Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Compounds that suppress or block the plasma membrane transport of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID by GABA PLASMA MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
One of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS formerly used for depression but was withdrawn worldwide in September 1983 because of the risk of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME associated with its use. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p385)
Nipecotic acids are a class of compounds, specifically GABAergic drugs, that act as reversible inhibitors of the presynaptic GABA transporter (GAT), increasing the concentration of GABA in the synaptic cleft and enhancing its inhibitory effects on neurotransmission.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.
A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups in their structure, making them capable of forming salts and esters by losing two hydrogen ions.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
Pyrrolidines are saturated, heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom (NRCH2CH2), commonly found as structural components in various alkaloids and used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic materials.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.

Fas/CD95/Apo-I activates the acidic sphingomyelinase via caspases. (1/489)

Fas/CD95/Apo-I has been shown to stimulate a variety of molecules including several members of the caspase family and the acidic sphingomyelinase (Martin and Green 1995; Gulbins et al, 1995). Here, we demonstrate that Fas receptor-triggered activation of the acidic sphingomyelinase, consumption of sphingomyelin, release of ceramide, and subsequent activation of JNK and p38-K are regulated by caspases. Inhibition of caspases by Ac-YVAD-chloromethylketone or transient CrmA transfection prevented stimulation of acidic sphingomyelinase, release of ceramide and activation of JNK and p38-K upon Fas-receptor crosslinking. Likewise, Fas triggered apoptosis was almost completely blocked by Ac-YVAD-chloromethylketone or CrmA mediated inhibition of caspases. The results suggest a new signalling cascade from the Fas receptor via caspases to acidic sphingomyelinase, ceramide and JNK/p38-K.  (+info)

Effects of imipramine, an uptake inhibitor, on double-peaked constrictor responses to periarterial nerve stimulation in isolated, perfused canine splenic arteries. (2/489)

Using a cannula insertion method, periarterial nerve electrical stimulations were performed at 1 and 10 Hz in the isolated, perfused canine splenic artery. Electrical nerve stimulation readily caused double-peaked vasoconstrictions. The 1st-peak response at 1 Hz was not influenced by treatment with imipramine but the 2nd one was significantly enhanced by it. The 2nd-peak response was markedly blocked by prazosin. An additional treatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP, a P2X-purinoceptor desensitizer, abolished electrical stimulation-induced vascular responses that remained. At 10 Hz, the responses to electrical stimulation were not significantly influenced by imipramine. On the other hand, the imipramine treatment inhibited the tyramine-induced vasoconstriction but potentiated the noradrenaline-induced one. ATP-induced responses were not modified by imipramine. From these results, it is concluded that 1) the 1st-peaked constriction is mainly due to a P2X-purinoceptor-dependent mechanism, 2) the 2nd one is mainly due to an alpha1-adrenoceptor-dependent mechanism, and 3) presynaptic uptake mechanisms may perform an important role in the regulation of vascular reactivity, especially at a low frequency.  (+info)

Transmembrane domain I contributes to the permeation pathway for serotonin and ions in the serotonin transporter. (3/489)

Mutation of a conserved Asp (D98) in the rat serotonin (5HT) transporter (rSERT) to Glu (D98E) led to decreased 5HT transport capacity, diminished coupling to extracellular Na+ and Cl-, and a selective loss of antagonist potencies (cocaine, imipramine, and citalopram but not paroxetine or mazindol) with no change in 5HT Km value. D98E, which extends the acidic side chain by one carbon, affected the rank-order potency of substrate analogs for inhibition of 5HT transport, selectively increasing the potency of two analogs with shorter alkylamine side chains, gramine, and dihydroxybenzylamine. D98E also increased the efficacy of gramine relative to 5HT for inducing substrate-activated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, but these currents were noticeably dependent on extracellular medium acidification. I-V profiles for substrate-independent and -dependent currents indicated that the mutation selectively impacts ion permeation coupled to 5HT occupancy. The ability of the D98E mutant to modulate selective aspects of substrate recognition, to perturb ion dependence as well as modify substrate-induced currents, suggests that transmembrane domain I plays a critical role in defining the permeation pathway of biogenic amine transporters.  (+info)

Diurnal variation in 5-HT1B autoreceptor function in the anterior hypothalamus in vivo: effect of chronic antidepressant drug treatment. (4/489)

1. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to examine the function of the terminal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) autoreceptor in the anterior hypothalamus of anaesthetized rats at two points in the light phase of the light-dark cycle. 2. Infusion of the 5-HT1A/1B agonist 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-1H-indole (RU24969) 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microM through the microdialysis probe led to a concentration-dependent decrease (49, 56 and 65% respectively) in 5-HT output. The effect of RU24969 (1 and 5 microM) was prevented by concurrent infusion of methiothepin (1 and 10 microM) into the anterior hypothalamus via the microdialysis probe. Infusion of methiothepin alone (1.0 and 10 microM) increased (15 and 142% respectively) 5-HT output. 3. Infusion of RU24969 (5 microM) through the probe at mid-light and end-light resulted in a quantitatively greater decrease in 5-HT output at end-light compared with mid-light. 4. Following treatment with either paroxetine hydrochloride (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or desipramine hydrochloride (10 mg kg)(-1) i.p.) for 21 days the function of the terminal 5-HT1B autoreceptor was more markedly attenuated at end-light. 5. The data show that, as defined by the response to RU24969, the function of the 5-HT1B receptors that control 5-HT output in the anterior hypothalamus is attenuated following chronic desipramine or paroxetine treatment in a time-of-day-dependent manner.  (+info)

Endothelium is required in the vascular spasm induced by tetraethylammonium and endothelin-1 in guinea-pig aorta. (5/489)

1. To investigate the role of endothelium in vascular spasm, we studied the influence of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the contracting and spasmogenic effect of the K+-channel blocker, tetraethylammonium (TEA), in aorta rings of reserpine-treated guinea-pigs, perfused with either control (5.5 mM) or elevated (50 mM) glucose concentration. 2. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was lost in rings contracted by noradrenaline in the presence of elevated glucose. In control medium, TEA (1-20 mM) induced a sustained tonic contraction, followed by a phasic spasm, characterized by rhythmic contractions. Elevated glucose, ET-1 (3 nM), or both, reduced the EC50 of TEA-induced tonic contraction, without modifying the maximum contractile effect. 3. In control medium, ET-1 reduced the time before TEA-induced spasm and increased the rate of rhythmic contractions. TEA-induced spasm was abolished by elevated glucose, and restored by ET-1. The spasm induced by TEA and ET-1 was amplified by the ETA antagonist, EMD94246, and suppressed by the ET(A)-ET(B) antagonist, bosentan. In endothelium-denuded vessels incubated with high glucose and ET-1, TEA evoked only a tonic contraction. 4. In control medium, L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) abolished TEA-induced rhythmic contractions. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, prevented the effect of L-NAME. In the presence of elevated glucose and ET-1, TEA-induced spasm was not affected by L-NAME, whereas verapamil, indomethacin, metyrapone, glybenclamide or apamin abolished the phasic spasm, unmasking the tonic contracture. 5. In conclusion, endothelium plays a regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of TEA-induced rhythmic contractions, through the release endothelium derived relaxing factor and vasodilating eicosanoids.  (+info)

Neuronal uptake affects dynamic characteristics of heart rate response to sympathetic stimulation. (6/489)

Recently, studies in our laboratory involving the use of a Gaussian white noise technique demonstrated that the transfer function from sympathetic stimulation frequency to heart rate (HR) response showed dynamic characteristics of a second-order low-pass filter. However, determinants for the characteristics remain to be established. We examined the effect of an increase in mean sympathetic stimulation frequency and that of a blockade of the neuronal uptake mechanism on the transfer function in anesthetized rabbits. We found that increasing mean sympathetic stimulation frequency from 1 to 4 Hz significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the dynamic gain of the transfer function without affecting other parameters, such as the natural frequency, lag time, or damping coefficient. In contrast, the administration of desipramine (0.3 mg/kg iv), a neuronal uptake blocking agent, significantly (P < 0.01) decreased both the dynamic gain and the natural frequency and prolonged the lag time. These results suggest that the removal rate of norepinephrine at the neuroeffector junction, rather than the amount of available norepinephrine, plays an important role in determining the low-pass filter characteristics of the HR response to sympathetic stimulation.  (+info)

Decrease in hepatic CYP2C11 mRNA and increase in heme oxygenase activity after intracerebroventricular injection of bacterial endotoxin. (7/489)

We previously reported (Arch. Toxcol. 1998, 72, 492-498) that the differential decrease in the levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in rats was observed 24 hr after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the dose ineffective (0.1 microgram) when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Among CYP isozymes we examined, the male specific CYP isozyme, CYP2C11 was most severely affected by i.c.v. injection of LPS. In this study, we examined the gene expression of CYP2C11, the total P450 contents, the CYP2C11-dependent activity of imipramine N-demethylase (IMND) and protein of CYP2C11 10 hr after i.c.v. or i.p. injections of LPS. Intracerebroventricular injection of LPS significantly decreased the level of CYP2C11 mRNA (to 63% of saline i.c.v. control), the total P450 contents (to 70% of saline i.c.v. control), the IMND activity (to 74% of saline i.c.v. control), but not protein of CYP2C11 in rat liver. In contrast, i.p. injection of LPS at the same dose as i.c.v. did not significantly affect these parameters. Since CYP is a heme protein, we also measured the activity of heme oxygenase (HO) using the same rat liver microsomes. The HO activity was increased to 166% by i.c.v. injection of LPS and 135% by i.p. injection of LPS compared to corresponding saline control. It is suggested that i.c.v. injection of LPS down-regulates the expression of CYP2C11 at transcriptional level and that both the decrease in CYP2C11 mRNA and the increase in heme degradation may be involved in the decreased level of protein and activity of CYP2C11 by i.c.v. injection of LPS in rat liver.  (+info)

Activities of trovafloxacin compared with those of other fluoroquinolones against purified topoisomerases and gyrA and grlA mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. (8/489)

Frequencies of mutation to resistance with trovafloxacin and four other quinolones were determined with quinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 by a direct plating method. First-step mutants were selected less frequently with trovafloxacin (1.1 x 10(-10) at 2 to 4x the MIC) than with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (3.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-8) at 2 to 4x the MIC). Mutants with a change in GrlA (Ser80-->Phe or Tyr) were most commonly selected with trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or pefloxacin. First-step mutants were difficult to select with sparfloxacin; however, second-step mutants with mutations in gyrA were easily selected when a preexisting mutation in grlA was present. Against 29 S. aureus clinical isolates with known mutations in gyrA and/or grlA, trovafloxacin was the most active quinolone tested (MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(50)] and MIC(90), 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively); in comparison, MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s were 32 and 128, 16 and 32, 8 and 32, and 128 and 256 microg/ml for ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, and pefloxacin, respectively. Strains with a mutation in grlA only were generally susceptible to all of the quinolones tested. For mutants with changes in both grlA and gyrA MICs were higher and were generally above the susceptibility breakpoint for ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, and pefloxacin. Addition of reserpine (20 microg/ml) lowered the MICs only of ciprofloxacin fourfold or more for 18 of 29 clinical strains. Topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase genes were cloned from S. aureus RN4220 and from two mutants with changes in GrlA (Ser80-->Phe and Glu84-->Lys). The enzymes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli GI724, purified, and used in DNA catalytic and cleavage assays that measured the relative potency of each quinolone. Trovafloxacin was at least five times more potent than ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, or pefloxacin in stimulating topoisomerase IV-mediated DNA cleavage. While all of the quinolones were less potent in cleavage assays with the altered topoisomerase IV, trovafloxacin retained its greater potency relative to those of the other quinolones tested. The greater intrinsic potency of trovafloxacin against the lethal topoisomerase IV target in S. aureus contributes to its improved potency against clinical strains of S. aureus that are resistant to other quinolones.  (+info)

Adrenergic uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter available to bind to postsynaptic receptors, leading to an enhancement of adrenergic transmission.

These medications are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Some examples of adrenergic uptake inhibitors include:

* Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These medications, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, were developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These medications, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, were developed in the 1990s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): These medications, such as bupropion, are used to treat depression and ADHD.

It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron after they have been released into the synapse. This results in an increased concentration of these neurotransmitters in the synapse, which can enhance their signal transduction and lead to therapeutic effects.

These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs).

It's important to note that while neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors can be effective in treating certain conditions, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Benztropine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as rigidity, tremors, and muscle spasms. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in the regulation of motor function.

Benztropine is also used to treat side effects caused by certain medications, such as antipsychotics, that can cause Parkinson-like symptoms. It may be prescribed to help reduce drooling or to manage muscle stiffness and restlessness.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or a solution for injection and is typically taken orally once or twice a day. Common side effects of benztropine include dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and constipation. More serious side effects may include hallucinations, confusion, and irregular heartbeat.

It's important to note that benztropine can interact with other medications, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the drugs you are taking before starting this medication. Additionally, benztropine should be used cautiously in older adults, people with glaucoma or enlarged prostate, and those with a history of heart problems.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) uptake inhibitors are a class of drugs or compounds that block the reuptake of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, into the presynaptic neuron. By blocking the reuptake, GABA uptake inhibitors increase the concentration of GABA in the synaptic cleft, which can enhance its inhibitory effects on neural activity. These drugs are sometimes used in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, and spasticity. Examples of GABA uptake inhibitors include tiagabine and vigabatrin.

Nomifensine is a medication that was previously used in the treatment of depression, but it is no longer available in many countries due to safety concerns. It is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that works by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline, which helps to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain and improve mood.

The medical definition of Nomifensine is:

"Nomifensine is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that is a potent inhibitor of dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake, with minimal effects on serotonin reuptake. It was used in the treatment of depression but has been withdrawn from the market due to safety concerns."

It's important to note that Nomifensine should only be taken under the supervision of a medical professional, and it is not available in many countries due to its potential for causing serious side effects such as liver toxicity and the risk of developing a rare but potentially fatal condition called hemolytic anemia.

Zimeldine is not commonly used in current medical practice due to its association with serious side effects. However, historically, it was a medication used as an antidepressant. It belongs to the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain.

Zimeldine was first synthesized in 1972 and approved for medical use in Sweden in 1982. However, it was withdrawn from the market in 1983 due to its association with a rare but serious side effect called Guillain-Barré syndrome, which is a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Although Zimeldine is no longer used in medical practice, it played an important role in the development of SSRIs as a class of antidepressants, which have since become widely used due to their effectiveness and relatively favorable side effect profile compared to earlier classes of antidepressants.

Nipecotic acids are a class of compounds that function as GABA transaminase inhibitors. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its levels are regulated by enzymes such as GABA transaminase.

Nipecotic acids work by inhibiting this enzyme, leading to an increase in GABA levels in the brain. This can have various effects on the nervous system, including sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant actions. Some nipecotic acid derivatives are used in research as tools for studying the role of GABA in the brain, while others have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses in treating conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy.

It's important to note that nipecotic acids and their derivatives can have significant side effects and toxicity, and they are not approved for use as medications in most countries. Therefore, they should only be used under the close supervision of a trained medical professional for research purposes.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

Clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant drug that is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood and behavior.

Clomipramine is also used off-label to treat other conditions, including panic disorder, depression, chronic pain, and sleep disorders. It is available as a tablet or capsule and is typically taken one to three times a day. Common side effects of clomipramine include dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, and drowsiness.

As with all medications, clomipramine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or concerns to the healthcare provider promptly.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

Tropane alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. This ring is composed of a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms, one of which is part of a piperidine ring. Tropane alkaloids are found in various plants, particularly those in the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, belladonna, and datura. Some well-known tropane alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and cocaine. These compounds have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anticholinergic, local anesthetic, and central nervous system stimulant effects.

Mazindol is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as sympathomimetic amines or anorectics. It has been used in the treatment of obesity, as it works by reducing appetite and increasing the amount of energy that the body uses. Mazindol affects certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite.

It's important to note that mazindol is not commonly used today due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use is typically reserved for individuals with severe obesity who have not responded to other treatment options.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Protriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication. It is primarily used to treat symptoms of depression, but it can also be used for other conditions such as anxiety disorders or to help manage chronic pain. Protriptyline works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression.

Protriptyline has a sedating effect, so it may also be used to treat insomnia or agitation associated with depression. It is available in immediate-release tablet form and is typically taken two to four times per day. As with all medications, protriptyline can have side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. It may also cause cardiac arrhythmias and should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease.

It's important to note that the use of Protriptyline and other tricyclic antidepressants has declined over the years due to the development of newer classes of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have fewer side effects and are safer in overdose. However, protriptyline may still be prescribed in certain cases where other treatments have not been effective.

Methysergide, commonly known as methylergometrine or metergoline, is not typically considered a medication in the medical field. It is actually a derivative of ergot alkaloids, which are fungal metabolites that have been used in medicine for their vasoconstrictive and oxytocic properties.

Methysergide has been used in the past as a migraine prophylaxis medication due to its ability to block serotonin receptors in the brain. However, its use is now limited due to its potential to cause serious side effects such as fibrotic reactions in various organs, including the heart, lungs, and kidneys.

Therefore, methysergide/metergoline is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and its use is typically reserved for highly specific cases under close medical supervision.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Fenfluramine is a drug that was previously used for the short-term treatment of obesity. It works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness. Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative and stimulates the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Fenfluramine was commonly prescribed in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, under the brand name Fen-Phen. However, in 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning about the potential risk of serious heart valve damage associated with the use of fenfluramine and withdrew its approval for the drug's use. Since then, fenfluramine has not been approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States.

Quipazine is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of medicine and neuroscience. Quipazine is a type of drug known as a serotonin receptor agonist, which means it binds to and activates serotonin receptors in the brain.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system, that plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other functions. Quipazine has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various conditions, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and substance abuse disorders. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in any country.

It's important to note that while quipazine may have potential therapeutic benefits, it also has significant side effects, including seizures, changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by muscle rigidity, fever, and autonomic dysfunction. As such, its use is generally limited to research settings.

Amphetamines are a type of central nervous system stimulant drug that increases alertness, wakefulness, and energy levels. They work by increasing the activity of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Amphetamines can be prescribed for medical conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, but they are also commonly abused for their ability to produce euphoria, increase confidence, and improve performance in tasks that require sustained attention.

Some common examples of amphetamines include:

* Adderall: a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Dexedrine: a brand name for dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Vyvanse: a long-acting formulation of lisdexamfetamine, a prodrug that is converted to dextroamphetamine in the body, used to treat ADHD

Amphetamines can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected. Long-term use or abuse of amphetamines can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, malnutrition, mental health disorders, and memory loss.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Fluvoxamine is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Fluvoxamine is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may also be prescribed for other conditions such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Fluvoxamine can be stated as:

Fluvoxamine maleate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a psychotropic medication used primarily in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It functions by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which subsequently modulates neurotransmission and helps restore emotional balance. Fluvoxamine may also be employed off-label for managing other conditions, such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder, subject to clinical judgment and patient needs.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl groups (-COOH) in their molecular structure. The general formula for dicarboxylic acids is HOOC-R-COOH, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain or a functional group.

The presence of two carboxyl groups makes dicarboxylic acids stronger acids than monocarboxylic acids (compounds containing only one -COOH group). This is because the second carboxyl group contributes to the acidity of the molecule, allowing it to donate two protons in solution.

Examples of dicarboxylic acids include oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2), succinic acid (HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH), glutaric acid (HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH), and adipic acid (HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH). These acids have various industrial applications, such as in the production of polymers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as norepinephrine transporters (NET), are membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and preventing excessive stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.

The norepinephrine transporter is a member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and functions as an antiporter, exchanging one intracellular sodium ion for two extracellular sodium ions along with the transport of norepinephrine. This sodium gradient provides the energy required for the active transport process.

Dysregulation of norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these transporters is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Dipyridamole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antiplatelet agents. It works by preventing platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots. Dipyridamole is often used in combination with aspirin to prevent stroke and other complications in people who have had a heart valve replacement or a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation.

Dipyridamole can also be used as a stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging studies, which are tests used to evaluate blood flow to the heart. When used for this purpose, dipyridamole is given intravenously and works by dilating the blood vessels in the heart, allowing more blood to flow through them and making it easier to detect areas of reduced blood flow.

The most common side effects of dipyridamole include headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In rare cases, dipyridamole can cause more serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, abnormal heart rhythms, or low blood pressure. It is important to take dipyridamole exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that belongs to the class of amphetamines. It acts as a central nervous system stimulant and hallucinogen. Chemically, it is a derivative of amphetamine with an additional methylenedioxy ring attached to the 3,4 positions on the aromatic ring. MDA is known for its empathogenic effects, meaning that it can produce feelings of empathy, emotional openness, and euphoria in users. It has been used recreationally as a party drug and at raves, but it also has potential therapeutic uses. However, MDA can have serious side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, hyperthermia, dehydration, and in some cases, serotonin syndrome. As with other psychoactive drugs, MDA should only be used under medical supervision and with a clear understanding of its potential risks and benefits.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

2-Chloroadenosine is a synthetic, chlorinated analog of adenosine, which is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside. It acts as an antagonist at adenosine receptors and has been studied for its potential effects on the cardiovascular system, including its ability to reduce heart rate and blood pressure. It may also have anti-cancer properties and has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment. However, further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Synaptosomes are subcellular structures that can be isolated from the brain tissue. They are formed during the fractionation process of brain homogenates and consist of intact presynaptic terminals, including the synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, and cytoskeletal elements. Synaptosomes are often used in neuroscience research to study the biochemical properties and functions of neuronal synapses, such as neurotransmitter release, uptake, and metabolism.

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds in the body that bind to cannabinoid receptors, which are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These compounds play a role in regulating many physiological processes, including appetite, mood, pain sensation, and memory. They are similar in structure to the active components of cannabis (marijuana), called phytocannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). However, endocannabinoids are produced by the body itself, whereas phytocannabinoids come from the cannabis plant. The two most well-known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).

Cannabinoid receptor modulators are a class of compounds that interact with and modify the function of cannabinoid receptors, which are part of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. These receptors play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as pain, mood, memory, appetite, and immunity.

There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, which are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system, and CB2 receptors, which are mainly found in the immune system and peripheral tissues. Cannabinoid receptor modulators can be classified into three categories based on their effects on these receptors:

1. Agonists: These compounds bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, leading to a range of effects such as pain relief, anti-inflammation, and mood enhancement. Examples include THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive component of marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids like dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet).
2. Antagonists: These compounds bind to cannabinoid receptors but do not activate them, instead blocking or reducing the effects of agonist compounds. Examples include rimonabant (Acomplia), which was withdrawn from the market due to psychiatric side effects, and SR141716A.
3. Inverse Agonists: These compounds bind to cannabinoid receptors and produce effects opposite to those of agonist compounds. Examples include CBD (cannabidiol), a non-psychoactive component of marijuana that has anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

Cannabinoid receptor modulators have potential therapeutic applications in various medical conditions such as chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cancer, and mental health disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyunsaturated Alkamides" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two different terms: "polyunsaturated" which relates to fatty acid chemistry, and "alkamides" which are a type of compound found in certain plants.

1. Polyunsaturated: This term refers to fatty acids that have multiple double bonds in their carbon chain. These fatty acids are essential to the human diet and are commonly found in foods like fish, nuts, and seeds. They are often referred to as Omega-3 or Omega-6 fatty acids.

2. Alkamides: These are a type of compound found in some plants, including Echinacea species. They have been studied for their potential biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

Without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "Polyunsaturated Alkamides." If you have more information about how these terms are being used together, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

Pyrrolidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a chemical compound that can be encountered in the field of medicine and pharmacology. Pyrrolidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)4NH. It is a cyclic secondary amine, which means it contains a nitrogen atom surrounded by four carbon atoms in a ring structure.

Pyrrolidines can be found in certain natural substances and are also synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and research. They have been used as building blocks in the synthesis of various drugs, including some muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, and antihistamines. Additionally, pyrrolidine derivatives can be found in certain plants and fungi, where they may contribute to biological activity or toxicity.

It is important to note that while pyrrolidines themselves are not a medical condition or diagnosis, understanding their chemical properties and uses can be relevant to the study and development of medications.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Xanthines are a type of natural alkaloids that are found in various plants, including tea leaves, cocoa beans, and mate. The most common xanthines are caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. These compounds have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and are often used in medication to treat conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory issues.

Caffeine is the most widely consumed xanthine and is found in a variety of beverages like coffee, tea, and energy drinks. It works by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain, which can lead to increased alertness and reduced feelings of fatigue.

Theophylline is another xanthine that is used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It works by relaxing smooth muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Theobromine is found in cocoa beans and is responsible for the stimulant effects of chocolate. While it has similar properties to caffeine and theophylline, it is less potent and has a milder effect on the body.

It's worth noting that while xanthines can have beneficial effects when used in moderation, they can also cause negative side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, and rapid heart rate if consumed in large quantities or over an extended period of time.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

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Two uptake mechanisms exist for terminating the action of adrenergic catecholamines - uptake 1 and uptake 2. Uptake 1 occurs at ... Inhibitors of these enzymes act as indirect agonists of adrenergic receptors as they prolong the action of catecholamines at ... the adrenergic receptors). Directly acting adrenergic agonists act on adrenergic receptors. All adrenergic receptors are G- ... Indirectly acting adrenergic agonists affect the uptake and storage mechanisms involved in adrenergic signalling. ...
Assays have shown that SNRIs have insignificant penchant for mACh, α1 and α2 adrenergic, or H1 receptors. Agents with dual ... Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier. Serotonergic pathways are classified ... SNRIs can be contrasted with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and are a widely used group of ...
... is a potent α2 adrenergic agonist. When xylazine and other alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are administered, they ... For example, xylazine and clonidine suppress uptake of MIBG, a norepinephrine analog, in neuroblastoma cells. Xylazine has ... Xylazine also serves as a transport inhibitor by suppressing norepinephrine transport function through competitive inhibition ... It is an analog of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. In veterinary anesthesia, xylazine is often ...
2008). "In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of JNJ-7925476, a novel triple monoamine uptake inhibitor". European Journal of ... at functionally important adrenergic receptor sites in the brain. However, elation may be associated with an excess of such ... Chen Z, Skolnick P. Triple uptake inhibitors: therapeutic potential in depression and beyond. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 ... Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Engleman EA (1995). "Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor ...
... adrenergic uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.519.625.600.220 - dopamine uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.519.625.600.850 - serotonin ... adrenergic uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.696.577.600.220 - dopamine uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.696.577.600.850 - serotonin ... adrenergic beta-antagonists MeSH D27.505.519.625.050.601 - adrenergic uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.519.625.120 - cholinergic ... adrenergic beta-antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.577.050.601 - adrenergic uptake inhibitors MeSH D27.505.696.577.120 - cholinergic ...
... like acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other treatments target the adrenergic system and have been shown to improve memory ... and inhibits norepinephrine uptake. The exact pathway is not yet understood but it has been shown that besipirdine does not ... Interest in besipirdine as a treatment for OAB was piqued by its known effects on the adrenergic system. In isolated studies, ... Besipirdine was originally suggested as a treatment for OCD due to its effects on the adrenergic and serotonergic systems. "In ...
Nakachi N, Kiuchi Y, Inagaki M, Inazu M, Yamazaki Y, Oguchi K (August 1995). "Effects of various dopamine uptake inhibitors on ... Gasić S, Korn A, Eichler HG (May 1986). "Effect of diclofensine, a novel antidepressant, on peripheral adrenergic function". ... 1982). "Diclofensine (Ro 8-4650)--a potent inhibitor of monoamine uptake: biochemical and behavioural effects in comparison ... Di Renzo G, Amoroso S, Taglialatela M, Canzoniero LM, Maida P, Lombardi G, Annunziato L (1988). "Pure uptake blockers of ...
Binding studies indicate that it has no effect on monoamine uptake and no affinity for adrenergic, histamine, cholinergic, ... Inhibitors of these enzymes, e.g. the SSRI antidepressant fluvoxamine, reduce its clearance and can therefore lead to an ... blockade of which enhances the activity of frontocortical dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways". The Journal of Pharmacology ...
It acts as a 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist and inhibits the reuptake and induces the release of serotonin, ... effects on uptake and retention of monoamines in rat brain synaptosomes". Psychopharmacology. 48 (3): 295-301. doi:10.1007/ ... dopamine, and norepinephrine to varying extents, and has been described as a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI ...
Schmidt AW, Hurt SD, Peroutka SJ (1989). "'[3H]quipazine' degradation products label 5-HT uptake sites". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 171 ... Bylund DB, Snyder SH (1976). "Beta adrenergic receptor binding in membrane preparations from mammalian brain". Mol. Pharmacol. ... 1996). "Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor". Psychopharmacology. 126 (3 ... guanethidine reserpine Nortriptyline is a strong norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and a moderate serotonin reuptake inhibitor ...
When phosphorylated (by PKA) - disinhibition of Ca2+-ATPase of SR leads to faster Ca2+ uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, ... Thus, activators of PKA, such as the beta-adrenergic agonist epinephrine (released by sympathetic stimulation), may enhance the ... In the unphosphorylated state, phospholamban is an inhibitor of cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor is also increased following cocaine use, thereby promoting thrombosis. Cocaine acts like a ... Fareed, Fareed N.; Chan, Gar; Hoffman, Robert S. (2007-12-01). "Death temporally related to the use of a Beta adrenergic ... This drug binds and blocks monoamine (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) re-uptake transporters with equal ... Cocaine-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation is another deleterious effect, caused by alpha-adrenergic- and ...
... specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine ... Agmatine binds to α2-adrenergic receptor and imidazoline receptor binding sites, and blocks NMDA receptors and other cation ... Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine ... It is synthesized in the brain, stored in synaptic vesicles, accumulated by uptake, released by membrane depolarization, and ...
This uptake is facilitated by dopamine and noradrenaline membrane receptors due to the structural similarity with dopamine and ... The real purpose of 6-hydroxydopamine is to increase sensitivity to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists. The supersensitivity ... Oxidopamine is often used in conjunction with a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (such as desipramine) to selectively ... It is also thought that toxic effects of 6-OHDA are caused by the uptake of the substance into the catecholaminergic nerve ...
Waldmeier PC, Baumann PA, Hauser K, Maitre L, Storni A (June 1982). "Oxaprotiline, a noradrenaline uptake inhibitor with an ... It has negligible affinity for the serotonin transporter, dopamine transporter, α2-adrenergic receptor, and muscarinic ... Dextroprotiline acts as a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and H1 receptor antagonist, as well as a very weak α1- ... Oxaprotiline (developmental code name C 49-802 BDA), also known as hydroxymaprotiline, is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ...
... 's status as a serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor at clinical doses in humans is uncertain. A PET imaging study ... Supporting atomoxetine's selectivity, a human study found no effects on platelet serotonin uptake (a marker of SERT inhibition ... but could be potentiated by NMDA or an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suggesting a glutaminergic mechanism. In Sprague ... Kasi PM, Mounzer R, Gleeson GH (2011). "Cardiovascular side effects of atomoxetine and its interactions with inhibitors of the ...
It also inhibits of neuronal re-uptake of norepinephrine (Uptake-1). These activities increase cardiac output and increase ... It is not an α-adrenergic agonist, does not cause vasoconstriction, and is not a pressor agent. As of 2004 there was some ... It should not be used in people taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors, nor in people who have certain adrenal cancers, low ... It also inhibits the neuronal re-uptake of norepinephrine. The most common adverse effects include fast heart beats and nausea ...
Another active metabolite is (E)-10-hydroxynortriptyline, which is a norepinephrine uptake inhibitor four times weaker than ... Amitriptyline additionally acts as a potent inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, the α1A-adrenergic, the histamine H1 and ... A case of clinically significant interaction with potent CYP2D6 inhibitor terbinafine has been reported. A potent inhibitor of ... Schmidt AW, Hurt SD, Peroutka SJ (1989). "'[3H]quipazine' degradation products label 5-HT uptake sites". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 171 ...
It is known to act as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, antihistamine, and anticholinergic. The drug was developed in the ... 190-. ISBN 978-1-4831-4673-7. Arefolov VA, Panasyuk LV, Raevskii KS, Kostyukov VI (1974). "Effect of fluacizine on the uptake ... Arefolov VA, Panasiuk LV, Firsov VK (1975). "[Neuromediator content in the synaptic vesicles of rat adrenergic nerves in some ... Arefolov VA, Panasyuk LV (1974). "Effect of fluacizine on the uptake of exogenous noradrenalin". Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 77 (5): ...
A double-blind comparative study of diazepam and clovoxamine, a novel inhibitor of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake". ... Saletu B, Grünberger J, Rajna P, Karobath M (1980). "Clovoxamine and fluvoxamine-2 biogenic amine re-uptake inhibiting ... adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. The compound is structurally related to fluvoxamine. Freeman HL, Wakelin JS, Calanca A, ... It acts as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), with little affinity for the muscarinic acetylcholine, ...
Adrenergic release inhibitors, Azocanes, Guanidines, Ophthalmology drugs). ... uptake 1), and uptake is essential for the drug's action. Once guanethidine has entered the nerve, it is concentrated in ... Guanethidine is transported by uptake 1 into the presynaptic terminal transported by norepinephrine transporter (NET). (In this ...
Thereby, leading to alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. The stimulation of alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in vascular smooth ... Adenosine-mediated channels also enhance diaphragmatic muscle contractility by promoting calcium uptake. Other proposed ... inhibitors Clonidine Clozapine Inhalation Anesthetics Iobenguane radiopharmaceutical products Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ... Ephedrine's alpha-adrenergic stimulation causes contraction of the smooth muscle at the base of the bladder, resulting in ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonists act on beta-2 receptors to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can raise ... Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, diazoxide, and minoxidil can cause hyperkalemia. Box jellyfish venom ... Insulin deficiency can cause hyperkalemia as the hormone insulin increases the uptake of potassium into the cells. ... Hwa Lee, Chang; Ho Kim, Gheun (31 December 2007). "Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances Induced by Clacineurin Inhibitors". ...
... is a postganglionic adrenergic blocking agent. Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the ... Adrenergic release inhibitors, Antihypertensive agents, Guanidines, Ketals, Spiro compounds). ...
... has also been found to act as FIASMA (functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase). One metabolite of ... Bylund DB, Snyder SH (1976). "Beta adrenergic receptor binding in membrane preparations from mammalian brain". Mol. Pharmacol. ... Haunsø A, Buchanan D (2007). "Pharmacological characterization of a fluorescent uptake assay for the noradrenaline transporter ... the amelioration of anxiety and agitation due to use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression and, off-label, ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Noradrenaline is released from the neurons, and acts on adrenergic receptors. Noradrenaline is often released steadily so that ... regulation of glutamate uptake by astrocytes and LTD, and consolidation of memory. The dopamine or dopaminergic system consists ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are widely used antidepressants that specifically block the ...
This may be due to a counter-acting mechanism: BCAAs also limit the uptake of tyrosine, another aromatic amino acid, like ... This may be explained by a paradoxical decrease in adrenergic activity led by feedback mechanisms. In the brain, serotonin is a ... In 2008, Roelands and colleagues53 studied the effect of reboxetine, a pure NE reuptake inhibitor, similar to atomoxetine, in 9 ... Further supporting this theory is the fact that dopamine reuptake inhibitors as well as norepinephrine dopamine reuptake ...
... is also an agonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and sigma receptors with a greater affinity for σ1 than ... Owing to the effect pH has on absorption, proton pump inhibitors, which reduce gastric acid, are known to interact with ... which prevents monoamine uptake into the vesicles and promotes their release. This results in the outflow of monoamines from ... Methamphetamine is metabolized by the liver enzyme CYP2D6, so CYP2D6 inhibitors will prolong the elimination half-life of ...
... overexpression in their primary adipocyte model suppressed expression of the β-adrenergic receptors, further supporting a ... Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and a potent, irreversible, and time and temperature- ... Gpr3 overexpression significantly increased the expression of thermogenic genes, fatty acid uptake, and basal and leak ... dependent iNOS/eNOS inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) also functions as a TRPA1 activator and selectively inhibits ...
Adrenergic uptake inhibitors for ADHD Pregnancy Category. C - Risk cannot be ruled out CSA Schedule. Not a controlled drug ... Atomoxetine is used in the treatment of ADHD and belongs to the drug class adrenergic uptake inhibitors for ADHD. Risk cannot ...
SSRIs inhibit central nervous system (CNS) neuronal uptake of serotonin (5HT). They may also have a weak effect on ... Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists. Class Summary. The centrally acting alpha2 -adrenergic agonists clonidine and guanfacine have been ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Class Summary. SSRIs are first-line agents for managing anxiety, depression, avoidance ... Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents. Class Summary. Beta blockers inhibit chronotropic, inotropic, and vasodilatory responses to ...
adrenergic uptake inhibitors. CHEBI has role. CHEBI:50949. SSRI. CHEBI has role. CHEBI:51039. dopamine reuptake inhibitor. ...
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors. Inhibidores de Captación Adrenérgica. Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica. Inhibiteurs de la ... A propylamine derivative and selective ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT ... A propylamine derivative and selective ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT ... AI antagonists & inhibitors. AN analysis. BL blood. CF cerebrospinal fluid. CH chemistry. CL classification. CS chemical ...
Atomoxetine is used in the treatment of ADHD and belongs to the drug class adrenergic uptake inhibitors for ADHD . Risk cannot ... Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. Statins) Tablet.TEVA 771 Pill - pink round, 7mm ... platelet aggregation inhibitors . Risk cannot be ruled out …Enter the imprint code that appears on the pill. Example: L484 ... platelet aggregation inhibitors . Risk cannot …Save money on your Toprol-XL® Extended Release Tablets prescription by switching ...
We hypothesized that defective function of the norepinephrine uptake transporter (NET) may contribute to the sympathetic ... Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Desipramine, Ganglia, Sympathetic, Hypertension, Male, Neurons, ... We hypothesized that defective function of the norepinephrine uptake transporter (NET) may contribute to the sympathetic ...
Atomoxetine is used in the treatment of ADHD and belongs to the drug class adrenergic uptake inhibitors for ADHD.Risk cannot be ...
A11.671.501.75 Adrenergic Neurons A8.663.100 A8.675.100 Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors D27.505.519.562.437.50 Adsorption G2.149. ... A8.675.703.550 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors D27.505.519.562.437 Nissl Bodies A8.663.712 A8.675.712 Nitrergic Neurons ... A8.675.895 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors D27.505.519.562.437.850 Siblings I1.880.225.500.505 I1.880.853.150.500.505 Sigmoidoscopy ... A8.186.211.730.885.287.500.345.600 GABA Uptake Inhibitors D27.505.519.562.437.535 GABAergic Neurons A8.663.289 A8.675.289 ...
Studies in animals also suggest that fluoxetine is a much more potent uptake inhibitor of serotonin than of norepinephrine. ... Antagonism of muscarinic, histaminergic, and α1-adrenergic receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various ... In animal models, S-norfluoxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake and has activity essentially ... In animal models, both enantiomers are specific and potent serotonin uptake inhibitors with essentially equivalent ...
Comparative Study 2005; 26(6): 675-679 PubMed PMID: 16380708 Keywords: Adolescent, Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors:therapeutic use ...
... over norepinephrine and dopamine uptake) inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin that was never marketed. It also has moderate ... affinity for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and weak/negligible affinity for the α1-adrenergic, 5-HT2A, D1, and D2 ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... a Selective 5-Hydroxytryptamine Reuptake Inhibitor". Drug Development Research. 29 (3): 235-248. doi:10.1002/ddr.430290311. ...
1). Similarly, the selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1; p.o.) significantly reduced the immobility ... The study also attempts to evaluate the involvement or otherwise the role of adrenergic mechanisms in the antidepressant ... Activity of litoxetine and other serotonin uptake inhibitors in the tail suspension test in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., ... a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, obtained under the same experimental conditions have also been provided. ...
Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) - adrenergic antagonist (Alpha blocker, Beta blocker) - Adrenergic uptake inhibitor. ... Serotonin receptor agonist - Serotonin antagonist (5-HT3 antagonist) - Serotonin uptake inhibitor (SSRI). ... Adrenergic receptor. adrenergic agonist (Adrenergic alpha-agonist, ... Receptor agonists and antagonists (and reuptake inhibitors). Dopamine receptor. Dopamine agonist - Dopamine antagonist - ...
Caution is advised in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors which can affect the metabolism and uptake of circulating ... Alpha-adrenergic agonists, as a class, may impact blood pressure. Caution in using drugs such as betablockers, anti- ... Alpha-adrenergic agonists as a class may impact blood pressure. Advise UPNEEQ patients with cardiovascular disease, orthostatic ... Caution should also be exercised in patients receiving alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists such as in the treatment of ...
... the open field behavior of the adult rats and increases the hypomotion effect of the selective noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, ... Isolation rearing may produce some of its behavioral effects through central adrenergic mechanisms. ... arena either without drug pretreatment or following systemic administration of the selective noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, ...
Pretreatment of astrocytes with inhibitors of catecholamine uptake blocked rapid norepinephrine-induced increases in nuclear ... BACKGROUND: ß1AR (beta-1 adrenergic receptor) and ß2AR (beta-2 adrenergic receptor)-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate ... and adrenergic responses. Both MAO-A deletion and inhibitor (MAOi) selectively enhance the local ß1AR-PKA activity at the SR ... The ß1-adrenergic receptor (ß1-AR) can activate two families of G proteins. When coupled to Gs, ß1-AR increases cardiac output ...
Adrenergic ??2 Receptors *Adrenergic ??3 Receptors *Adrenergic Alpha Receptors, Non-Selective *Adrenergic Beta Receptors, Non- ... Categorized as Adenosine Uptake Tagged Cangrelor cost, Sirt6. We record the entire case of an individual with B-cell ... Categorized as Adenosine Uptake Tagged Evista cost, Rabbit Polyclonal to ABCF1. Background In mammals the parental genomes are ... Categorized as Adenosine Uptake Tagged Crizotinib distributor, Vegfa. 0. sham-operation group. 0.05. 0.01. 3.2. Evans Blue ...
... or blocking uptake of indirect sympathomimetics into the adrenergic neuron. ... Within 14 days of taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Longer than 10 days if experiencing pain, 3 days if experiencing fever ... or blocking uptake of indirect sympathomimetics into the adrenergic neuron. ... or blocking uptake of indirect sympathomimetics into the adrenergic neuron. ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Fluvoxamine should not be used in combination with MAOIs, including linezolid, due to risk of ... The mechanism of action of fluvoxamine is thought to be related to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibition in brain neurones. ... Receptor binding studies have demonstrated that fluvoxamine has negligible binding capacity to alpha adrenergic, beta ... Fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. A moderate inhibition was found for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. ...
Citalopram is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). SSRIs are thought to primarily mediate their therapeutic and ... SSRIs bind other receptors only with low affinity (such as adrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic and histamine ... It is a more potent inhibitor of the serotonin transporter and is probably responsible for most of the SSRI effect in racemic ... Relative toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(3):277-85. ...
Human Inhibitor-1 Mutations. Parallel studies on the Inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase-1, which is currently in clinical ... HRC regulates the SR Ca uptake and release by direct interaction with the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA) and with Triadin, a member of Ca ... PLN is also a key mediator of the b-adrenergic responses in the heart. Furthermore, using transgenic technology, we generated ... reflecting inactivation of its Inhibitor-1 protein in human failing hearts. Indeed, both Inhibitor-1 and PLN phosphorylation ...
Nipecotic acid is a GABA uptake inhibitor with IC50 values of 8, 38, 106 and 2370 μM for hGAT-1, rGAT-2, hGAT-3 and hBGT-1 ... α2-adrenergic, and muscarinic receptors. Learn More ... NNC 711 is a potent and selective inhibitor of GABA uptake by ... Guvacine hydrochloride is a specific GABA uptake inhibitor. IC50 values are 14, 58, 119 and 1870 μM for hGAT-1, rGAT-2, hGAT-3 ... S)-Duloxetine hydrochloride is a high affinity, competitive 5-HT and noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor (Ki values are 8.5 ...
Mechanisms for the uptake of cationic drugs by the liver: a study with tributylmethylammonium (TBuMA). H Steen, R Oosting and D ... U-78517F: a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation with activity in experimental brain injury and ischemia. E D Hall, J M ... A WB 4101-sensitive alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtype modulates repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers. J H Lee, S F ... Inhibitory effects of substance P and carbachol on the saturable sodium-dependent uptake process of myo-inositol in rat parotid ...
Early reduction of 18F-FDG uptake in non-small lung cancer treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors reflects reversal of ... Exercise restores β-adrenergic vasorelaxation in aged rat carotid arteries (410 views). Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: X-ray crystal structure of a benzenesulfonamide strong CA II and CA IX inhibitor bearing a ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Stacking with Phe131 determines active site binding region of inhibitors as exemplified by the X ...
Dapoxetine hydrochloride(hcl) powder is a short-acting novel selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, it was originally ... It can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist, a serotonergic antagonist and a dopamine receptor D2 antagonist. Traditionally ... 1]Kumar A, Saraswat V, Pande G, Kumar R."Does Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction With PDE 5 Inhibitor Tadalafil Improve Quality ... Avanafil powder is a second-generation phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor that be indicated to treat the symptoms of Erectile ...
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  • BACKGROUND: ß1AR (beta-1 adrenergic receptor) and ß2AR (beta-2 adrenergic receptor)-mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling has distinct effects on cardiac function and heart failure progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we show a new link between the stress-associated catecholamines and the progression of T cell exhaustion through the ß1-adrenergic receptor ADRB1. (bvsalud.org)
  • These drugs directly bind to the adrenergic receptor and increase adrenergic transmission. (egpat.com)
  • Adenylate cyclase and beta adrenergic receptor development in the mouse heart. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ET receptor antagonist PD145065 (2 μM) suppressed the inhibitory effect of ET-1 (100 nM) on 86 Rb uptake. (arvojournals.org)
  • 13 It is noteworthy that there is evidence to suggest that adrenergic 14 and cholinergic 15 receptor activation can cause cells to release ET-1. (arvojournals.org)
  • The centrally acting alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists clonidine and guanfacine have been used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (medscape.com)
  • The main goal of adrenergic agonists is to increase adrenergic transmission acting either directly or indirectly. (egpat.com)
  • We have already discussed earlier that catechol amines act on adrenergic receptors with different affinities. (egpat.com)
  • On the other hand dopamine additionally acts on dopamine receptors along with its action on α and β adrenergic receptors. (egpat.com)
  • These drugs don't have catechol group in their structure but still binds to adrenergic receptors. (egpat.com)
  • SSRIs bind other receptors only with low affinity (such as adrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic and histamine receptors). (litfl.com)
  • A new inhibitor of norepinephrine uptake devoid of affinity for receptors in rat brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stuckey et al19 evaluated whether an 8-week and central alpha 2-1 and beta-adrenergic receptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cyanodothiepin (developmental code name BTS-56424) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) acting as a potent and highly selective (over norepinephrine and dopamine uptake) inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin that was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparable data for known antidepressants imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant and fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, obtained under the same experimental conditions have also been provided. (scialert.net)
  • Many antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, including nortriptyline, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and others) are metabolised by the hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme P450IID6. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Comment: Tricyclic antidepressants increase or decrease effects of sympathomimetics, by blocking reuptake of NE, or blocking uptake of indirect sympathomimetics into the adrenergic neuron. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SSRIs and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), including fluoxetine, both when taken alone, but especially when co-administered with other serotonergic agents. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that defective function of the norepinephrine uptake transporter (NET) may contribute to the sympathetic phenotype of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and that this may occur before the development of hypertension itself. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Citalopram is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). (litfl.com)
  • SSRIs are thought to primarily mediate their therapeutic and toxic effects by inhibiting serotonin re-uptake, which leads to increased central serotonergic neurotransmission. (litfl.com)
  • Concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and sympathomimetic agents is contraindicated (see section 4.5). (medicines.org.uk)
  • Faverin tablets are contraindicated in combination with tizanidine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (see section 4.4 and 4.5). (imedi.co.uk)
  • SSRIs inhibit central nervous system (CNS) neuronal uptake of serotonin (5HT). (medscape.com)
  • Both isolation and socially reared rats were individually exposed to the circular open field arena either without drug pretreatment or following systemic administration of the selective noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine or saline. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • These results show that social isolation in the early stage of life alters the open field behavior of the adult rats and increases the hypomotion effect of the selective noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Three cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, CANVAS Program, and DECLARE TIMI 58 trial, revealed that SGLT2 inhibitors were superior to a matching placebo in reducing cardiovascular events, including mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, in patients with type 2 diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In recent years, several cardiovascular outcome studies to test the safety of glucose-lowering drugs have demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors have a potential protective effect against cardiovascular events that is comparable to existing anti-heart failure drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Physiology of glucose reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules and the target of SGLT2 inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drugs like TCAs and MAO inhibitors are not specific for adrenergic neurons but also act on serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurons. (egpat.com)
  • In the dephosphorylated state, it is an inhibitor of SERCA2a activity, but inhibition is relieved upon phosphorylation of PLN. (uc.edu)
  • We herein review the latest findings of the salutary mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors in cardiomyocytes, especially focusing on their mitochondrial function-mediated beneficial effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • We herein review the current understanding on how SGLT2 inhibitors mitigate cardiac dysfunction through mitochondrial protection-mediated mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study also attempts to evaluate the involvement or otherwise the role of adrenergic mechanisms in the antidepressant effects of the plant. (scialert.net)
  • Isolation rearing may produce some of its behavioral effects through central adrenergic mechanisms. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • SGLT2 inhibitors also promote sodium metabolism-mediated cardioprotective effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1994. Gas uptake studies of deuterium isotope effects on dichloromethane metabolism in female B6C3F1 mice in vivo . (cdc.gov)
  • However, the detailed mechanism underlying the beneficial effects that SGLT2 inhibitors exert on cardiovascular diseases remains to be elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it remains unknown how SGLT2 inhibitors exert such beneficial effects in patients with cardiovascular diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together with ongoing large-scale clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure, intensive investigations regarding the mechanism through which SGLT2 inhibitors promote the restoration in cases of heart failure would lead to the establishment of these drugs as potent anti-heart failure drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, our original and simple understanding of SR Ca-cycling has been evolving through the years and our studies have identified a multimeric protein complex that regulates SR Ca-transport composed of SERCA, Phospholamban (PLN), the anti-apoptotic protein HAX-1, Protein Phosphatase 1 with its regulators Inhibitor-1 and Hsp20 and the Histidine Rich Ca-Binding Protein. (uc.edu)
  • On the other hand, several investigators have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors directly manifest protective effects in the heart ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In both cases, it is assumed that SGLT2 inhibitors exert their protective effects by restoring the mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genistein (150 μM), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, abolished the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on lens 86 Rb uptake. (arvojournals.org)
  • Beta blockers inhibit chronotropic, inotropic, and vasodilatory responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • Atomoxetine is used in the treatment of ADHD and belongs to the drug class adrenergic uptake inhibitors for ADHD . (drugs.com)
  • Thus, it is largely believed that SGLT2 inhibitors play a protective role via the modulation of the internal environment outside of the myocardium ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The administration of SGLT2 inhibitors leads to the elevation of plasma levels of ketone bodies, which are an efficient energy source in the failing heart, by promoting oxidation of the mitochondrial coenzyme Q couple and enhancing the free energy of cytosolic ATP hydrolysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • ATP III recommended first-line therapy the plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor and increased physical activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hypotensive action of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ 14,225) in nephrectomized dogs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ablation of ß1-adrenergic signalling limits the progression of T cells towards the exhausted state in chronic infection and improves effector functions when combined with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in melanoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Impact of free cancer predisposition cascade genetic testing on uptake in Singapore. (cdc.gov)