Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Bretylium CompoundsNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseIodobenzenesAdrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.

Chronic desipramine treatment alters tyrosine hydroxylase but not norepinephrine transporter immunoreactivity in norepinephrine axons in the rat prefrontal cortex. (1/73)

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The role of the central noradrenergic system in behavioral inhibition. (2/73)

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Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata. (3/73)

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alpha-Adrenergic effects on low-frequency oscillations in blood pressure and R-R intervals during sympathetic activation. (4/73)

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Impaired adrenergic- and corticotropic-axis outflow during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (5/73)

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Noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus are phase locked to cortical up-down states during sleep. (6/73)

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The noradrenaline precursor L-DOPS reduces pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (7/73)

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Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control. (8/73)

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The INC DAY 2019 was dedicated to the theme Animal Models of the Human Brain, held on November 7th at the Amphithéâtre Vulpian, Université Paris Descartes.. Find more details about the program of the day here. ...
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A new study has shown the link between noradrenergic neurons and susceptibility to depression for the first time. The study was published by Bruno Giros team, a researcher at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute and Professor of psychiatry at McGill University, in the journal Nature Neuroscience. "We know that a small cerebral structure, known as the ventral tegmental area, contains dopaminergic neurons that play a key role in vulnerability to depression," said Bruno Giros, whose team is part of the CIUSSS de lOuest-de-lÎle-de-Montréal research network. By mimicking stressful events in animal models, the researchers found out that an increase in dopaminergic activity increases cases of depression. The dopaminergic neuron is controlled by the noradrenergic neuron. "It is this control that steers the bodys response toward resilience or toward vulnerability to depression," said Giros. Giros team showed, animals incapable of releasing noradrenaline, are more likely to develop ...
Principal Investigator:NOMURA Junichi, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Psychiatric science
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the main loci of noradrenergic innervation towards BIBR 953 the forebrain. of 6OHDA in to the LC leads to the specific reduced amount of noradrenergic neurons within the LC (as assessed by electrophysiology immunoreactivity and hybridization) the lateral tegmental neurons and dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area had been unaffected. The increased loss of LC noradrenergic neurons didnt bring about compensatory adjustments in the appearance of mRNA for norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing enzymes. The increased loss of LC noradrenergic neurons is normally associated with decreased NE tissue focus and NE transporter (NET) binding sites within the frontal cortex and hippocampus and also other forebrain locations like the amygdala and SN. Adrenoreceptor (AR) binding sites (α1- and α2-AR) werent significantly affected over the 6OHDA-treated aspect set alongside the vehicle-treated aspect although theres a reduced amount of AR ...
Sure, abundant creativity is tied into those cheery, chiller neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. A compelling and verbosely summarized study by University of Florida researchers tacked depression and creative innovation together, suggesting that individuals with higher creative potential, may have a "special ability to modulate the frontal lobe-locus coeruleus (norepinephrine) system." They also found that creative innovation was more likely to occur with lower levels of norepinephrine, allowing for a "co-activation across modular networks" (Heilman, et al 2003). In other words, if youve got a knack for taking the imaginative dive that leaves others bewildered (but possibly inspired) you might actually have your frontal lobe and a relative lack of that happy stuff, norepinephrine, to thank for those wacky, divergent leaps of logic. And of course, its common knowledge that that glittering, crystalline compound, tetrahydrocannabinol, spawns changes in both dopamine and ...
Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
Parkinsons disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. There is also a simultaneous loss of norepinephrine-producing neurons in a region called the locus coeruleus. Administration of methyl phenyl tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to laboratory animals is a common model for Parkinsons disease; however, MPTP does not cause the motor deficits seen in humans with Parkinsons disease. NIEHS-supported investigators tested mice to determine whether the loss of norepinephrine neurons was necessary for the motor deficits seen in Parkinsons disease. They used transgenic mice that totally lack norepinephrine altogether. The researchers detected no motor deficits in control mice treated with MPTP - despite an 80 percent reduction in the number of dopamine-producing cells. On the other hand, the norepinephrine-lacking mice exhibited motor deficits in most tests, along with other movement disorders, ...
7 nov. 2006 à 11:30 (Magendie) The effect of combined administration of atypical antipsychotics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the firing activity of serotonin and norepinephrine neurons ...
BMP4 supports noradrenergic differentiation by a PKA-dependent mechanism.: Differentiation of neural crest-derived noradrenergic neurons depends upon signaling
Many people think that after a few glasses of wine with dinner or after a few rounds in the bar that the perfect counter to this is a cup of coffee. Its
Disappearance rates of intracisternally administered 3H-norepinephrine and activities of tyrosine hydroxylase were examined in the rabbit in five brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla-pons, and cerebellum) and in three cord regions (cervical, thoracolumbar, and lumbosacral) 2 weeks after section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves. Mean blood pressure rose by 29% and heart rate by 17% in the animals with neurogenic hypertension. Endogenous catecholamine concentrations in the eight regions examined were not altered by denervation. In the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord, 3H-norepinephrine turnover and tyrosine hydroxylase activity were increased approximately twofold in hypertensive rabbits. We suggest that these changes reflect increased physiological activity of bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons and that this increase may mediate the rise in arterial pressure or heart rate that follows sinoaortic denervation. The turnover of 3H-norepinephrine increased in the ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate possible membrane and genomic effects of corticosterone on the noradrenergic system of the rat brain. Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. In the first two experiments corticosterone significantly decreased the noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the pons-medulla, an area which contains the A1-A7 noradrenergic cell groups, while the NA and DA levels in the dorsal hippocampus remained unchanged. In a third experiment where the locus coeruleus (LC) and the A1 and A2 nuclei (A1,A2) were analysed separately, NA levels were unchanged but total MHPG levels and the total MHPG/NA ratio were decreased in the A1,A2 area. Chronic corticosterone treatment (14 days) did not alter the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of [3H]NA release from dorsal hippocampal slices. Neither the spontaneous outflow nor the electrically stimulated release of [3H]NA from dorsal hippocampal ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [C H Brown, N P Murphy, G Munro, M Ludwig, P M Bull, G Leng, J A Russell].
Noradrenergic innervation of rat liver was studied immunohistochemically using antibody to noradrenaline at the electron-microscopic level. Noradrenaline-immunoreactive nerve fibres were located in the portal tract and some were in close contact with
d-Amphetamine is markedly more potent an inhibitor of catecholamine uptake by norepinephrine neurons in the brain than is 1-amphetamine, whereas the two isomers are equally active in inhibiting catecholamine uptake by the dopamine neurons of the corpus striatum. In behavioral studies, d-amphetamine is ten times as potent as 1-amphetamine in enhancing locomotor activity, while it is only twice as potent in eliciting a compulsive gnawing syndrome. This suggests that the locomotor stimulation induced by amphetamine involves central norepinephrine, while dopamine neurons play an important role in the induced compulsive gnawing behavior. Assessment of differential actions of d- and 1-amphetamine may be an efficient method to differentiate behaviors involving norepinephrine or dopamine in the brain. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol relaxes rat mesenteric resistance artery and induces Ca2+ release in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells. AU - Alsuleimani, Y. M.. AU - Hiley, C. R.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Background and Purpose Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), a lipid signalling molecule, activates GPR55 and elevates intracellular Ca2+. Here, we examine the actions of LPI in the rat resistance mesenteric artery and Ca2+ responses in endothelial cells isolated from the artery. Experimental Approach Vascular responses were studied using wire myographs. Single-cell fluorescence imaging was performed using a MetaFluor system. Hypotensive effects of LPI were assessed using a Biopac system. Key Results In isolated arteries, LPI-induced vasorelaxation was concentration- and endothelium-dependent and inhibited by CID 16020046, a GPR55 antagonist. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 had no effect, whereas rimonabant and O-1918 significantly potentiated LPI ...
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. α2 adrenergic receptors include 3 highly homologous subtypes: α2A, α2B, and α2C. These receptors have a critical role in regulating neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Studies in mice revealed that both the α2A and α2C subtypes were required for normal presynaptic control of transmitter release from sympathetic nerves in the heart and from central noradrenergic neurons; the α2A subtype inhibited transmitter release at high stimulation frequencies, whereas the α2C subtype modulated neurotransmission at lower levels of nerve activity.[citation needed] This gene encodes α2A subtype and it contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. Although the pre-synaptic functions of α2A receptors have been a major focus (see above), the majority of α2 ...
Noradrenergic involvement in dopamine-dependent stereotyped and cataleptic responses in the rat.: Two animal models were used to investigate the effect of lower
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... PEA influences a great number of neurotransmitter and hormonal systems. Noradrenergic, Dopaminergic and Acetylcholinergic
It has been reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the regulation of norepinephrine neuron responses to stress such as an immobilized stress. Furthermore, systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection upregulates the transcription of the genes encoding CRF and CRF type 1 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We have already reported that an increase in norepinephrine turnover within the murine locus coeruleus is accompanied by septic shock triggered by LPS intraperitoneal injection. We also elucidated that the expression levels of the enzymes involved in the catecholamine biosynthesis were altered by peripheral LPS injection. Collectively, the effects of CRF on the expression levels of the enzymes at murine locus coeruleus were investigated by peripherally injecting CP-154,526, a CRF receptor type 1 antagonist. Pretreatment with CP-154,526 attenuated the increase in expression levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA due to intraperitoneal LPS injection at 4 h
The locus coeruleus is responsible for mediating many of the sympathetic effects during stress. The locus coeruleus is activated by stress, and will respond by increasing norepinephrine secretion, which in turn will alter cognitive function (through the prefrontal cortex), increase motivation (through nucleus accumbens), activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and increase the sympathetic discharge/inhibit parasympathetic tone (through the brainstem).. Specific to the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, norepinephrine will stimulate the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor from the hypothalamus, that induces adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the anterior pituitary and subsequent cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands. Norepinephrine released from locus coeruleus will feedback to inhibit its production, and corticotropin-releasing hormone will feedback to inhibit its production, while positively feeding to the locus coeruleus to increase norepinephrine ...
Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, with 656,000 deaths annually in the U.S. alone. My laboratory has focused on the development of clinical and translational research for these two addictive disorders, for the purpose of translating these findings into effective therapeutics for women and men. We have a translational and interdisciplinary team that probes the noradrenergic systems effects on stress-reactivity and nicotine reinforcement - hypothesizing that different brain systems modulated by noradrenergic activity are activated by smoking in women and men, and that noradrenergic agents can preferentially target these gender-sensitive systems to improve smoking cessation outcomes (P50DA0335945 funded by the Office of Research on Womens Health and NIDA). Secondly, our work is focused on developing and utilizing human laboratory paradigms to efficiently and cost-effectively screen Phase II medications for tobacco dependence. These paradigms are ...
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Stress promotes a shift from goal-directed action-outcome learning toward habitual stimulus-response learning. This shift is mediated by an interaction of noradrenergic activity and glucocorticoid stress hormones. In the present experiment, we examined the neural correlates of the stress (hormone)-induced shift from goal-directed to habit learning in the human brain. Healthy participants were administered hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, or both before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food rewards. After training, one of the rewards was devalued by feeding participants to satiety on that food. Finally, participants were presented the two instrumental actions in extinction. We collected functional magnetic resonance images both during instrumental training and during extinction testing. Our behavioral data confirmed that the simultaneous administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine renders instrumental behavior insensitive to the ...
Looking for online definition of noradrenergic nerve in the Medical Dictionary? noradrenergic nerve explanation free. What is noradrenergic nerve? Meaning of noradrenergic nerve medical term. What does noradrenergic nerve mean?
The present study analyzes by RT-qPCR the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, miRNA-132-3p, and miRNA-143-3p in the locus coeruleus (LC), entorhinal cortex (EC), CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (MA) individuals with no brain lesions and of …
Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. It is released from the adrenal glands as a hormone into the blood, but it is also a neurotransmitter in the nervous system where it is released from noradrenergic neurons during synaptic transmission. It is one of the stress hormones and affects parts of the human brain where attention and impulsivity are controlled. Along with epinephrine this compound effects the fight-or-flight response, activating the sympathetic nervous system to directly increase heart rate, release energy from fat, and increase muscle readiness ...
... neurons in the locus coeruleus tend to be melanin-pigmented. Noradrenaline is released from the neurons, and acts on adrenergic ... This is diminutive compared to the more than 100 billion neurons in the brain. As with dopaminergic neurons in the substantia ... primarily the melanin-pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra but secondarily the noradrenergic neurons of the locus ... A neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down ...
"Surface expression of AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons is regulated by an NSF-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 23 (2): 365-76 ... Implications for beta2-adrenergic receptor regulation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (16): 10677-80. doi:10.1074/ ... Neuron. 21 (1): 99-110. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80518-8. PMID 9697855. McDonald PH, Cote NL, Lin FT, Premont RT, Pitcher JA, ...
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons typically secrete norepinephrine and are named sympathetic adrenergic neurons; however, the ... Sweat glands, piloerector muscles, and some blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic cholinergic neurons. Diaphoresis may be ... The vast majority of sweat glands in the body are innervated by sympathetic cholinergic neurons. ... postganglionic neurons that innervate sweat glands secrete acetylcholine and hence are termed sympathetic cholinergic neurons. ...
Polysynaptic reflex is a reflex action that transfers an impulse from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron via an interneuron in ... department of the army Edgewood Arsenal biodemical laboratory (1972). "Beta adrenergic and antiarrhythmic effect of apamin, a ... Here it inhibits small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) in neurons. These channels are responsible for the ... Dopamine, which is depleted in this disease, will be released from midbrain dopaminergic neurons when these SK channels are ...
... is a postganglionic adrenergic blocking agent. Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the ...
There are two major regions in the brain where noradrenergic neurons are located. These regions are called locus coeruleus and ... Assays have shown that selective NRIs have insignificant penchant for mACh, α1 and α2 adrenergic, or H1 receptors. Agents with ... In addition, the TCAs interact with adrenergic receptors. This interaction seems to be critical for increased availability of ... Overall, inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake induced by TCAs, leads to decreased rates of neuron firing (mediated through α2 ...
These efferent motor neuronns of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons. The inner circular layer is ... The physical contractions of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the ... while the outer longitudinal layer is innervated by mainly excitatory neurons. These action potentials cause the smooth muscle ... innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons, ...
Involvement of histaminergic neurons and beta-adrenergic receptors. University of Copenhagen. pp. 1-100. Kjær, Andreas ( ...
The naloxone-dependent effects of the psychostimulant sidnofen: a study on identified neurons of the snail. (Russian) Zhurnal ... Effects on the body include reversible monoamine oxidase inhibition, cholinergic, adrenergic, opioid and nitric oxide donating ... Sidnofen-dependent pre- and postsynaptic activation of peripheral adrenergic transmission. (Russian) Eksperimental'naia i ...
Neuron. 56 (6): 955-62. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.001. PMC 2199268 . PMID 18093519. Dölen G, Carpenter RL, Ocain TD, Bear MF ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors are also thought to affect dopaminergic and adrenergic neurotransmission. Like other glutamate ... They are found in pre- and postsynaptic neurons in synapses of the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the cerebral cortex, as well as ... It has been suggested that mGluRs may act as regulators of neurons' vulnerability to excitotoxicity (a deadly neurochemical ...
Additionally, l-THP displays significant binding to 5-HT1A and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. In the case of 5-HT1A receptors, l ... Animal experiments have shown that the sedative effect of THP results from blocking dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Dopamine ... alpha adrenergic and serotonin receptors. The Ki values for l-THP at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors are approximately 124 nM (D1 ... including alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, at which it functions as an antagonist, and GABA-A receptors, through positive ...
... neurons are mostly adrenergic (that is, epinephrine and norepinephrine function as the primary neurotransmitters). Notable ... postganglionic neurons express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to receive signals from preganglionic neurons. Preganglionic ... The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic (that is, ...
Bondareff W, Mountjoy CQ, Roth M (February 1982). "Loss of neurons of origin of the adrenergic projection to cerebral cortex ( ... It is composed of mostly medium-size neurons. Melanin granules inside the neurons of the LC contribute to its blue colour. Thus ... since no apoptotic neurons in the pons were detected. Researchers have concluded that, "Because these neurons are a pivotal ... These neurons project largely within the brainstem and spinal cord. NE, along with 5HT, ACh, histamine, and orexin, is a ...
Guanethidine and other adrenergic neuron blocking drugs can have their antihypertensive effects blocked by dosulepin. ... It is also an antagonist of the histamine H1 receptor, α1-adrenergic receptor, serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, and muscarinic ... reported relatively high Ki values of 12 and 15 nM for dosulepin and northiaden at the rat α2-adrenergic receptor and suggested ...
A GABAergic neuron produces GABA. A substance is GABAergic if it produces its effects via interactions with the GABA system, ... Adenosinergic Adrenergic Cannabinoidergic Cholinergic Dopaminergic Glycinergic Histaminergic Melatonergic Monoaminergic ...
... as mGluR1 antagonists block adrenergic receptor activation in neurons. Mice lacking functional glutamate receptor 1 were ... Neuron. 21 (4): 707-16. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80588-7. PMID 9808458. Tu JC, Xiao B, Yuan JP, Lanahan AA, Leoffert K, Li M, ... Neuron. 21 (4): 717-26. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80589-9. PMID 9808459. Ciruela F, Robbins MJ, Willis AC, McIlhinney RA (1999 ...
A possible treatment for hypertension is blocking peripheral vascular seretonergic neurons or alpha-adrenergic neurons on ... Other animal studies also point to the drug as a possible mechanism by which to reduce blood pressure through the adrenergic ... One study showed that benzoctamine, a serotonin and alpha-adrenergic antagonist, does not reduce blood pressure through a ... seretonin mechanism but does reduce blood pressure by antagonizing alpha-adrenergic receptors in rats. Rats were given 10 mg of ...
Norepinephrine can influence the release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic neurons by acting on α2 adrenergic (α2A, α2B, ... Glutamate released from an excitatory neuron escapes from the synaptic cleft and preferentially affects mGluR III receptors on ... Acetylcholine can influence the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons by acting on muscarinic-2 and muscarinic-4 ... Neuron. 25 (3): 663-72. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)81068-5. PMID 10774733. Kullmann, D. M.; Semyanov, A (2002). "Glutamatergic ...
In GABAergic preoptic area neurons, estrogen enhanced the ability of α1 adrenergic receptors to inhibit KCa2.3 activity, ...
Canonically, a presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter across a synaptic cleft to be detected by the receptors on a ... An atypical example is given by the β-adrenergic autoreceptor in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system, which acts to ... It is only sensitive to the neurotransmitters or hormones released by the neuron on which the autoreceptor sits. Similarly, a ... This causes a final depression on the activity of the postsynaptic neuron. Thus the feedback cycle is complete. Siegel GJ, ...
While all neurons use glucose for fuel, certain glucose-sensing neurons alter their firing rates in response to rising or ... Among the neuroendocrine reactions of the central nervous system to hypoglycemia is activation of the adrenergic responses of ... These neurons are most sensitive to glucose changes in the 0.5-3.5 mmol/L glucose range. Glucokinase has been found in the ... Glucose-sensitive neurons of the hypothalamus In response to rising or falling levels of glucose, cells in the hypothalamus ...
... is neurotoxic and promotes oxidative stress on neurons. Linsidomine is a peroxynitrite-generating compound involved ... the cell membrane through influencing the sodium-potassium pump and thereby rendering it less responsive to adrenergic ...
Sialaodhesin (CD169) positive macrophages, along with mesenchymal stem cells and beta-adrenergic neurons, form the ...
Cardiac muscle has some similarities to neurons and skeletal muscle, as well as important unique properties. Like a neuron, a ... It is then followed by rapid growth of a second order sympathetic adrenergic system arising from the formation of the thoracic ...
Destruction of noradrenergic neurons has produced hypersomnia in experimental animal studies, and injury to adrenergic neurons ... is an adrenergic reuptake inhibitor which increases wakefulness (generally less strongly than the medications which act on ... autoimmune destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons), the cause of idiopathic hypersomnia has, until recently, been largely ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... administered through the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system). ... and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the currently used antidepressant drugs.[12] The SP receptor ... "Cytokine regulation of substance P expression in sympathetic neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
adrenergic neuron-blocking agent synonyms, adrenergic neuron-blocking agent pronunciation, adrenergic neuron-blocking agent ... English dictionary definition of adrenergic neuron-blocking agent. n. 1. One that acts or has the power or authority to act. 2 ... Adrenergic neuron-blocking agent - definition of adrenergic neuron-blocking agent by The Free Dictionary https://www. ... redirected from adrenergic neuron-blocking agent). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. a·gent. ( ...
... neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD). Here we describe that in control condition (CC), i.e ... Regulation of adrenergic receptors could represent a homeostatic response to the continuous discharge by the hcrt/orx neurons ... Sleep-Deprivation Regulates α-2 Adrenergic Responses of Rat Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons Alternate Title:Hcrt/orx Cells and Sleep ... adrenergic receptor (α(2)-AR) agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC), it ...
The sympathetic adrenergic neuron. Some characteristics revealed by histochemical studies on the intraneuronal distribution of ... The sympathetic adrenergic neuron. Some characteristics revealed by histochemical studies on the intraneuronal distribution of ... The sympathetic adrenergic neuron. Some characteristics revealed by histochemical studies on the intraneuronal distribution of ... Add tags for "The sympathetic adrenergic neuron. Some characteristics revealed by histochemical studies on the intraneuronal ...
Combined β-adrenergic and corticosteroid receptor activation regulates AMPA receptor function in hippocampal neurons Final ... Combined beta-adrenergic and corticosteroid receptor activation regulates AMPA receptor function in hippocampal neurons. Zhou, ... Co-application of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (10 mu M) largely increased S845 (but not S831) ... Shortly after stress, limbic neurons are exposed to high levels of noradrenaline and corticosterone. These hormones are ...
The agents duties include the... Explanation of adrenergic neuron blocking agent ... Find out information about adrenergic neuron blocking agent. a person representing a business concern, esp a travelling ... Adrenergic neuron blocking agent , Article about adrenergic neuron blocking agent by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ... redirected from adrenergic neuron blocking agent). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial. agent. a ...
Assessment of the functional role of brain adrenergic neurons: chronic effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase ... Assessment of the functional role of brain adrenergic neurons: chronic effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase ... Assessment of the functional role of brain adrenergic neurons: chronic effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase ... Assessment of the functional role of brain adrenergic neurons: chronic effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase ...
This suggests that the excitability of a few PVN-spinal projection neurons is probably controlled by postsynaptic α1 adrenergic ... The α1 adrenergic receptors may affect other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators to regulate the activity of PVN neurons. In ... Thus, these data suggest that activation of α 1adrenergic receptors increases the excitability of PVN presympathetic neurons ... in the firing activity of these PVN neurons by the α1 adrenergic receptors could possibly excite the presympathetic neurons in ...
The Release of Catecholamines from Adrenergic Neurons focuses on the processes involved in determining the release of ... The Release of Catecholamines from Adrenergic Neurons PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open PDF (Adobe DRM) ... The Release of Catecholamines from Adrenergic Neurons focuses on the processes involved in determining the release of ... is a dependable reference for readers interested in the study of the release of catecholamines from adrenergic neurons. ...
Although most studies have focused on dopaminergic neurons, it is... ... The Melanocytes share specific features with the pigmented adrenergic neurons as both cells are pigmented, contain adrenergic ... NMDA-R inhibition affects cellular process formation in Tilapia Melanocytes; a model for pigmented adrenergic neurons in ... NMDA-R Glutamate Melanocytes Neurons Parkinsons disease and Cell Models This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
Within autonomic fibers, adrenergic neurons are exclusively found in postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. ... Adrenergic neurons secrete norepinephrine and are found in both the central and autonomic nervous system. ... Adrenergic neurons are exclusively found within the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system, specifically within ... Adrenergic neurons within the CNS appear to be responsible for arousal, wakefulness, and elevation mood. ...
Adrenergic neurone blocking agents. 3. Heterocyclic analogs of guanoxan. by Joachim Augstein et al. ... Adrenergic neurone blocking agents. 3. Heterocyclic analogs of guanoxan.. *. Joachim Augstein, Andrew Monro, Glenn Potter, ...
... whether adrenergic signaling in primary sensory neurons participates in visceral pain of NMD rats at the age of 6 weeks after ... Adrenergic signaling plays many important roles in the nervous system to regulate stress responses [18, 19, 20]. Adrenergic ... AMS Upregulates the Expression of β2 Adrenergic Receptors in DRGs. Then we assessed the protein expression of adrenergic ... Adrenergic signaling mediates mechanical hyperalgesia through activation of P2X3 receptors in primary sensory neurons of rats ...
The results indicate that CART peptide-immunoreactivity is expressed in C1 adrenergic neurons, some of which project to the ... The presence of this novel peptide in C1 adrenergic neurons underscores the multiplicity of putative transmitters that may be ... Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide-immunoreactivity in adrenergic C1 neurons projecting to the ... and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide-immunoreactivity in adrenergic C1 neurons projecting to the intermediolateral cell ...
adrenergic blocking agent synonyms, adrenergic blocking agent pronunciation, adrenergic blocking agent translation, English ... dictionary definition of adrenergic blocking agent. adj. 1. Activated by or capable of releasing epinephrine or a similar ... substance, especially in the sympathetic nervous system: adrenergic receptors. ... 2. releasing epinephrine: adrenergic neurons. 3. activated by epinephrine or a similar substance: adrenergic receptor. ...
... we studied the effects of kinase activation and inhibition in hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of c … ... Beta-adrenergic regulation of synaptic NMDA receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase Neuron. 1996 Feb;16(2):415-21. doi: ... Conversely, elevation of PKA activity by forskolin, cAMP analogs, or the beta-adrenergic receptor agonists norepinephrine and ... Thus, stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors during excitatory synaptic transmission can increase charge transfer and Ca2+ ...
adrenergic receptor;. GPCR,. G-protein coupled receptor;. GRK,. G protein-coupled receptor kinase;. HA,. hemagglutinin;. GST,. ... β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) belong to a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors that contain seven transmembrane domains ... The β1-AR is the predominant β adrenergic receptor in heart whereas the β2-AR predominates in liver, lung, and smooth muscle (2 ... SH3p4 Associates with the β1-Adrenergic Receptors in HEK293 Cells.. To verify that the in vitro interaction between SH3p4 and ...
Neuron. 1999;22(3):549-558.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... However, these β-less Ca2+ channels cannot be stimulated by β-adrenergic pathway agonists, and thus adrenergic augmentation of ... The loss of β-adrenergic activation of CaV1.2 correlated with a markedly attenuated β-adrenergic contractile response. ... and β2b are not required for β-adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 in the heart. Further, we directly show that β-adrenergic ...
... that demonstrated an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist-mediated increase in the survival of newborn neurons. Interestingly, β3- ... Next, to identify the subtype of β-adrenergic receptor involved, we tested selective antagonists to β1-, β2-, and β3-adrenergic ... A, Neither the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin nor the α2-adrenergic receptor blocker yohimbine had any effect on ... Such an inhibitory role has recently been proposed for another member of the adrenergic receptor family, namely α2-adrenergic ...
Adrenergic neuron blocking drugs are selectively taken up into adrenergic nerve endings by the active, energy-requiring, ... Adrenergic neuron blocking drugs are selectively taken up into adrenergic nerve endings by the active, energy-requiring, ... Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Drugs. Last Updated on Wed, 08 May 2019 , Adverse Effects ... Reserpine depletes adrenergic nerves of noradrenaline primarily by blocking amine storage within vesicles present in the nerve ...
C) The firing patterns of a representative neuron in monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Under optimal conditions, neurons ... Low and high doses were tested in four neurons; in the remaining cells, only a low or high dose was able to be tested within ... Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through α2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors.. Gamo NJ1, Wang M ... ATM, SCH, or the α(2) antagonist, yohimbine, were applied to the neurons by iontophoresis. ...
Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Drugs. Phentermine may decrease the hypotensive effect of adrenergic neuron blocking drugs. ...
Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Agents. Guanethidine and guanedrel interfere with the action poten- tial that triggers the release ... Home , , Modern Medical Toxicology , Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Agents - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison ...
7.4 Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Drugs. Suprenza may decrease the hypotensive effect of adrenergic neuron blocking drugs. ...
Amphetamine inhibits SMOCs via α1 adrenergic receptors. It has been shown that amphetamine inhibits mGluR-mediated outward ... DA neurons themselves and their connection with target neurons undergo significant changes over the first couple of postnatal ... Augustine GJ, Santamaria F, Tanaka K (2003) Local calcium signaling in neurons. Neuron 40: 331-346. ... and rat Meynert neurons (Arima et al., 2001). One unique property of SMOCs in DA neurons lies in the voltage dependence. The ...
7.4 Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Drugs Phentermine may decrease the hypotensive effect of adrenergic neuron blocking drugs. ... Adrenergic neuron blocking drugs: Hypotensive effect may be decreased by phentermine. ( 7.4) ...
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether NMD followed by adult stress at the age of 6 weeks induces visceral pain in rats and to investigate the roles of adrenergic signaling in visceral pain. (springer.com)
  • Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from NMD rats with AMSs was remarkably increased. (springer.com)
  • Overall, our data demonstrate that AMS induces visceral hypersensitivity in NMD rats, in part due to enhanced NE-β 2 adrenergic signaling in DRGs. (springer.com)
  • To address these issues, using brain slices, we recorded spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in DA neurons of neonatal rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • Blockade of SMOCs with cyclopiazonic acid or ryanodine converted the irregular firing of DA neurons in neonatal rats into an adult-like pacemaker pattern. (jneurosci.org)
  • Glomerular filtration rate was unchanged in both the vehicle-infused and adrenergic blocked rats during MC3/4-R activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ji XH, Cao XH, Zhang CL, Feng ZJ, Zhang XH, Ma L, Li BM (2008) Pre- and postsynaptic beta-adrenergic activation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in layer V/VI pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. (exeley.com)
  • Kurowski P, Gawlak M, Szulczyk P (2015) Muscarinic receptor control of pyramidal neuron membrane potential in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats. (exeley.com)
  • Today's study seeks to research the role of cathepsin L in glutamate receptor-induced transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) activation and excitotoxicity in rats striatal neurons. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Blood pressure in women increases after menopause, and sympathetic tone in female rats decreases with estrogen injections in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) region that contains bulbospinal C1 adrenergic neurons and is involved in blood pressure control. (elsevier.com)
  • Retrogradely labeled bulbospinal RVLM neurons (N=125) were recorded in thin slices from neonatal rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bath application of 10 to 100 μM phenylephrine, an α 1 adrenergic receptor agonist, significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in a concentration-dependent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, 50 μM phenylephrine significantly increased the firing rate of 13 labeled PVN neurons from 3.16 ± 0.42 to 5.83 ± 0.65 Hz. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In order to analyse α 1 -adrenergic effects on both cranial and spinal motoneuronal activity, phenylephrine (1-800 μ m ) was applied to in vitro preparations of neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord. (wiley.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) under the control of the PPG promoter were used to identify PPG neurons in vitro and to record their electrical and pharmacological profile. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The recent development of transgenic mice expressing eYFP (Venus) under the control of the PPG promoter ( 18 ) has enabled identification of this cell population in brain slice preparations and allowed the first characterization of PPG neuron activity in vitro ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the present in vitro study was to compare ultrastructural and quantitative changes of the nucleolus, which is the site of ribosome biogenesis, in sympathetic neurons of rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) maintained for 2, 3 and 5 h in NCTC 109 medium and subjected to pressure or not. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is aimed at establishing the regulatory role of NMDA-R in this cell type (melanocytes isolated form Tilapia) in a similar manner to what is observable in the mammalian neurons. (springer.com)
  • The dentate gyrus is one of the few mammalian brain regions where new neurons are generated throughout life. (pasteur.fr)
  • A related distinction is also sometimes drawn between modulator and driver synaptic inputs to a neuron, but here the emphasis is on modulating ongoing neuronal spiking versus causing that spiking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons that project to the spinal intermediolateral cell column and brainstem are important for the control of sympathetic outflow. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neurons that carry visual information to higher visual centers of the brain. (arvojournals.org)
  • The signal is terminated by either breakdown of neurotransmitters, or reuptake, the latter is mainly in the presynaptic neuron to avail recycling of the transmitter. (mcgill.ca)
  • The data indicate that estrogens can modulate the function of RVLM C1 bulbospinal neurons either directly, through extranuclear ERβ, or indirectly through extranuclear ERα in selected afferents. (elsevier.com)
  • Ang II (0.3 to 1 μmol/L) increased the spontaneous firing rate of most bulbospinal neurons (+250%, 28 of 39). (ahajournals.org)
  • Whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings were performed on retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons in rat brain slices. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In order to examine in an unbiased manner whether serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are heterogeneous, we used a non-invasive loose-seal cell-attached method to record α1 adrenergic receptor-stimulated spiking of a large sample of neurons in brain slices obtained from transgenic mice lines that express fluorescent marker proteins under the control of serotonergic system-specific Tph2 and Pet-1 promoters. (frontiersin.org)
  • A major goal of this work was to explore the role of the α2 adrenergic system in the modulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling at retinal synaptic layers, particularly the inner plexiform layer (IPL), where communication between RGCs and their presynaptic cells takes place. (arvojournals.org)
  • In DA neurons, the influx of Ca 2+ through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels triggered by action potentials leads to the activation of small-conductance Ca 2+ -sensitive K + (SK) channels, resulting in the generation of large afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that dominate the interspike interval (ISI) of pacemaker firing ( Wolfart and Roeper, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurons carry messages via action potentials. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We engineered an isogenic iPSC line that harbors an inducible neurogenin 2 transgene, a transcription factor that rapidly converts iPSCs to neurons, integrated at the AAVS1 locus. (nih.gov)
  • For example, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor activate GNAS complex locus ( G-protein alpha-s )/ Adenylate cyclases, which leads to Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ( cAMP ) production. (bio-rad.com)