% of people with an adrenal aldosterone producing ... Some cases may be cured by removing the adenoma by surgery. A single adrenal gland may also be removed in cases where only one ... About 66% of cases are due to enlargement of both adrenal glands and 33% of cases are due to an adrenal adenoma that produces ...
*  Stefan R. Bornstein
1999). Adrenocortical tumors: recent advances in basic concepts and clinical management. In: Ann Intern Med.doi:10.7326/0003- ... 1998). Aberrant interleukin-1 receptors in a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome.. In: N Engl J Med. ... 1999). Local renin-angiotensin system is involved in K+-induced aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical NCI-H295 cells ... 1998). Intraadrenal interactions in the regulation of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. In: Endocr Rev. S. R. Bornstein, T. ...
*  H19 (gene)
The mean percent methylation of H19 CpGs peaked at sites 9 and 10 in normal, hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma adrenals and ... In contrast to most other cancers, adrenocortical neoplasms appear to have decreased expression of H19. To determine a possible ... studied the methylation of 12 CpG sites in the H19 promoter in normal, hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma adrenals. They found ... The mean percent CpG methylation at site 11 for hyperplasia and adenoma adrenals is significantly different from that of normal ...
*  Cushing's syndrome
If an adrenal adenoma is identified, it may be removed by surgery. An ACTH-secreting corticotrophic pituitary adenoma should be ... Fudge, EB; von Allmen, D; Volmar, KE; Calikoglu, AS (2009). "Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical ... Regardless of the adenoma's location, most patients require steroid replacement postoperatively at least in the interim, as ... Cases due to a pituitary adenoma are known as Cushing's disease. It is the second most common cause of Cushing's syndrome after ...
hypokalemic periodic paralysis, familial periodic paralysis, Complementary and Alternative Healing University  hypokalemic periodic paralysis, familial periodic paralysis, Complementary and Alternative Healing University
Villous adenoma. @. Therapy. @. Hypo-magnesemia must be corrected in order for hypokalemia correction to work properly.. Do not ... Chronic stress which increases adrenocortical hormone. Chronic diarrhea, mal-absorption syndrome. Perspiration and chronic ...
more infohttp://thedao.com/hypokalemic_periodic_paralysis.htm
Adrenocortical Adenoma - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org  Adrenocortical Adenoma - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Adrenocortical Adenoma. A benign Neoplasm of the Adrenal Cortex. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually ... Most adrenocortical Adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain Lipids. Depending on the Cell type ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/adrenocortical-adenoma.html
Adrenocortical adenoma - Wikipedia  Adrenocortical adenoma - Wikipedia
A adrenocortical adenoma (or adrenal cortical adenoma, or sometimes simply adrenal adenoma) is a benign tumor of the adrenal ... adrenal tumor "Definition: adrenocortical adenoma from Online Medical Dictionary". ... Nevertheless, these apparently non-functioning adenomas are most often encountered in elder obese people. There is some debate ... Very occasionally, a true adrenal cortical adenoma is associated with the clinical manifestations of Conn's syndrome, and can ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenocortical_adenoma
Sabinet | Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome)  Sabinet | Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome)
Keyword(s) : Adrenocortical adenoma, Case report, Conn's syndrome, ECG, Endocrinology, Primary aldosteronism and Surgery ... oa South African Medical Journal - Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome) * Navigate this ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/m_samj/40/41/AJA20785135_37817
Bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome: A case report and review...  Bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome: A case report and review...
Bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome: A case report and review ... Cases of ACTH-independent CS associated with adrenocortical adenoma are secondary to unilateral adrenocortical adenomas in ... Table 1 Endocrinological study at different periods of bilateral adrenocortical adenomas. Baseline. Low-dose dexam test. High- ... A case report of Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenocortical adenomas. Zhonghua Neifenmidaixie Zazhi. 2001;17:188-189. [ ...
more infohttps://www.wjgnet.com/2307-8960/full/v7/i8/961.htm
Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case | The Journal of...  Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case | The Journal of...
Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case. The Journal of ... Gilman D. Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case. J Am ... Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case ... Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with a paradoxic response to dexamethasone administration: report of a case ...
more infohttps://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2098083
Expression of CYP11B2 in Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Adenoma: Regulatory Mechanisms and Clinical Significance  Expression of CYP11B2 in Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Adenoma: Regulatory Mechanisms and Clinical Significance
Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) is responsible for the majority of cases clinically diagnosed as primary ... Key words -- aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma; CYP11B2; gene mutation; transcription factor; 18-oxocortisol ...
more infohttp://www.sasappa.co.jp/online/abstract/tmp/1/240/html/0102400301.html
Impaired endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushings syndrome due to single adrenocortical...  Impaired endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to single adrenocortical...
... endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to single adrenocortical adenomas. ... endothelial morphology and function in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to single adrenocortical adenomas (. ... Background: Subclinical Cushing s syndrome (SCS) due to incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas (AI) has been associated with ...
more infohttps://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0016/ea0016p39
Ectopic Functioning Adrenocortical Oncocytic Adenoma (Oncocytoma) with Myelolipoma Causing Virilization  Ectopic Functioning Adrenocortical Oncocytic Adenoma (Oncocytoma) with Myelolipoma Causing Virilization
... Lea F. Surrey,1 Ashesh ... "ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma," ... S. K. Lau and L. M. Weiss, "The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later," Human Pathology, vol. 40 ... H. Ohtake, H. Kawamura, M. Matsuzaki et al., "Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma," Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 14, no ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2012/326418/ref/
nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas (NFI) - Allie: Co-occurring abbreviation  nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas (NFI) - Allie: Co-occurring abbreviation
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
more infohttp://allie.dbcls.jp/cooccur/NFI
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma -...  Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma -...
Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma. . ... The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas ACAs with somatic driver mutations and ... Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma. ... Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Overexpression Correlates with Protein Kinase A Activation in Adrenocortical Adenoma - ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun9/149859103017-Steroidogenic-Acute-Regulatory-Protein-Overexpression-Correlates-with-Protein-Kinase-A-Activation-in-Adrenocortical-Adenoma.php
Exacerbation of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with Cushings syndrome due to an...  Exacerbation of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to an...
... of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenocortical ... thyroid dysfunction after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenocortical adenoma. ...
more infohttp://www.readabstracts.com/Health/Exacerbation-of-autoimmune-thyroid-dysfunction-after-unilateral-adrenalectomy-in-patients-with-Cushi.html
Final Diagnosis -- Case 244  Final Diagnosis -- Case 244
Final Diagnosis -- Pheochromocytoma and Adrenocortical Adenoma. FINAL DIAGNOSIS:. CORTICOMEDULLARY TUMOR OF THE LEFT ADRENAL ... These cortical adenomas occur either as a separate tumor, or as a component of CMT consisting of both cortical adenoma cells ... GLAND WITH ELEMENTS OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA AND ADRENOCORTICAL ADENOMA. DISCUSSION:. Corticomedullary tumor (CMT) of the adrenal ... Only a few cases have been reported in the literature consisting of nests and cords of pheochromocytoma and cortical adenoma ...
more infohttps://path.upmc.edu/cases/case244/dx.html
Pathology Flashcards by Daniel Part | Brainscape  Pathology Flashcards by Daniel Part | Brainscape
What can adrenocortical adenomas resemble and how? Cortical cells:. - Well differentiated. - Small nuceli. - Rare mitotic ... If a thyroid adenoma secretes thyroid hormones, is it classed as TSH-dependent or TSH-independent? ... Pituitary adenoma -> Cushing's Disease. - Ectopic ACTH -> Small Cell LC. Bilateral adrenal enlargement ... True or false; if a pituitary adenoma is functional, hormones can be secreted at a subclinical level? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pathology-4994963/packs/7378807
Does Serum-DXM Increase Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overnight DXM Suppression Test in the Work-up of Cushing's Syndrome? -...  Does Serum-DXM Increase Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overnight DXM Suppression Test in the Work-up of Cushing's Syndrome? -...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically- ... Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01504555?recr=Open&cond=%22Adrenal+Gland+Neoplasms%22&rank=13
Long-term Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Adrenalectomy in Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome of Adrenal Incidentaloma - Full...  Long-term Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Adrenalectomy in Subclinical Cushing's Syndrome of Adrenal Incidentaloma - Full...
Adrenocortical Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01382420
Pathology of the Adrenal Glands  Flashcards by Laura  Barry | Brainscape  Pathology of the Adrenal Glands Flashcards by Laura Barry | Brainscape
Adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas can be hard to tell apart. What features are suggestive of malignancy? ... Adrenal CT - adenoma Sometimes adrenal vein sampling to confirm adenoma is true source of aldosterone excess ... Adrenal adenoma - Conn's syndrome Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia Rare - genetic mutations and unilateral hyperplasia ... Endogenous ACTH production (ituitary adenoma or ectopic ACTH from other tumour: paraneoplastic syndrome). Bilateral adrena ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pathology-of-the-adrenal-glands-3113180/packs/4827959
Coexistence of Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Graves Disease, a Rare Combination of Endocrine Disorders: Is It beyond a...  Coexistence of Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Graves' Disease, a Rare Combination of Endocrine Disorders: Is It beyond a...
We report a case of PA due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome) coexisting with Graves' disease in the same patient and ... Histology revealed adrenocortical adenoma. Antithyroid medications were titrated and discontinued after 12 months following ... and unilateral adrenocortical adenoma. It showed that ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities were present in 60% of the ... "Combined primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome due to a single adrenocortical adenoma complicated by Hashimoto's ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2017/4050458/
GIPR Gene - GeneCards | GIPR Protein | GIPR Antibody  GIPR Gene - GeneCards | GIPR Protein | GIPR Antibody
adrenal cortical adenoma. *adrenocortical adenoma. *10333644. adrenal adenoma. *adenoma of the adrenal gland ... Diseases associated with GIPR include Adrenal Cortical Adenoma and Adrenal Adenoma. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=GIPR
MC2R | Cancer Genetics Web  MC2R | Cancer Genetics Web
Unregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by tumors, adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, and/or bilateral ... Only one out of 57 patients with adrenocortical adenoma showed LOH at the ACTHR locus, whereas 4 of 10 carcinomas had loss of ... Adrenal adenomas producing both aldosterone and cortisol (A/CPAs) have been described in only a few cases. Correct subtype ... DESIGN: Human adrenocortical carcinoma (HAC) cells were isolated from an adrenal tumor removed from a girl presenting with ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/MC2R.htm
  • We report a case of PA due to adrenocortical adenoma (Conn's syndrome) coexisting with Graves' disease in the same patient and review the available literature in view of identifying possible associations. (hindawi.com)
  • Slapa RZ, Jakubowski W, Feltynowski T, and Januszewicz A. Multiple adrenal masses: MRI tissue differentiation of pheochromocytoma and adenoma at 1.5 T. Eur Radiol. (upmc.edu)
  • Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archived tissue samples (discovery cohort: 10 adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), 10 ACC and 10 myelolipoma) was performed by Illumina MiSeq. (omicsdi.org)
  • We demonstrated that juxtaposition with cis-acting regulatory sequences such as glucocorticoid response elements in the newly identified genomic environment drives abnormal expression of the translocated GIPR allele in adenoma cells. (jci.org)
  • TGF-alpha expression was detected at both protein and mRNA levels in normal and neoplastic adrenals but not EGF.EGFR immunoreactivity was more widely distributed than TGF-alpha immunoreactivity, TGF-alpha and EGF was considered to be involved in biological function including adrenocortical malignancy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The association of pathological features of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas ACAs with somatic driver mutations and their molecular classification remain unclear. (duhnnae.com)
  • Background: Subclinical Cushing s syndrome (SCS) due to incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas (AI) has been associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance which are established risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • On evaluation of persistent hypokalemia and hypertension, primary hyperaldosteronism due to right-sided adrenal adenoma was diagnosed. (hindawi.com)