Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Communicable DiseasesSchools: Educational institutions.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.EncyclopediasBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.PhrasesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
(1/373) Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

(2/373) Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea.

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

(3/373) Impact of development and chronic hypoxia on NE release from adrenergic nerves in sheep arteries.

To examine effects of development and chronic high-altitude hypoxia on sympathetic nerve function in sheep, norepinephrine release was measured in vitro from middle cerebral and facial arteries. Capsaicin was used to test the role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves; norepinephrine release was not altered by capsaicin treatment. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, decreased stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release in middle cerebral arteries from normoxic sheep with no effect in hypoxic arteries or facial arteries. Thus NO-releasing nerves augmented norepinephrine release. Furthermore, the function of NO-releasing nerves declined after chronic hypoxia. Despite loss of the augmenting effects of NO, stimulation-evoked fractional norepinephrine release was unchanged after chronic hypoxia, suggesting that middle cerebral arteries adapt to hypoxia by increasing stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release. In fetal facial arteries, chronic hypoxia resulted in a decline in stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release, but there was an increase in the adult facial artery. In the adult, adaptation to chronic hypoxia is similar in both cerebral and facial arteries. However, differential adaptation in fetal adrenergic nerves may reflect differences in fetal redistribution of blood flow in the face of chronic hypoxia but could also possibly contribute to increased incidence of fetal morbidity.  (+info)

(4/373) Estradiol modulates vascular response to melatonin in rat caudal artery.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether estrogen modulates the function of vascular melatonin receptors. We used the rat caudal artery and found that the contractile effects of melatonin were influenced by the estrous cycle, ovariectomy, and estrogen replacement. In arterial ring segments isolated from female rats, melatonin potentiated, in a concentration-dependent manner, contractions produced either by adrenergic nerve stimulation or by phenylephrine. Constrictor responses to melatonin were smaller in arteries from female rats in proestrus compared with other stages of the estrous cycle and after ovariectomy. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to ovariectomized female rats also resulted in decreased constriction of isolated arteries to melatonin; however, in vitro addition of 17beta-estradiol (10(-7) M) had no effect. In the caudal artery, melatonin appears to act on two receptor subtypes that mediate contraction and relaxation, respectively. The selective melatonin MT2-receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline (4P-PDOT) enhanced constrictor responses to melatonin in arterial segments from intact female rats, consistent with the inhibition of MT2 receptor-mediated relaxation. In contrast, 4P-PDOT had no significant effect in arteries from ovariectomized female rats. However, when estradiol was replaced in vivo, the effect of 4P-PDOT on melatonin responses was restored. Thus circulating estradiol appears to enhance MT2 melatonin-receptor function in the thermoregulatory caudal artery of the female rat resulting in increased vasodilatation in response to melatonin.  (+info)

(5/373) Adrenergic innervation in reactive human lymph nodes.

Several experimental models have demonstrated that the central nervous system is functionally linked to the immune system by means of the autonomic nervous system. Samples of 36 lymph nodes of patients whose ages ranged from 16 to 69 y were studied. In order to demonstrate the existence and distribution of sympathetic nerve fibres, a polyclonal antibody antityrosine hydroxylase (TH), with the streptavidin-biotin system of detection, was used. TH-positive nerve fibres appeared in all reactive patterns of the lymph nodes studied. Thin nerve fascicles ramified at the hilar region and also in the connective tissue septae. Adventitial adrenergic nerve fibres were found following afferent, and to a lesser extent, efferent blood vessels. Another source of incoming nerve fibres was found at capsular level, accompanying blood vessels. On the arterial side, the innervation ceased before reaching the follicular arterioles. Our demonstration of innervation in postcapillary venules could support a regulatory role of adrenergic neurotransmitters in lymphocyte traffic. Occasional nerve fibres were also seen in T areas among parenchymatous cells. These findings confirm the existence of sympathetic innervation in human lymph nodes, and provide indirect evidence that the psychoneuroimmune axis could also exist in humans.  (+info)

(6/373) Effects of prolonged cold storage on double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial nerve stimulation in isolated canine splenic arteries.

1. P2X-Purinoceptors and alpha1-adrenoceptors have previously been shown to involve in the double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation in the isolated and perfused canine splenic artery. The present study made an attempt to investigate effects of prolonged cold storage (7 days at 4 degrees C) on vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation, tyramine, noradrenaline and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the isolated canine splenic artery. 2. The periarterial nerve stimulation (1-10 Hz) readily causes a double peaked vasoconstriction in the non-stored preparations. After cold stored for 7 days, the double peaked vasoconstriction was still recognized, although the response became significantly smaller. The first phase was decreased relatively greater than the second phase by the cold storage. 3. In the cold stored preparations, the dose-response curve for tyramine was shifted to the right in a parallel manner. Prazosin almost completely inhibited tyramine-induced vasoconstriction but alpha,beta-methylene ATP failed to influence the response to tyramine. 4. The vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline and ATP were not significantly modified by the prolonged cold storage. 5. From these results, it is concluded that the functions of sympathetic co-transmission of purinergic components might be influenced more than that of adrenergic components in the cold storage canine splenic artery.  (+info)

(7/373) Role of protons in activation of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents during ischaemia in cats.

1. Chest pain caused by myocardial ischaemia is mediated by cardiac sympathetic afferents. The mechanisms of activation of cardiac afferents during ischaemia remain poorly understood. Increased lactic acid production is associated closely with myocardial ischaemia. The present study examined the role of protons generated during ischaemia in activation of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents. 2. Single-unit activity of cardiac afferents innervating both ventricles was recorded from the left sympathetic chain in anaesthetized cats. Epicardial tissue pH was measured within 1-1.5 mm of the surface by a pH-sensitive needle electrode. Responses of cardiac afferents to myocardial ischaemia, lactic acid, sodium lactate, acidic phosphate buffer and hypercapnia were determined. 3. Occlusion of the coronary artery for 5 min decreased epicardial tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.21 to 6.98 +/- 0.22 (P < 0.05). Epicardial placement of isotonic neutral phosphate buffer, but not saline, prevented the ischaemia-induced decrease in epicardial pH. This manoeuvre significantly attenuated the response of 16 afferents to 5 min of ischaemia (1.56 +/- 0.23 pre-treatment vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 impulses s-1). Topical application of 10-100 microg ml-1 of lactic acid, but not sodium lactate, concentration-dependently stimulated 18 cardiac afferents. Inhalation with high-CO2 gas failed to activate 12 separate cardiac afferents. Furthermore, lactic acid stimulated cardiac afferents to a greater extent than acidic phosphate buffer solution, applied at a similar pH to the same afferents. 4. Collectively, this study provides important in vivo evidence that protons contribute to activation/sensitization of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents during myocardial ischaemia.  (+info)

(8/373) 5-Hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation enhances norepinephrine release from nerves in the rabbit saphenous vein.

Although serotonergic receptor agonists are known to modulate release of central serotonin, less is known about the ability of serotonin to alter neurotransmission in peripheral adrenergic nerves. The present study used field stimulation (40V, 0.7 ms duration, 1-16 Hz) to contract the rabbit saphenous vein, an effect that was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin and prazosin (10(-6) M), consistent with stimulation of neuronal norepinephrine release. Furthermore, the field-stimulated contraction was not altered by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (10(-6) M), but was markedly inhibited by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (10(-6) M). GR127935 (10(-8) M) inhibited contraction to sumatriptan, documenting that the concentration used was sufficient to block 5-HT(1B/1D-like) vascular receptors in this tissue. Likewise, WAY 100635 (10(-6) M) inhibited contraction to the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists (+/-)-8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and LY238729, without altering contraction to norepinephrine or sumatriptan. Furthermore, both 8-OH-DPAT and LY228729 enhanced the contractile response to field stimulation (1. 0-8.0 Hz) and activated norepinephrine release in the absence of field stimulation. Contractile responses of the rabbit saphenous vein to both 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists were markedly inhibited by prazosin and dextrally shifted by WAY 100635, supporting the idea that the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists were activating presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors to enhance norepinephrine release even in the absence of field stimulation. Thus, in the rabbit saphenous vein, 5-HT(1A) but not 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors enhanced neurotransmitter release from adrenergic nerves. These observations suggested that serotonergic nerves or other cell types in the saphenous vein are activated by field stimulation to release serotonin, which in turn activates presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors on adrenergic neurons to effect norepinephrine release. To support this hypothesis, serotonin levels were measured in the saphenous vein and were increased after pargyline pretreatment (30 mg/kg s.c.), decreased after dl-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester pretreatment (300 mg/kg s.c.), and unaltered after pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg s.c.). Thus, we provide strong evidence for the 1) presence of serotonin and its direct synthesis independent of adrenergic nerves and 2) a novel excitatory effect of presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on adrenergic nerves in a peripheral blood vessel.  (+info)

*  Eccrine sweat gland
... but by adrenergic fibers as well. The glands on palms and soles do not respond to temperature but secrete at times of emotional ... Eccrine glands are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, primarily by cholinergic fibers whose discharge is altered ...
*  List of MeSH codes (A08)
... adrenergic fibers MeSH A08.663.542.075.800 --- sympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.100 --- autonomic fibers, ... mossy fibers, hippocampal MeSH A08.663.542.234 --- cholinergic fibers MeSH A08.663.542.234.060 --- autonomic fibers, ... sympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.122 --- autonomic fibers, preganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.145 --- axons MeSH ... autonomic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.800.050.050.050.700 --- parasympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.800.050.050. ...
*  Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
... then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing ... Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic: their neurotransmitter is norepinephrine; postganglionic sympathetic ... Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. ... Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or ...
*  Myocardial infarction diagnosis
ISBN 0-7817-4733-3. Eichbaum FW (1975). "'Wavy' myocardial fibers in spontaneous and experimental adrenergic cardiopathies". ... one of the earliest changes under a normal microscope are so-called wavy fibers. Subsequently, the myocyte cytoplasm becomes ...
*  Celiac ganglia
... yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also contain α and β adrenergic receptors and is innervated by fibers of adrenergic ... Modifications in the adrenergic activity of the celiac ganglion results in an altered capacity of the ovary of pregnant rats to ... Most of the fibers of the superior ovarian nerve come from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the celiac ganglion. ... and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central ...
*  Dale's principle
... cholinergic and adrenergic transmission were known to arise from different groups of nerve fibers. Dale was interested in the ... whether cholinergic or adrenergic, is characteristic for each particular neurone, and unchangeable. And near the end of the ...
*  Postganglionic nerve fibers
... neurons are mostly adrenergic (that is, epinephrine and norepinephrine function as the primary neurotransmitters). Notable ... fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ... all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ganglionic fibers. In both divisions of the autonomic nervous ...
*  Use of beta-adrenergic agonists livestock
Zilpateral enhances the growth of "fast-twitch" fibers, a type of muscle fiber that fatigues more easily. On August 16, 2013 ... Beta-adrenergic agonists, or β-agonists, are non-hormonal growth promotants that help animals put on muscle instead of fat. ...
*  Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor
The α2-adrenergic receptor binds both norepinephrine released by sympathetic postganglionic fibers and epinephrine (adrenaline ... "Inhibition of the lipolytic action of beta-adrenergic agonists in human adipocytes by alpha-adrenergic agonists". J. Lipid Res ... Adrenergic receptor Ruuskanen JO, Xhaard H, Marjamäki A, Salaneck E, Salminen T, Yan YL, Postlethwait JH, Johnson MS, Larhammar ... The α2A adrenergic receptor is localised in the following central nervous system (CNS) structures: Brainstem (especially the ...
*  Discovery and development of beta-blockers
... on myocardial muscle fibers. β-blockers can be selective for either β1, β2 adrenergic receptor, or to be non-selective. By ... partial adrenergic agonist activity (pindolol), concomitant α-adrenergic blocking activity (for example labetalol and ... β adrenergic receptor antagonists (also called beta-blockers or β-blockers) were initially developed in the 1960s, for the ... A few of the non-selective β-blockers A few of the selective β1-blockers The β-adrenergic receptor antagonists all have similar ...
*  Muscle contraction
A single motor neuron is able to innervate multiple muscle fibers, thereby causing the fibers to contract at the same time. ... which bind to adrenergic receptors that are also metabotropic. The exact effects on the smooth muscle depend on the specific ... contraction of all fibers is sufficient to damage the body. In multiple fiber summation, if the central nervous system sends a ... A neuromuscular junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is the site ...
*  Ractopamine
It is also an agonist at beta-adrenergic receptors. A cascade of events will then be initiated to increase protein synthesis, ... which results in increased muscle fiber size. Ractopamine is known to increase the rate of weight gain, improve feed efficiency ... Pharmacologically, it is a TAAR1 agonist and β adrenoreceptor agonist that stimulates β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors. It is the ... Taiwan banned ractopamine along with other beta-adrenergic agonists in October 2006, but in 2012, its legislature passed ...
*  Tamsulosin
... , and other medications in the class called alpha blockers, work by relaxing bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers ... It is an α1a adrenergic receptor antagonist. Tamsulosin was developed by Yamanouchi Pharmaceuticals (now part of Astellas ...
*  List of regions in the human brain
... or Cerebrospinal fibers Lateral corticospinal tract Anterior corticospinal tract Corticopontine fibers Frontopontine fibers ... Raphe Nuclei Norepinephrine Pathways Locus coeruleus and other noradrenergic cell groups Epinephrine pathways from adrenergic ... Temporopontine fibers Corticobulbar tract Corticomesencephalic tract Tectospinal tract Interstitiospinal tract Rubrospinal ...
*  Vasomotor
Activation of α-adrenergic receptors promotes vasoconstriction, while the activation of β-adrenergic receptors mediates the ... Sympathetic nerve fibers travel around the tunica media of the artery, secrete neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine into ... Normally, α-adrenergic receptors predominates in smooth muscle of resistance vessels. Endothelin, and angiotensin are the ... The smooth muscle cell membranes have α and β-adrenergic receptors for these neurotransmitters. ...
*  Basal electrical rhythm
Longitudinal muscle fibers depend on calcium influx into the cell for excitation-contraction coupling, while circular muscle ... These efferent motor neuronns of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons. The inner circular layer is ... fibers rely on intracellular calcium release. Contraction of the smooth muscle can occur when the BER reaches its plateau (an ...
*  Alinidine
Snyders DJ, Van Bogaert P-P: Alinidine modifies the pacemaker current in sheep Purkinje fibers. Pflugers Arch 1987, 410:83-91 ... 1993). "Short-term effects of early intravenous treatment with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent or a specific bradycardiac ...
*  Acrocyanosis
A sympathectomy would alleviate the cyanosis by disrupting the fibers of the sympathetic nervous system to the area. However, ... However, there is little, if any, empirical evidence that vasoactive drugs (α-adrenergic blocking agents or calcium channel ...
*  Sympathoadrenal system
Since both the sympathetic nerve fibers and adrenal medulla are part of the central nervous system (CNS), electrical impulses ... In such cases, curative agents such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists are used to modify epinephrine and norepinephrine ... When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which ... These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the ...
*  Mydriasis
... composed of circularly arranged muscle fibers, and the iris dilator, composed of radially arranged muscle fibers. The sphincter ... Sympathetic stimulation of the adrenergic receptors causes the contraction of the radial muscle and subsequent dilation of the ... The released norepinephrine then proceeds to bind to adrenergic receptors, and the biological effects of norepinephrine finally ... Parasympathetic fibers travel with cranial nerve III, the oculomotor nerve, to innervate the circular layer of muscle of the ...
*  Urinary bladder
GVA fibers on the superior surface follow the course of the sympathetic efferent nerves back to the CNS, while GVA fibers on ... The main relaxant pathway is via the adenylyl cyclase cAMP pathway, activated by β2 adrenergic receptors. The detrusor muscle ... The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and ... The bladder receives motor innervation from both sympathetic fibers, most of which arise from the superior and inferior ...
*  Neurotransmitter
Descending NE fibers modulate afferent pain signals. ... The locus ceruleus (LC), which is located on the floor of the fourth ... LC firing may also increase anxiety ...Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala results in enhanced memory for ...
*  N,N-Dimethyldopamine
J. M. Kitzen, M. Ilhan, J. G. Cannon and J. P. Long (1976). "α-Adrenergic activity of N,N-dimethyldopamine (DMDA)." Eur. J. ... produced by electrical stimulation of the post-ganglionic fibers of cat cardioaccelerator nerve, an i.v. dose of ~ 15 μg/kg ... From these and other related observations, the researchers concluded that DMDA was a potent inhibitor of the adrenergic system ... M. Ilhan, J. P. Long and J. G. Cannon (1975). "Bulbocapnine's ability to antagonize the adrenergic inhibitory action of ...
*  Smooth muscle tissue
These fibers with their extracellular matrices contribute to the viscoelasticity of these tissues. For example, the great ... So there is a difference in the distribution of the various adrenergic receptors that explains the difference in why blood ... The embryological origin of smooth muscle is usually of mesodermal origin, after the creation of muscle fibers in a process ... adrenergic receptors), second messenger generators (adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C), G proteins (RhoA, G alpha), kinases ( ...
*  Ciliary body
The ciliary body is attached to the lens by connective tissue called the zonular fibers (fibers of Zinn). Relaxation of the ... Alpha-adrenergic agonists work by decreasing production of fluid and increasing drainage. Brimonidine and Apraclonidine are two ... The zonular fibers collectively make up the suspensory ligament of the lens. These provide strong attachments between the ... Postsynaptic fibers from the ciliary ganglion form the short ciliary nerves. Parasympathetic activation of the M3 muscarinic ...
*  Bronchoconstriction
Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers will release acetylcholine causing the constriction of the smooth muscle layer ... http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201303-0437ST Rau, JL (Jul 2000). "Inhaled adrenergic bronchodilators: ...
Adrenergic fibres | definition of adrenergic fibres by Medical dictionary  Adrenergic fibres | definition of adrenergic fibres by Medical dictionary
... adrenergic fibres explanation free. What is adrenergic fibres? Meaning of adrenergic fibres medical term. What does adrenergic ... Looking for online definition of adrenergic fibres in the Medical Dictionary? ... adrenergic fibers. (redirected from adrenergic fibres) ad·re·ner·gic fi·bers. nerve fiber's that transmit nervous impulses to ... Synonym(s): adrenergic fibres. ad·re·ner·gic fi·bers. (ad'rĕ-nĕr'jik fī'bĕrz) Nerve fibers that transmit nervous impulses to ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adrenergic+fibres
Free Anatomy Flashcards about A&P I Final  Free Anatomy Flashcards about A&P I Final
ACh-releasing fibers. Cholinergic fibers. sympathetic postganglionic axons that release NE. Adrenergic fibers. ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-920395
PPT - Pharmacology  for Paramedics PowerPoint Presentation - ID:39816  PPT - Pharmacology for Paramedics PowerPoint Presentation - ID:39816
Fibers that release norepinephrine. *Most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are adrenergic, but some are ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/jacob/pharmacology
Hirschsprung Disease: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology  Hirschsprung Disease: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
The cholinergic fibers generally cause contraction, whereas the adrenergic fibers mainly cause inhibition. ... Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. ... The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. The cholinergic ( ... excitatory) system is thought to predominate over the adrenergic (inhibitory) system, leading to an increase in smooth muscle ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/178493-overview
Pharmacology Flashcards by Katarina Tu | Brainscape  Pharmacology Flashcards by Katarina Tu | Brainscape
cholinergic fibers secrete acetylcholine. adrenergic fibers secrete norepi, epi, dopamine (catecholamines) 76 ... 1. beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (b blockers). 2. alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers (a blockers). 3. centrally-acting anti ... autonomic nervous system has __ fibers that secrete __, and __ fibers that secrete norepi, epi, or dopamine. ... secreted by cholinergic fibers. after a threshold stimulus, liberation of Ach alters the cell membrane's permeability ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pharmacology-117262/packs/408385
Understanding the Autonomic Nervous System - Dysautonomia, Disorders, Diagnostics & Info  - Dysautonomia Information Network  ...  Understanding the Autonomic Nervous System - Dysautonomia, Disorders, Diagnostics & Info - Dysautonomia Information Network ...
Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic ... The role of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers continues to be studied in dysautonomia research and particularly the role they ... fibers. Generally, acetylcholine has parasympathetic (inhibiting) effects and norepinephrine has sympathetic (stimulating) ...
more infohttps://www.dinet.org/content/information-resources/dysautonomia-disorders-diagnostics-info/understanding-the-autonomic-nervous-system-r208/
Understanding the Autonomic Nervous System - Dysautonomia, Disorders, Diagnostics & Info  - Dysautonomia Information Network  ...  Understanding the Autonomic Nervous System - Dysautonomia, Disorders, Diagnostics & Info - Dysautonomia Information Network ...
Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic ... The role of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers continues to be studied in dysautonomia research and particularly the role they ... fibers. Generally, acetylcholine has parasympathetic (inhibiting) effects and norepinephrine has sympathetic (stimulating) ...
more infohttps://www.dinet.org/info/dysautonomia-disorders-diagnostics-info/understanding-the-autonomic-nervous-system-r208/
PPT - Respiratory Exam 1 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:5083141  PPT - Respiratory Exam 1 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:5083141
Adrenergic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion cause vasoconstriction. *Cholinergic fibers from the pterygopalatine ... Smooth muscle fibers that bridge the gap between the free ends of the C shaped cartilage at the posterior border of the trachea ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/kobe/respiratory-exam-1
ANS physiology - cueFlash - Learn by studying flashcards  ANS physiology - cueFlash - Learn by studying flashcards
... adrenergic fibersNerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called?,cholinergic fibers ... acetylecholine and norepinerineNerve fibers secreting norepinephrine are called?, ... Nerve fibers secreting norepinephrine are called? adrenergic fibers Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called? ... Norepinephrine acts mainly on which adrenergic receptors? alpha Epinephrine acts mainly on which adrenergic receptors? alpha ...
more infohttps://cueflash.com/decks/33794/ANS_physiology
Sharpeys fs | definition of Sharpeys fs by Medical dictionary  Sharpey's f's | definition of Sharpey's f's by Medical dictionary
adrenergic f's. nerve fibers that liberate epinephrine-like substances at the time of passage of nerve impulses across a ... fiber1. an elongated threadlike anatomical structure.. A f's. myelinated fibers of the somatic nervous system having a diameter ... auxiliary conduction fibers from the atrium to the ventricle that bypass the A-V bundle. See also mahaim fibers. ... fibers that conduct touch and pressure impulses and innervate the intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle; they conduct at ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sharpey%27s+f%27s
Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Myeloid Malignancies: A Focus on Immune Escaping and Therapeutic Implications  Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Myeloid Malignancies: A Focus on Immune Escaping and Therapeutic Implications
An interaction of adrenergic fibers with the MSC microenvironment has been described, and deregulation of this system has been ... Finally, altered adrenergic regulation is observed in leukemic niche and this AML-induced neuropathy (i.e., sympathetic ... engaged in the niche regulation is the autonomic nervous system that accompanies marrow blood vessels through adrenergic fibers ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/6720594/
AP 770 Pharm Exam 2 Intro Autonomic Nervous System Kenney Flashcards - Cram.com  AP 770 Pharm Exam 2 Intro Autonomic Nervous System Kenney Flashcards - Cram.com
Fiber: adrenergic. Agonists: ISO=NE,Epi. Antagonists: ICI 118551. Tissue: Adipose tissue. Response: Lipolysis. Note: Currently ... Fiber type: adrenergic. Agonists: Iso,Epi,,NE. Antagonists: ICI 118551. Tissue: Smooth muscle (vascular, bronchial, ... Fiber type: adrenergic. Agonists: Epi=NE,,Isoproterenol. Antagonists: Prazosin. Tissue: Vascular smooth muscle, genitourinary ... Fiber type: adrenergic. Agonists: Epi=NE,,Isoproterenol. Antagonists: Yohimbine. Tissue: Presynaptic nerve terminals, vascular ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/ap-770-pharm-exam-2-intro-autonomic-nervous-system-kenney-387468
Beth Habecker - Publications
     - Oregon Health & Science University  Beth Habecker - Publications - Oregon Health & Science University
β-Adrenergic inhibition prevents action potential and calcium handling changes during regional myocardial ischemia. Murphy, S. ... Heterogeneous ventricular sympathetic innervation, altered β-adrenergic receptor expression, and rhythm instability in mice ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/beth-habecker/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle
Antihypertensive agents facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Antihypertensive agents  Antihypertensive agents facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Antihypertensive agents
... it contains chiefly adrenergic fibers and tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle, and ... These drugs include the beta-adrenergic blockers and alpha/beta adrenergic blockers. There are also non-specific adrenergic ... These drugs include the beta-adrenergic blockers and alpha/beta adrenergic blockers. There are also non-specific adrenergic ... Adrenergic- Activated by adrenalin (norepinephrine), loosely applied to the sympathetic nervous system responses. ...
more infohttp://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/drugs/pharmacology/antihypertensive-agents
Catecholamine- and acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves in human lower respiratory tract | SpringerLink  Catecholamine- and acetylcholinesterase-containing nerves in human lower respiratory tract | SpringerLink
Outside the glands adrenergic fibers were constantly seen in connection with the bronchial blood vessels in connective tissues ... Doidge JM, Satchell DG (1982) Adrenergic and non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves in mammalian airways. J Auton Nerv Syst 5:83-99 ... No AChE-positive fibers were found in connection with the blood vessels or within the epithelium of bronchi or bonchioli. The ... Catecholamine Nerve Fiber Cholinesterase Acetylcholinesterase Airway Smooth Muscle These keywords were added by machine and not ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00501920
Iosa D - The Autonomic Nervous System: Its Study and The Pathogenesis of Chagass Cardioneuromyopathy  Iosa D - The Autonomic Nervous System: Its Study and The Pathogenesis of Chagas's Cardioneuromyopathy
The efferent pathway of this reflex involves adrenergic fibers that release norepinephrine in the vessel wall (64). ... The fibers from the mesencephalon originate in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the oculomotor nerve. The bulbar fibers travel ... The heart receives only postganglionic fibers, since the preganglionic fibers that emerge from the lower cervical and upper ... The sacral fibers, which originate in the ventral horn at the L2, L3, and L4 levels, and sometimes S1, form the pelvic nerve, ...
more infohttp://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/chagas/iosa/iosai.htm
Palaiodimos, L.<...  Palaiodimos, L.<...
Triantafyllidi, H., Arvaniti, C., Schoinas, A., Benas, D., Vlachos, S., Palaiodimos, L., Pavlidis, G., Ikonomidis, I., Batistaki, C., Voumvourakis, C. & Lekakis, J., Jan 1 2018, In : International Journal of Cardiology. 250, p. 233-239 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/leonidas-palaiodimos
  • Parasympathetic ouflow has what types of fibers? (cram.com)
  • He (14-19) along with Alcántara (20), suggested that Chagas' disease is a neuropathy resulting from denervation caused by widespread destruction of parasympathetic neurons and nervous fibers in different areas - a theory that explained the occurrence of cardiopathy and megaviscera. (fac.org.ar)
  • The idea of a neurotoxin was inspired by the work of Vianna (10) and Monckeberg (12), who had described the destruction in canine models of nonparasitized cells subsequent to the rupture of nearby nests, as well as promounced lesions in the autonomic ganglia and cardiac nervous fibers. (fac.org.ar)
  • According to the myogenic theory, the primary damage to the cardiac muscle fibers is triggered by humoral or cell-mediated immune factors (8). (fac.org.ar)
  • The latter fibers entered the peripheral cornea in the deep to middle layers of the stroma and ascended into progressively more superficial layers as they coursed centrally. (elsevier.com)