Serotonin Receptor Agonists
Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists
Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists
Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
Receptors, Opioid, kappa
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Receptors, Opioid, mu
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Receptors, Dopamine D2
Receptors, Purinergic P1
Receptors, Opioid, delta
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
Receptors, Dopamine D1
Receptor, Adenosine A2A
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Enkephalin, D-Penicillamine (2,5)-
Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Agonists
Transforming Growth Factor beta
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1
Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists
Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists
Receptors, Dopamine D3
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B
A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.
Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4
Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Receptors, Prostaglandin E
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Receptor, Adenosine A3
Receptor, Adenosine A1
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
Receptors, Histamine H3
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Disease Models, Animal
Receptors, Purinergic P2
Integrin beta Chains
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
beta 2-Glycoprotein I
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Gene Expression Regulation
Receptors, Histamine H2
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Estrogen Receptor beta
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1
Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Receptors, Neuropeptide Y
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Functional and molecular biological evidence for a possible beta3-adrenoceptor in the human detrusor muscle. (1/103)The possible existence of a beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) in the human detrusor muscle was investigated by in vitro functional studies and analysis of mRNA expression. Isoprenaline, noradrenaline and adrenaline each produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the human detrusor. The rank order for their relaxing potencies was isoprenaline (pD2 6.37+/-0.07) > or = noradrenaline (pD2 6.07+/-0.12) > or = adrenaline (pD2 5.88< or =0.11). Neither dobutamine (beta1- and beta2-AR agonist) nor procaterol (beta2-AR agonist) produced any significant relaxation at concentrations up to 10(-5) M. BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A (beta3-AR agonists), relaxed the preparations significantly at concentrations higher than 10(-6) M. The pD2 values for BRL37344A, CL316243 and CGP-12177A were 6.42+/-0.25, 5.53+/-0.09 and 5.74+/-0.14, respectively. CGP-20712A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta1-AR antagonist, did not affect the isoprenaline-induced relaxation. On the other hand, ICI-118,551, a beta2-AR antagonist, produced a rightward parallel shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline only at the highest concentration used (10(-5) > M) and its pKB value was 5.71+/-0.19. Moreover, SR58894A (10(-7) - 10(-5) M), a beta3-AR antagonist, caused a rightward shift of the concentration-relaxation curve for isoprenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. The pA2 value and slope obtained from Schild plots were 6.24+/-0.20 and 0.68+/-0.31. The beta1-, beta2- and beta3-AR mRNAs were all positively expressed in detrusor smooth muscle preparations in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. In conclusion, the present results provide the first evidence for the existence of the beta3-AR subtype in the human detrusor. They also suggest that the relaxation induced by adrenergic stimulation of the human detrusor is mediated mainly through beta3-AR activation. (+info)
Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor. (2/103)We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers. (+info)
Dobutamine as selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist in in vivo studies on human thermogenesis and lipid utilization. (3/103)The use of dobutamine as selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist in in vivo studies on human thermogenesis and lipid utilization was investigated in 20 men. At 2.5, 5, and 10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), dobutamine induced significant increases in energy expenditure, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis. The beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (bolus: 42.5 microg/kg, infusion: 1.02 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) blocked all dobutamine-induced effects on thermogenesis and lipid utilization. All parameters remained at levels comparable to those during saline infusion. The dose of atenolol used did not inhibit beta(2)-adrenoceptor-specific changes in energy expenditure, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis during salbutamol infusion (85 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)). This indicates that atenolol was specific for beta(1)-adrenoceptors and did not camouflage concomitant beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation during dobutamine infusion. Therefore, we conclude that dobutamine can be used as a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist at dosages +info)
Binding pockets of the beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors for subtype-selective agonists. (4/103)We examined the subtype-selective binding site of the beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs). The beta(1)/beta(2)-chimeric receptors showed the importance of the second and seventh transmembrane domains (TM2 and TM7) of the beta(2)AR for the binding of the beta(2)-selective agonists such as formoterol and procaterol. Alanine-substituted mutants of TM7 of the beta(2)AR showed that Tyr(308,) located at the top of TM7, mainly contributed to beta(2) selectivity. However, Tyr(308) interacted with formoterol and procaterol in two different ways. The results of Ala- and Phe-substituted mutants indicated that the phenyl group of Tyr(308) interacted with the phenyl group in the N-substituent of formoterol (hydrophobic interaction), and the hydroxyl group of Tyr(308) interacted with the protonated amine of procaterol (hydrophilic interaction). In contrast to beta(2)AR, TM2 is a major determinant that beta(1)-selective agonists such as denopamine and T-0509 bound the beta(1)AR with high affinity. Three amino acids (Leu(110), Thr(117), and Val(120)) in TM2 of the beta(1)AR were identified as major determinants for beta(1)-selective binding of these agonists. Three-dimensional models built on the basis of the predicted structure of rhodopsin showed that Tyr(308) of the beta(2)AR covered the binding pocket formed by TM2 and TM7 from the upper side, and Thr(117) of the beta(1)AR located in the middle of the binding pocket to provide a hydrogen bonding for the beta(1)-selective agonists. These data indicate that TM2 and TM7 of the betaAR formed the binding pocket that binds the betaAR subtype-selective agonists with high affinity. (+info)
Identification of the endophilins (SH3p4/p8/p13) as novel binding partners for the beta1-adrenergic receptor. (5/103)Several G-protein coupled receptors, such as the beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR), contain polyproline motifs within their intracellular domains. Such motifs in other proteins are known to mediate protein-protein interactions such as with Src homology (SH)3 domains. Accordingly, we used the proline-rich third intracellular loop of the beta1-AR either as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in biochemical "pull-down" assays or as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system to search for interacting proteins. Both approaches identified SH3p4/p8/p13 (also referred to as endophilin 1/2/3), a SH3 domain-containing protein family, as binding partners for the beta1-AR. In vitro and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, SH3p4 specifically binds to the third intracellular loop of the beta1-AR but not to that of the beta2-AR. Moreover, this interaction is mediated by the C-terminal SH3 domain of SH3p4. Functionally, overexpression of SH3p4 promotes agonist-induced internalization and modestly decreases the Gs coupling efficacy of beta1-ARs in HEK293 cells while having no effect on beta2-ARs. Thus, our studies demonstrate a role of the SH3p4/p8/p13 protein family in beta1-AR signaling and suggest that interaction between proline-rich motifs and SH3-containing proteins may represent a previously underappreciated aspect of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. (+info)
Analysis of domain responsible for desensitization of beta1-adrenergic receptor. (6/103)When the wild type beta1-adrenergic receptor (WT-beta1AR) was expressed in Sf9 cells, the beta1AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were desensitized by prior treatment with isoproterenol. The extent of beta1AR desensitization was not modified, and the onset was not promoted by the overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), GRK5 or GRK6. However, overexpression of the dominant negative mutant of GRK2 appeared to inhibit desensitization of the beta1AR. The change of the potential protein kinase A phosphorylation site located at the intracellular third loop did not affect beta1AR desensitization. Desensitization of the truncated mutant, in which nearly all of the serine and threonine residues from the carboxyl terminus were eliminated, was the same as that of the WT-beta1AR. A deletion mutant that lacked serine and threonine residues of the intracellular third loop was also desensitized by isoproterenol stimulation. Furthermore, the deletion of serine and threonine residues from both the intracellular third loop and carboxyl terminus did not affect desensitization of the beta1AR. These results suggested that phosphorylation by endogenous GRKs in Sf9 cells contributed to desensitization of the beta1AR and that the regions other than third intracellular loop and carboxyl terminus may be responsible for beta1AR desensitization. (+info)
Regulation of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenergic agonist-stimulated lipolytic response in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rat white adipocytes. (7/103)1. This study examined the effects of thyroid status on the lipolytic responses of rat white adipocytes to beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) stimulation. The beta 1- and beta 3-AR mRNAs and proteins were measured by Northern and saturation analyses, respectively. Glycerol production and adenyl cyclase (AC) activity induced by various non-selective and selective beta 1/beta 3-AR agonists and drugs which act distal to the receptor in the signalling cascade were measured in cells from untreated, triiodothyronine (T3)-treated and thyroidectomized rats. 2. The beta 3-AR density was enhanced (72%) by T3-treatment and reduced (50%) by introduction of a hypothyroid state while beta 1-AR number remained unaffected. The beta 1- and beta 3-AR density was correlated with the specific mRNA level in all thyroid status. 3. The lipolytic responses to isoprenaline, noradrenaline (beta 1/beta 3/beta 3-AR agonists) and BRL 37344 (beta 3-AR agonist) were potentiated by 48, 58 and 48%, respectively in hyperthyroidism and reduced by about 80% in hypothyroidism. 4. T3-treatment increased the maximal lipolytic response to the partial beta 3-AR (CGP 12177) and beta 1-AR (xamoterol) agonists by 234 and 260%, respectively, increasing their efficacy (intrinsic activity: 0.95 versus 0.43 and 1.02 versus 0.42). The maximal AC response to these agonists was increased by 84 and 58%, respectively, without changing their efficacy. 5. In the hypothyroid state, the maximal lipolytic and AC responses were decreased with CGP (0.17 +/- 0.03 versus 0.41 +/- 0.08 mumol glycerol/10(6) adipocytes; 0.048 +/- 0.005 versus 0.114 +/- 0.006 pmol cyclic AMP min-1 mg-1) but not changed with xamoterol. 6. The changes in lipolytic responses to postreceptor-acting agents (forskolin, enprofylline and dibutenyl cyclic AMP, (Bu)2cAMP) suggest the modifications on receptor coupling and phosphodiesterase levels in both thyroid states. 7. Thyroid status affects lipolysis by modifying beta 3-AR density and postreceptor events without changes in the beta 1-AR functionality. (+info)
Differential adrenergic regulation of the gene expression of the beta-adrenoceptor subtypes beta1, beta2 and beta3 in brown adipocytes. (8/103)In brown adipocytes, fundamental cellular processes (cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis) are regulated by adrenergic stimulation, notably through beta-adrenergic receptors. The presence of all three beta-receptor subtypes has been demonstrated in brown adipose tissue. Due to the significance of the action of these receptors and indications that the subtypes govern different processes, the adrenergic regulation of the expression of the beta(1)-(,) beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor genes was examined in murine brown-fat primary cell cultures. Moderate levels of beta(1)-receptor mRNA, absence of beta(2)-receptor mRNA and high levels of beta(3)-receptor mRNA were observed in mature brown adipocytes (day 6 in culture). Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) addition led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- (markedly enhanced expression) and beta(3)-gene expression (full cessation of expression, as previously shown). beta(2)-Gene expression was induced by noradrenaline, but only transiently (<1 h). The apparent affinities (EC(50)) of noradrenaline were clearly different (7 nM for the beta(1)-gene and+info)
Pak1 is required to maintain ventricular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and electrophysiological stability through SERCA2a regulation in mice...
BACKGROUND: Impaired sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) uptake resulting from decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase type 2a (SERCA2a) expression or activity is a characteristic of heart failure with its associated ventricular arrhythmias. Recent attempts at gene therapy of these conditions explored strategies enhancing SERCA2a expression and the activity as novel approaches to heart failure management. We here explore the role of Pak1 in maintaining ventricular Ca(2+) homeostasis and electrophysiological stability under both normal physiological and acute and chronic β-adrenergic stress conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice with a cardiomyocyte-specific Pak1 deletion (Pak1(cko)), but not controls (Pak1(f/f)), showed high incidences of ventricular arrhythmias and electrophysiological instability during either acute β-adrenergic or chronic β-adrenergic stress leading to hypertrophy, induced by isoproterenol. Isolated Pak1(cko) ventricular myocytes correspondingly showed aberrant cellular Ca(2+)
Genetic and Molecular Basis of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Impact on Clinical Management Parts I and II | Circulation
The different time- and voltage-dependence of the ionic currents involved in LQTS may help explain some aspects of the variable phenotype and raise the possibility of gene-specific treatment. Indeed, available data on several hundred genotyped patients indicate the existence of gene-specific differences in the triggers for cardiac events.28 Exercise-related events dominate the clinical picture in IKs-related LQTS (LQT1).28 IKs is the predominant K+ current in conditions of high sympathetic activity, particularly at shorter cycle lengths. Thus, reduced IKs will be predicted to lead to inadequate action potential shortening with adrenergic stress and thereby account for the high prevalence of arrhythmic events in these patients during exercise. By contrast, most LQT3 patients experience events during sleep or at rest; they are also able to markedly shorten their QT interval during exercise.29 In this case, it seems likely that the presence of normal K+ currents produces normal action potential ...
AID 640205 - Intrinsic activity at beta2-adrenoceptor endogenously expressed in human BEAS-2B cells assessed as cAMP...
BioAssay record AID 640205 submitted by ChEMBL: Intrinsic activity at beta2-adrenoceptor endogenously expressed in human BEAS-2B cells assessed as cAMP accumulation by homogeneous radioimmunoassay.
Serpinin in the rat eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: To investigate the distribution of the novel chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide serpinin in the rat eye.. Methods: The molecular form of serpinin-immunoreactivity detected by a highly specific antiserum was evaluated both by western blot analysis and reversed phase-HPLC with subsequent ELISA in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and retina and the presence and distribution of the peptide was explored in the rat TG and eye by immunofluorescence.. Results: There was no band in western blots in the rat TG but two weak bands at 30 and 50 kDa in the retina. Only free serpinin but no (pGlu)-serpinin and no serpinin-RRG were detected by RP-HPLC in the rat TG and retina. Numerous small- and medium-sized cells contained serpinin-immunoreactivity in the rat TG and full colocalization with substance P was evident with a more widespread expression of serpinin. Immunoreactivity was present in nerves in the corneal, limbal, irideal, ciliary and choroidal/scleral stroma, sphincter and dilator muscle ...
Psychiatry, The Brain and the Deep Blue Sea
It has been said that there are still two great unexplored regions left on earth- the deep oceans and the human brain. But whilst much about how the brain functions remains unclear, there is no doubt...
CRAN - Package dCovTS
Computing and plotting the distance covariance and correlation function of a univariate or a multivariate time series. Both versions of biased and unbiased estimators of distance covariance and correlation are provided. Test statistics for testing pairwise independence are also implemented. Some data sets are also included.. ...
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Drugs on Prescription | RX24Drugs
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BS EN ISO 2580-2:2003
ISO 62:1999, ISO 75-2:1993, ISO 178:1993, ISO 179:1993, ISO 180:1993, ISO 293:1986, ISO 294-1:1996, ISO 306:1994, ISO 527-2:1993, ISO 527-4:1997, ISO 899-1:1993, ISO 1133:1997, ISO 1183:1987, ISO 1656:1996, ISO 2561:1974, ISO 2580-1, ISO 2818:1994, ISO 3167:1993, ISO 4581:1994, ISO 4589:1984, ISO 8256:1990, ISO 10350:1993, ISO 11357-2:1999, IEC 60093:1980, IEC 60112:1979, IEC 60243-1:1998, IEC 60250:1969, IEC 60296:1982, IEC 60695-11-10:1999, EN ISO 62:1999, EN ISO 75-2:1996, EN ISO 293:2003, EN ISO 294-1:1998, EN ISO 306:1996, EN ISO 527-2:1996, EN ISO 527-4:1997, EN ISO 1133:1999, EN ISO 2818:1996, EN ISO 8256:1996 ...
Iso Sunibutol in Malayalam ഉപയോഗങ്ങൾ, ഡോസേജ്, പാർശ്വഫലങ്ങൾ, പ്രയോജനങ്ങൾ, പ്രതിപ്രവർത്തനങ്ങൾ, മുന്നറിയിപ്പ് - Iso ...
Iso Sunibutol in Malayalam - ന്റെ ഉപയോഗങ്ങൾ, ഡോസേജ്, പാർശ്വഫലങ്ങൾ, പ്രയോജനങ്ങൾ, പ്രതിപ്രവർത്തനങ്ങൾ, മുന്നറിയിപ്പ് എന്നിവ കണ്ടെത്തുക - Iso Sunibutol upayogangal, dossge, parswafalangal, prayojanangal, prathipravarthanangal, munnariyippu
CALORSTEAM 170°C ISO 6134- 1A - TUBO VAPORE RINFORZO TESSILE ISO 6134-1A
CALORSTEAM 170°C ISO 6134- 1A, tubo vapore rinforzo tessile iso 6134-1a, applicazione mandata vapore saturo. particolarmente indicato per operazioni di lavaggio e sgrassamento di condutture, serbatoi,…
Myocyte death in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats in angiotensin II- dependent
To determine whether myocyte death and angiotensin II (AT II) formation are implicated in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, rats were injected with streptozotocin, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured at 3, 10, and 28 days. Expression of the components of the renin-angiotensin system ( …
Metoprolol - Lopressor Summary Report | CureHunter
Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
ICD-10-CM Code T44.7X1 - Poisoning by beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, accidental (unintentional)
T44.7X1 is a non-billable code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of poisoning by beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, accidental (unintentional).
ARCA Announces Publication of Bucindolol Data in Circulation: Heart Failure - Drugs.com MedNews
Data from the Clinical Study BEST Indicate That in the Study Norepinephrine Lowering and Clinical Therapeutic Responses to Bucindolol Were Strongly Influenced b
EN482, EN45544-2:1999, EN45544-3:1999, EN50270, EN60073, EN60068-2-6, ISO 3534-1, ISO 6141, ISO 6142, ISO 6143, ISO 6144, ISO 6145-1, ISO 6145-3, ISO 6145-4, ISO 6145-6, ISO 6147, ISO 6879:1995, ISO 7504 ...
Dobutamine Injection,Dobutamine Hydrochloride Injection,Dobutrex Injuction Manufacturers in Amritsar
Dobutamine Injection manufacturers - Systacare Remedies exporters, suppliers of Dobutamine Hydrochloride Injection india, indian Dobutamine Injection,Dobutrex Injuction manufacturer, wholesale Dobutamine Hydrochloride Injection suppliers, Dobutamine Injection, Dobutamine Hydrochloride Injection, Dobutrex Injuction
Typically, G protein-coupled receptors interact with agonists via high- and low-affinity sites, and their relative affinities can be examined with competition experiments using a radioactive antagonist. Displacement of [3H]mesulergine by 5-HT at 5-HT2C receptors, however, fitted well to a single site-binding model with a Ki of 159 ± 12 nM (Fig. 2). This monophasic profile indicates more than 90% of receptors existing in low-affinity states for 5-HT, leaving only a negligible receptor population in high-affinity states, probably caused by high-receptor density of the cloned cells (Alberts et al., 1999). PNU-69176E concentration-dependently shifted the displacement curve to the left (Fig. 3C). The Ki for 5-HT decreased from 159 ± 12 to 86 ± 10, 36 ± 3, 10 ± 1, and 6.4 ± 0.9 nM in the presence of PNU-69176E at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μM, respectively. Such parallel shifts of the displacement curve may indicate that the whole receptor population undergoes gradual and uniform conformational changes ...
Phenomenex HPLC Application #18956: b-Blockers (Bupranolol) on Lux 5 µm Cellulose-2 by Chiral SFC
HPLC Application #18956: b-Blockers (Bupranolol) on Lux 5 µm Cellulose-2 by Chiral SFC. Column used: Lux® 5 µm Cellulose-2, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4457-E0
ISO 3166-2:BR - Вікіпедія
ISO 3166-2:BR - стандарт ISO, який визначає геокоди для Бразилії. Він є частиною стандарту ISO 3166-2. Перша частина коду - код ISO 3166 для Бразилії (BR), друга частина - двоцифровий код регіону. ...