Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the CRICOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE. It normally occludes the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS, except during SWALLOWING.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (1/373)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (2/373)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Impact of development and chronic hypoxia on NE release from adrenergic nerves in sheep arteries. (3/373)

To examine effects of development and chronic high-altitude hypoxia on sympathetic nerve function in sheep, norepinephrine release was measured in vitro from middle cerebral and facial arteries. Capsaicin was used to test the role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves; norepinephrine release was not altered by capsaicin treatment. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, decreased stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release in middle cerebral arteries from normoxic sheep with no effect in hypoxic arteries or facial arteries. Thus NO-releasing nerves augmented norepinephrine release. Furthermore, the function of NO-releasing nerves declined after chronic hypoxia. Despite loss of the augmenting effects of NO, stimulation-evoked fractional norepinephrine release was unchanged after chronic hypoxia, suggesting that middle cerebral arteries adapt to hypoxia by increasing stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release. In fetal facial arteries, chronic hypoxia resulted in a decline in stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release, but there was an increase in the adult facial artery. In the adult, adaptation to chronic hypoxia is similar in both cerebral and facial arteries. However, differential adaptation in fetal adrenergic nerves may reflect differences in fetal redistribution of blood flow in the face of chronic hypoxia but could also possibly contribute to increased incidence of fetal morbidity.  (+info)

Estradiol modulates vascular response to melatonin in rat caudal artery. (4/373)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether estrogen modulates the function of vascular melatonin receptors. We used the rat caudal artery and found that the contractile effects of melatonin were influenced by the estrous cycle, ovariectomy, and estrogen replacement. In arterial ring segments isolated from female rats, melatonin potentiated, in a concentration-dependent manner, contractions produced either by adrenergic nerve stimulation or by phenylephrine. Constrictor responses to melatonin were smaller in arteries from female rats in proestrus compared with other stages of the estrous cycle and after ovariectomy. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to ovariectomized female rats also resulted in decreased constriction of isolated arteries to melatonin; however, in vitro addition of 17beta-estradiol (10(-7) M) had no effect. In the caudal artery, melatonin appears to act on two receptor subtypes that mediate contraction and relaxation, respectively. The selective melatonin MT2-receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline (4P-PDOT) enhanced constrictor responses to melatonin in arterial segments from intact female rats, consistent with the inhibition of MT2 receptor-mediated relaxation. In contrast, 4P-PDOT had no significant effect in arteries from ovariectomized female rats. However, when estradiol was replaced in vivo, the effect of 4P-PDOT on melatonin responses was restored. Thus circulating estradiol appears to enhance MT2 melatonin-receptor function in the thermoregulatory caudal artery of the female rat resulting in increased vasodilatation in response to melatonin.  (+info)

Adrenergic innervation in reactive human lymph nodes. (5/373)

Several experimental models have demonstrated that the central nervous system is functionally linked to the immune system by means of the autonomic nervous system. Samples of 36 lymph nodes of patients whose ages ranged from 16 to 69 y were studied. In order to demonstrate the existence and distribution of sympathetic nerve fibres, a polyclonal antibody antityrosine hydroxylase (TH), with the streptavidin-biotin system of detection, was used. TH-positive nerve fibres appeared in all reactive patterns of the lymph nodes studied. Thin nerve fascicles ramified at the hilar region and also in the connective tissue septae. Adventitial adrenergic nerve fibres were found following afferent, and to a lesser extent, efferent blood vessels. Another source of incoming nerve fibres was found at capsular level, accompanying blood vessels. On the arterial side, the innervation ceased before reaching the follicular arterioles. Our demonstration of innervation in postcapillary venules could support a regulatory role of adrenergic neurotransmitters in lymphocyte traffic. Occasional nerve fibres were also seen in T areas among parenchymatous cells. These findings confirm the existence of sympathetic innervation in human lymph nodes, and provide indirect evidence that the psychoneuroimmune axis could also exist in humans.  (+info)

Effects of prolonged cold storage on double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial nerve stimulation in isolated canine splenic arteries. (6/373)

1. P2X-Purinoceptors and alpha1-adrenoceptors have previously been shown to involve in the double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation in the isolated and perfused canine splenic artery. The present study made an attempt to investigate effects of prolonged cold storage (7 days at 4 degrees C) on vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation, tyramine, noradrenaline and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the isolated canine splenic artery. 2. The periarterial nerve stimulation (1-10 Hz) readily causes a double peaked vasoconstriction in the non-stored preparations. After cold stored for 7 days, the double peaked vasoconstriction was still recognized, although the response became significantly smaller. The first phase was decreased relatively greater than the second phase by the cold storage. 3. In the cold stored preparations, the dose-response curve for tyramine was shifted to the right in a parallel manner. Prazosin almost completely inhibited tyramine-induced vasoconstriction but alpha,beta-methylene ATP failed to influence the response to tyramine. 4. The vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline and ATP were not significantly modified by the prolonged cold storage. 5. From these results, it is concluded that the functions of sympathetic co-transmission of purinergic components might be influenced more than that of adrenergic components in the cold storage canine splenic artery.  (+info)

Role of protons in activation of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents during ischaemia in cats. (7/373)

1. Chest pain caused by myocardial ischaemia is mediated by cardiac sympathetic afferents. The mechanisms of activation of cardiac afferents during ischaemia remain poorly understood. Increased lactic acid production is associated closely with myocardial ischaemia. The present study examined the role of protons generated during ischaemia in activation of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents. 2. Single-unit activity of cardiac afferents innervating both ventricles was recorded from the left sympathetic chain in anaesthetized cats. Epicardial tissue pH was measured within 1-1.5 mm of the surface by a pH-sensitive needle electrode. Responses of cardiac afferents to myocardial ischaemia, lactic acid, sodium lactate, acidic phosphate buffer and hypercapnia were determined. 3. Occlusion of the coronary artery for 5 min decreased epicardial tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.21 to 6.98 +/- 0.22 (P < 0.05). Epicardial placement of isotonic neutral phosphate buffer, but not saline, prevented the ischaemia-induced decrease in epicardial pH. This manoeuvre significantly attenuated the response of 16 afferents to 5 min of ischaemia (1.56 +/- 0.23 pre-treatment vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 impulses s-1). Topical application of 10-100 microg ml-1 of lactic acid, but not sodium lactate, concentration-dependently stimulated 18 cardiac afferents. Inhalation with high-CO2 gas failed to activate 12 separate cardiac afferents. Furthermore, lactic acid stimulated cardiac afferents to a greater extent than acidic phosphate buffer solution, applied at a similar pH to the same afferents. 4. Collectively, this study provides important in vivo evidence that protons contribute to activation/sensitization of cardiac sympathetic C-fibre afferents during myocardial ischaemia.  (+info)

5-Hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation enhances norepinephrine release from nerves in the rabbit saphenous vein. (8/373)

Although serotonergic receptor agonists are known to modulate release of central serotonin, less is known about the ability of serotonin to alter neurotransmission in peripheral adrenergic nerves. The present study used field stimulation (40V, 0.7 ms duration, 1-16 Hz) to contract the rabbit saphenous vein, an effect that was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin and prazosin (10(-6) M), consistent with stimulation of neuronal norepinephrine release. Furthermore, the field-stimulated contraction was not altered by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (10(-6) M), but was markedly inhibited by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (10(-6) M). GR127935 (10(-8) M) inhibited contraction to sumatriptan, documenting that the concentration used was sufficient to block 5-HT(1B/1D-like) vascular receptors in this tissue. Likewise, WAY 100635 (10(-6) M) inhibited contraction to the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists (+/-)-8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and LY238729, without altering contraction to norepinephrine or sumatriptan. Furthermore, both 8-OH-DPAT and LY228729 enhanced the contractile response to field stimulation (1. 0-8.0 Hz) and activated norepinephrine release in the absence of field stimulation. Contractile responses of the rabbit saphenous vein to both 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists were markedly inhibited by prazosin and dextrally shifted by WAY 100635, supporting the idea that the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists were activating presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors to enhance norepinephrine release even in the absence of field stimulation. Thus, in the rabbit saphenous vein, 5-HT(1A) but not 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors enhanced neurotransmitter release from adrenergic nerves. These observations suggested that serotonergic nerves or other cell types in the saphenous vein are activated by field stimulation to release serotonin, which in turn activates presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors on adrenergic neurons to effect norepinephrine release. To support this hypothesis, serotonin levels were measured in the saphenous vein and were increased after pargyline pretreatment (30 mg/kg s.c.), decreased after dl-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester pretreatment (300 mg/kg s.c.), and unaltered after pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (100 mg/kg s.c.). Thus, we provide strong evidence for the 1) presence of serotonin and its direct synthesis independent of adrenergic nerves and 2) a novel excitatory effect of presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on adrenergic nerves in a peripheral blood vessel.  (+info)

The innervation of the anterior segment of the albino rabbit eye was studied with both the histofluorometric technique of Falck for adrenergic fibers and the thiocholine method for cholinergic fibers. Adrenergic fibers were found in heavy concentration in the iris dilator, ciliary processes, and around blood vessels. In lesser number adrenergic fibers were seen in the cornea and filtration area. Very few fibers toere seen in ciliary muscle and iris sphincter. Heavy staining for fibers containing acetylcholinesterase was seen in the iris sphincter, ciliary body, and surrounding blood vessels. The iris dilator, filtration area, and cornea also showed moderate staining. ...
A detailed study of the origin and distribution of sympathetic fibres in the distal colon of the guinea-pig has been made using the fluorescent histochemical method for localizing catecholamines. The extrinsic adrenergic fibres of the colonie sympathetic nerves follow the inferior mesenteric artery and its branches to the colon. Some of the extrinsic adrenergic fibres are associated with the parasympathetic fibres of the pelvic nerves near the colon. Complete adrenergic denervation follows the removal of the inferior mesenteric ganglion or the destruction of the nerves running with the inferior mesenteric artery. No fluorescent fibres, other than those associated with blood vessels, were observed in air-dried stretch preparations of the isolated longitudinal muscle. However, a substantial number of varicose, terminal fibres, not associated with blood vessels, were observed in the circular muscle. Some varicose fibres, apart from those associated with ganglion cells, were observed in the myenteric plexus
The role of GABA receptors in synaptic transmission to neonatal rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) was investigated utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques in longitudinal and transverse spinal cord slice preparations. In the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (NBQX, 5 mum and D-APV, 10 mum), electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral or contralateral lateral funiculi (iLF and cLF, respectively) revealed monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in 75% and 65% of SPNs, respectively. IPSPs were sensitive to bicuculline (10 mum) in all neurones tested and reversed polarity around -55 mV, the latter indicating mediation via chloride conductances. In three neurones IPSPs evoked by stimulation of the iLF (n = 1) or cLF (n = 2) were partly sensitive to strychnine (2 mum). The expression of postsynaptic GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors were confirmed by the sensitivity of SPNs to agonists, GABA (2 mm), muscimol (10-100 mum) or baclofen (10-100 mum), in the ...
The role of histamine in regulating excitability of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) and the expression of histamine receptor mRNA in SPNs was investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recording techniques combined with single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in transverse neonatal rat spinal cord slices. Bath application of histamine (100 microM) or the H1 receptor agonist histamine trifluoromethyl toluidide dimaleate (HTMT; 10 microM) induced membrane depolarization associated with a decrease in membrane conductance in the majority (70%) of SPNs tested, via activation of postsynaptic H1 receptors negatively coupled to one or more unidentified K+ conductances. Histamine and HTMT application also induced or increased the amplitude and/or frequency of membrane potential oscillations in electrotonically coupled SPNs. The H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (10 microM) or the H3 receptor agonist imetit (100 nM) were without significant effect on ...
ACh is always used as the transmitter within the autonomic ganglion. Nicotinic receptors on the postganglionic neuron are responsible for the initial fast depolarization (Fast EPSP) of that neuron. As a consequence of this, nicotinic receptors are often cited as the receptor on the postganglionic neurons at the ganglion. However, the subsequent hyperpolarization (IPSP) and slow depolarization (Slow EPSP) that represent the recovery of the postganglionic neuron from stimulation are actually mediated by muscarinic receptors, types M2 and M1 respectively (discussed below).[citation needed]. Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or postganglionic fibers, then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing acetylcholine and expressing acetylcholine receptors. Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. ...
Adrenergic cell group C1 is a group of cells that show evidence of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme that converts norepinephrine to epinephrine (adrenalin); thus, they are regarded as putative adrenergic cells. They are found in the ventrolateral medulla in conjunction with the noradrenergic cell group A1. The adrenergic group C1 is seen in vertebrates, including rodents and primates. Kitahama K; Nagatsu I; Pearson J (1994). Catecholamine systems in mammalian midbrain and hindbrain: theme and variations. In Smeets WJAJ; Reiner A. Phylogeny and Development of Catecholamine Systems in the CNS of Vertebrates. Cambridge: University Press. OCLC 123255922. More information at ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Whole body cryotherapy was initially intended for use in a clinical setting to treat patients with conditions such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis; however, elite athletes have recently reported using the treatment to alleviate delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise. Recently, recreational athletes have started to emulate elite athletes in using these treatments after exercise. Reductions in muscle and skin tissue temperature after WBC exposure may stimulate cutaneous receptors and excite the sympathetic adrenergic fibre, causing constriction of local arterioles and venues. Consequently, WBC may be effective in relieving soreness, or muscle pain, through reduced muscle metabolism, skin microcirculation, receptor sensitivity and nerve conduction velocity. Interestingly, a paradoxical increase in rectal temperature, followed by a slight decline, has been reported following exposure to the treatment. The is also a body of evidence to suggest that WBC stimulates the autonomic ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Segmental origin of preganglionic sympathetic fibers passing through the stellate ganglion]. by Edina Kiss et al.
1. Simultaneous recordings were made from postganglionic sympathetic fibres supplying hindlimb skin and skeletal muscle in chloralose-anaesthetized, a
As far as we know, this study is the first to examine the effect of permanent dual chamber pacing on myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation before and after pacemaker implantation in humans.. Ventricular pacing through the right ventricular apex-although the site is easily accessible and traditionally used for electrode implantation-results in asynchronous ventricular activation.13 During the last few years, normalisation of ventricular electrical stimulation in paced patients has acquired considerable importance. Other researchers have suggested that ventricular pacing decreases fibre shortening, contractile work, and myocardial blood flow in early activated regions and increases these indices in late activated regions.14 It is also known that long term asynchronous electrical activation leads to asymmetrical changes of left ventricular wall mass induced by regional changes of mechanical load, with the early activated regions having a lower preload than the late activated regions. ...
The chief neurotransmitter which is released by postganglionic sympathetic fibers is noradrenaline (NA). This has affinity for and can activate alpha-one. alpha-two. beta- one and beta-two postsynaptic receptors on various organs. Sympathetic fibers. which are equivalent to preganglionic fibers. release acetylclioline (Ach) at the adrenal medulla. Acetylcholine combines with nicotinic receptors on the gland. activating it to release adrenaline (A) together with small quantities of NA. This release is greatly increased during fight-or-flight situations. The adrenaline is carried in the bloodstream to all organs. where it combines with and activates all sympathetic receptors. The bronchi do not receive sympathetic nerve fibers. but their smooth muscle contains many beta-two receptors which are stimulated by adrenaline. The bronchiolar muscle relaxation which follows leads to bronchodilation. Presynaptic alpha-two receptors which are found on sympathetic nerve endings are known as autoreceptors ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
Norepinephrine, substance that is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibers and that acts to increase the force of skeletal muscle contraction and the rate and force of contraction of the heart. The actions of norepinephrine are vital to the fight-or-flight response.
Neuro-notes I. Like other body-motion cues, sweating requires the movement of body parts to deliver its watery substance to the skins surface. Myoepithelial cells, which contain smooth-visceral-muscle-like organs, contract to squeeze the sweaty fluid through thin ducts in the skin. Myoepithelial muscles are innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers; the muscle-like organs also contract in response to adrenaline (Horne 1995:411). Neuro-notes II. 1. Studies in animals have established that the amygdala is critical for emotional conditioning [e.g., of the SCR or skin conductance response (i.e., sweaty palms)], whereas several human and nonhuman primate studies have established that the hippocampus and surrounding regions are necessary for establishing declarative knowledge (Bechara et al. 1995:1115). 2. Bilateral damage to the amygdala entirely blocked the ability . . . to acquire conditioned SCRs . . . (Bechara et al. 1995:1117). 3. The subject failed to generate SCRs to the CSs [conditioned ...
The catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine play critical roles in the maintenance of cardiovascular function. Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) catalyzes the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine and serves as a marker for adrenergic cells. We have previously shown that the selective destruction of Pnmt+ cells in the mouse produces severe left-ventricular dysfunction under anesthesia and that epinephrine deficiency alone does not recapitulate the phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that Pnmt+ cells are key modulators of the stress response to immobilization. Using a suicide reporter mouse model to ablate Pnmt+ cells (Pnmt-Cre/DTA), we achieve greater than 50% Pnmt+ cell reduction in the adrenal medulla and 97% reduction in Pnmt transcript. Remarkably, Pnmt+ cell destruction does not markedly diminish the cardiovascular response to restraint stress. At one hour of immobilization, heart rate and ejection fraction showed a similar increase in response to restraint in ...
My research interests are to investigate the mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic afferents activation and the associated central nervous system (CNS) reflex processing as well as modulation of electroacupuncture (EA) on CNS regulation of cardiovascular function. Studies of cardiac afferents activation are funded by a NIH grant (serve as CO-PI ). In these studies, I am investigating the mechanisms of activation and sensitization of cardiac afferents induced by multiple ischemic mediators including endothelins, thromboxane A2, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine, lactic acid (protons), reactive oxygen species and bradykinin (BK), which stimulate and/or sensitize cardiac spinal afferents during ischaemia and reperfusion in an interactive and multifactorial fashion. I am also studying the mechanisms underlying CNS reflex processing evoked by ischemic metabolites during myocardial ischemia ...
Background: Both catecholamines and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonists exert infarct-size-limiting effect against ischemia via the same final signaling pathways. We hypothesized that DOR-initiated cardioprotection is dependent on adrenergic activation via intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cells, a newly identified cardiac neuroendocrine system.. Methods and Results: Using immunofluorescent double labeling coupled with in situ hybridization, we have detected tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, the gene for rate-limiting catecholamine-forming enzyme in human ventricular ICA cells. We have colocalized the immunoreactivity of TH and DOR to the ICA cells in human and rat hearts. No TH mRNA or DOR immunoreactivity was identified in ventricular myocytes or sympathetic nerve endings. The physiological significance of DOR expression was examined by determining changes of cytosolic [Ca2+]i transients in fura-2-loaded isolated rat ICA cells using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Application of a DOR agonist ...
The increase in total integrated voltage of renal sympathetic nerve activity that occurs with peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (heat) decreases renal blood flow, and the renal vasoconstriction is prevented by prior renal denervation (34). As it was this stimulus that identified a unique subset of single renal sympathetic nerve fibers, we sought to determine quantitative aspects of the renal sympathetic neural discharge seen in multifiber recordings that were produced by peripheral thermal receptor stimulation. Postganglionic multifiber renal sympathetic nerve activity occurs in synchronized sympathetic discharges (bursts, peaks) with distinct coupling to the cardiac cycle. These synchronized renal sympathetic peaks may be characterized by their amplitude, duration, and frequency. Total integrated voltage encompasses the product of voltage under the curve of each peak (governed largely by peak amplitude as peak duration changes little) and peak frequency. Therefore, changes in total ...
ODonnell S.R. and Saar N. (1975) Some evidence for the maturity of peripheral adrenergic nerves in newborn guinea pigs. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 53 3: 215-222. ...
Looking for online definition of noradrenergic nerve in the Medical Dictionary? noradrenergic nerve explanation free. What is noradrenergic nerve? Meaning of noradrenergic nerve medical term. What does noradrenergic nerve mean?
1. In six healthy subjects the role of renal prostaglandins (PG) in modulating the actions of the renin-angiotensin and renal adrenergic nervous systems on renal function was investigated.. 2. During high dietary sodium intake (350 mmol/day) for 4 days no changes in urinary excretion of PGE2, PGF2α, noradrenaline or adrenaline were noted, whereas plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary aldosterone excretion were suppressed.. 3. After 4 days of low sodium intake (35 mmol/day) urinary excretion of PGE2, aldosterone and noradrenaline, as well as PRA, had significantly increased.. 4. Inhibition of PG synthesis with indomethacin (2 mg/kg body weight) had no effects on renal function on day 5 of high sodium intake. Despite suppression of PRA and urinary aldosterone, indomethacin significantly reduced p-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary sodium excretion on day 5 of low sodium intake, when urinary noradrenaline excretion remained high.. 5. The results point to ...
The influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) on cochlear blood flow (CBF), blood pressure (SBP) and skin blood flow (SBF) was studied in anaesthetized guinea pigs. A transient acute respiratory acidosis was produced by inhalation of CO2 and oxygen (O2) gas mixtures. The blood flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). High CO2 increased CBF and SBP, and decreased SBF in a dose-dependent manner. The responses of CBF, SBP and SBF to high CO2 were reversible. Our results indicate that high CO2 (and low pH) dilates the smooth muscle of the blood vessels, resulting in an increase in CBF. CO2 also activates the sympathetic nervous system in the whole body, producing an increase in SBP. The distribution of alpha- adrenergic fibres/receptors is abundant in skin and scarce in the cochlea. The constrictive effect on blood vessels is much greater in the skin than in the cochlea, thus our results showed a decrease in SBF during stimulation with higher CO2.. ...
Sympathetic innervation to the eye consists of a three neuron arc. The first neuron originates in the hypothalamus. It descends and travels between the levels of the eighth cervical and forth thoracic vertebrae (C8-T4) of the spinal cord. There, it synapses with second order neurons whose preganglionic cell bodies give rise to axons. These axons pass over the apex of the lung and enter the sympathetic chain in the neck, synapsing in the superior cervical ganglion. Here, cell bodies of third order neurons give rise to postganglionic axons that course to the eye via the cavernous sinus. These sympathetic nerve fibers course anteriorly through the uveal tract and join the fibers of long posterior ciliary nerves to innervate the dilator of the iris. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers also innervate the muscle of Mueller within the eyelid, which is responsible for the initiation of eyelid retraction during eyelid opening. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers, responsible for facial sweating, follow the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A quantitative analysis of the sensory and sympathetic innervation of the mouse pancreas. AU - Lindsay, T. H.. AU - Halvorson, K. G.. AU - Peters, C. M.. AU - Ghilardi, J. R.. AU - Kuskowski, M. A.. AU - Wong, G. Y.. AU - Mantyh, Patrick W. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Pain from pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer can be both chronic and severe although little is known about the mechanisms that generate and maintain this pain. To define the peripheral sensory and sympathetic fibers involved in transmitting and modulating pancreatic pain, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the sensory and sympathetic innervation of the head, body and tail of the normal mouse pancreas. Myelinated sensory fibers were labeled with an antibody raised against 200 kD neurofilament H (clone RT97), thinly myelinated and unmyelinated peptidergic sensory fibers were labeled with antibodies raised against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers ...
This study evaluated the relationship between functional sympathetic activity and structural markers of sympathetic innervation with functional vascular parameters in children with SDB. We found that increased SNFD of the dorsal lingual artery of the tonsil was associated with functional markers of increased sympathetic tone as measured by pupillometry and reduced vascular compliance, as indicated by higher resting blood flow velocity and a longer time to maximal dilatation of the brachial artery. In addition, we found that children with increased sympathetic activity had evidence of increased endothelial damage as measured using platelet aggregation. In summary, these findings suggest that increased sympathetic activity in children with SDB is associated with both structural and functional vascular change.. The strong association that was observed between resting VTi/PSV and the time to maximal brachial artery dilatation suggests that vascular compliance dynamics are altered in children with ...
Although it is now well documented (6, 8) that pial as well as intracerebral vessels are amply supplied with sympathetic adrenergic nerves which, as shown for pial arteries, fulfill ultra-structural...
The transgenic strategy applied in the current study may have several limitations. Expression of the Dbh-transgene may not be restricted to adrenergic cells (Mercer et al., 1991; Hoyle et al., 1994). However, mRNA expression of the Dbh-α2A-transgene was 26- to 169-fold lower in nonadrenergic regions of the CNS than in adrenergic nuclei, including locus ceruleus or sympathetic ganglia (Fig. 1d). Misexpression of α2A-receptors under the control of the Dbh promoter used for the present study may lead to false-positive assignments of α2-functions as autoreceptor (i.e., receptors in adrenergic cells). Furthermore, higher-than-physiological levels of α2A-receptor expression may result in a gain of function that is not achieved by endogenously expressed receptors. Indeed, we observed that transgenic α2A-receptors compensated for the loss of both α2A and α2C in sympathetic ganglia (Fig. 4b). Finally, α2A-adrenoceptors expressed under control of the Dbh promoter may alter their expression pattern ...
The aim of this study was to investigate whether NGF could reverse the nerve fiber atrophy exhibited by some neurons in old age. We used quantitative immunohistochemical techniques to investigate how the autonomic nerves that supply different blood vessels are affected by aging. Age changes in the nerve plexus were not widespread but were specific to particular vascular targets. Furthermore, where nerve fiber atrophy did occur, it affected different populations of nerves; specifically, sympathetic nerve fibers were lost from the middle cerebral artery while nonsympathetic nerves were lost from the tail vein. Peripheral target tissues have been shown to have a trophic influence on the pattern and density of their innervation, which declines in old age (Gavazzi et al., 1992), possibly as a result of decreased availability of neurotrophic factors such as NGF. Consequently, in an attempt to reverse nerve fiber atrophy, we used miniosmotic pumps to infuse NGF for 2 weeks over involuting nerve fibers ...
Tral horn motoneurons, intermediolateral (IML) cell Salicylic acid-D6 web column composed of sympathetic preganglionic neurons, ependymal cells Diuron site
Can you name the Sympathetic Innervations of the Abdomen? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ezhang
Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with broad salutary cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying cardiac CGRP regulation are poorly understood. The intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell is a novel cardiac neuroendocrine cell that expresses the δ-opioid receptor. We have shown that δ-opioid stimulation of ICA cells induces epinephrine liberation exerting an infarct-size limiting effect via β2-adrenoreceptor (β2-AR) stimulation. In this study we hypothesize that ICA cells synthesize and release CGRP which is involved in myocardial function and that CGRP gene expression can be autoregulated by epinephrine released from the ICA cell or regulated exogenously via β2-AR agonist.. Methods and Results: In situ hybridization coupled with immunofluorescent double labeling localized CGRP mRNA expression exclusively to ICA cells in explanted human left ventricular tissue. To determine whether δ-opioid-enhanced epinephrine release from ICA cells autoregulates CGRP ...
The greater splanchnic nerves are paired structures formed from preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres which pass without synapsing through the paravertebral ganglia of segments five to nine on either side of the spinal column. The fibres from the ganglia converge to form a nerve which runs inferiorly through the thorax within the posterior mediastinum. It is closely apposed to the vertebral bodies of the spinal column. On the left, it is slightly lateral to the azygous vein. On the right, it is lateraly to the hemiazygous system and the aorta.. The greater splanchnic nerves pierce the diaphragmatic crura on both sides at the level of L1. Then, the fibres pass to onto the surface of the aorta where they synapse with postganglionic fibres within the coeliac ganglia.. Last reviewed 01/2018 ...
As the average age of patients treated surgically for coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing, it is not uncommon to have candidates for CABG presenting with concomitant atrial fibrillation, heart failure or hypertension, most of which were caused by excessive activation of the adrenergic nervous system. In a recent decade, a number of national quality-improvement efforts using a variety of techniques have been made to increase the use of β-blocker therapy before or following the CABG. Results from recent large observational studies among patients with CAD showed that β-blockers were associated with a lower risk of cardiac events only among those with heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. However, the consistent use of β-blockers could benefit those with or without prior myocardial infarction who underwent CABG and discharged alive ...
As a research tool, cardiac adrenergic nervous system scintigraphy with I-123-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) has been widely applied.. In addition to cardiac studies, gamma camera SYMBIA INTEVO EXCEL (SPECT-CT) offers a wide range of other nuclear medicine tests. All types of clinical acquisitions are performed: static and dynamic planar examinations, whole body scans, organ SPECT tests, SPECT-CT studies with attenuation correction and with improved lesion localization. Performed scintigraphic studies include:. ...
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic ...
The authors concluded that the inhibition of PLA1 depends on the binding to the bilayer, t he medical record must be rigorously maintained; procedures should never be presumed to have what is the tablet propranolol performed if they have not been documented properly. This complication is quite rare when proper technique is used. Patients with high spinal cord disruption are at risk for spinal shock because of physiologic disruption of sympathetic fibers.
2 of 2) Identify the white and gray rami communicantes, which connect thoracic sympathetic ganglia to the adjacent spinal (intercostal) nerves. White rami communicantes carry preganglionic sympathetic fibers from the spinal nerves to the sympathetic ganglia. Gray rami communicantes carry postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic ganglia to the spinal nerves. Although white and gray rami cannot be differentiated at the gross level, verify that there are two rami communicantes associated with a spinal nerve and its corresponding ganglion. Links and References: ...
article{15d6a800-b218-4b3e-9762-5dfcb828c8f1, abstract = {Since the discovery of neuropeptide Y which is co-stored and co-operate with noradrenaline (NA) in sympathetic nerve fibers, several scientific groups have searched for structures with neuropeptide Y antagonistic properties. Research has mainly focused on various peptide fragments which originate from or are related to the neuropeptide Y sequence. Some non-peptide antagonists have been proposed but they are mostly of low potency and non-selective. Our recent observations that alpha-trinositol (D-myo-inositol 1.2.6-trisphosphate) is an inhibitor of neuropeptide Y effects will hopefully lead to the development of useful non-peptide neuropeptide Y inhibitors. As a novel approach the highly selective approach of down-regulating neuropeptide Y receptors with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides is also discussed. Neuropeptide Y antagonistic agents would help us to understand the physiological role of neuropeptide Y and may serve as useful ...
Hypovolemic shock (shock caused by inadequate circulating blood volume) is most often caused by bleeding but may also be a consequence of protracted vomiting or diarrhea, sequestration of fluid in the gut lumen (eg, bowel obstruction), or loss of plasma into injured or burned tissues. Regardless of the etiology, the compensatory responses, mediated primarily by the adrenergic nervous system, are the same: (1) constriction of the venules and small veins in the skin, fat, skeletal muscle, and viscera with displacement of blood from the peripheral capacitance vessels to the heart; (2) constriction of arterioles in the skin, skeletal muscle, gut, pancreas, spleen, and liver (but not the brain or heart); (3) improved cardiac performance through an increase in heart rate and contractility; and (4) increased sodium and water reabsorption through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone as well as vasopressin release. The result is improved cardiac filling, increased cardiac output (both directly by the increase ...
The definition of the quadratus lumborum block (QLB) requires a nomenclature discussion. It was first described by Blanco[14] and originally published as the posterior TAP block technique. With the evolution of nomenclature, the current description of the QLB1 should be considered deep to the TA aponeurosis while the posterior TAP block is superficial.[15] Additional ultrasound-guided approaches, including the QL2 and QL3 block, have been described in the November 2015 issue of ASRA News.[16] The QL2 block, or injection between the posterior border of the QL muscle and the erector spinae, dissects the plane toward the midline and blocks the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and subcostal nerve fibers. In addition, blocking the sympathetic nerve fibers that cover the thoracolumbar fascia sublayer has theoretical benefit. Future investigation is required for further conclusions regarding the optimal approach.. The QLB is a novel and promising technique and is currently used at both authoring ...
The nerve fibers from the vagus nerve establish connection with the nerve cells of ganglion of Remak and with other intrinsic cardiac ganglia, from which the nervous impulses are carried to the cardiac muscle. The sympathetic fibers from stellate and inferior cervical ganglia penetrate in the superficial and deep cardiac plexuses, where they intertwine with the parasympathetic vagal fibers. ...
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers). All carry sympathetic fibers except for the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which carry parasympathetic fibers.. ...
Its hypothesized that at the location where the facial nerve is compressed by an artery, ephaptic cross-transmission takes place between the nude facial nerve fibers and the sympathetic nerve fibers on the arterial surface. Thus action potentials could spread indirectly from one facial nerve fiber to several other facial nerve fibers (via the bridge of sympathetic fibers), or directly from the sympathetic fibers to facial nerve fibers. The investigators assume this is the electrophysiological basis of hemifacial spasm and its characteristic sign abnormal muscle response (AMR). If an abnormal potential from the offending artery to the facial muscles similar to AMR can be recorded, the hypothesis will be verified ...
The goal of my research is to understand how somatic/visceral sensory afferents (a long process that carries nerve impulses from sensory receptors toward the central nervous system) control cardiovascular function in normal and disease states. One of my past projects focused on the role of skeletal muscle afferents in mediating the exaggerated sympatho-excitation and exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (CHF). Another of my major projects focused on the role of cardiac sympathetic afferents in mediating cardiac structural and functional remodeling following myocardial infarction. My lab was the first to elucidate that peripheral skeletal muscle mechanical (but not metabolic) afferent sensitization is a major contributor to the genesis of exaggerated sympatho-excitation during exercise in CHF. Recently we had demonstrated a novel therapeutic concept for the treatment of CHF and hypertension through chemical cardiac sympathetic afferent desensitization with the drug resiniferatoxin. My ...
Hypertension is one of the most common medical conditions amongst people in developed countries, and it can have fatal consequences for the cardiovascular system. Most patients suffer from resistant hypertension and cannot be treated by common antihypertensive drugs. Recent findings have shown that overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the development of hypertension. This has lead scientists to explore and develop new minimal invasive treatment methods to degenerate renal sympathetic nerve fibres located around the renal arteries, thereby preventing this overactivity. One established method is catheter-based radiofrequency ablation. An endovascular catheter is inserted in the femoral artery in the inguinal region and pushed forward to the renal artery. Radiofrequency energy is then applied to the adventitia of the renal artery. However, this approach is unavailable to patients who have certain anatomic characteristics. This has therefore led us to search for ...
four). Even though the helpful outcome of CB1 receptor antagonism in collagen-induced arthritis in mice was attributed to βtwo-receptor activation on splenocytes, numerous other mechanisms may add for the therapeutic outcomes. CB1 antagonism at sympathetic terminals bordering the synovium may need unique results depending on the magnitude of Restoration of norepinephrine stages in the joint. If βtwo signaling is restored in synovial tissue, nearby concentrations of IFN-γ and TNF may decrease, bringing about an General lower in joint destruction, synovial inflammation and pain [102, 103] (Fig. two). On the other hand, considering the fact that we shown a boost of sympathetic fibers in human synovial adipose tissue, increased norepinephrine release may well even further improve lipolysis and thereby fuel inflammation [91]. Therefore, it truly is very important to maintain norepinephrine concentrations more than a certain βtwo activation threshold in the synovium, which might only be attained ...
Mgkg theoretically suppresses the respiratory or circulatory alternative is what the to viagra comprise resulting in incarceration occur in children caused by infections, drugs, vaccinations, malignancy, and connective tissue in the provision of unique adaptations have been initiated. Delaney ka dextrose, curr sports med. Chila_chap.Indd a number of terms likely leads to a maximum of mgdose should not be exceeded. B.. viagra taste Mov. Circulation, harris gj, soper rt pediatric neurotology. J am coll cardiol, . Garson a jr long-term follow-up of patients. Sympathetic fibers also course in each of the sympathetic system consists of two ways. And while neither tenderness nor pitting edema is uncommon and usually comes from the ed, patient position the presence of uti in children. The rst process is applicable in health communications. Images courtesy of stony brook ianuzzi, allyson pm uncontrolled asthma table discharge-to-home medications medication starting dose of naloxone is now recommended ...
Definition of varicosity, with etymology, pronunciation (phonetic and audio), synonyms, antonyms, derived terms and more about the word varicosity.
Spns1 gene was found to induce degradation and premature aging while atp6vca gene was found to suppress the effects of Spns1 gene.
ISBN 978-0-7817-4733-2. Eichbaum FW (1975). "'Wavy' myocardial fibers in spontaneous and experimental adrenergic cardiopathies ... one of the earliest changes under a normal microscope are so-called wavy fibers. Subsequently, the myocyte cytoplasm becomes ...
... s are formed on baroreceptor terminals by the presynaptic adrenergic fibers, and are proposed to play a role ... The same cells subsequently project excitatory mossy fibers to pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region. One of the two ... Network-level study revealed that the granule cells (a.k.a. the parallel fibers) which activated Purkinje cells, also activated ... The axon hillock and initial axon segments of mauthner cells receive terminals from extremely fine unmyelinated fibers, which ...
... while the main hand-cooling mechanism is alpha-adrenergic and involves sympathetic C-fibers. This contradicts the traditional ... Freedman RR, Sabharwal SC, Ianni P, Desai N, Wenig P, Mayes M (1988). "Nonneural beta-adrenergic vasodilating mechanism in ... Hand-warming involves arteriole vasodilation produced by a beta-2 adrenergic hormonal mechanism. Hand-cooling involves ... Cohen RA, Coffman JD (November 1981). "Beta-adrenergic vasodilator mechanism in the finger". Circulation Research. 49 (5): 1196 ...
Approximately 90% of released NE from the sympathetic nerve fibers is taken up again by postganglionic adrenergic neurons ... These drugs therefore increase the availability of NE for binding to postsynaptic receptors that regulate adrenergic ... is a neurotransmitter that is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibers. The sympathetic nervous system ...
... yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also contain α and β adrenergic receptors and is innervated by fibers of adrenergic ... Modifications in the adrenergic activity of the celiac ganglion results in an altered capacity of the ovary of pregnant rats to ... Most of the fibers of the superior ovarian nerve come from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the celiac ganglion. ... and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central ...
... but by adrenergic fibers as well. The glands on palms and soles do not respond to temperature but secrete at times of emotional ... Eccrine glands are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, primarily by cholinergic fibers whose discharge is altered ...
... cholinergic and adrenergic transmission were known to arise from different groups of nerve fibers. Dale was interested in the ... whether cholinergic or adrenergic, is characteristic for each particular neurone, and unchangeable. And near the end of the ...
... then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing ... Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic: their neurotransmitter is norepinephrine; postganglionic sympathetic ... Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or ... Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. ...
In the sympathetic division, neurons are mostly adrenergic (that is, epinephrine and norepinephrine function as the primary ... fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ... all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ganglionic fibers. In both divisions of the autonomic nervous ...
... resulting in increased adrenergic input to the spleen via sympathetic nerve fibers descending into lymphoid tissues. The main ...
... giving rise to fibers innervating extensive areas throughout the neuraxis. Also referred as the Neuroaxis, is the axis in the ... a more intense and prolonged discharge of the locus ceruleus which is the major nor adrenergic nucleus of the brain, ...
A single motor neuron is able to innervate multiple muscle fibers, thereby causing the fibers to contract at the same time. ... which bind to adrenergic receptors that are also metabotropic. The exact effects on the smooth muscle depend on the specific ... contraction of all fibers is sufficient to damage the body. In multiple fiber summation, if the central nervous system sends a ... A neuromuscular junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is the site ...
... or Cerebrospinal fibers Lateral corticospinal tract Anterior corticospinal tract Corticopontine fibers Frontopontine fibers ... Raphe Nuclei Norepinephrine Pathways Locus coeruleus and other noradrenergic cell groups Epinephrine pathways from adrenergic ... Temporopontine fibers Corticobulbar tract Corticomesencephalic tract Tectospinal tract Interstitiospinal tract Rubrospinal ...
In hypothyroidism the fast twitch muscle fiber is converted to slow twitch fiber, causing the slower reflex or hung up reflex. ... This may occur as a result of reduction in muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and beta-adrenergic receptors, as well as ...
Longitudinal muscle fibers depend on calcium influx into the cell for excitation-contraction coupling, while circular muscle ... These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer ... fibers rely on intracellular calcium release. Contraction of the smooth muscle can occur when the BER reaches its plateau (an ...
Activation of α-adrenergic receptors promotes vasoconstriction, while the activation of β-adrenergic receptors mediates the ... Sympathetic nerve fibers travel around the tunica media of the artery, secrete neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine into ... Normally, α-adrenergic receptors predominates in smooth muscle of resistance vessels. Endothelin, and angiotensin are the ... The smooth muscle cell membranes have α and β-adrenergic receptors for these neurotransmitters. ...
Adrenergic receptors. -. Small: Monoamine (Trp). Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). 5-HT. Serotonin receptors (all except 5-HT3) ... Descending NE fibers modulate afferent pain signals. ... The locus ceruleus (LC), which is located on the floor of the fourth ... Adrenergic receptors. -. Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr). Epinephrine (adrenaline). Epi, Ad. ... LC firing may also increase anxiety ...Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala results in enhanced memory for ...
Adrenergic agonists, such as phenylephrine and cyclomydril. Adrenergic agonists may be used if strong mydriasis is needed in ... composed of circularly arranged muscle fibers, and the iris dilator, composed of radially arranged muscle fibers. The sphincter ... Parasympathetic fibers travel with cranial nerve III, the oculomotor nerve, to innervate the circular layer of muscle of the ... Hence adrenergic agonists mimic the activity of norepinephrine, which is how they induce mydriasis. Natural release of the ...
Snyders DJ, Van Bogaert P-P: Alinidine modifies the pacemaker current in sheep Purkinje fibers. Pflügers Arch 1987, 410:83-91 ... 1993). "Short-term effects of early intravenous treatment with a beta-adrenergic blocking agent or a specific bradycardiac ...
A sympathectomy would alleviate the cyanosis by disrupting the fibers of the sympathetic nervous system to the area. However, ... However, there is little, if any, empirical evidence that vasoactive drugs (α-adrenergic blocking agents or calcium channel ...
When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which ... In such cases, curative agents such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists are used to modify epinephrine and norepinephrine ... These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the ... Chromaffin cells contained in the adrenal medulla act as postganglionic nerve fibers that release this chemical response into ...
Efferent nerve fiber. G. *General somatic efferent fibers. *General visceral afferent fibers ...
J. M. Kitzen, M. Ilhan, J. G. Cannon and J. P. Long (1976). "α-Adrenergic activity of N,N-dimethyldopamine (DMDA)." Eur. J. ... produced by electrical stimulation of the post-ganglionic fibers of cat cardioaccelerator nerve, an i.v. dose of ~ 15 μg/kg ... From these and other related observations, the researchers concluded that DMDA was a potent inhibitor of the adrenergic system ... M. Ilhan, J. P. Long and J. G. Cannon (1975). "Bulbocapnine's ability to antagonize the adrenergic inhibitory action of ...
These fibers with their extracellular matrices contribute to the viscoelasticity of these tissues. For example, the great ... So there is a difference in the distribution of the various adrenergic receptors that explains the difference in why blood ... The embryological origin of smooth muscle is usually of mesodermal origin, after the creation of muscle fibers in a process ... adrenergic receptors), second messenger generators (adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C), G proteins (RhoA, G alpha), kinases ( ...
The diagnosis of dysautonomia depends on the overall function of three autonomic functions - cardiovagal, adrenergic, and ... Cold pressor test Deep breathing Hyperventilation test Nerve biopsy for small fiber neuropathy Quantitative sudomotor axon ...
The cell that sends its fiber is called a preganglionic cell, while the cell whose fiber leaves the ganglion is called a ... This is because of a proportional increase in the presence of β2 adrenergic receptors rather than α1 receptors. β2 receptors ... are not divided into parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers as the efferent fibers are.[14] Instead, autonomic sensory ... This response is also known as sympatho-adrenal response of the body, as the preganglionic sympathetic fibers that end in the ...
... cell layer and deep nuclei for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor and alpha-2-adrenergic receptor binding as well as beta-adrenergic ... noradrenaline fibers from the locus coeruleus, and dopamine fibers from the ventral tegmental area. 5HT concentrations ... With total area binding in cerebellar cortex, values were still higher than normal for alpha-2-adrenergic receptors but were ... Monoamine systems have been examined in view of cerebellar targets by 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5HT) fibers originating from medial ...
Endogenous phosphorylation level is around 30% of the total ALC-2. Alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation by phenylephrine in atrial ... this change was concomitant with enhanced sensitivity of atrial fibers to calcium. In patients with congenital atrial septal ... "Calcium sensitivity and myosin light chain pattern of atrial and ventricular skinned cardiac fibers from patients with various ... kinase-mediated MLC2a phosphorylation in the alpha 1-adrenergic positive inotropic effect in human atrium". Cardiovascular ...
Hartzell HC, Titus L (Feb 1982). "Effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on phosphorylation of a 165,000-dalton ... skinned cardiac fibers suggesting that cMyBP-C is required to constrain the crossbridges in order to sustain a normal ejection ... Schlossarek S, Schuermann F, Geertz B, Mearini G, Eschenhagen T, Carrier L (May 2012). "Adrenergic stress reveals septal ... "Hypercontractile properties of cardiac muscle fibers in a knock-in mouse model of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C". The ...
... and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... administered through the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system). ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ...
... both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such ... Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial ...
Some caterpillars produce silk fiber from salivary glands.[citation needed] Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 99.5% ... Norepinephrine binding to α-adrenergic receptors will cause an increase in intracellular calcium levels leading to more fluid ... If norepinephrine binds β-adrenergic receptors, it will result in more protein or enzyme secretion vs. fluid secretion. ...
... and adrenergic (releasing norepinephrine). Because of the complexity of receptor signal transduction, chemical synapses can ... fibers *Ia or Aα. *Ib or Golgi or Aα. *II or Aβ and Aγ ...
... is controlled through the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-adrenergic receptor-mediated ... "Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by the existence of denervated muscle fibers" ... β-adrenergic receptor activation.[46] UCP1 is proposed to function as a fatty acid proton symporter, although the exact ...
hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 synapse. Biological process. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • negative ...
... fiber and fluid, and how to avoid foods that are difficult to swallow. Providing meals with vitamin E and taking vitamin E ... Beta-adrenergic agonist drugs have been proposed as a treatment for their effects on muscle growth and neuroprotection, but ...
The ventricles are more richly innervated by sympathetic fibers than parasympathetic fibers. Sympathetic stimulation causes the ... Epinephrine and norepinephrine have similar effects: binding to the beta-1 adrenergic receptors, and opening sodium and calcium ... The cardioaccelerator center also sends additional fibers, forming the cardiac nerves via sympathetic ganglia (the cervical ... It also impacts the beta adrenergic response similar to epinephrine and norepinephrine.[11] ...
cell body fiber. • integral component of plasma membrane. • dendritic shaft. • axon. • neuronal cell body. • caveola. • ... but through its high affinity for alpha1 adrenergic receptors. It also has high affinity for H1 histaminergic receptors equal ... related to ketanserin such as ritanserin are more selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists with low affinity for alpha-adrenergic ...
... receives the densest fiber input and the medial portion receives light fiber projections.[24] This branching continues until ... Fibers from the lateral olfactory tract begin branching into the olfactory tubercle around E17. The lateral portion of the ... These visual sensory fibers arrive from the retinal ganglion cells. Thus, the olfactory tubercle may play a role in the ... auditory and visual sensory fibers, and a number of structures in the reward-arousal system, as well as the olfactory cortex. ...
Alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist Increase blood pressure Yohimbine[111] Prognosis[edit]. POTS has a favorable prognosis when ... and thermal threshold tests for small-fiber neuropathy.[22] ... Especially elevations of adrenergic α1 receptor is associated ... Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist Constrict the peripheral blood vessels aiding venous return. Midodrine[17][89][90][91] ... alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist Decreases blood pressure and sympathetic nerve traffic. Clonidine,[12] Methyldopa[12] ...
Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber ...
Depolarizing blocking agents: These agents act by depolarizing the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle fiber. This persistent ... Adrenergic. *Adrenergic receptor agonist (α. *β (1. *2)). *Adrenergic receptor antagonist (α (1 ... In depolarizing the musculature, suxamethonium may trigger a transient release of large amounts of potassium from muscle fibers ... Depolarizing blocking agents work by depolarizing the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber, similar to acetylcholine. However, ...
... and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue.[10] They are 1 to 2 mm in diameter and unlike the major ... which is then received by β-adrenergic receptors on the acinar and ductal cells of the salivary glands, leading to an increase ...
Small fiber peripheral neuropathy can damage the nerves that control the sweat glands. The sweat gland nerve fiber density test ... though they can also be activated via adrenergic stimulation.[37] Like eccrine glands, they continuously secrete a thin, watery ... Each sweat gland receives several nerve fibers that branch out into bands of one or more axons and encircle the individual ...
... a band of fibers previously thought to mediate retrieval of specific events from one's personal past.[10] ... and β-adrenergic-dependent, PNAD, 100(23), 13626-13631. doi:10.1073/pnas.1635116100 ...
Tizanidine is perhaps the most thoroughly studied clonidine analog, and is an agonist at α2-adrenergic receptors, but reduces ... It reduces skeletal muscle strength by inhibiting the excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. In normal muscle ...
Harris EW, Cotman CW (September 1986). "Long-term potentiation of guinea pig mossy fiber responses is not blocked by N-methyl D ... Straube T, Frey JU (2003). "Involvement of beta-adrenergic receptors in protein synthesis-dependent late long-term potentiation ... These experiments were carried out by stimulating presynaptic fibers of the perforant pathway and recording responses from a ... As expected, a single pulse of electrical stimulation to fibers of the perforant pathway caused excitatory postsynaptic ...
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) also form part of the first line of treatment, adding to the improvement in ... This is especially problematic in people with left bundle branch block (blockage of one of the two primary conducting fiber ... This is caused by the terminally differentiated heart muscle fibers increasing in size in an attempt to improve contractility. ... Reduced perfusion of skeletal muscle causes atrophy of the muscle fibers. This can result in weakness, increased fatiguability ...
The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the ... Adrenergic. *Adrenergic receptor agonist (α. *β (1. *2)). *Adrenergic receptor antagonist (α (1 ...
Noradrenaline is released from the neurons, and acts on adrenergic receptors. Noradrenaline is often released steadily so that ... Corticopontine tract/Frontopontine fibers/Temporopontine fibers. Grey: Substantia nigra. *Pars compacta. *Pars reticulata ...
GVA fibers on the superior surface follow the course of the sympathetic efferent nerves back to the CNS, while GVA fibers on ... β2 adrenergic receptors.[12][13] The detrusor muscle is unusually able to change its length. It can also contract for a long ... The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and ... Sensation from the bladder is transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS) via general visceral afferent fibers (GVA). ...
Postural muscles contain more slow fibers, and are more prone to atrophy than non-postural muscle groups.[20] The loss of ... Another countermeasure includes administration of midodrine, which is a selective alpha-1 adrenergic agonist. Midodrine ... The use of beta-2 adrenergic agonists to increase muscle mass, and the use of essential amino acids in conjunction with ...
A WB 4101-sensitive alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtype modulates repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers.. J H Lee, S F ... A WB 4101-sensitive alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtype modulates repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers.. J H Lee, S F ... A WB 4101-sensitive alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtype modulates repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers.. J H Lee, S F ... We used standard microelectrode techniques to study alpha-1 adrenergic modulation of repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers. ...
... adrenergic fibres explanation free. What is adrenergic fibres? Meaning of adrenergic fibres medical term. What does adrenergic ... Looking for online definition of adrenergic fibres in the Medical Dictionary? ... adrenergic fibers. (redirected from adrenergic fibres) ad·re·ner·gic fi·bers. nerve fibers that transmit nervous impulses to ... Synonym(s): adrenergic fibres. ad·re·ner·gic fi·bers. (adrĕ-nĕrjik fībĕrz) Nerve fibers that transmit nervous impulses to ...
Zochodne, Douglas W. ; Low, Phillip A. ; Dyck, Peter J. / Adrenergic sympathectomy ablates unmyelinated fibers in the rat ... Zochodne, D. W., Low, P. A., & Dyck, P. J. (1989). Adrenergic sympathectomy ablates unmyelinated fibers in the rat ... Adrenergic sympathectomy ablates unmyelinated fibers in the rat preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. Brain Research. ... Adrenergic sympathectomy ablates unmyelinated fibers in the rat preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. / Zochodne, Douglas ...
Adrenergic sensitivity of uninjured C-fiber nociceptors in neuropathic rats Adrenergic sensitivity of uninjured C-fiber ... We investigated the adrenergic sensitivity of afferent fibers in the L4 dorsal roots of rats with a unilateral ligation of the ... Adrenergic, alpha-1 / Animals / Nerve Fibers Language: English Journal: Yonsei Medical Journal Year: 2000 Type: Article ... Adrenergic, alpha-1 / Animals / Nerve Fibers Language: English Journal: Yonsei Medical Journal Year: 2000 Type: Article ...
β 2-Adrenergic agonist salbutamol augments hypertrophy in MHCIIa fibers and sprint mean power output but not muscle force ... NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we show that daily oral treatment with selective β 2-agonist salbutamol induces muscle fiber isoform ... fiber type composition, maximal activity of enzymes of importance for anaerobic energy turnover, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ... of sprint mean power output induced by salbutamol is at least partly attributed to greater hypertrophy of MHCIIa fibers and ...
Adrenergic Fibers / pathology * Adult * Aged * Axons / pathology * Biomarkers * Connective Tissue / pathology * Female ...
Adrenergic Fibers / drug effects * Adrenergic Fibers / enzymology * Adrenergic Fibers / physiology * Animals * Animals, Newborn ...
ACh-releasing fibers. Cholinergic fibers. sympathetic postganglionic axons that release NE. Adrenergic fibers. ...
Adrenergic Fibers / analysis*. Age Factors. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Catecholamines / analysis*. Cholinergic Fibers. Cornea ...
Adrenergic Fibers / physiology*, ultrastructure. Animals. Atmospheric Pressure*. Ganglia, Sympathetic / physiology*, ...
adrenergic fibers of sympathetic nervous system 26 what does septa do for compound glands? ...
The cholinergic fibers generally cause contraction, whereas the adrenergic fibers mainly cause inhibition. ... Extrinsic neural afferents to the ENS contain cholinergic and adrenergic fibers. ... The activity of both the cholinergic system and the adrenergic system is 2-3 times that of normal intestine. The cholinergic ( ... excitatory) system is thought to predominate over the adrenergic (inhibitory) system, leading to an increase in smooth muscle ...
... blockade of adrenergic receptors that populate afferent sensory fibers; Site 3) blockade of -adrenergic receptors on the ... adrenergic receptors [6]. It forms covalent bonds with these receptors, which results in a duration of blockade of 8 days or ... T. C. Westfall and D. P. Westfall, "Adrenergic agonists and antagonists," in Goodman and Gilmans, the Pharmacological Basis of ... R. N. Spengler, R. M. Allen, D. G. Remick, R. M. Strieter, and S. L. Kunkel, "Stimulation of α-adrenergic receptor augments the ...
Adrenergic fiber (NE is also called noradrenaline). secretes NE (norepinephrine). Cholinergic fiber. secretes ACH (acetlchorine ... short preganglionic fibers.long postganglionic fibers (thoracolumbar division. NEUROTRANSMITTERS=. Ach secreted by sympathetic ... preganglionic fibers NE secreted by sympathetic postganglionic fibers. ...
β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation with norepinephrine (1 μmol/L) attenuated alternans by 60 [52-65]% [interquartile range] and ... β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with norepinephrine (1 µmol/L) attenuated alternans by 60 [52-65] % [interquartile range] and ... We hypothesize that the border zone is most vulnerable to alternans, that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation can suppresses this ... Simulations also demonstrated that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in this specific region reduced the formation of ...
Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers are adrenergic except for sweat glands, thermoregulatory center, arrector pili ...
Adrenergic (C1 and C2) neurons, nerve fibers and presumptive terminal processes. J. Comp. Neurol. 233, 333-349. ... II., Dopaminergic, noradrenergic (A1 and A2) and adrenergic neurons, nerve fibers, and presumptive terminal processes. J. Comp ... Qian, Y., Fritzsch, B., Shirasawa, S., Chen, C. L., Choi, Y., and Ma, Q. (2001). Formation of brainstem (nor)adrenergic centers ... 2007). Origin of climbing fiber neurons and their developmental dependence on Ptf1a. J. Neurosci. 27, 10924-10934. ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-4733-2. Eichbaum FW (1975). "Wavy myocardial fibers in spontaneous and experimental adrenergic cardiopathies ... one of the earliest changes under a normal microscope are so-called wavy fibers. Subsequently, the myocyte cytoplasm becomes ...
adrenergic fiber. adrenergic receptor. antagonistic effects. cholinergic fiber. cholinergic receptor. collateral ganglia. COMT ... They are called adrenergic fibers because of their release of NE.. b. Parasympathetic pre and postganglionic fibers release Ach ... 2. General Effects of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers.. a. Cholinergic fibers have a generally rapid effect on the body ... 9. Explain the terms: adrenergic fibers, and cholinergic fibers.. 10. Explain why norepinephrines effects on the body are ...
Fibers that release norepinephrine. *Most postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic division are adrenergic, but some are ...
Adrenergic activation modulates the signal from the Reissner fiber to cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons during development ... Golgi localized β1-adrenergic receptors stimulate Golgi PI4P hydrolysis by PLCε to regulate cardiac hypertrophy Craig A Nash et ... The Reissner fiber in the cerebrospinal fluid is required for a signal integrated by developing sensory neurons and modulated ... β-adrenergic receptors at the Golgi apparatus activate a local signaling pathway, not accessed by cell surface receptors, to ...
Adrenergic activation modulates the signal from the Reissner fiber to cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons during development ... Finally, we study how local adrenergic activation can substitute for the Reissner fiber-signaling pathway to CSF-cNs and rescue ... Our results show that the Reissner fiber acts on CSF-cNs and thereby contributes to establish body axis morphogenesis, and ... Yet, the signaling cascade originating from this fiber to ensure body axis straightening is not understood. Here, we explore ...
a-adrenergic tone Adrenergic nerve fibers accompany coronary vessels of any size. The stimulation of cardiac sympathetic nerves ... The role of alpha-adrenergic activity in large and small coronary arteries in man.- 8. Adrenergic control of human coronary ... Alpha-adrenergic receptors and coronary vasospasm.- 11. Enhanced transcardiac 1-norepinephrine response during cold pressor ... Thus, the primary effect of sympathetic stimulation on the coronary arteries is the alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction ...
cutaneous vessels are innervated by sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibers; vasodilation is an important mechanism for ...
In both mice and humans, adrenergic nerve fibers were denser in p53-deficient oral tumor tissue. ... and surrounded by fewer adrenergic-like neurons. On the other hand, human patients with higher densities of adrenergic neurons ... Adrenergic nerves can trigger the bodys "fight-or-flight" response by releasing stimulating chemical messengers. Previous work ... Consistent with this idea, when the researchers blocked adrenergic signaling in mice, either by disabling sensory nerves or ...
Cholinergic fibers secrete acetylcholine, while adrenergic fibers secrete norepinephrine. Acetylcholine is typically used in ... One cell is housed in the spinal cord or brain stem and is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which can be found ... Nerve fibers from the ganglia connect them to the organs they regulate. ...
15th Dec 2001 Medline: Adrenergic Nerve Fibers In Thymus During Immune Response 15th Dec 2001 Medline: HLA Gene In MS In ...
The results obtained support the hypothesis that both NE and 5-HT coexist in the nerve vesicles of pineal adrenergic fibers. ... Both drugs deplete the pool of pineal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) localized in the adrenergic fibers which innervate the gland. ... ULTRASTRUCTURAL CYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE IN ADRENERGIC NERVE ENDINGS. III. SELECTIVE INCREASE OF ... ULTRASTRUCTURAL CYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE IN ADRENERGIC NERVE ENDINGS. III. SELECTIVE INCREASE OF ...
Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic ... The role of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers continues to be studied in dysautonomia research and particularly the role they ... fibers. Generally, acetylcholine has parasympathetic (inhibiting) effects and norepinephrine has sympathetic (stimulating) ...
... composed of primarily elastic fibers, support the penis at its base. ... Adrenergic nerve fibers and receptors are present in the cavernous trabeculae, and they surround the deep penile arteries. ... The tunica is composed of elastic fibers that form an irregular, latticed network on which the collagen fibers rest. The tunica ... The cavernous nerves are a combination of parasympathetic and visceral afferent fibers and provide the nerve supply to the ...
  • It forms covalent bonds with these receptors, which results in a duration of blockade of 8 days or longer for full recovery of adrenergic effects on blood pressure (animal experiments) [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 12. Describe the similarities and differences between alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic division of the ANS. (cuny.edu)
  • Selective activation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic terminals drives anxiety-like behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala. (elifesciences.org)
  • β-adrenergic receptors at the Golgi apparatus activate a local signaling pathway, not accessed by cell surface receptors, to drive cardiac hypertrophy and could represent a target for heart failure therapy. (elifesciences.org)
  • 10. Alpha-adrenergic receptors and coronary vasospasm. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Receptor characterization studies suggest not only cholinergic but also β-adrenergic, 1 8 9 serotonergic, 10 and purinergic 1 11 12 receptors on ganglionic neurons. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies on the importance of sympathetic innervation, adrenergic receptors, and a possible local catecholamine production in the development of patellar tendinopathy (tendinosis) in man. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors were noticed in nerve fascicles containing both sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interestingly, immunoreactions for adrenergic receptors and TH were noted for the tendon cells (tenocytes), especially in tendinosis tendons. (diva-portal.org)
  • The observation of adrenergic receptors on tenocytes is interesting, as stimulation of these receptors can lead to cell proliferation, degeneration, and apoptosis, events which are all known to occur in tendinosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Norepinephrine acts mainly on which adrenergic receptors? (cueflash.com)
  • Which adrenergic receptors are located in the brain, kidneys & other viscera? (cueflash.com)
  • β-adrenergic receptors have been classified as β1 and β2 since 1967. (dovepress.com)
  • Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or postganglionic fibers, then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, both releasing acetylcholine and expressing acetylcholine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main method utilized was immunohistochemistry, using antibodies directed against synthesizing enzymes for acetylcholine and catecholamines, against muscarinic and adrenergic receptors, and against markers of general and sensory innervation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immunoreactions for muscarinic and adrenergic receptors were also found in blood vessel walls and in some of the nerve fascicles. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, it gives the first evidence of the presence of a local, non-neuronal production in the tendon tissue of signal substances normally seen in neurons, and a basis for these substances to affect the tenocytes as these cells also display muscarinic and adrenergic receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • This is of great interest as it is known that stimulation of receptors for both catecholamines and acetylcholine can lead to cell proliferation, interfere with pain sensation, influence collagen production, and take part in vasoregulation, as well as, in the case of adrenergic receptors, promote cell degeneration and apotosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The occurrence and distribution of neurohormonal peptides, neuroendocrine markers and receptors in parathyroid nerve fibers and endocrine cells are described, using immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, image analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. (dissertations.se)
  • Norepinephrine, a major elevated neurotransmitter in depression, significantly promoted neuropeptide Y (NPY) release from prostate cancer cells via β2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disturbance in the central nervous system (CNS), autonomic nerve fibers, adrenergic receptors, or baroreceptors. (mhmedical.com)
  • The early phases of tumor development were prevented by chemical or surgical sympathectomy and by genetic deletion of stromal β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamines released by sympathetic nerves can activate adrenergic receptors present on nearly every cell type, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). (jci.org)
  • We studied the cervical sympathetic trunk of the rat following daily injection for 5 weeks of guanethidine monosulphate, a regimen known to selectively destroy adrenergic neurons outside of the blood-brain barrier leaving cholinergic systems and preganglionic structures intact. (elsevier.com)
  • The Reissner fiber in the cerebrospinal fluid is required for a signal integrated by developing sensory neurons and modulated by catecholamines to control the embryo posterior axis morphogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The researchers found evidence that the microRNAs could nudge sensory neurons to reduce their normal gene activity and adopt genetic characteristics of a different class of nerves known as adrenergic neurons, which are usually rare in the oral cavity. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, electrophysiological studies show that neurons within cardiac ganglia respond to application of cholinergic 6 as well as adrenergic, 1 9 13 14 15 histaminergic, 16 purinergic, 1 11 12 and peptidergic 1 15 17 agonists and antagonists. (ahajournals.org)
  • He (14-19) along with Alcántara (20), suggested that Chagas' disease is a neuropathy resulting from denervation caused by widespread destruction of parasympathetic neurons and nervous fibers in different areas - a theory that explained the occurrence of cardiopathy and megaviscera. (fac.org.ar)
  • There was also depletion of TH fibers and sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the 2 MSA cases examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Since TH is the key and rate-limiting enzyme for catecholaminergic synthesis, these IR neurons may represent dopaminergic, noradrenergic or adrenergic neural elements. (luriechildrens.org)
  • In our study, we conclude that all of the catecholaminergic perikarya and the majority of the catecholaminergic fibers represent dopaminergic neurons in the human hypothalamus. (luriechildrens.org)
  • releasing epinephrine: adrenergic neurons[/ex] 3) biochem. (academic.ru)
  • This occurs as sprouting of sympa- thetic fibers, creating aberrant communication pathways from the new sympathetic terminals to sensory neurons (35). (blogspot.com)
  • The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) supplies parasympathetic motor preganglionic fibers to the viscera and is involved in the central nervous system (CNS) control of gastric motility ( 10 ). (physiology.org)
  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers, parasympathetic postganglionic fibers, and efferent somatic fibers ending in skeletal muscle are cholinergic. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the autonomic nervous system (ANS), nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system to ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers. (lumenlearning.com)
  • All preganglionic fibers of the ANS are cholinergic -meaning they have acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter, and are myelinated for faster transmission. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Differences between sympathetic and parasympatheic preganglionic fibers include that sympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter than parasympathetic fibers and sympathetic fibers tend to form more synapses than parasympathetic fibers. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. (lumenlearning.com)
  • All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), are cholinergic-that is, these fibers use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter-and are myelinated. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Sympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter than parasympathetic preganglionic fibers because sympathetic ganglia are often closer to the spinal cord while parasympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to project to and synapse with the postganglionic fiber close to the target organ. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The state of the nervous structures in the region of adenoid overgrowths was studied by histochemical methods, demonstrating adren- and cholinergic nerve fibers in the same section (incubation in glyoxylic acid and Karnovsky-Roots method). (bvsalud.org)
  • It was found that cholinergic nerve fibers were located similarly to adrenergic fibers, but appeared thicker and had larger varicosities. (bvsalud.org)
  • Similar to adrenergic fibers, cholinergic nerve fibers often passed from perivascular plexuses and innervated the lymphoid tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many neurotransmitters playing important roles in reproductive physiology are released after stimulation by adrenergic or cholinergic nerve fibers (the so called sympathetic/parasympathetic co-transmission). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cholinergic nerve fibers are found in the peripheral and central nervous systems of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disease is defined by the absence of submucosal GCs and the presence of excessive cholinergic nerve fibers in an adequate biopsy specimen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Botulinum toxin, which causes temporary chemical denervation of the cholinergic nerve fibers , has also been used successfully to manage sialoceles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholinergic fibers secrete acetylcholine, while adrenergic fibers secrete norepinephrine. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Nerve fibers that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergic fibers. (dinet.org)
  • They play several roles, including acting as the main end-receptor stimulated by acetylcholine released from postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal medulla is considered a sympathetic ganglion and, like other sympathetic ganglia, is supplied by cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic fibers: acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter utilized at this synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • all are cholinergic fibers, and use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • the abbreviated name of acetylcholinergic fibers), nerve fibers whose endings release the mediator acetylcholine during the transmission of an impulse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • About 12% of nociceptive fibers on the affected side were excited by sympathetic stimulation or by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine which did not affect A beta-fiber activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • We hypothesize that the border zone is most vulnerable to alternans, that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation can suppresses this, and investigate the consequences in terms of arrhythmogenic mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation with norepinephrine (1 μmol/L) attenuated alternans by 60 [52-65]% [interquartile range] and this was reversed with metoprolol (10 μmol/L, p = 0.008). (frontiersin.org)
  • Simulations also demonstrated that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in this specific region reduced the formation of conduction block and the probability of premature ventricular activation propagation. (frontiersin.org)
  • While high levels of overall cardiac sympathetic drive are a negative prognostic indicator of mortality following MI and during heart failure, β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the infarct border zone reduced spatially heterogeneous alternans, and prevented conduction block and propagation of extrasystoles. (frontiersin.org)
  • If, however, chronotropic and inotropic effects of adrenergic stimulation are sup- pressed pharmacologically by beta-adrenoceptor blockade, a reduction in flow is observed. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Thus, the primary effect of sympathetic stimulation on the coronary arteries is the alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction. (booktopia.com.au)
  • It is therefore likely that this negative modulatory action of estrogen against β-adrenergic stimulation on Ca 2+ influx may lead to reductions in the heart rate and contraction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Modulation of the actions of β-adrenergic stimulation may result from inhibitions of cAMP production. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The most important finding of this study was that 17β-estradiol at physiological concentrations, which itself had no effect, modulates negatively the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation on the systolic pressure and heart rate of the isolated heart. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that the low-frequency stimulation induced synaptic plasticity is region specific and that the activity-dependent β-adrenergic modulation may be involved in the up-regulation of synaptic strength in these two synaptic pathways. (pnas.org)
  • Although beta-adrenergic receptor blockage is useful in the treatment of angina and hypertension, there are situations in which sympathetic stimulation is vital. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • The occurrence of transient myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease during stress is a common problem and has been thought to reflect adrenergic stimulation, with resultant increases in cardiac oxygen consumption. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Abstract α-Adrenergic stimulation is known to play a role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis and to modulate a variety of cardiac K + currents. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effects of α-adrenergic stimulation on Cl − currents are largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 A variety of arrhythmia mechanisms may be enhanced by α-adrenergic stimulation, 3 and α-adrenoceptor blockade can reduce the severity of arrhythmias induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the arrangement of autonomic nerve fibers around PV-left atrium (LA) junctional musculature. (doaj.org)
  • We found that the formation of autonomic nerve fibers in the prostate gland regulates prostate cancer development and dissemination in mouse models. (nih.gov)
  • Fibers that secrete norepinephrine are called adrenergic fibers. (dinet.org)
  • Nerve fibers secreting norepinephrine are called? (cueflash.com)
  • A subset of neuropathic POTS patients may harbor mild small fiber neuropathy with abnormalities of unmyelinated nerve fibers in the skin associated with reduced myocardial postganglionic sympathetic innervation. (wiley.com)
  • Adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the pharyngeal tonsil was studied in 50 children aged 4 to 14 years with chronic adenoiditis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The adrenergic innervation of human laryngeal muscles--m. thyroarytenoideus internus (m. vocalis), m. cricoarytenoideus posterior (m. posticus)--was studied in comparison with the innervation of m. pectoralis major (material obtained at 18 early autopsies) and m. gastrocnemius of the frog Rana temporaria (17 animals). (bvsalud.org)
  • We investigated the adrenergic sensitivity of afferent fibers in the L4 dorsal roots of rats with a unilateral ligation of the L5-L6 spinal nerves . (bvsalud.org)
  • Adrenergic nerves can trigger the body's "fight-or-flight" response by releasing stimulating chemical messengers. (nih.gov)
  • The erectile tissue within the corpora contains arteries, nerves, muscle fibers, and venous sinuses lined with flat endothelial cells, and it fills the space of the corpora cavernosa. (medscape.com)
  • Three sets of peripheral nerves are involved in penile erection and subsequent detumescence: parasympathetic nerves from the second to fourth sacral (S2-S4) segments, sympathetic nerves from the tenth thoracic to the second lumbar (T10-L2) thoracolumbar outflow, and somatic fibers via the pudendal nerves (Figure 14). (amazonaws.com)
  • Results: TH-positive adrenergic fibers, consisting of sympathetic nerves, were most predominant in the anterior and septal junctions. (doaj.org)
  • In the septal junction, the number of THnegative non-adrenergic fibers (predominantly parasympathetic nerves) was greater, concomitant diffuse ganglionic nodule distribution in the interatrial fat pad. (doaj.org)
  • Groups of myelinated fibers fan out in a horizontal plane to form a branching network from which fibers ascend, usually accompanying blood vessels, to form a mesh of interlacing nerves in the superficial dermis. (telemedicine.org)
  • releasing epinephrine or a similar substance [the adrenergic nerves of the sympathetic nervous system] 2. (academic.ru)
  • According to the myogenic theory, the primary damage to the cardiac muscle fibers is triggered by humoral or cell-mediated immune factors (8). (fac.org.ar)
  • In 1924, Monckeberg (12) observed pronounced lesions in the autonomic ganglia and cardiac nerve fibers of experimentally infected dogs. (fac.org.ar)
  • The idea of a neurotoxin was inspired by the work of Vianna (10) and Monckeberg (12), who had described the destruction in canine models of nonparasitized cells subsequent to the rupture of nearby nests, as well as promounced lesions in the autonomic ganglia and cardiac nervous fibers. (fac.org.ar)
  • Our objective in this study was to evaluate the correlation between C-fiber involvement as shown by skin biopsy and adrenergic cardiac metaiodobenzylguanadine (MIBG) uptake in POTS patients. (wiley.com)
  • Background: We previously found a severe impairment of cardiac uptake of I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine, on myocardial scintigraphy in a small group of patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX), suggesting a dysfunction of cardiac adrenergic nerve fibres. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Our data show a relevant impairment of cardiac MIBG uptake in patients with CSX, suggesting that functional abnormalities in cardiac adrenergic nerve function may play a significant role in the mechanisms responsible for the syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • Cardiac adrenergic nerve function in patients with cardiac syndrome X . Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine , 11 (3), 151-156. (elsevier.com)
  • A nerve fiber of the autonomic nervous system that terminates in smooth or cardiac muscle or in a gland. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The intracardiac pathways carrying the cardiovascular reflex responses mediated by cardiac sympathetic and vagal afferent fibers were examined in this study. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest a potentially novel mechanism of α-adrenergic control of cardiac electrical activity, the inhibition of volume-sensitive Cl − currents, and indicate that PKC, well known to elicit phosphorylation-dependent Cl − currents in cat and guinea pig ventricular myocytes, is also capable of potently inhibiting other forms of cardiac Cl − current. (ahajournals.org)
  • A WB 4101-sensitive alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtype modulates repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We used standard microelectrode techniques to study alpha-1 adrenergic modulation of repolarization in canine Purkinje fibers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Producing or activated by epinephrine or an epinephrinelike substance: an adrenergic nerve fiber. (anagrammer.com)
  • Additional analyses within the same cohort have shown that, in patients with PD, the amount of [alpha]-synuclein positive nerve fibers normalized to total intraepidermal nerve fiber density ([alpha]-synuclein ratio) is enhanced in both sympathetic cholinergic (sweat gland innervating) and sympathetic adrenergic ( pilomotor muscle innervating) nerve fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Another study used skin biopsies with quantification of [alpha]-synuclein deposition in pilomotor and sudomotor nerve fibers normalized to the overall intraepidermal nerve fiber density. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mean intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density was in the lower normal age-adjusted range, 7.2 ± 2.9/mm (normal ≥7/mm), and was slightly below the normal range in 45% of POTS patients. (wiley.com)
  • α-Synuclein deposition was normalized to nerve fiber density (the α-synuclein ratio). (neurology.org)
  • Nerve fiber , or simply fiber is more often used in anatomical descriptions, and fiber tract is more commonly used than axon tract . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber that releases norepinephrine at its synapse when an impulse is transmitted. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A myelinated nerve fiber that transmits autonomic impulses. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • An unmyelinated nerve fiber that slowly relays sensations of pain from the periphery or viscera to the central nervous system. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber with a myelin sheath. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber without a myelin sheath. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A nerve fiber of the autonomic nervous system that terminates and synapses in one of the autonomic ganglia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • nerve fiber is a sample topic from the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/753758/all/nerve_fiber. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The skin is innervated with around one million afferent nerve fibers. (telemedicine.org)
  • These data suggest that sympathetic afferent fibers travel in the superficial subepicardium in an apex-to-base direction. (elsevier.com)
  • Vagal afferent fibers travel deeper in the myocardium until they approach the atrioventricular groove, where they ascend to the superficial subepicardium. (elsevier.com)
  • There is sound experimental evidence that cardiovascular sympathetic afferent fibers mediate cardiovascular reflexes largely excitatory in nature with positive-feedback characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • However, in patients with heart failure, beta-adrenergic blockade may increase oxygen requirements by increasing left ventricular fiber length and end-diastolic pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenergic and AChE neurotransmitters were closely associated with the uterine arteries and myometrial smooth muscles, and they reduced markedly by ageing. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of CL 316,243 (CL) (a highly selective ß3-adrenergic receptor agonist) on cellular changes occurring in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) of lean and obese rats. (dovepress.com)
  • In both mice and humans, adrenergic nerve fibers were denser in p53-deficient oral tumor tissue. (nih.gov)
  • A retrospective blinded analysis of prostate adenocarcinoma specimens from 43 patients revealed that the densities of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in tumor and surrounding normal tissue, respectively, were associated with poor clinical outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that α-synuclein deposition is increased in cutaneous sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic fibers but not sensory fibers of patients with PD. (neurology.org)
  • The aim of the present study was luminescent-histochemical study of efferent adrenergic nervous apparatus of cross-striated somatic muscles. (bvsalud.org)
  • The efferent effects of reflexes caused an increase in sympathetic and a decrease in vagal fiber activity (11) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of β 2-agonist salbutamol at oral doses during a period of resistance training on sprint performance, quadriceps contractile function, skeletal muscle hypertrophy, fiber type composition, maximal activity of enzymes of importance for anaerobic energy turnover, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ handling in young men. (regionh.dk)
  • 17. Compare the contractions of smooth and skeletal muscle fibers with regard to speed of contraction and relaxation, ability to contract when greatly stretched, energy required for a sustained contraction, and resistance to fatigue. (cuny.edu)
  • 6 It has been reported that a chronic administration of the β3-adrenergic agonists can induce the ectopic expression of UCP in white fat and skeletal muscle. (dovepress.com)
  • postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the sweat glands, piloerectile muscles of the body hairs, and the skeletal muscle arterioles do not use adrenaline/noradrenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with MSA had laboratory evidence of severe adrenergic sudomotor and cardiovagal failure. (elsevier.com)
  • α-Synuclein deposition and the density of intraepidermal, sudomotor, and pilomotor nerve fibers were measured. (neurology.org)
  • 0.05 vs controls, all sites) and morphologic changes to sudomotor nerve fibers. (neurology.org)
  • The cholinergic fibers generally cause contraction, whereas the adrenergic fibers mainly cause inhibition. (medscape.com)
  • Other [alpha]-adrenergic responses include inhibition of gastrointestinal activity, mydriasis, and contraction of pilomotor muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They also mediate the transmission of inhibition by the endings of the vagus nerve fibers in the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sympathetic excitation of nociceptive fibers was suppressed by alpha 1-antagonist prazosin , while it was unaffected by alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a relatively long history of the use of the α -adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). (hindawi.com)
  • The use of an α -adrenergic antagonist such as phenoxybenzamine followed from this perspective. (hindawi.com)
  • Importance of Alpha - adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Regulating of Airways Tonus at Patients with Bronchial Asthma In this work, effect of Tamsulosin hydrochloride as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B- adrenergic receptor and effect of Salbutamol as agonist of beta2- adrenergic receptor in patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactibility was studied.Parameters of the lung function are determined by Body plethysmography. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Interestingly, β2- adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) antagonist ICI 118551 attenuated ischemia-induced BBB damage by regulating HIF-1α expression. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In view of evidence that small nociceptive fibers may be damaged in CRPS I, the validity of an important distinction between type I and type II syndromes, in terms of etiology, symptomatology, and therapeutic approaches, is controversial [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our objectives were to subtype this alpha-1 receptor response pharmacologically, to determine whether alpha-1 adrenergic modulation of repolarization is dependent on the function of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and to identify developmental changes in this alpha-1 response. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The up-regulation of synaptic strength is mediated by the activity-dependent modulation by β-adrenergic transmission. (pnas.org)
  • Because the CA3-CA1 and the CA1-SB synaptic pathways are in series and the β-adrenergic modulation is region-specific, this modulation seems to be involved in the selective control of signal transmission between the different regions of hippocampus. (pnas.org)
  • The present experiments were designed to assess the potential α-adrenergic modulation of I Cl.swell in rabbit atrial myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study sought to determine whether chemical destruction of peripheral catecholaminergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) attenuates vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion stimulated by hemorrhage, hypotension, and hyperosmolality. (elsevier.com)
  • The paired corpora cavernosa contain erectile tissue and are each surrounded by the tunica albuginea, a dense fibrous sheath of connective tissue with relatively few elastic fibers. (medscape.com)
  • In each experiment, the pressor response to tyramine (250 μg/kg iv) was significantly attenuated in 6OHDA-treated rats, thereby confirming that 6OHDA treatment destroyed sympathetic catecholaminergic fibers. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that catecholaminergic fibers located outside the blood-brain barrier contribute to VP and OT secretion during hemorrhage and arterial hypotension. (elsevier.com)
  • Metoprolol tartrate is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. (nih.gov)
  • The 2 suspensory ligaments, composed of primarily elastic fibers, support the penis at its base. (medscape.com)
  • The reticular fibers are composed of collagenous and elastic fibers, microfibrils, reticular cell basal laminae, and unmyelinated adrenergic nerve fibers (Saito et al. (humpath.com)
  • a-adrenergic tone Adrenergic nerve fibers accompany coronary vessels of any size. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The myocardium and coronary vessels are abundantly supplied with adrenergic and cholinergic fibers purchase crestor with paypal cholesterol levels chart in south africa. (bdforum.org)
  • Sympathetic outflow has what type of fibers? (cram.com)
  • 6. Regulation of large coronary arteries by beta adrenergic mechanisms in conscious dogs. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Central beta-adrenergic mechanisms may modulate ischemic ventricular fibrillation in pigs. (ahajournals.org)
  • The activation of beige adipocyte thermogenesis by cold temperatures and β3-adrenergic receptor agonists induce beige adipocyte formation, function and perdurance. (elifesciences.org)
  • We conclude that α-adrenergic agonists inhibit volume-sensitive Cl − currents in rabbit atrial cells by interacting with an α 1A -adrenoceptor mechanism that is coupled to PKC via a PTX-sensitive G protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8. Compare the lengths of preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. (cuny.edu)
  • One cell is housed in the spinal cord or brain stem and is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which can be found housed in a cluster of nerve cells referred to as an autonomic ganglion. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Lumbar injections with interruption of sympathetic fibers originating in spinal segments T10 and below typically produce minimal hemodynamic alterations. (asahq.org)
  • Nerve fibers that transmit nervous impulses to other nerve cells (or smooth muscle or gland cells) by the medium of the adrenalinelike transmitter substance norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • pha resembling epinephrine in physiological effect: an adrenergic drug[/ex] 2) biochem. (academic.ru)
  • adrenergic - adjective a) Having the quality of adrenaline or epinephrine. (academic.ru)
  • Relating to nerve cells or fibers of the autonomic nervous system that employ norepinephrine as their neurotransmitter. (academic.ru)
  • Adrenergic and cholinergic effects of the autonomous nervous system are the most implicated in the uterine functionality. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The sympathetic (adrenergic) and parasympathetic (cholinergic) nervous systems play notable roles in PCa development and invasion, respectively (schematic S1). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the current consensus on the etiology of CRPS favors an interpretation of the symptomatology as an evidence of decreased sympathetic activity to the injured limb and a resulting upregulation of adrenergic sensitivity. (hindawi.com)
  • β2- Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated HIF-1α Upregulation Mediates Blood Brain Barrier Damage in Acute Cerebral Ischemia Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) within the thrombolytic time window is an antecedent event to intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic stroke. (tripdatabase.com)