Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
A beta-2 selective adrenergic antagonist. It is used primarily in animal and tissue experiments to characterize BETA-2 ANDRENERGIC RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
A prazosin-related compound that is a selective alpha-1-adrenergic blocker.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A selective and potent serotonin-2 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of a variety of syndromes related to anxiety and depression. The drug also improves the subjective quality of sleep and decreases portal pressure.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.

Neural modulation of cephalexin intestinal absorption through the di- and tripeptide brush border transporter of rat jejunum in vivo. (1/217)

Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.  (+info)

Antiadrenergic effect of chronic amiodarone therapy in human heart failure. (2/217)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone on neurochemical parameters of sympathetic nervous activity in patients with congestive heart failure. BACKGROUND: Unlike most antiarrhythmic agents, amiodarone has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on survival in some studies of patients with congestive heart failure. The pharmacology of this agent is complex, and as such, the mode of its action is unclear in humans. Some experimental studies suggest that amiodarone exerts a sympatholytic effect. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of amiodarone on sympathetic nervous activity, we measured the total systemic and cardiac norepinephrine (NE) spillover rate by isotope dilution in 58 patients with severe heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction 20 +/- 1%), 22 of whom were receiving chronic amiodarone treatment. Release rates for dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA, a precursor of NE), and endogenous and radiolabeled dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG and 3H-DHPG, intraneuronal metabolites of NE and 3H-NE, respectively) were also determined to assess sympathetic neuronal integrity. RESULTS: Amiodarone-treated patients had significantly lower cardiac spillover rates for NE (42%, p = 0.001), DOPA (74%, p < 0.001), DHPG (44%, p < 0.01) and 3H-DHPG (51%, p < 0.01) than those patients not treated with amiodarone. Hemodynamic assessment of amiodarone-treated patients revealed higher cardiac output (4.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.2 liters/min, p < 0.01), and slightly lower pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (18 +/- 2 vs. 22 +/- 1, p = NS) than in untreated patients. After correction for the potential confounding effect of hemodynamic differences, amiodarone-treated patients continued to demonstrate significantly lower spillover rates of NE, DOPA and DHPG from the heart. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that amiodarone may exert beneficial effects on the failing human heart through a sympatholytic process, and this action appears to be relatively cardioselective.  (+info)

Involvement of cGMP-dependent protein kinase in adrenergic potentiation of transmitter release from the calyx-type presynaptic terminal. (3/217)

I have previously reported that norepinephrine (NE) induces a sustained potentiation of transmitter release in the chick ciliary ganglion through a mechanism pharmacologically distinct from any known adrenergic receptors. Here I report that the adrenergic potentiation of transmitter release was enhanced by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and by zaprinast, an inhibitor of cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase. Exogenous application of the membrane-permeable cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP (8Br-cGMP), potentiated the quantal transmitter release, and after potentiation, the addition of NE was no longer effective. On the other hand, 8Br-cAMP neither potentiated the transmitter release nor occluded the NE-induced potentiation. The NE-induced potentiation was blocked by neither nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nor NO scavenger. The quantal transmitter release was not potentiated by NO donors, e.g., sodium nitroprusside. The NE-induced potentiation and its enhancement by IBMX was antagonized by two inhibitors of protein kinase G (PKG), Rp isomer of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate and KT5823. As with NE-induced potentiation, the effects of 8Br-cGMP on both the resting intraterminal [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and the action potential-dependent increment of [Ca2+]i (DeltaCa) in the presynaptic terminal were negligible. The reduction of the paired pulse ratio of EPSC is consistent with the notion that the NE- and cGMP-dependent potentiation of transmitter release was attributable mainly to an increase of the exocytotic fusion probability. These results indicate that NE binds to a novel adrenergic receptor that activates guanylyl cyclase and that accumulation of cGMP activates PKG, which may phosphorylate a target protein involved in the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles.  (+info)

Venous hydrostatic indifference point as a marker of postnatal adaptation to orthostasis in swine. (4/217)

The postulate that venous adaptation assists postural baroreflex regulation by shifting the hydrostatic indifference point (HIP) toward the heart was investigated in eight midazolam-sedated newborn piglets. Whole body head-up (+15, +30, and +45 degrees ) and head-down (-15 and -30 degrees ) tilt provided a physiological range of orthostatic strain. HIP for all positive tilts shifted toward the heart (P < 0.05), +45 degrees HIP shifted most [6.7 +/- 0.3, 5.9 +/- 0.5, and 3.6 +/- 0.3 (SE) cm caudal to right atrium on days 1, 3, and 6, respectively]. HIP for negative tilts (3.0 +/- 0.2 cm caudal to right atrium) did not shift with postnatal age. Euthanasia on day 6 caused 2.1 +/- 0.3-cm caudal displacement of HIP for positive and negative tilts (P < 0.05). HIP proximity to right atrium was not altered by alpha-, beta-adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor blockade on day 5. It is concluded that early HIP migration reflects enhancement of venous pressure control to head-up orthostatic strain. The effect is independent of baroreflex-mediated adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor mechanisms.  (+info)

Stimulation by transforming growth factor-alpha of DNA synthesis and proliferation of adult rat hepatocytes in primary cultures: modulation by alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists. (5/217)

We investigated the effects of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) on DNA synthesis and proliferation in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes and examined the influence of alpha and beta adrenoceptor agonists on the TGF-alpha-induced responses. TGF-alpha (1.0 ng/ml) produced a 4.1-fold elevation of DNA synthesis during 3 h of culture and a 1.2-fold increase in the nucleus number (proliferation) during 4 h of culture at a cell density of 3.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2). The TGF-alpha-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation were dose-dependent at EC(50) values of 0.36 ng/ml and 0.45 ng/ml, respectively. Hepatocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation induced by 1.0 ng/ml TGF-alpha did not reduce even at higher initial plating densities (5.0 x 10(4) and 1.0 x 10(5) cells/cm(2)). Increasing concentrations of the beta(2) adrenoceptor agonist metaproterenol (10(-7)-10(-6) M) markedly reduced the proliferative effects of TGF-alpha, whereas those of the alpha(2) adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-[2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino]-quinoxaline (UK-14304; 10(-6)-10(-5) M) and the alpha(1) adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (10(-7)-10(-6) M) significantly potentiated the TGF-alpha action. The proliferative effects of TGF-alpha (1.0 ng/ml) were not affected significantly by a monoclonal antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody (1-100 ng/ml) and were almost completely blocked by specific inhibitors of signal transducers such as genistein (10(-5) M), 1-6[[17beta-3methoxyestra-1,3, 5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrol2,5-dione (U-73122; 0(-5) M), wortmannin (5 x 10(-7) M), sphingosine (5 x 10(-6) M), 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059; 5 x 10(-5) M), and rapamycin (10 ng/ml). These results suggest that among the elements that link signals of cell surface receptor to the nucleus, the proliferative action of TGF-alpha is mediated, at least, by tyrosine kinase, phospholipase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase.  (+info)

Mechanisms of action of OPC-28326, a selective hindlimb vasodilator. (6/217)

The unique cardiovascular profile of OPC-28326 [4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethylamino)-1-(3, 5-dimethyl-4-propionylaminobenzoyl)piperidine hydrochloride monohydrate] provides insight into basic mechanisms of this new drug as determined by experiments in dogs and rats. In anesthetized open-chest dogs, an i.v. administration of a low dose (0.3 and 1.0 microg/kg) of OPC-28326 selectively increased femoral artery blood flow with only minimal action on systemic blood pressure, heart rate and coronary, carotid, vertebral, renal, and mesenteric blood flows. Biochemical study suggests that OPC-28326 had no effect on phosphodiesterase-3 and -5. OPC-28326 dose-dependently inhibited phenylephrine-induced increases in blood pressure in spinally anesthetized dogs. The potency of OPC-28326 was, however, about 180 times lower than that of prazosin. Although binding studies have revealed an affinity of OPC-28326 to serotonin 5-HT(2) receptors, the drug is without effect, except at very high concentrations, on serotonin-induced contraction in an isolated canine femoral artery preparation. The potency of OPC-28326 on the increase in femoral artery blood flow was about 14 times higher than that of prazosin but was at about the same level as that obtained with yohimbine in canine autoperfused femoral artery preparations. In perfused rat hindlimb preparations, OPC-28326 inhibited the decrease in perfusion flow induced by brimonidine, a selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. The potency of OPC-28326 was at least 10 times less than that of yohimbine. Taken together, the results show that at low doses, OPC-28326 selectively exerts a potent vasodilating effect on the femoral arterial bed, in part due to an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-blocking activity.  (+info)

Adrenergic and purinergic components in bisected vas deferens from spontaneously hypertensive rats. (7/217)

1. Purinergic and adrenergic components of the contractile response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) have been investigated in epididymal and prostatic portions of Wystar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) vas deferens. 2. In both halves of SHR and WKY vas deferens, EFS (40 V, 0.5 ms for 30 s, 0.5-32 Hz) evoked frequency-related contractions. The neurogenic responses were biphasic, consisting of a rapid non-adrenergic response, dominant in the prostatic portion, followed by a slow tonic adrenergic component, dominant in the epididymal half. 3. Phasic and tonic components of the frequency-response curves evoked by EFS were significantly higher in the epididymal but not in the prostatic portion of vas deferens from SHR compared to WKY rats. 4. The alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.1 microM) was more effective against both components of the contractile response in the epididymal end of SHR than in WKY rats. 5. Inhibition by alpha, beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP 3 and 30 microM) was higher in both components of the contractile responses in WKY preparations than in SHR. 6. Combined alpha1-adrenoceptor and P2x-purinoceptor antagonism virtually abolished the EFS-evoked contractile response in both strains. The degree of inhibition by prazosin (0.1 microM) after P2x-purinoceptor blockade was higher in SHR than in WKY rats. 7. These results demonstrate a modification in the purinergic and noradrenergic contribution to neurogenic responses in SHR and WKY animals besides a co-participation of ATP and noradrenaline in both contractile components of the response to EFS.  (+info)

S18327 (1-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-1, 2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)piperid-1-yl]ethyl]3-phenyl imidazolin-2-one), a novel, potential antipsychotic displaying marked antagonist properties at alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors: I. Receptorial, neurochemical, and electrophysiological profile. (8/217)

S18327 displayed modest affinity for human (h)D(2) and hD(3) receptors and high affinity for hD(4) receptors. At each, S18327 antagonized stimulation of [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding by dopamine (DA). It also blocked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase at hD(3) receptors. The affinity of S18327 at hD(1) and hD(5) sites was modest. S18327 showed pronounced affinity for human serotonin (h5-HT)(2A) receptors and human alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptors (hARs), at which it antagonized increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration levels elicited by 5-HT and norepinephrine (NE), respectively. S18327 presented significant affinity for halpha(2A)-ARs and antagonized NE-induced[(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding both at these sites and at alpha(2)-ARs in rat amygdala. Reflecting blockade of alpha(2)-autoreceptors, S18327 enhanced firing of adrenergic neurons in locus ceruleus, accelerated hippocampal synthesis of NE, and increased dialysate levels of NE in hippocampus, accumbens, and frontal cortex. S18327 abolished inhibition of ventrotegmental area-localized dopaminergic neurons by apomorphine. However, S18327 alone did not affect their activity and only modestly enhanced cerebral turnover of DA and dialysate levels of DA in striatum and accumbens. In contrast, S18327 markedly increased dialysate levels of DA in frontal cortex, an action abolished by the selective alpha(2)-AR agonist, S18616. Finally, S18327 reduced synthesis and dialysate levels of 5-HT in striatum and suppressed firing of dorsal raphe-localized serotonergic neurons, an action attenuated by the alpha(1)-AR agonist cirazoline. In conclusion, S18327 possesses marked antagonist activity at alpha(1)-ARs and D(4) and 5-HT(2A) receptors and less potent antagonist activity at alpha(2)-ARs and D(1) and D(2) receptors. Antagonism by S18327 of alpha(2)-ARs enhances adrenergic transmission and reinforces frontocortical dopaminergic transmission, whereas blockade of alpha(1)-ARs inhibits dorsal raphe-derived serotonergic pathways. As further described in the accompanying paper, this profile of activity may contribute to the potential antipsychotic properties of S18327.  (+info)

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This paper present ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of imazamethabenz-methyl (IMBM) (mixture of the isomers methyl 6-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]-m-toluate, m-imazamethabenz, and methyl 2-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]-p-toluate, p-imazamethabenz) and the corresponding carboxylic acid, imazamethabenz-acid (IMBA). The spectral characteristics are determined as functions of the pH. The appreciable absorbance in the visible (or near-ultraviolet) region of the spectra indicates ...
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Four 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b][1,x]naphthyridines, x = 5-8 (6-9) have been obtained from aromatic aldehydes (11-14) and 2-amino-1-methyl-2-imidazolin-5-one (15) in one step. The N-1 - and N-3 -methyl isomers of 2-aminoimidazo-[4,5-b]quinoline (5 and 10) were prepared from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde via the isolated E-isomers of imidazolin-5-one (17) and imidazolin-4-one (20).. ...
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As described in the accompanying paper, the novel ligand S18327 (1-{2-[4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)piperid-1-yl]ethyl}3-phenyl imidazolin-2-one) displays pronounced antagonist properties at α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs), serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A], and D4 receptors, as well as less potent antagonist actions at α2-AR and D1and D2 receptors. Interestingly, the α2-AR antagonist properties of S18327 underlie a generalized enhancement of cerebral adrenergic transmission and a preferential facilitation of the activity of frontocortical compared with subcortical dopaminergic pathways. On the other hand, the inhibitory influence of S18327 on the activity of serotonergic neurons originating in the dorsal raphe nucleus may be attributed to its antagonist actions at α1-ARs. Notably, S18327 only weakly accelerates striatal turnover of dopamine (DA). In light of these observations, in the present study we examined the activity of S18327 in paradigms predictive of the control of ...
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Arotinolol (INN, marketed under the tradename Almarl) is a medication in the class of mixed alpha/beta blockers. It also acts as a β3 receptor agonist. A 1979 publication suggests arotinolol as having first been described in the scientific literature by Sumitomo Chemical as β-adrenergic blocking, antiarrhythmic compound S-596. It is used in the treatment of high blood pressure and essential tremor. Recommended dosage is 10-30 mg per day. Zhao, Jin; Golozoubova, Valeria; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan (July 2001). Arotinolol is a weak partial agonist on beta 3-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 79 (7): 585-593. doi:10.1139/cjpp-79-7-585. PMID 11478592. Takahashi, H; Yoshida, T; Nishimura, M; Nakanishi, T; Kondo, M; Yoshimura, M (September 1992). Beta-3 Adrenergic Agonist, BRL-26830A, and Alpha/Beta Blocker, Arotinolol, Markedly Increase Regional Blood Flow in the Brown Adipose Tissue in Anesthetized Rats. Japanese Circulation Journal. 56 (9): 936-42. ...
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Product Description Hot Sale Synephrine steroid for Losing Weight CAS 94-07-5 chemical Synephrine Details: CAS: 94-07-5 MF: C9H13NO2 MW: 167.21 EINECS: 202-300-9 Appearance: Light yellow to off-white fine powder Usage: used for rising blood pressure Product Categories: Plant Extract Synonyms: oxedrine;Synephrine;(+/-)-SYNEPHRINE;SYNEPHRINE;4-hydroxy-alpha-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol;AKOS NCG1-0008;1-[4-HYDROXYPHENYL]-2-METHYLAMINOETHANOL;AURORA KA-6561 Description: Synephrine is a kind of biological active substance, mainly extracted from the…
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Pharmacological studies on synephrine date back to the late 1920s, when it was observed that injected synephrine raised blood pressure, constricted peripheral blood vessels, dilated pupils, stimulated the uterus, and relaxed the intestines in experimental animals.[37][37][61][62] Representative of this early work is the paper by Tainter and Seidenfeld, who were the first researchers to systematically compare the different effects of the two synephrine enantiomers, d- and l- synephrine, as well as of the racemate, d,l-synephrine, in various animal assays.[41] In experiments on anesthetized cats, Tainter and Seidenfeld confirmed earlier reports of the increase in blood pressure produced by intravenous doses of synephrine, showing that the median pressor doses for the isomers were: l-synephrine: 0.5 mg/kg; d,l-synephrine: 1.0 mg/kg; and d-synephrine: 2-20 mg/kg. These effects lasted 2-3 minutes, peaking at ~30 seconds after administration. l-Synephrine was thus the more potent enantiomer, with ...
If given by the intra-arterial route, the immediate effect of the hydrogenated alkaloids of ergot is unpredictable. Vasodilation is obtained in some patients only. However, it was found that in those cases who do not react, the vessels respond more easily to the release of sympathetic tone, proving that, nevertheless, the drug has had an (potential) effect, probably on the neurovascular apparatus. This effect could be demonstrated for many hours and is, therefore, of considerable therapeutic interest. Even with the higher local concentrations possible by the intra-arterial route, the hydrogenated alkaloids of ergot still did not exhibit any adrenolytic action on the peripheral blood vessels in man.. ...
Substitution reactions of (E)-11-(3-bromopropylidene)-6,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,e]thiepin (VIIIa) and its 2-chloro derivative VIIIb with 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine gave the title compounds IIIa and IIIb which afforded by treatment with acetic anhydride, decanoyl chloride and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride the esters IVab-VIab. Reduction of the olefinic compounds IIIa and IIIb with hydrolytic acid resulted in the saturated amines IXa and IXb. The piperazine derivativeX was obtained by a substitution reaction of 2,11-dichloro-6,11-dihydrobenzo[b,e]thiepin with 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine. The amino alcohols IIIa and IIIb, as well as their acetates and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates, are almost devoid of the CNS effects. The decanates Va and Vb have not the properties of the depot antipsychotics (neither antidepressants, nor neuroleptics). The saturated amino alcohol IXa showed some antihistamine, spasmolytic and adrenolytic effects.. ...
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An insidious middleman that seals the deadly deal between Aβ and tau could arise from the tiny locus coeruleus, the adrenergic center of the brain. Researchers reported that when noradrenaline binds adrenergic receptors that have also hooked Aβ, the resulting signaling cascade activates GSK-3β, a tau kinase. In the presence of noradrenaline, minuscule amounts of Aβ oligomers were sufficient to start the cascade, while adrenergic antagonists could stop it.. ...
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Adrenergic receptor antagonistsEdit. Propranolol, the first beta-blocker to be successfully developed ... Aldosterone receptor antagonists are not recommended as first-line agents for blood pressure,[35] but spironolactone and ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonistsEdit. Central alpha agonists lower blood pressure by stimulating alpha-receptors in the ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. ...
Adams, H. Richard (2013). "Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists". In Riviere, Jim E.; Papich, Mark G. (eds.). Veterinary ... Lacroix, Jean-Silvain (1989). "Adrenergic and non-adrenergic mechanisms in sympathetic vascular control of nasal mucosa". Acta ... "Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists". In Riviere, Jim E.; Papich, Mark G. (eds.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. pp ... Direct acting sympathomimetic amines, such as phenylephrine stimulate alpha adrenergic receptors, while mixed-acting agents, ...
282-. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. NICKERSON M, DRESEL PE (1958). "Adrenergic drugs and their antagonists". Postgrad Med. 24 (3): ...
... is a beta-adrenergic antagonist. Nakayama, K; Oshima, T; Koike, H (1981). "Assessment of beta-blockade and the non- ... specific effect of bucumolol, a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, on atrioventricular conduction in anesthetized dogs". Archives ...
It is an α1-adrenergic antagonist. In the United Kingdom, Moxisylte is marketed as Opilon (Archimedes Pharma UK Ltd) and is ...
Alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist Increase blood pressure Yohimbine[111] Prognosis[edit]. POTS has a favorable prognosis when ... Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist Constrict the peripheral blood vessels aiding venous return. Midodrine[17][89][90][91] ... alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist Decreases blood pressure and sympathetic nerve traffic. Clonidine,[12] Methyldopa[12] ... Vasopressin receptor antagonist Helps retain water, Increase blood volume Desmopressin (DDAVP) [95] ...
... is an antihypertensive alpha-adrenergic antagonist. Trcka, V; König, J; Mácová, S; Smíd, M; Helfert, I; Votavová, M; ... a novel alpha-adrenergic antagonist". Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition. 10 (6): 581-9. doi:10.1002/bdd.2510100607. PMID ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Mostaghim, R; Maddox, YT; Ramwell, PW (1986). "Endothelial potentiation ...
Beta-adrenergic antagonists may also interact with sympathomimetics. Increase of ectopic pacemaker activity can occur when ... α-Adrenergic receptors are located on the muscles lining the walls of blood vessels. When these receptors are activated, the ... Activation of β2-adrenergic receptors produces relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchi, causing bronchial dilation and in ... Its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct action on the adrenergic receptor system. The vasoconstriction that ...
Black JW, Crowther AF, Shanks RG, Smith LH, Dornhorst AC (1964). "A new adrenergic betareceptor antagonist". The Lancet. 283 ( ...
His invention of propranolol, the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionised the medical management of angina ... "A new adrenergic betareceptor antagonist". The Lancet. 283 (7342): 1080-1081. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(64)91275-9. PMID 14132613 ... More recently, in a concerted drive carried out with great vision, he has developed a new type of histamine antagonist capable ... Black was also responsible for the development of cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, a drug used to treat stomach ulcers. ...
Black JW, Crowther AF, Shanks RG, Smith LH, Dornhorst AC (May 1964). "A new adrenergic betareceptor antagonist". Lancet. 1 ( ... "Nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: the next generation in antihypertensive therapy". Journal of Medicinal ...
... is a beta-adrenergic antagonist.[1] References[edit]. *^ Haddad, S; Poulin, P; Funk, C (2010). "Extrapolating in ...
... seems to have beta-adrenergic antagonist properties. Flower closeup Flower closeup Naples garlic (Allium ...
These include benzodiazepines, β-adrenergic blockers, and serotonin antagonists. Another major cause of the syndrome is the ... Laoutidis, ZG; Luckhaus, C (May 2014). "5-HT2A receptor antagonists for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a ... and serotonin antagonists such as cyproheptadine may also be of help in treating acute akathisia but are much less effective ... Role of Serotonin 5-HT2a Receptor Antagonists". Drugs (Review). 80 (9): 871-882. doi:10.1007/s40265-020-01312-0. PMID 32385739 ...
... is a beta-adrenergic antagonist. Halabi, A; Endell, W; Halabi, I; Kirch, W (1990). "Hemodynamic effects of ...
Beta blocker Adrenergic antagonist Katzung, Bertram. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Katzung, Bertram; Masters, Susan (2013). ... Non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonists include: Phenoxybenzamine Phentolamine Tolazoline Trazodone Selective α1- ... are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors). Historically, alpha- ... adrenergic receptor antagonists include: Alfuzosin Doxazosin Prazosin (inverse agonist) Tamsulosin Terazosin Silodosin ...
... is a beta-adrenergic antagonist. Cheymol, G; Jaillon, P; Lecoq, B; Lecoq, V; Cheymol, A; Krumenacker, M (1987). " ... "Cardiovascular beta-adrenergic blocking effects of bornaprolol in humans: Relation to dose and plasma concentration". Journal ...
J. W. Black; A. F. Crowther; R. G. Shanks; A. C. Dornhorst (1964). "A new adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist". The Lancet. 283 ... Lastly, Ahlquist failed to adduce the selectivity of all antagonists known at his time for the α-adrenoceptor as an additional ... It is suggested that this terminology be extended to the realm of adrenergic blocking drugs, e.g., that blocking drugs be ... Dale clearly saw the specificity of the ″paralytic″ (antagonist) effect of ergot for ″the so-called myoneural junctions ...
... is a beta adrenergic antagonist. It is the (S)-enantiomer of moprolol. Gianesello, V; Brenn, E; Figini, G; ...
Adverse experience with cimetidine and safety of beta-adrenergic antagonists". Arch Intern Med. 145 (12): 2197-200. doi:10.1001 ...
Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists: CLASSIFICATION OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS". In ... but conveys more selectivity for adrenergic receptors. Although originally thought to act as a direct agonist of adrenergic ... The stereoisomers of the drug have only weak or negligible affinity for α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Many sympathetic ... However, such substitution greatly enhances agonist activity at both α- and β- adrenergic receptors. Although ephedrine is less ...
... is an adrenergic antagonist with antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive properties. Ganellin CR, Triggle DJ (Nov 21, ...
Several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of topical application of the beta-adrenergic antagonist timolol in the ... "Treatment of Pediatric Pyogenic Granulomas Using β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists". Pediatric Dermatology. 31 (2): 203-207. ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Stache, U; Fritsch, W; Fehlhaber, HW (1987). "Synthesis of the highly ...
... is an antiarrhythmic beta adrenergic antagonist. Koytchev, R; Alken, RG; Mayer, O; Smith, I; Greenwood, M (1996). " ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Lombardi, F; Terranova, P (2006). "Pharmacological treatment of atrial ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Curtis-Prior, PB; Gadd, AL (1990). "Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and human ...
... is a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist. Lennernäs, H; Regårdh, CG (1993). "Dose-dependent intestinal absorption and ...
... by drugs known as neurokinin type 1 antagonists (also termed: SP antagonists, or tachykinin antagonists.) One such drug is ... administered through the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system). ... Muñoz M, Rosso M, Coveñas R (2010). "A new frontier in the treatment of cancer: NK-1 receptor antagonists". Current Medicinal ... Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP and its antagonists are present in the extracellular loops and ...
... increase beta adrenergic receptors while decreasing alpha adrenergic receptors- which results in increased levels of ... GnRH antagonists (e.g., cetrorelix). *Progestogens (incl., chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone ... D2 receptor antagonists (prolactin releasers) (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide, risperidone, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, ...
Glutamate receptor antagonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid antagonist) (NMDA(英語:NMDA receptor antagonist)) ... 腎上腺素受體激動藥 (α(英語:Alpha-adrenergic agonist) ... Cannabinoid receptor antagonist(英語:Cannabinoid receptor antagonist). *Endocannabinoid enhancer(英語:Endocannabinoid enhancer) ( ... 血清素受體拮抗劑(英語:Serotonin antagonist) (5-HT3(
Using a β2 adrenergic receptor preparation derived from transfected HEK 293 cells, Liappakis and co-workers found that in wild- ... Considered to be an antagonist of β1 and β2 receptors, and an agonist of β3 receptors. J.Axelrod (1962). "Purification and ... Although apparently adrenergic effects were evident in the guinea pigs (see "Pharmacology", above), the investigators concluded ... These results led the authors to suggest that N-methylphenylethanolamine was acting on both α and β adrenergic receptors. ...
"Purification and molecular cloning of a secreted, Frizzled-related antagonist of Wnt action". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ...
... α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki = 75 nM and 86 nM, respectively).[12] It possesses low or no affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5- ... HT2B, D2, and β-adrenergic, as well as at SERT and VMAT (Ki = all , 1 μM), but it does have some affinity for the α2-adrenergic ... Antagonists: AR-A000002. *Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, ... Antagonists: ABT-354. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, ...
... is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker[1][2] . ICI binds to the β2 ... "Administration of a selective β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist exacerbates neuropathology and cognitive deficits in a mouse ... and characterization of beta-adrenergic binding sites on human fat cell membranes with highly selective beta-1 antagonists". ... September 1989). "Molecular characterization of the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor". Science. 245 (4922): 1118-21. doi: ...
... and alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.[5] D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular ...
It behaves as an antagonist at α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2, and as a partial ... Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, and has been used in a variety of research projects. It is a veterinary drug ... February 2000). "Agonist and antagonist actions of yohimbine as compared to fluparoxan at alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, ... Yohimbine has high affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor, moderate affinity for the α1 receptor, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT ...
SoRI-20040; Antagonist-like: SoRI-20041. *Adrenergic release blockers: Bethanidine. *Bretylium. *Guanadrel ...
... a specific antagonist radioligand for brain alpha 2-adrenergic receptors". European Journal of Pharmacology. 76 (4): 461-4. ... Rauvolscin deluje predominantno kao antagonist α2-adrenergičnog receptora.[2] On takođe deluje kao parcijalni agonist 5-HT1A ... Wainscott DB, Sasso DA, Kursar JD, Baez M, Lucaites VL, Nelson DL (1998). „[3H]Rauwolscine: an antagonist radioligand for the ... receptora i antagonist 5-HT2A i 5-HT2B receptora.[3][4][5] ...
H1 Antagonist (Ki = 47 nM). *α1-adrenergic Antagonist (Ki = 10 nM) ... Smatra se da deluje kao antagonist na tim receptorima.[8][9] Ziprasidon takođe pokazuje umerenu inhibiciju sinaptičkog ponovnog ... a new antipsychotic with combined dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonist activity". J Pharmacol Exp Ther 275 (1): 101-13. ... "Synergistic action of 5-HT2A antagonists and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in neuropsychiatric disorders" ...
NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, dextromethorphan, methadone). *Opioids (e.g., hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, ... adrenergic, dopamine D1 and D2, muscarinic, GABA, histaminergic H1, serotonin 5-HT2, and N-methyl-D-aspartate). Inhibitory ...
Antagonists: AR-A000002. *Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, ... In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 ... Antagonists: ABT-354. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, ... Antagonists: Agomelatine. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, ...
... dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists. ... Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ... Leukotriene antagonists For endocrine problemsEdit. androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human ... General: adrenergic neurone blocker, astringent, ocular lubricant. *Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, ...
SoRI-20040; Antagonist-like: SoRI-20041. *Adrenergic release blockers: Bethanidine. *Bretylium. *Guanadrel ...
Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors *Etoperidone. *Nefazodone. *Trazodone. *Tricyclic antidepressants *Amitriptyline ...
However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, ... They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid ...
... a 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist, and mesulergine, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist.[15] The selectivity and affinity of ergolines for ... The antagonist or agonist behavior of the ergolines are substrate dependent and mixed agonist/antagonist behaviors of ergoline ... These substances are neuroleptic and are either an antagonist of dopamine at the postsynaptic level at the D2 receptor site or ... Similarly, ergoline alkaloids have been shown to exhibit both 5-HT agonist and antagonist behaviors for multiple receptors, ...
Re dhe vetëm beta receptor antagonist adrenergic, dichloroisoproterenol, gjithashtu ishte e pershkruara me larte dhe do të ... Alquist kishte raportuar më parë se efektet adrenergic mund të klasifikohen si alfa ose beta varësi të potencë relative të ... për shkak të efekteve beta adrenergic siç tregohet nga potencies relative e-isoproterenol l,-l epinephrine dhe-l norepinephrina ... për të treguar se efektet catecholamine në formimin AMP ciklike janë për shkak të efekteve përmes receptorit beta adrenergic. ...
Alpha-adrenergic agonist. *Beta blocker. *Dopamine agonist. *Dopamine antagonist. *Incretin mimetic. *Nonsteroidal anti- ... For receptors, these activities include agonist, antagonist, inverse agonist, or modulator. Enzyme target mechanisms include ...
Antagonists: AR-A000002. *Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, ... Antagonists: ABT-354. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, clorotepine, clozapine, fluperlapine, ... Antagonists: Agomelatine. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, ... Antagonists: Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, clorotepine, clozapine, ...
Meta-[I-131]iodobenzylguanidine is a radio-labeled analog of the adrenergic blocking agent guanethidine.[37] Radioactivity is ...
Nasal steroids, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, cromolyn sodium, leukotriene receptor antagonists such as montelukast, ... For nocturnal symptoms, intranasal corticosteroids can be combined with nightly oxymetazoline, an adrenergic alpha-agonist, or ... Other measures that may be used second line include: decongestants, cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and ... leukotriene receptor antagonists, and nasal irrigation.[13] Antihistamines by mouth are suitable for occasional use with mild ...
... "β1-adrenergic antagonists improve sleep and behavioural disturbances in a circadian disorder, Smith-Magenis syndrome". Journal ... blockade of endogenous melatonin production during the day by the adrenergic antagonist acebutolol can increase concentration, ...
... an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist Irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist Propranolol, a sympatholytic beta blocker ... Vasopressin receptor antagonists, such as conivaptan Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Lithium was previously used ...
Agonists and antagonists[edit]. Specific antagonists include istradefylline (KW-6002) and SCH-58261, while specific agonists ... Specific antagonists include MRS1191, MRS1523 and MRE3008F20, while specific agonists include Cl-IB-MECA and MRS3558.[19] ... Adenosine antagonists are widely used in neonatal medicine; A reduction in A1 expression appears to prevent hypoxia-induced ... Xanthine derivatives such as caffeine and theophylline act as non-selective antagonists at A1 and A2A receptors in both heart ...
Montelukast, Zafirlukast, and Pranlukast are receptor antagonists for the Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 which contributes to ... As a second drug added to corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors appear inferior to Beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs in the ... Bishayee K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (Sep 2013). "5-lipoxygenase antagonist therapy: a new approach towards targeted cancer chemotherapy ... as well as of LTC4 and LTD4 receptor antagonists have proven inferior to corticosteroids as single drug therapy for persistent ...
Assays have shown that selective NRIs have insignificant penchant for mACh, α1 and α2 adrenergic, or H1 receptors.[22] ... NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, dextromethorphan, methadone). *Opioids (e.g., hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, ... In addition, the TCAs interact with adrenergic receptors. This interaction seems to be critical for increased availability of ... Norepinephrine interacts with postsynaptic α and β adrenergic receptor subtypes and presynaptic α2 autoreceptors. The α2 ...
Mu opioid; NMDA antagonist; SNRI.[99]. PO, IM, IV, SC.. Protein binding = 40%; extensive first-pass metabolism; half-life = 12- ... "Combining opioid and adrenergic mechanisms for chronic pain". Postgraduate Medicine. 126 (4): 98-114. doi:10.3810/pgm.2014.07. ... Mixed opioid agonist-antagonist.. IM, IV.. Volume of distribution = 9-12 L/kg; half-life = 2.2-2.7 hours.. Moderate-severe pain ... Mu opioid; NMDA antagonist.. PO, IM, IV, rectal.. Bioavailability = 34% (oral), 44% (rectal); half-life = 2-3.5 hours.[105]. ...
Home Literature and the Arts Art and Architecture Art: General Adrenergic beta-antagonists ... Beta blockers, also known as beta antagonists, are a class of drugs that were first developed for the treatment of certain ... Beta blockers, also known as beta antagonists, are a class of drugs that were first developed for the treatment of certain ... Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blockers, are available only with a physicians prescription. They come in capsule ...
Alpha-adrenergic antagonists. Class Summary. These agents are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Studies ... An alpha-adrenergic blocker, specifically targeting the A1 receptors, tamsulosin has the advantage of causing relatively less ... Quinazoline compound that counteracts alpha1-induced adrenergic contractions of bladder neck, terazosin facilitates urinary ...
Comparison of Adrenergic Beta-receptor Antagonists in Angina Pectoris Br Med J 1973; 1 :138 ... Comparison of Adrenergic Beta-receptor Antagonists in Angina Pectoris. Br Med J 1973; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5846 ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Adrenergic beta1-Antagonists [Drug Class] (138 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Alpha Adrenergic Antagonist , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Alpha Adrenergic Antagonist via the Trip Database. ... Antagonists Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Adrenergic Antagonists Adrenergic Agents Neurotransmitter Agents Molecular ... Adrenergic System in Islet Transplantation Propranolol Phentolamine Adrenergic Agents Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Adrenergic ...
H2 receptor antagonists. Class Summary. These agents are reversible competitive blockers of histamine at the H2 receptors, ... Alpha-adrenergic agonists. Class Summary. These agents stimulate alpha-adrenoreceptors in brain stem, activating an inhibitory ... The H2 antagonists are highly selective, do not affect the H1 receptors, and are not anticholinergic agents. ... A central alpha-adrenergic agonist that suppresses peripheral release of norepinephrine, resulting in lower blood pressure; ...
The α-adrenergic antagonists have different effects from the β-adrenergic antagonists. Adrenergic ligands are endogenous ... While only a few α-adrenergic antagonists are competitive, all β-adrenergic antagonists are competitive antagonists. ... an α1-adrenergic antagonist will result in vasodilation. Some adrenergic antagonists, mostly β antagonists, passively diffuse ... An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors. There are five adrenergic receptors, ...
Adrenergic beta Antagonists. Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-Adrenergic Receptors thereby blocking the actions of ... Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of Hypertension, Cardiac Arrhythmias, Angina Pectoris, Glaucoma, Migraine ...
... beta-Adrenergic , Antagonists, beta-Adrenoceptor , beta Adrenergic Antagonists , beta-Adrenergic Antagonists , beta Adrenergic ... Adrenergic Agents ← Adrenergic AntagonistsAdrenergic beta-Antagonists 2.. Chemicals ← Chemical Actions and Uses ← ... Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Equivalent Terms Adrenergic beta Antagonists , Adrenergic beta-Blockers , Adrenergic beta Receptor ... beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists , beta-Antagonists, Adrenergic , beta Blockers, Adrenergic , beta-Blockers, Adrenergic , beta- ...
A Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist (β2-adrenoceptor antagonist) is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the beta-2 adrenergic ... ICI-118,551 Butaxamine Propranolol Betablocker Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta2-adrenergic agonist Bilski, AJ; Halliday, SE; ... an antagonist for β2 and for β1 or β3 adrenoceptors) like the non-selective betablocker Propranolol. ... Fitzgerald, JD; Wale, JL (1983). "The pharmacology of a beta 2-selective adrenoceptor antagonist (ICI 118,551)". J Cardiovasc ...
... San-Yuan Wu,1,2 Kee ... For example, the variation (SEM) is so high in lower concentration of both data of α-adrenergic antagonists and FC extract. It ... adrenergic antagonists on human ureteral activity [13]. Hernandez et al. investigated ureteral peristalsis in porcine ureter ... adrenoceptor antagonists), and tamsulosin (selective -adrenoceptor antagonist). The tested concentrations of all α-blockers ...
3H]rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine): a specific antagonist radioligand for brain alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.. Perry BD, ... 3H]Rauwolscine, a specific and potent alpha 2-antagonist radioligand, was used to characterize alpha 2-receptor binding in ...
2-adrenergic,receptor,antagonists,using,CypHer5E,and,IN,Cell,Analyzer,1000,biological,advanced biology technology,biology ... has been used to obtain dose-response and rank-order potency data for both agonist and antagonist treatment of β2-adrenergic ... Introduction CypHer ™ 5 a pH sensitive dye has shown utility in β2-adrenergic receptor agonist screening (1). CypHer5 ... The CypHer5E antagonist assay described here was able to identify all specific 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists and additional ...
Related Adrenergic Receptor Products. * SB225002 New SB225002 is a potent, and selective CXCR2 antagonist with IC50 of 22 nM ... Phentolamine Mesylate is a reversible and nonselective alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, used for the prevention or control ... Propranolol HCl (AY-64043, ICI-45520, NCS-91523) is a competitive non-selective beta-adrenergic receptors inhibitor with IC50 ... Isoprenaline HCl (NCI-C55630) is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, used for the treatment of bradycardia and ...
Inverse agonist activity of beta-adrenergic antagonists.. P Chidiac, T E Hebert, M Valiquette, M Dennis and M Bouvier ... Inverse agonist activity of beta-adrenergic antagonists.. P Chidiac, T E Hebert, M Valiquette, M Dennis and M Bouvier ... Inverse agonist activity of beta-adrenergic antagonists.. P Chidiac, T E Hebert, M Valiquette, M Dennis and M Bouvier ... Inverse agonist activity of beta-adrenergic antagonists. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ...
Propranolol, a non-specific β1-and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, was recently designated as the first therapeutic (orphan ... In order to overcome the β1-drawback, the properties of a high specific β2-adrenergic receptor blocker named ICI-118,551 have ... Beta2 adrenergic antagonist inhibits cerebral cortical oxygen delivery after severe haemodilution in rats. Br J Anaesth. 97(5 ... Cuesta, A.M., Albiñana, V., Gallardo-Vara, E. et al. The β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI-118,551 blocks the ...
Arylsulfonamide derivatives of (aryloxy)ethyl pyrrolidines and piperidines as α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with uro- ... All compounds behaved as antagonists at both α1-adrenoceptor subtypes, displaying 2- to 6-fold functional preference to α1A- ... ethyl pyrrolidines and piperidines was synthesized to develop new α1-adrenoceptor antagonists with uroselective profile. ... Adrenoceptors antagonists; α(1A/B) receptor selectivity ... Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/chemistry. *Adrenergic ...
Effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists on the growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone in ... AdolescentAdrenergic beta-AgonistsAdrenergic beta-AntagonistsAdultAlbuterolAnorexia NervosaArea Under CurveAtenololFemaleGrowth ... We studied the effect of atenolol (ATE), a beta 1-adrenergic antagonist, and salbutamol (SALB), a beta 2-adrenergic agonist, on ... METHODS: We studied the effect of atenolol (ATE), a beta 1-adrenergic antagonist, and salbutamol (SALB), a beta 2-adrenergic ...
Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Ca2+ Channel Antagonists, and α-Adrenergic Blockers on Glucose and Lipid ... Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Ca2+ Channel Antagonists, and α-Adrenergic Blockers on Glucose and Lipid ... Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Ca2+ Channel Antagonists, and α-Adrenergic Blockers on Glucose and Lipid ... Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Ca2+ Channel Antagonists, and α-Adrenergic Blockers on Glucose and Lipid ...
... and their use as selective alpha 1a adrenergic receptor antagonists. One application of these componds is in the treatment of ... EN) ALPHA 1a ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS. (FR) ANTAGONISTES DU RECEPTEUR ADRENERGIQUE ALPHA 1a. ... and their use as selective alpha 1a adrenergic receptor antagonists. One application of these componds is in the treatment of ...
ORAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS IN PREVENTING EPINEPHRINE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES. J. H. BROWN, D. A. ... ORAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS IN PREVENTING EPINEPHRINE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES. J. H. BROWN, D. A. ... ORAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS IN PREVENTING EPINEPHRINE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES. J. H. BROWN, D. A. ... ORAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS IN PREVENTING EPINEPHRINE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES ...
Atipamezole HCl is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.1, 1.0, 0.89, 1300 and 6500 nM for α2A, α2B, ... Atipamezole HCl is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.1, 1.0, 0.89, 1300 and 6500 nM for α2A, α2B, ... Atipamezole HCl is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.1, 1.0, 0.89, 1300 and 6500 nM for α2A, α2B, ...
We used norepinephrine, the β-adrenergic agonist metaproterenol, the β-adrenergic antagonists nadolol and propranolol, and the ... A nonselective lipophilic β-adrenergic antagonist (Sigma-Aldrich, Rehovot, Israel), was injected s.c. (5 mg/kg, 10 ml/kg) 30 ... The clinically used β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, and/or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etodolac, were administered once ... suppression by surgery and the prophylactic use of a β-adrenergic antagonist and a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Brain ...
Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated five days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary ... Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated five days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary ... Conclusions: SBRT for localized prostate cancer with utilization of prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist and UDR was well ... rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist ...
Study 53 Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists flashcards from Alex L. on StudyBlue. ... reuptake into adrenergic neurons; NE feedback inhibiton on alpha2-adrenergic receptors; diffusion from site of action; ... drugs may inhibit adrenergic neruotransmitter by a vareity of different mechanisms including (4): ... drugs may enhance adrenergic neurotransmission by a variety of mechanisms including (3): ...
Antagonist activity at guinea pig atrial beta adrenergic receptor assessed as isometric contractions at 5 x 10-5 M by force ...
Binding of adrenergic beta-receptor antagonists to human serum albumin. by C Appelgren et al. ... Binding of adrenergic beta-receptor antagonists to human serum albumin.. @article{Appelgren1974BindingOA, title={Binding of ... adrenergic beta-receptor antagonists to human serum albumin.}, author={C Appelgren and Karl O. Borg and Rolf Elofsson and Karl ... The relationship between beta-adrenoceptors and adrenergic responsiveness in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and eel (Anguilla ...
Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers, Direct Vasodilators, and Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donors. Author(s): Carlos G. Musso, ... Carlos G. Musso and Jose Alfie, "Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments: Aldosterone Antagonists, Central ... Title:Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments: Aldosterone Antagonists, Central Alpha-Agonist Agents, ... Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments: Aldosterone Antagonists, Central Alpha-Agonist Agents, ...
  • An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are five adrenergic receptors, which are divided into two groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first group of receptors are the beta (β) adrenergic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the antagonists for alpha and beta receptors are usually different compounds, there has been recent drug development that effects both types of the adrenoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This drug is a non-selective α-adrenergic antagonist, which means it binds to both alpha receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phentolamine phenoxybenzamine Tamsulosin Propranolol Nebivilol Atenolol Oxprenolol Metoprolol Timolol Pindolol Nadolol Pindolol Esmolol Acebutolol Sotalol Talinolol Betaxolol Labetalol Carvedilol Adrenergic antagonists have inhibitory or opposing effects on the receptors in the adrenergic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of an adrenergic antagonist that specifically targets the beta receptors, results in this decrease in blood pressure by slowing or reducing cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist (β2-adrenoceptor antagonist) is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the beta-2 adrenergic receptors of cells, with either high specificity (an antagonist which is selective for β2 adrenoceptors) like Butaxamine and ICI-118,551, or non-specifically (an antagonist for β2 and for β1 or β3 adrenoceptors) like the non-selective betablocker Propranolol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H2 antagonists are highly selective, do not affect the H1 receptors, and are not anticholinergic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-Adrenergic Receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-Adrenergic Agonists . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • 3H]rauwolscine (alpha-yohimbine): a specific antagonist radioligand for brain alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. (nih.gov)
  • CypHer5E, consequently, can be used to screen for novel antagonists of known receptors and for potential ligands of non-G-protein coupled receptors (5) and orphan receptors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Atipamezole HCl is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.1, 1.0, 0.89, 1300 and 6500 nM for α2A, α2B, α2C, α1A and α1B receptors respectively). (adooq.com)
  • Selective alpha antagonists only block alpha 1 receptors and are more commonly used for treatment of cardiac conditions. (nmihi.com)
  • Nonselective alpha antagonists can bind with both types of receptors and are generally not used for cardiology treatments because blocking both receptors can cause tachycardia (rapid heart beat) and palpitations (pounding heart beat). (nmihi.com)
  • Adrenergic receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine. (medchemexpress.com)
  • There are two main groups of adrenergic receptors, α and β, with several subtypes. (medchemexpress.com)
  • ICI 118,551 (hydrochloride) is a highly selective β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, with K i s of 0.7, 49.5 and 611 nM for β2, β1 and β3 receptors, respectively. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Adrenergic agonists and antagonists produce their clinical effects by interacting with the adrenergic receptors (ie, adrenoceptors). (mhmedical.com)
  • Alpha blockers and beta blockers are two types of postsynaptic anti-adrenergic medications that prevent their respective receptors from being stimulated by catecholamines, like norepinephrine and epinephrine . (osmosis.org)
  • These two catecholamines activate the adrenergic receptors on many different organs, which allows the sympathetic nervous system to trigger the fight or flight response that increases the heart rate and blood pressure , as well as slowing down digestion. (osmosis.org)
  • Now, there are two main groups of adrenergic receptors: the alpha receptors, and beta receptors . (osmosis.org)
  • Beta1 adrenergic receptors are mainly located in the heart, where they increase the heart rate and contractility , which helps pump out more blood. (osmosis.org)
  • Moving on to beta2 adrenergic receptors, these are found on smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels supplying skeletal muscles and the brain, which leads to vasodilation and increased blood flow to these tissues. (osmosis.org)
  • In the lungs, beta2 adrenergic receptors cause bronchodilation , and that increases oxygen delivery to cells. (osmosis.org)
  • Alright, so medications that act on peripheral post-synaptic adrenergic neurons to block adrenergic receptors are called peripheral post-synaptic anti-adrenergics. (osmosis.org)
  • Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS. (pharmakb.com)
  • Betaxolol selectively blocks catecholamine stimulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle. (pharmakb.com)
  • It produces miosis by blocking the alpha-adrenergic receptors on the dilator muscle of the iris. (pharmacycode.com)
  • However, in the liver, alpha-adrenergic effects such as glycogen phosphorylase activation are shown to be mediated via alpha 1 receptors. (meta.org)
  • Adrenergic receptor trafficking is an active physiological process where adrenergic receptors are relocated from one region of the cell to another or from one type of cell to another. (meta.org)
  • The data obtained demonstrate that, as observed by others in the awake animal, activation of α 2 -adrenergic receptors in the RVM produces hypoalgesia. (elsevier.com)
  • DA) have minimal adrenergic effects but activate dopaminergic receptors. (mhmedical.com)
  • An agent that binds to but does not activate adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • α adrenergic receptors , preventing adrenaline and noradrenaline from binding. (lookformedical.com)
  • Constitutive activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is now well recognized and many classical GPCR antagonists have been found to be inverse agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For the α 2A -adrenergic receptor (AR) we determine the relative inverse efficacies of a series of antagonists and utilize the extended ternary complex model to estimate the fraction of constitutively active mutant (CAM) receptors in the active state. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 which further comprises the reduction or avoidance of adverse effects associated with antagonism of α 1 -adrenergic receptors. (google.com)
  • Beta blockers block the action of endogenous catecholamines ( epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) in particular), on β- adrenergic receptors , part of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the " fight or flight " response. (wikidoc.org)
  • β 1 -Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart and in the kidneys. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some beta blockers (e.g. labetalol and carvedilol ) exhibit mixed antagonism of both β- and α 1 -adrenergic receptors, which provides additional arteriolar vasodilating action. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mechanism of action - non-selectively antagonizes beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors c. (antiessays.com)
  • Two examples of competitive adrenergic antagonists are propranolol and phentolamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propranolol is a β-adreno receptor antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propranolol, a non-specific β1-and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, was recently designated as the first therapeutic (orphan) drug for VHL disease. (nature.com)
  • Chiral separations of five β-adrenergic antagonists (propranolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and bisoprolol) were studied by capillary electrophoresis using six cyclodextrins (CDs) as the chiral selectors. (mdpi.com)
  • The clinically used β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, and/or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etodolac, were administered once before amputation, and recurrence-free survival was monitored. (jimmunol.org)
  • Propranolol hydrochloride is a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonist, has high affinity for the β1AR and β2AR with K i values of 1.8 nM and 0.8 nM, respectively. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Synonyms : 1-p-Carbamoylmethylphenoxy-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol, 2-(p-(2-Hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide, 4-(2-Hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)benzeneacetamide, Atenololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists A cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to propranolol, but without a negative inotropic effect. (pharmakb.com)
  • Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, when administered at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight, enhanced both passive hemagglutinating and IgE (passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) antibody formation. (meta.org)
  • Propranolol was the first clinically useful beta adrenergic receptor antagonist . (wikidoc.org)
  • To further clarify the neural control of AH secretion in AN, we evaluated the effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists, which are known to inhibit and increase, respectively, the GHRH-induced GH secretion in normal subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blockers, are available only with a physician's prescription. (encyclopedia.com)
  • recommended the use of α -antagonists or calcium channel blockers to facilitate ureteral stone expulsion [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carlos G. Musso and Jose Alfie, "Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments: Aldosterone Antagonists, Central Alpha-Agonist Agents, Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers, Direct Vasodilators, and Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donors", Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2014) 12: 170. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Selective alpha antagonists (alpha 1 blockers) include prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin. (nmihi.com)
  • Among the most important and most widely used medications are thiazide diuretics , calcium channel blockers , ACE inhibitors , angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers . (rug.nl)
  • In the United States, the JNC8 (Eighth Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) recommends thiazide-type diuretics to be one of the first-line drug treatments for hypertension, either as monotherapy or in combination with calcium channel blockers , ACE inhibitors , or angiotensin II receptor antagonists . (rug.nl)
  • The 8th Joint National Committee (JNC-8) recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide -type diuretics, ACE inhibitors , or angiotensin II receptor antagonists for all patients regardless of age or race. (rug.nl)
  • All BPH patients were treated with α-adrenergic blockers for at least 9 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade Observational Study in Patients Suffering From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated With Alpha - adrenergic Blockade - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • These data reveal an exaggerated somatotrope responsiveness to GHRH in AN that is not further increased by beta-adrenergic blockade, while is abolished by beta-adrenergic activation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Also, it has been speculated that at least some of the β-adrenergic blockade-induced reduction of myocardial infarction may be due to plaque stabilization, 7 because of hemodynamic-induced plaque stress reduction. (asahq.org)
  • The investigators intend to determine the effect of adrenergic blockade on 1) short-term physiology, behavior, and cognition and 2) long-term neuropsychological outcomes after severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary hypothesis is that adrenergic blockade after severe TBI will be associated with increased ventilator-free days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Both adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists were highly specific in their mechanism of action, which did not involve blockade of catecholamine-facilitated iron-acquisition. (beds.ac.uk)
  • All compounds behaved as antagonists at both α 1 -adrenoceptor subtypes, displaying 2- to 6-fold functional preference to α 1A -subtype. (nih.gov)
  • A β2adrenergic receptor antagonist screen was performed using the LOPAC ™ compound library, which consists of 640 well-characterized, pharmaceutically diverse compounds with known drug or drug-like activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The data demonstrate that the β2-adrenergic receptor CypHer5E antagonist assay used in conjunction with IN Cell Analyzer 1000 was able to identify all specific β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists and additional structurally related compounds present in the LOPAC compound library. (bio-medicine.org)
  • (EN) This invention relates to certain novel compounds and derivatives thereof, their synthesis, and their use as selective alpha 1a adrenergic receptor antagonists. (wipo.int)
  • A family of compounds structurally related to the beta adrenergic blocking agent sotalol (MJ 1999) was investigated for potency with respect to inhibition of the aforementioned metabolic responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonists that are optionally substituted with at least one NO or NO.sub.2 moiety and compounds that donate, transfer or release nitric oxide or elevate levels of endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and methods for treating sexual dysfunctions in males and females. (patentgenius.com)
  • Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of Hypertension , Cardiac Arrhythmias , Angina Pectoris , Glaucoma , Migraine Headaches , and Anxiety . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Synonyms : (+-)-1-((alpha-(2-Isopropoxyethoxy)-P-tolyl)oxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol, (RS)-1-(4-(2-isopropoxyethoxymethyl)phenoxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol, Bisoprolol, Bisoprololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Bisoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. (pharmakb.com)
  • Synonyms : (RS)-Metoprolol, 1-(isopropylamino)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]propan-2-ol, Metoprolol Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Metoprolol is a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent used for acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, angina pectoris and mild to moderate hypertension. (pharmakb.com)
  • Introduction CypHer ™ 5 a pH sensitive dye has shown utility in β2-adrenergic receptor agonist screening (1). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Isoprenaline hydrochloride is a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent peripheral vasodilator, bronchodilator, and cardiac stimulating activities. (medchemexpress.com)
  • L-Noradrenaline) is a β 1 -selective adrenergic receptor agonist with EC 50 of 5.37 μM. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Guanoxabenz (Hydroxyguanabenz) hydrochloride is an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, with a K i of 4000 nM and the fully activated form 40 nM for an α2A adrenoceptor. (medchemexpress.com)
  • the presence of clenbuterol, a b 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, was reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Importance of Alpha - adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Regulating of Airways Tonus at Patients with Bronchial Asthma In this work, effect of Tamsulosin hydrochloride as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B- adrenergic receptor and effect of Salbutamol as agonist of beta2- adrenergic receptor in patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactibility was studied.Parameters of the lung function are determined by Body plethysmography. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Here, ex vivo organ bath experiment was further performed to study the effect of FC extract on the inhibition of phenylepinephrine (PE) (10 −4 and 10 −3 M) ureteral peristalsis of porcine ureters with several α 1 -adrenergic antagonists (doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin) as experimental controls. (hindawi.com)
  • Dutasteride Capsules in combination with the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, tamsulosin, is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic BPH in men with an enlarged prostate. (drugs.com)
  • While only a few α-adrenergic antagonists are competitive, all β-adrenergic antagonists are competitive antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitive antagonists are a type of reversible antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenergic competitive antagonists are shorter lasting than the other two types of antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • While competitive antagonists bind to the agonist or ligand binding site of the receptor reversibly, non-competitive antagonists can either bind to the ligand site or other site called the allosteric site. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of an adrenergic non competitive antagonists is phenoxybenzamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug induced receptor cell surface r adrenergic antagonists are competitive antagonists adrenergic beta 1 receptor antagonists. (lookformedical.com)
  • However, ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin II receptor antagonists) should not be a first-line treatment for black hypertensives without chronic kidney disease . (rug.nl)
  • Management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) by combinatorial approach using alpha-1-adrenergic antagonists and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. (unimore.it)
  • Currently, the main available treatments for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) are alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists (ARAs), 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-αRI), anticholinergics, and Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. (unimore.it)
  • Animal and human evidence indicates a potential therapeutic benefit for β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, and anti-fibrinolytics administered through the perioperative period. (edu.au)
  • Selected β-adrenoreceptor antagonists are the antiglaucoma drugs of first choice in most cases. (unthsc.edu)
  • 1 The effects of risperidone on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal functions were investigated and compared with other antipsychotic drugs and selective receptor antagonists by use of single cell recording and microdialysis in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). (wiley.com)
  • The beta-adrenoblockers anapriline and visken and the calcium antagonist corinfar were studied for effects on the atherogenic properties of the sera from patients with coronary heart disease who took the drugs. (inat.ru)
  • The term adrenergic originally referred to the effects of epinephrine ( adren aline), although norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is the primary neurotransmitter responsible for most of the adrenergic activity of the sympathetic nervous system. (mhmedical.com)
  • The present experiments, part of an ongoing study designed to characterise the role norepinephrine (NE) in regulating the activity of putative nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), assessed the effects of α-adrenergic receptor-selective agents on the nociceptive threshold (as measured by the tail-flick withdrawal response on noxious heat). (elsevier.com)
  • Little is still known however, concerning the nature of the putative bacterial adrenergic and/or dopaminergic receptor(s) to which catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) may bind and exert their effects, or even whether the binding properties of such a receptor are similar between different species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Use of specific catecholamine receptor antagonists revealed that only α, and not β, adrenergic antagonists were capable of blocking norepinephrine and epinephrine-induced growth, while antagonism of dopamine-mediated growth was achieved with the use of a dopaminergic antagonist. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Use of radiolabeled norepinephrine suggested that the adrenergic antagonists could be acting by inhibiting catecholamine uptake. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Uroxatral ( alfuzosin ) is a selective antagonist of post-synaptic alpha1-adrenoreceptors used in adult men to treat slow urination due to benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Genetic variants in 5p13.2 and 7q21.1 are associated with treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the α-adrenergic receptor antagonist. (cdc.gov)
  • The preferred medical treatment for many men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is either an α-adrenergic receptor antagonist (α-blocker), or a 5α-reductase inhibitor. (cdc.gov)
  • In AN, in contrast to normal subjects, cholinergic antagonists and agonists, whose action is somatostatin (SS)-mediated, have reduced and absent effects on the GH response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Effect of adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists on post-hemorrhagic erythropoiesis in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results were confirmed by another small (112 patients) prospective, randomized, but not blinded, trial in patients with dobutamine echo-confirmed coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease in which another β-adrenergic antagonist, bisoprolol, initiated at least 1 week before surgery, and continued until postoperative day 30, decreased cardiac and all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction. (asahq.org)
  • CypHer5 has been used to obtain dose-response and rank-order potency data for both agonist and antagonist treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor expressing cells (2). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Agonist and antagonist controls were placed symmetrically in columns 1 and 12 of each plate. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The binding properties of two alpha-adrenergic radioligands, [3H]epinephrine (an agonist) and [3H]dihydroergocryptine (an antagonist), were compared in two model systems--membranes derived from human platelets and membranes from rat liver. (meta.org)
  • MK912, whereas phentolamine and idazoxan were essentially neutral antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, neutral antagonists bind equally well to R and R *, have no effect on basal receptor activity, but block the effects of both agonists and inverse agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phentolamine is a competitive and nonselective α-adrenoreceptor antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, nonselective alpha antagonists are sometimes prescribed to treat migraine headaches or frostbite. (nmihi.com)
  • Alpha-adrenergic antagonists are also used for treatment of ureteric stones, pain and panic disorders, withdrawal, and anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3H]Rauwolscine, a specific and potent alpha 2-antagonist radioligand, was used to characterize alpha 2-receptor binding in bovine cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • This study reports rates of acute urinary morbidity following SBRT for localized prostate cancer with prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist utilization and urethral dose reduction (UDR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonists were initiated 5 days prior to SBRT and continued until resolution of urinary symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer with utilization of prophylactic alpha-adrenergic antagonist and UDR was well tolerated as determined by acute urinary function and bother, and symptoms were comparable to those observed following conventionally fractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). (frontiersin.org)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonists, compositions comprising .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonist, wherein the imidazoline .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that alpha-1 adrenergic receptor ($\alpha_1$-AR) antagonists can prevent cytokine storm syndrome in mice. (arxiv.org)
  • Federated across two ARD cohorts, our main result shows that patients using $\alpha_1$-AR antagonists, as compared to nonusers, had a 40% relative risk reduction for ventilation and dying (p=0.014). (arxiv.org)
  • These results highlight the urgent need for prospective trials testing whether prophylactic use of $\alpha_1$-AR antagonists ameliorates diseases associated with cytokine storm syndrome, such as COVID-19. (arxiv.org)
  • Yohimbine Hydrochloride is an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, blocking the pre- and postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoreceptors and causing an increased release of noradrenaline and dopamine. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Effects of alpha, beta 1, and beta 2 adrenergic antagonists on. (mysciencework.com)
  • Effects of alpha, beta 1, and beta 2 adrenergic antagonists on the Na and K concentrations of sympathetic-nerve stimulated rat saliva. (mysciencework.com)
  • Selective alpha and beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic antagonists were used with electrical stimulation of the sympathetic innervation to parotid and submandibular glands of rats in order to delineate the role of the beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoceptors in regulation of salivary flow rate, Na reabsorption and K secretion from these glands. (mysciencework.com)
  • Dapiprazole is an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Phenoxybenzamine, an alpha-antagonist, at 0.4--40 mg/kg had a similar adjuvant effect. (meta.org)
  • The results indicate that alpha as well as beta adrenergic systems participate in the control of erythropoiesis following hemorrhage , whereas parasympathetic system does not take part. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evidence against beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of diltiazem, a drug with calcium antagonist properties. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Distinct signaling profiles of beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptor ligands toward adenylyl cyclase and mitogen-activated protein kinase reveals the pluridimensionality of efficacy. (medchemexpress.com)
  • 2 Administration of risperidone (25-400 μg kg −1 , i.v.) dose-dependently decreased 5-HT cell firing in the DRN, similar to the antipsychotic drug clozapine (0.25-4.0 mg kg −1 , i.v.), the putative antipsychotic drug amperozide (0.5-8.0 mg kg −1 , i.v.) and the selective α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (50-400 μg kg −1 , i.v. (wiley.com)
  • 4 Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635 (5.0 μg kg −1 , i.v.), a drug previously shown to antagonize effectively the inhibition of 5-HT cells induced by risperidone, failed to prevent the prazosin-induced decrease in 5-HT cell firing. (wiley.com)
  • 3 The selective α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (10-80 μg kg −1 , i.v.), in contrast, increased the firing rate of 5-HT neurones in the DRN, whereas the D 2 and 5-HT 2A receptor antagonists raclopride (25-200 μg kg −1 , i.v.) and MDL 100,907 (50-400 μg kg −1 , i.v.), respectively, were without effect. (wiley.com)
  • This striking difference in inverse efficacy between idazoxan and RX821002 may account for in vivo pharmacological differences between these two α 2 -adrenergic antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The adrenergic antagonists are widely used for lowering blood pressure and relieving hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these adrenergic antagonists are used for treating cardiovascular disease, mainly hypertension, they can evoke harmful cardiac events. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that the α 2 -adrenergic receptor has a postsynaptic location and that barbiturate anaesthesia suppresses a tonically active or noxious stimulus-activated noradrenergic input to the RVM that is present in the awake animal. (elsevier.com)
  • noradrenaline) is the primary neurotransmitter responsible for most of the adrenergic activity of the sympathetic nervous system. (mhmedical.com)
  • A competitive antagonist will attach itself to the same binding site of the receptor that the agonist will bind to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps, acceptance and use were facilitated by the sound physiologic and pathophysiologic basis for these findings: that β-adrenergic antagonism (even if partial) decreases myocardial oxygen consumption by decreasing heart rate (and, thus, work) and myocardial contractility, while at the same time increasing diastolic time and coronary artery flow, thus improving the balance of myocardial oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. (asahq.org)
  • There were few if any adrenergic uncompetitive antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • An uncompetitive antagonist is slightly different from the other two types of antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The action of an uncompetitive antagonist is dependent on the receptor's prior activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • is an uncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor . (lookformedical.com)
  • Synonyms : (+-)-Practolol, 1-(4-Acetamidophenoxy)-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol, 4′-(2-Hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)propoxy)acetanilide, N-(4-(2-Hydroxy-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)propoxy)phenyl)acetamide, Practololum, Tocris-0831 Status : approved Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Anti-Arrhythmia Agents A beta-adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. (pharmakb.com)
  • The α-adrenergic antagonists have different effects from the β-adrenergic antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenergic ligands are endogenous proteins that modulate and evoke specific cardiovascular effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of adrenergic antagonists on the humoral immune response of rabbits to egg albumin was studied. (meta.org)
  • From there, the lipophilic antagonists are metabolized in the liver and eliminated with urine while the hydrophilic ones are eliminated unchanged. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if the natural activation of the α1-adrenergic receptor leads to vasoconstriction, an α1-adrenergic antagonist will result in vasodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the non-competitive antagonist binds to the allosteric site and an agonist binds to the ligand site, the receptor will remain unactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means only after the agonist binds to the receptor can the antagonist block the receptor's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between beta-adrenoceptors and adrenergic responsiveness in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and eel (Anguilla rostrata) erythrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The increase and its reversal both were independent of the possible presence of contaminating catecholamines in the culture medium and thus appear to reflect spontaneous beta 2AR activity and direct antagonist-receptor interactions, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since this response, which is mostly seen as an increase in blood pressure, is produced by the release of the endogenous adrenergic ligands, administration of an adrenergic antagonist results a decrease in blood pressure, which is controlled by both heart rate and vasculature tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be calculated for a given antagonist by determining the concentration of antagonist needed to elicit half inhibition of the maximum biological response of an agonist . (lookformedical.com)
  • Synonyms : 1-(4-(2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)ethyl)phenoxy)-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)-2-propanol, 1-(Isopropylamino)-3-[P-(cyclopropylmethoxyethyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol, Betaxololum Status : approved Antihypertensive Agents BETA BLOCKING AGENTS CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BETA BLOCKING AGENTS BETA BLOCKING AGENTS Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity. (pharmakb.com)
  • Used in the treatment of iatrogenically induced mydriasis produced by adrenergic (phenylephrine) or parasympatholytic (tropicamide) agents used in certain eye examinations. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta-adrenergic antagonists, or beta antagonists. (wikidoc.org)
  • These agents are capable of exerting low level agonist activity at the β-adrenergic receptor while simultaneously acting as a receptor site antagonist . (wikidoc.org)