Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Muscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral: An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.TriazolesHistones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)ChlorobenzenesBenzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Pharmacological Processes: The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Event: An event experienced by an infant or a child that is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, change in muscle tone, choking, and gagging.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental: Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Phenolphthalein: An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.OregonEpidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Uterine Monitoring: Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Tocolysis: Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
(1/484) Regulation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel by coexpression of G(alpha s) in Xenopus oocytes.

Activation of G(alpha s) via beta-adrenergic receptors enhances the activity of cardiac voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of the L-type, mainly via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. Contribution of a PKA-independent effect of G(alpha s) has been proposed but remains controversial. We demonstrate that, in Xenopus oocytes, antisense knockdown of endogenous G(alpha s) reduced, whereas coexpression of G(alpha s) enhanced, currents via expressed cardiac L-type channels, independently of the presence of the auxiliary subunits alpha2/delta or beta2A. Coexpression of G(alpha s) did not increase the amount of alpha1C protein in whole oocytes or in the plasma membrane (measured immunochemically). Activation of coexpressed beta2 adrenergic receptors did not cause a detectable enhancement of channel activity; rather, a small cAMP-dependent decrease was observed. We conclude that coexpression of G(alpha s), but not its acute activation via beta-adrenergic receptors, enhances the activity of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKA-independent effect on the alpha1C subunit.  (+info)

(2/484) Examining the efficiency of receptor/G-protein coupling with a cleavable beta2-adrenoceptor-gsalpha fusion protein.

Reconstitution of high-affinity agonist binding at the beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) expressed in Sf9 insect cells requires a large excess of the stimulatory G-protein of adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, relative to receptor [R. Seifert, T. W. Lee, V. T. Lam & B. K. Kobilka, (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 255, 369-382]. In a fusion protein of the beta2AR and Gsalpha (beta2AR-Gsalpha), which has only a 1 : 1 stoichiometry of receptor and G-protein, high-affinity agonist binding and agonist-stimulated GTP hydrolysis, guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[S]) binding and adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation are more efficient than in the nonfused coexpression system. In order to analyze the stability of the receptor/G-protein interaction, we constructed a fusion protein with a thrombin-cleavage site between beta2AR and Gsalpha (beta2AR-TS-Gsalpha). beta2AR-TS-Gsalpha efficiently reconstituted high-affinity agonist binding, agonist-stimulated GTP hydrolysis, GTP[S] binding and AC activation. Thrombin cleaves approximately 70% of beta2AR-TS-Gsalpha molecules in Sf9 membranes. Thrombin cleavage did not impair high-affinity agonist binding and GTP[S] binding but strongly reduced ligand-regulated GTPase activity and AC activity. We conclude that fusion of the beta2AR to Gsalpha promotes tight physical association of the two partners and that this association remains stable for a single activation/deactivation cycle even after cleavage of the link between the receptor and G-protein. Dilution of Gsalpha in the membrane and release of activated Gsalpha into the cytosol can both prevent cleaved beta2AR-TS-Gsalpha from undergoing multiple activation/deactivation cycles.  (+info)

(3/484) Functional and molecular biological evidence for a possible beta3-adrenoceptor in the human detrusor muscle.

The possible existence of a beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) in the human detrusor muscle was investigated by in vitro functional studies and analysis of mRNA expression. Isoprenaline, noradrenaline and adrenaline each produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the human detrusor. The rank order for their relaxing potencies was isoprenaline (pD2 6.37+/-0.07) > or = noradrenaline (pD2 6.07+/-0.12) > or = adrenaline (pD2 5.88< or =0.11). Neither dobutamine (beta1- and beta2-AR agonist) nor procaterol (beta2-AR agonist) produced any significant relaxation at concentrations up to 10(-5) M. BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A (beta3-AR agonists), relaxed the preparations significantly at concentrations higher than 10(-6) M. The pD2 values for BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A were 6.42+/-0.25, 5.53+/-0.09 and 5.74+/-0.14, respectively. CGP-20712A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta1-AR antagonist, did not affect the isoprenaline-induced relaxation. On the other hand, ICI-118,551, a beta2-AR antagonist, produced a rightward parallel shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline only at the highest concentration used (10(-5) > M) and its pKB value was 5.71+/-0.19. Moreover, SR58894A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta3-AR antagonist, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. The pA2 value and slope obtained from Schild plots were 6.24+/-0.20 and 0.68+/-0.31. The beta1-, beta2- and beta3-AR mRNAs were all positively expressed in detrusor smooth muscle preparations in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. In conclusion, the present results provide the first evidence for the existence of the beta3-AR subtype in the human detrusor. They also suggest that the relaxation induced by adrenergic stimulation of the human detrusor is mediated mainly through beta3-AR activation.  (+info)

(4/484) Inotropic and sympathetic responses to the intracoronary infusion of a beta2-receptor agonist: a human in vivo study.

BACKGROUND: On the basis of the presence of beta2-receptors within the sympathetic nervous system, beta2-stimulation may increase cardiac sympathetic outflow. We addressed the hypothesis that sympathoexcitatory beta2-receptors are present in the human left ventricle. METHODS AND RESULTS: The beta2-agonist salbutamol was infused into the left coronary artery in 3 groups of patients: group 1 (n=9, no beta-blocker therapy), group 2 (n=7, beta1-selective blockade with atenolol), and group 3 (n=6, nonselective beta-blockade with nadolol). Left ventricular +dP/dt in response to increasing concentrations of salbutamol was measured in all groups, and cardiac norepinephrine spillover was measured in group 1. There were no systemic hemodynamic changes in any group. Salbutamol resulted in a 44+/-6% increase in +dP/dt in group 1, a 25+/-6% increase in group 2 (P<0.05 versus group 1), and no increase in group 3. Salbutamol also resulted in a 124+/-37% increase in cardiac norepinephrine spillover in group 1 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence that salbutamol increased norepinephrine release from cardiac sympathetic nerves was provided by the observations that atenolol suppressed the salbutamol inotropic response, demonstrating that this response was mediated in part by beta1-receptors and that salbutamol also resulted in an increase in cardiac norepinephrine spillover. This result provides in vivo evidence, in humans, for the role of sympathoexcitatory cardiac beta2-receptors.  (+info)

(5/484) G(i) protein-mediated functional compartmentalization of cardiac beta(2)-adrenergic signaling.

In contrast to beta(1)-adrenoreceptor (beta(1)-AR) signaling, beta(2)-AR stimulation in cardiomyocytes augments L-type Ca(2+) current in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-dependent manner but fails to phosphorylate phospholamban, indicating that the beta(2)-AR-induced cAMP/PKA signaling is highly localized. Here we show that inhibition of G(i) proteins with pertussis toxin (PTX) permits a full phospholamban phosphorylation and a de novo relaxant effect following beta(2)-AR stimulation, converting the localized beta(2)-AR signaling to a global signaling mode similar to that of beta(1)-AR. Thus, beta(2)-AR-mediated G(i) activation constricts the cAMP signaling to the sarcolemma. PTX treatment did not significantly affect the beta(2)-AR-stimulated PKA activation. Similar to G(i) inhibition, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A (3 x 10(-8) M), selectively enhanced the beta(2)-AR but not beta(1)-AR-mediated contractile response. Furthermore, PTX and calyculin A treatment had a non-additive potentiating effect on the beta(2)-AR-mediated positive inotropic response. These results suggest that the interaction of the beta(2)-AR-coupled G(i) and G(s) signaling affects the local balance of protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Thus, the additional coupling of beta(2)-AR to G(i) proteins is a key factor causing the compartmentalization of beta(2)-AR-induced cAMP signaling.  (+info)

(6/484) Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor.

We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers.  (+info)

(7/484) Dobutamine as selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist in in vivo studies on human thermogenesis and lipid utilization.

The use of dobutamine as selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist in in vivo studies on human thermogenesis and lipid utilization was investigated in 20 men. At 2.5, 5, and 10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), dobutamine induced significant increases in energy expenditure, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis. The beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (bolus: 42.5 microg/kg, infusion: 1.02 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) blocked all dobutamine-induced effects on thermogenesis and lipid utilization. All parameters remained at levels comparable to those during saline infusion. The dose of atenolol used did not inhibit beta(2)-adrenoceptor-specific changes in energy expenditure, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis during salbutamol infusion (85 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)). This indicates that atenolol was specific for beta(1)-adrenoceptors and did not camouflage concomitant beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation during dobutamine infusion. Therefore, we conclude that dobutamine can be used as a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist at dosages +info)

(8/484) Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor down-regulation. Evidence for a pathway that does not require endocytosis.

Sustained activation of most G protein-coupled receptors causes a time-dependent reduction of receptor density in intact cells. This phenomenon, known as down-regulation, is believed to depend on a ligand-promoted change of receptor sorting from the default endosome-plasma membrane recycling pathway to the endosome-lysosome degradation pathway. This model is based on previous studies of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor degradation and implies that receptors need to be endocytosed to be down-regulated. In stable clones of L cells expressing beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)ARs), sustained agonist treatment caused a time-dependant decrease in both beta(2)AR binding sites and immuno-detectable receptor. Blocking beta(2)AR endocytosis with chemical treatments or by expressing a dominant negative mutant of dynamin could not prevent this phenomenon. Specific blockers of the two main intracellular degradation pathways, lysosomal and proteasome-associated, were ineffective in preventing beta(2)AR down-regulation. Further evidence for an endocytosis-independent pathway of beta(2)AR down-regulation was provided by studies in A431 cells, a cell line expressing both endogenous beta(2)AR and EGF receptors. In these cells, inhibition of endocytosis and inactivation of the lysosomal degradation pathway did not block beta(2)AR down-regulation, whereas EGF degradation was inhibited. These data indicate that, contrary to what is currently postulated, receptor endocytosis is not a necessary prerequisite for beta(2)AR down-regulation and that the inactivation of beta(2)ARs, leading to a reduction in binding sites, may occur at the plasma membrane.  (+info)

*  Hyperkalemia
Beta2-adrenergic agonists act on beta-2 receptors to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can raise ... Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and ... Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ... High levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline have a protective effect on the cardiac electrophysiology because they bind to beta ...
*  Beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase
Ferguson SS, Menard L, Barak LS, Koch WJ, Colapietro AM, Caron MG (1995). "Role of phosphorylation in agonist-promoted beta 2- ... beta-adrenergic-receptor] kinase, beta-adrenergic receptor-specific kinase, beta-AR kinase, beta-ARK, beta-ARK 1, beta-ARK 2, ... beta-adrenergic receptor] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and beta-adrenergic receptor, whereas its two ... beta-adrenergic receptor] phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include ATP:beta-adrenergic-receptor phosphotransferase ...
*  Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
ISBN 0-443-07145-4. Philipson, L. H. (December 2002). "beta-Agonists and metabolism". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ...
*  Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist
... is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the beta-2 adrenergic receptors of cells, with either high specificity (an antagonist ... ICI-118,551 Butaxamine Propranolol Betablocker Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta2-adrenergic agonist Bilski, AJ; Halliday, SE; ... Fitzgerald, JD; Wale, JL (1983). "The pharmacology of a beta 2-selective adrenoceptor antagonist (ICI 118,551)". J Cardiovasc ... A Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist (β2-adrenoceptor antagonist) ...
*  Tachyphylaxis
Inhalation of an agonist for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, such as Salbutamol, Albuterol (US), is the most common treatment ... adrenergic receptor on the response to regular use of albuterol in asthma". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care ... a direct-acting beta agonist used in congestive heart failure, also demonstrates tachyphylaxis.[medical citation needed] ... Polymorphisms of the beta-2 receptor play a role in tachyphylaxis. Expression of the Gly-16 allele (glycine at position 16) ...
*  Beta-adrenergic agonist
"The beta-adrenergic receptors". Yoo, B.; et al. "Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers. Beta adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ... Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result ... "WHAT ARE BETA-AGONISTS?". Thoracic.org. American Thoracic Society. Retrieved 17 October 2014. Adrenergic beta-Agonists at the ...
*  Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2
The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G ... The beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 was cloned from mice and rats in 1991 and the human gene was cloned in 1993. Gene linkage ... Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (beta-ARK-2) also known as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is an enzyme that in ... "Entrez Gene: ADRBK2 adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2". Benovic JL, Onorato JJ, Arriza JL, Stone WC, Lohse M, Jenkins NA, ...
*  Discovery and development of beta2 agonists
Beta2-adrenergic agonist Alpha-adrenergic agonist Asthma Beta blocker Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor ... β1 receptors make up to 75% of all beta receptors and are predominantly located in the heart. β2 receptors are found in ... It also influences the specificity for the β-receptor subtypes. Direct-acting analog binds the β-adrenergic receptors directly ... β-receptors are membrane-bound receptors coupled to G-proteins. Three types of β-receptors have been identified by molecular ...
*  Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
"Mutated human beta3-adrenergic receptor (Trp64Arg) lowers the response to beta3-adrenergic agonists in transfected 3T3-L1 ... Beta-3 adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta Blocker GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
*  Penbutolol
... is able to bind to both beta-1 adrenergic receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors (the two subtypes), thus making ... Penbutolol is a sympathomimetic drug with properties allowing it to act as a partial agonist at β adrenergic receptors. It was ... Penbutolol is able to bind to both beta-1 adrenergic receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors (the two subtypes), thus making ... Penbutolol is a sympathomimetic drug with properties allowing it to act as a partial agonist at β adrenergic receptors. ...
*  Zilpaterol
Verhoeckx KC, Doornbos RP, Witkamp RF, van der Greef J, Rodenburg RJ (January 2006). "Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists induce ... Zilpaterol (zilpaterol hydrochloride; codenamed RU 42173) is a β2 adrenergic agonist. Under its trade name, Zilmax, it is used ... A. Plascencia; N. Torrentera & R.A. Zinn (1999). "Influence of the β-Agonist, Zilpaterol, on Growth Performance and Carcass ... the release of granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, oncostatin M, and vascular endothelial growth factor from macrophages". Int ...
*  Dopexamine
... a novel agonist at peripheral dopamine receptors and beta 2-adrenoceptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 85 (3): 599-608. ... It is not an α-adrenergic agonist, does not cause vasoconstriction, and is not a pressor agent. As of 2004 there was some ... Effects of depexamine may be suppressed by concomitant use with ß2-adrenergic and dopamine receptor antagonists requires ... Dopexamine stimulates beta-2 adrenergic receptors and peripheral dopamine receptor D1 and dopamine receptor D2. It also ...
*  Brimonidine/timolol
... a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitor. Elevated IOP is considered the only modifiable risk factor in the ... It is a combination of brimonidine (an α2 adrenergic agonist) and timolol (a β adrenergic blocker), in concentrations of 0.2% ... 21 (2): 14. 2008. PMID 18326089. Lee, AJ; McCluskey, P (2008). "Fixed combination of topical brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% ... 2 (5): 705. doi:10.1586/17469899.2.5.705. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "BRIMONIDINE - brimonidine tartrate solution/ ...
*  Adrenergic receptor
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 Cannon WB, Rosenbluth A (31 May 1933). "Studies On Conditions ... a Gq coupled receptor) and α2 (a Gi coupled receptor). Phenylephrine is a selective agonist of the α receptor. β receptors have ... Basic Neurochemistry: α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Brief overview of functions of the β3 receptor Theory of receptor ... ISBN 0-443-06911-5. Alpha receptors illustrated The Adrenergic Receptors "Adrenoceptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion ...
*  Beta2-adrenergic agonist
9 Beta Adrenergic Drugs beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic ... receptor. Like other β adrenergic agonists, they cause smooth muscle relaxation. β2 adrenergic agonists' effects on smooth ... Discovery and development of β2 agonists Ramanujan K. Common beta-agonist inhalers more than double death rate in COPD patients ...
*  Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor
"Inhibition of the lipolytic action of beta-adrenergic agonists in human adipocytes by alpha-adrenergic agonists". J. Lipid Res ... also acts as a moderate affinity 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and low affinity CB1 receptor antagonist). Clonidine (also I1 agonist ... signal through the α2-adrenergic receptor in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The α2A adrenergic receptor is ... Agonists (activators) of the α2-adrenergic receptor are frequently used in veterinary anaesthesia where they affect sedation, ...
*  Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
... the sites for beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor ... identification of amino acids involved in ligand binding and receptor activation by agonists". Molecular Pharmacology. 40 (2): ... The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... α2 adrenergic receptors include 3 highly homologous subtypes: α2A, α2B, and α2C. These receptors have a critical role in ...
*  ICI-118,551
"Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent lipolytic responses and characterization of beta-adrenergic ... Hillman KL, Doze VA, Porter JE (August 2005). "Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed ... September 1989). "Molecular characterization of the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor". Science. 245 (4922): 1118-21. doi: ... ICI-118,551 is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist. ICI binds to the β2 subtype with at least 100 ...
*  Primary polydipsia
... an angiotensin II receptor antagonist Propranolol, a sympatholytic beta blocker Vasopressin receptor antagonists, such as ... Such medications include antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, alpha agonists and anticholinergics. It should also ... a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used for treatment of PPD as a direct competitive ADH agonist, but is now ... and the effects of an adjunctive angiotensin-II receptor blocking drug (irbesartan)". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of ...
*  G protein-coupled receptor
"The structural basis for agonist and partial agonist action on a β(1)-adrenergic receptor". Nature. 469 (7329): 241-4. doi: ... Lohse MJ, Benovic JL, Codina J, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ (June 1990). "beta-Arrestin: a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... G protein-coupled receptors database List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Metabotropic receptor Orphan receptor Pepducins, a class of ...
*  Vascular smooth muscle
The main endogenous agonist of these cell receptors is norepinephrine (NE). The adrenergic receptors exert opposite physiologic ... beta _{2}} receptors causes vasodilation and low blood pressure (i.e. the effect is opposite of the one resulting from ... Vascular smooth muscle is innervated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system through adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors). ... receptor agonists as hypotensive agents is less widespread due to adverse effects such as unnecessary bronchodilation in lungs ...
*  Glaucoma medication
... a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist Glaucoma Basic and clinical science course (2011-2012). Glaucoma. American Academy of ... Adrenergic antagonists (nonselective and selective Beta1-antagonists) Alpha 2 agonists Hyperosmotic agents Fotil is a ...
*  Solabegron
... crossover study to evaluate efficacy and safety of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor agonist solabegron (SOL) in patients with ... Solabegron (code name GW-427,353) is a drug which acts as a selective agonist for the β3 adrenergic receptor. It is being ... selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist, evokes bladder relaxation and increases micturition reflex threshold in the dog". ... "Dose-response effect of a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist, solabegron, on gastrointestinal transit, bowel function, and ...
*  Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Selective agonists to the beta-1 receptor are: Denopamine Dobutamine (in cardiogenic shock) Xamoterol (cardiac stimulant) (Beta ... The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... "The cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor. Structural similarities of beta 1 and beta 2 receptor subtypes demonstrated by ... "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1- ...
*  GRK5
"G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 regulates beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95". The Journal of Biological ... "Human substance P receptor undergoes agonist-dependent phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 in vitro". FEBS ... "beta2-Adrenergic receptor regulation by GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase- ... "Identification of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation sites in the human beta2-adrenergic receptor". The ...
*  Arrestin
... a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic receptor function". Science. 248 (4962): 1547-50. doi:10.1126/science.2163110. PMID ... "Core engagement with β-arrestin is dispensable for agonist-induced vasopressin receptor endocytosis and ERK activation". ... Lefkowitz RJ, Shenoy SK (April 2005). "Transduction of receptor signals by beta-arrestins". Science. 308 (5721): 512-7. doi: ... Increased accessibility of these sites in receptor-bound arrestin targets the arrestin-receptor complex to the coated pit. ...
A Study to Evaluate the 24 Hour Spirometric Effect (FEV1) of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol Inhalation Powder (100mcg...  A Study to Evaluate the 24 Hour Spirometric Effect (FEV1) of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol Inhalation Powder (100mcg...
Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS)/Long Acting Beta Agonist (LABA). Drug: Fluticasone Furoate 100mcg/Vilanterol 25mcg Inhalation ... Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS)/Long Acting Beta Agonist (LABA. Drug: Fluticaosne Propionate 500mcg/Salmeterol 50mcg Inhalation ... Subjects with history of hypersensitivity to study medications (e.g., beta-agonists, corticosteroid) or components of ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01342913
DRY POWDER FORMULATION COMPRISING A CORTICOSTEROID AND A BETA-ADRENERGIC     FOR ADMINISTRATION BY INHALATION - Patent...  DRY POWDER FORMULATION COMPRISING A CORTICOSTEROID AND A BETA-ADRENERGIC FOR ADMINISTRATION BY INHALATION - Patent...
Patent application title: DRY POWDER FORMULATION COMPRISING A CORTICOSTEROID AND A BETA-ADRENERGIC FOR ADMINISTRATION BY ... Dry powder formulation comprising an anticholinergic, a corticosteroid and a beta-adrenergic for administration by inhalation. ... Dry powder formulations comprising a corticosteroid and a beta2-adrenergic drug in combination are useful for the prevention ... In particular, the present invention relates to dry powder formulations comprising a corticosteroid and a beta2-adrenergic drug ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130189324
Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization.  -...  Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization. -...
Highly specific receptor kinases, such as rhodopsin kinase and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, which show stimulus-dependent ... Here we report that prevention of agonist-stimulated beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) phosphorylation by truncation of its ... the first direct evidence that one molecular mechanism of desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors involves their agonist ... Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization.. Bouvier ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2836733?dopt=Abstract
AID 41039 - Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist activity as increased cAMP levels in CHO cells expressing human Beta-2...  AID 41039 - Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist activity as increased cAMP levels in CHO cells expressing human Beta-2...
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist activity as increased cAMP levels in CHO cells expressing human Beta-2-adrenoceptor. ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/41039
A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor...  A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor...
A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor ... A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor ... beta 2AR-Y326A). This mutation completely abolishes agonist-mediated receptor sequestration without affecting the ability of ... a slower loss of total cellular receptors) associated with agonist-mediated desensitization of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub710745
INVOLVEMENT OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE BETA-2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR IN ITS AGONIST-INDUCED PHOSPHORYLATION AND...  INVOLVEMENT OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE BETA-2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR IN ITS AGONIST-INDUCED PHOSPHORYLATION AND...
INVOLVEMENT OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE BETA-2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR IN ITS AGONIST-INDUCED PHOSPHORYLATION AND ... INVOLVEMENT OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE BETA-2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR IN ITS AGONIST-INDUCED PHOSPHORYLATION AND ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub929016
BET bromodomain inhibitors and agonists of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor identified in screens for compounds that inhibit DUX4...  BET bromodomain inhibitors and agonists of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor identified in screens for compounds that inhibit DUX4...
... and beta-3 adrenergic receptors. Neither the beta-1 selective antagonist atenolol [38] nor the beta-3 selective antagonist L- ... To determine the relative roles of the three beta receptors in mediating reductions in DUX4 expression by beta agonists, we ... adrenergic receptor gene ADRB2 genetically confirmed that beta agonists are reducing DUX4 expression via the beta-2 adrenergic ... Together with the pharmacologic data, these results demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonist compounds act through the beta-2 ...
more infohttps://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13395-017-0134-x
Repeat Doses Of A New Medication (GW642444) In Asthmatic Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Repeat Doses Of A New Medication (GW642444) In Asthmatic Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Mean change from Baseline (pre-dose on Day 1) in AM FEV1 from electronic flow meter over Days 2-15 [ Time Frame: Baseline (pre- ... and at 0-2 h, 0-4, and 0-24 h Days 1 and 14 ]. The forced expiratory volume in one second is the amount of air exhaled in one ... dose on Day 1), Day 2, and Day 15 ]. The forced expiratory volume in one second is the amount of air exhaled in one second ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00347139
Drug Study of Albuterol to Treat Acute Lung Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Drug Study of Albuterol to Treat Acute Lung Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Unwillingness of primary physician to discontinue inpatient beta agonist use. *Acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary ... Daily use (prior to study hospitalization) of inhaled beta agonist, corticosteroid, or oral leukotriene modifier ... Because beta-2 agonists have been shown to reduce permeability induced lung injury, it is anticipated that the severity of lung ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00434993?term=ALBUTEROL&rank=78
Beta 2-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in rat bronchiolar epithelium: potentiation by isosmotic cell shrinkage.  Beta 2-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in rat bronchiolar epithelium: potentiation by isosmotic cell shrinkage.
... adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent ... The beta(2)-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency ( ... 0/Adrenergic beta-Agonists; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 ... Adrenergic beta-Agonists / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Size / drug effects, physiology. Cilia / drug effects, physiology. ... adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner, and it also decreased the volume of the ciliary cells. These ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Beta-2-adrenergic-regulation-ciliary/14594991.html
Drug CategoriesBrowse DrugBank Categories - DrugBank  Drug CategoriesBrowse DrugBank Categories - DrugBank
Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.. 14. 39. Details. ... 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists. Not Available. 2. 17. Details. 6-Mercaptopurine. An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with ... 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1, antagonists & inhibitors. Not Available. 2. 1. Details. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories
Advanced eHealth for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Colorado  Advanced eHealth for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Colorado
An ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTOR AGONIST with a prolonged duration of action. It is used to manage ASTHMA and in the treatment of ... The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/69181/Advanced-eHealth-for-Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease-COPD-in-Colorado.html
The Role of Opinion Leaders in Enhancing Evidence-based Care After Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Emergency...  The Role of Opinion Leaders in Enhancing Evidence-based Care After Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Emergency...
An ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTOR AGONIST with a prolonged duration of action. It is used to manage ASTHMA and in the treatment of ... GSK233705 is a high-affinity specific muscarinic receptor (mAChR) antagonist which is being developed for once daily treatment ... COPD) at discharged in 2 Edmonton EDs. Patients will all be provided with evidence-based discharge (prednisone and an ... The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/65811/The-Role-of-Opinion-Leaders-in-Enhancing-Evidence-based-Care-After-Chronic.html
Drug Use Survey of RESPIMAT in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  Drug Use Survey of RESPIMAT in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
An ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTOR AGONIST with a prolonged duration of action. It is used to manage ASTHMA and in the treatment of ... GSK233705 is a high-affinity specific muscarinic receptor (mAChR) antagonist which is being developed for once daily treatment ... The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/63796/Drug-Use-Survey-of-RESPIMAT-in-Patients-With-Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease.html
20. Toxicology & Antidotes Flashcards by Tung Nguyen | Brainscape  20. Toxicology & Antidotes Flashcards by Tung Nguyen | Brainscape
C. Atropine blocks acetylcholine at the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.. D. Atropine is beta-adrenergic agonist at the beta- ... E. Atropine is beta-adrenergic agonist at both the beta-1 and beta-2 receptors.. ... Glucagon acts independent of beta-adrenergic receptors to increase activation of adenylatecyclase. ... A. Atropine is mu-receptor antagonist.. B. Atropine is an acetylcholine agonist.. ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/20-toxicology-amp-antidotes-3943090/packs/2464117
Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
Adrenergic Agonists. Phase 1. 17. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Phase 1. ... Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Beta 1 Subunit. 46.99. DISEASES inferred 14 GeneCards inferred via :. Disorders Publications ... acetylcholine receptor activity. GO:0015464 9.5. CHRNA1 CHRNB1 CHRNE 4. ligand-gated ion channel activity. GO:0015276 9.46. ... receptor clustering. GO:0043113 9.62. AGRN LRP4 14. dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthetic process. GO:0006488 9.61. ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/congenital_myasthenic_syndrome
Prescribing of long-acting beta-2-agonists/inhaled corticosteroids after the SMART trial | BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Full Text  Prescribing of long-acting beta-2-agonists/inhaled corticosteroids after the SMART trial | BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Full Text
... long-acting beta-2-agonist (LABA)) in asthma patients, regulatory actions were taken to promote a guideline-adherent ... The FDA and safe use of long-acting beta-agonists in the treatment of asthma. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(13):1169-71. ... The FDA-mandated trial of safety of long-acting beta-agonists in asthma: finality or futility? Thorax. 2013;68(2):195-8. ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Long-Acting Beta Agonist (LABA) Information. Public health advisory: update on ...
more infohttps://bmcpulmmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12890-015-0051-x?optIn=true
Hyperkalemia - Wikipedia  Hyperkalemia - Wikipedia
Beta2-adrenergic agonist acts on beta-2 receptor to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can cause the rise ... Examples of medications are: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers,[11] and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants ... Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ... High levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline have a protective effect on the cardiac electrophysiology because they bind to beta ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperkalemia
Search Results for Ollendorf, Daniel A., author Health Policy and Services Research  Search Results for 'Ollendorf, Daniel A., author' 'Health Policy and Services Research'
Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists -- economics. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists -- therapeutic use. Anti-Asthmatic Agents ... Bile Acids and Salts -- agonists. Comparative Effectiveness Research. Fatty Liver -- drug therapy. Bile Acids and Salts -- ... Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers -- economics. Antihypertensive Agents -- economics. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Drug ... Bile Acids and Salts -- agonists. Cholangitis -- drug therapy. Comparative Effectiveness Research. Value-Based Purchasing. ...
more infohttps://collections.nlm.nih.gov/?f%5Bdrep2.authorAggregate%5D%5B%5D=Ollendorf%2C+Daniel+A.%2C+author&f%5Bdrep2.isMemberOfCollection%5D%5B%5D=DREPHSR
  • After the SMART trial evaluating the safety of salmeterol (long-acting beta-2-agonist (LABA)) in asthma patients, regulatory actions were taken to promote a guideline-adherent prescribing of LABA only to patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Salmeterol Multicentre Asthma Research Trial (SMART) [ 1 ] was a large randomized controlled trial in asthma patients evaluating the safety of salmeterol (i.e., a long-acting beta-2-agonist [LABA]) compared to placebo in addition to usual asthma care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given that roflumilast is recommended as an 'add-on' medication to patients with severe disease who will inevitably be taking a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA)/ICS combination therapy, we tested the hypothesis that roflumilast augments the ability of glucocorticoids to induce genes with anti-inflammatory activity. (edu.au)
  • ALRI Industries recommends that you take 1 serving of Humapro 25 minutes before taking in any type of protein or amino acids or at least 2 hours after you ingest any sort of protein or amino acid. (bestpricenutrition.com)
  • [2] It increases the overall risk of death by at least ten times. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Women with a history of previous preterm delivery carry the highest risk of recurrence, estimated to be between 17 and 37 percent. (aafp.org)
  • A highly conserved tyrosine residue in G protein-coupled receptors is required for agonist-mediated beta 2-adrenergic receptor sequestration. (duke.edu)
  • An aromatic residue, tyrosine 326 in the prototypical human beta 2-adrenergic receptor, exists in a highly conserved sequence motif in virtually all members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. (duke.edu)
  • These results imply that this tyrosine residue, which is part of a highly conserved sequence motif in G protein-coupled receptors, may be responsible for their agonist-mediated sequestration and that sequestration and down-regulation of the receptor are dissociable phenomena. (duke.edu)
  • [2] An abnormal heart rate can occur which can result in cardiac arrest and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of protamine required to reverse heparin would equate to the amount needed to neutralize the amount of heparin administered in the last 2-2.5 hours. (brainscape.com)