Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.DioxolesEpinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Procaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.QuinoxalinesPropranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Guanfacine: A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Phenoxypropanolamines: Compounds based on a propanolamine attached via an OXYGEN atom to a phenoxy ring. The side chain is one carbon longer than PHENYLETHYLAMINES.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dioxanes: 1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Midodrine: An ethanolamine derivative that is an adrenergic alpha-1 agonist. It is used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Cyclic CMP: A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dihydroalprenolol: Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.PhenoxyacetatesCarbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Alprenolol: One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Adrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adenosine A3 Receptor Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.GABA-B Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Receptors, Opioid, delta: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Purinergic Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine: A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.

Characterization of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human umbilical vein. (1/329)

1. The present study attempted to characterize pharmacologically the subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors mediating contractions in human umbilical vein (HUV). 2. HUV rings were mounted in isolated organ baths and cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and adrenaline. Adrenaline was more potent than phenylephrine (pD2=7.29 and 6.04 respectively). 3. Isoproterenol exhibited no agonism on KCl pre-contracted HUV rings. Propranolol (1 microM) and rauwolscine (0.1 microM) did not affect the concentration-response curves to adrenaline. These results demonstrate the lack of involvement of functional beta-or alpha2-adrenoceptors in adrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. 4. The non subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin was evaluated on phenylephrine and adrenaline concentration-response curves. The effects of the competitive alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the irreversible alpha1B selective compound chloroethylclonidine (CEC) were also evaluated on adrenaline concentration-response curves. 5. The potencies of prazosin against responses mediated by adrenaline (pA2= 10.87) and phenylephrine (pA2= 10.70) indicate the involvement of prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in vasoconstriction of the HUV. 6. The potencies of 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 = 6.70) and BMY 7378 (pA2= 7.34) were not consistent with the activation of an alpha1A- or alpha1D-adrenoceptor population. 7. Exposure to a relatively low CEC concentration (3 microM) abolished the maximum response to adrenaline suggesting that this response was mediated by an alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype. 8. We conclude that HUV express a prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor resembling the alpha1B-subtype according with the low pA2 values for both 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the high sensitivity to CEC.  (+info)

Sympathovagal balance: how should we measure it? (2/329)

There are complex interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system inputs to the sinus node. The concept of "sympathovagal balance" reflects the autonomic state resulting from the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences. Despite widespread usage of a variety of heart rate (HR) variability parameters as indexes of sympathovagal balance, no index has been validated as a measure of sympathovagal balance. This study evaluated the utility of HR, HR variability, and a new parameter termed the vagal-sympathetic effect (VSE) as indexes of sympathovagal balance. The ideal parameter had to satisfy the following criteria: 1) the index should vary similarly among subjects in response to different autonomic conditions; 2) the variability in the index among subjects exposed to the same autonomic conditions should be small; and 3) the response of the index to various autonomic conditions should reflect the underlying changes in physiological state and have a meaningful interpretation. Volunteers [8 men, 6 women; mean age 28.5 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr] were evaluated for the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation and blockade on HR and HR variability. VSE was defined as the ratio of the R-R interval to the intrinsic R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval consistently changed in the expected directions with parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation and blockade. A general linearized model was used to evaluate the response of each parameter. VSE and R-R interval had r2 values of 0.847 and 0.852, respectively. Natural logarithm of the low-frequency power had an r2 value of 0.781 with lower r2 values for all the other HR variability parameters. The coefficient of variation was also lowest for each condition tested for the VSE and the R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval best satisfy the criteria for the ideal index of sympathovagal balance. Because it is impractical under most conditions to measure the VSE as the index of sympathovagal balance, the most suitable index is the R-R interval.  (+info)

"Uncaging" using optical fibers to deliver UV light directly to the sample. (3/329)

Photolysis or "uncaging" of caged compounds represents a significant tool in cell biology and chemistry. It provides a means for quantitative control of compound delivery with temporal and spatial resolution while observing their consequences for cellular signaling. We discuss the use of ultraviolet-transmitting optical fibers to directly deliver UV energy to the sample, combined with a nitrogen pulsed laser as a source of UV light. In this approach the size of the photolysis area is regulated by the exit aperture of the fiber tip which is controlled by pulling the optical fibers to desirable diameters. A diode (red) laser that is also coupled to the optical fiber aids the location of UV energy delivery through the fiber. We used this method to quantitatively uncage norepinephrine and calcium. The major advantage of this photolysis approach is its independence of microscope objectives and traditional optical pathways. Because the optical pathway of the microscope needs no modification to accommodate this photolysis system, integration with other experimental methods, such as electrochemistry, electrophysiology, confocal microscopy, and wide-field epifluorescence microscopy, is relatively simple.  (+info)

Contributions of adenosine receptor activation to the ocular actions of epinephrine. (4/329)

PURPOSE: Epinephrine is an effective drug for glaucoma treatment. However, the mechanisms responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of this compound are not completely understood. Adenosine is an autacoid released by all cells. This study evaluated the role of adenosine receptor activation in epinephrine-induced changes in ocular function. METHODS: Rabbits were pretreated topically with the moderately selective adenosine A1 antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT) or the adenosine A2 antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-l-propargylxanthine (DMPX). Epinephrine (500 microg) was then administered, and intraocular pressures (IOPs), pupil diameters (PDs), or total outflow facility was evaluated. In a separate group of animals, epinephrine or vehicle was administered, and aqueous humor samples obtained to evaluate changes in aqueous humor purine levels by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: In control animals, epinephrine produced a biphasic change in IOP: an initial rise in IOP of approximately 1 mm Hg from 1/2 to 1 hour followed by significant reduction in IOP of 8 to 9 mm Hg from 3 to 5 hours postadministration. These animals also exhibited a significant increase in PD of 2 to 3 mm from 1/2 to 2 hours postadministration. Pretreatment with 8-SPT (1000 microg) enhanced the initial rise in IOP, while significantly inhibiting the ocular hypotensive response. Pretreatment with 8-SPT also significantly enhanced the epinephrine-induced increase in PD. Inhibition of the epinephrine-induced reduction in IOP by 8-SPT was dose-related with an IC50 of 446 microg. Administration of 8-SPT alone did not significantly alter IOP or PD. The A2 antagonist DMPX did not alter the epinephrine-induced change in IOP or PD. In rabbits pretreated with 8-SPT, the epinephrine-induced increase in outflow facility was significantly reduced by 60% when compared with those in rabbits treated with epinephrine alone. In vehicle-treated rabbits, aqueous humor adenosine and inosine levels were 2.7 +/- 0.38 and 29 +/- 4.2 ng/100 microl, respectively. Three hours after epinephrine administration, adenosine and inosine levels had significantly increased to 11 +/- 1.6 and 66 +/- 4.4 ng/100 microl, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that in rabbits epinephrine administration stimulates adenosine release in the anterior segment. This rise in endogenous levels of adenosine then leads to the activation of ocular adenosine receptors and is in part responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of epinephrine.  (+info)

Activation of a thioesterase specific for very-long-chain fatty acids by adrenergic agonists in perfused hearts. (5/329)

We have recently described an acyl-CoA thioesterase specific for very-long-chain fatty acids, named ARTISt, that regulates steroidogenesis through the release of arachidonic acid in adrenal zona fasciculata cells. In this paper we demonstrate the presence of the protein as a 43 kDa band and its mRNA in cardiac tissue. The activity of the protein was measured using an heterologous cell-free assay in which it is recombined with adrenal microsomes and mitochondria to activate mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Isoproterenol and phenylephrine activate the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner (10(-10)-10(-6) M). Both propranolol (10(-5) M) and prazosin (10(-5) M) block the action of isoproterenol and phenylephrine respectively. Antipeptide antibodies against the serine lipase motif of the protein and the Cys residue present in the catalytic domain also block the activity of the protein. Taken together, our results confirm the presence of ARTISt in heart and provide evidence for a catecholamine-activated regulatory pathway of the enzyme in that tissue.  (+info)

Influence of G protein type on agonist efficacy. (6/329)

An agonist at a specific G protein-coupled receptor may exhibit a range of efficacies for any given response in a cell-specific manner. We report that the relationship between different states of agonism is regulated by the type of G protein expressed in the cell. In NIH-3T3 alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) transfectants, the alpha(2)-AR agonists clonidine, oxymetazoline, UK-14304, and epinephrine increased [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding in a dose-dependent manner from a basal value of 101.2 +/- 6. 5 fmol/mg to a maximal response (100 microM) of 196.6 +/- 9.8, 182.3 +/- 2, 328.1 +/- 11.2, and 340.6 +/- 3 fmol/mg, respectively. Thus, clonidine and oxymetazoline behaved as partial agonists. Receptor-mediated activation of G proteins in membrane preparations was blocked by cell pretreatment with pertussis toxin, indicating receptor coupling to the subgroup of pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein (Gialpha2,3) expressed in NIH-3T3 cells. Ectopic expression of Goalpha1 but not Gialpha1 increased the relative efficacy of clonidine and oxymetazoline such that the two ligands now behaved as close to full agonists in this assay system. The relationship between full and partial agonists in the different genetic backgrounds was not altered by progressive reduction in the amount of G protein available for coupling to receptor. The increased efficacy observed for clonidine in the Goalpha1 transfectants was not due to changes in the relative affinities or amounts of high-affinity, Gpp(NH)p-sensitive binding of agonist. These data suggest that there is little difference in the ability of clonidine to interact with or stabilize alpha(2)-AR-Gialpha2/Gialpha3 versus alpha(2)-AR-Goalpha1 complexes, but that the subsequent step of signal transfer from receptor to G protein is more readily achieved for the clonidine/alpha(2)-AR/Goalpha1 complex. Such observations have important implications for receptor theory and drug development.  (+info)

Differential effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on cAMP response and g(i3)alpha protein expression in cultured sympathetic neurons. (7/329)

The effect of 24-h pretreatment with epinephrine (EPI) or norepinephrine (NE) on alpha(2)- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced, cAMP responses and G(i3)alpha-protein expression was studied in primary cultures of rat superior cervical ganglionic (SCG) neurons. SCG neurons, 10 to 12 days in culture, accumulated cAMP when stimulated with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol and the preferential beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 blocked this response. Similarly, the preferential alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, implying that cultured SCG neurons possess functional alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors. A 24-h treatment of SCG neurons with EPI or NE induced desensitization of the cAMP response to the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol. Simultaneously, EPI treatment increased the maximal inhibitory cAMP response to the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 and NE was without effect. Immunoblotting analyses of G(i3)alpha subunits revealed that 24-h EPI but not NE treatment induces a 3- to 4-fold increase in the expression of G(i3)alpha subunits. Furthermore, EPI-induced up-regulation of alpha-subunit expression can be blocked by the preferential beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 but not by the preferential beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712A. Our results suggest that changes in alpha(2)-adrenoceptor responsiveness induced by EPI may involve activation of beta(2)-adrenoceptors that influence the expression of inhibitory G proteins. Thus, primary cultures of sympathetic neurons by possessing functional alpha(2)- and beta-adrenoceptors may be a suitable model system to study the signaling mechanisms of "cross talk" between these adrenoceptor subtypes, which are known to play a central role in cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Mental well-being in alcohol withdrawal: relationship to alpha2-adrenoceptor function. (8/329)

The possible relationship between postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function, as assessed by the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine (CLON) and aspects of mental well-being by self-report of mood using the Swedish Mood Adjective Check List, was investigated in alcohol-dependent patients in the early withdrawal period. Patients had blunted GH responses to CLON and worse mental well-being than control subjects immediately after the end of alcohol intake. No relation was found between mental well-being and postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function. After 1 week, the GH responses to CLON remained blunted, whereas the state of mental well-being had improved to levels similar to those of control subjects. The results further support a downregulated alpha2-adrenoceptor function during 1 week of alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, even if subsensitive postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function was not generally related to state of mood, patients with the lowest postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function reported the highest levels in the dimensions pleasantness/unpleasantness and activation/deactivation when sober.  (+info)

*Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

2001). "Agonist-regulated Interaction between alpha2-adrenergic receptors and spinophilin". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (18): 15003-8. ... The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic ... a potent alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, selective for the alpha 1A receptor subtype". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 274 (1): ... "Entrez Gene: ADRA1A adrenergic, alpha-1A-, receptor". Roberts LR, Fish PV, Ian Storer R, Whitlock GA (April 2009). "6,7-Dihydro ...

*Norepinephrine

ISBN 1-4684-3171-4. Griffith RK (2013). "Chapter 10: Adrenergic Receptors and Drugs Affecting Adrenergic Neurotransmission". In ... Alpha-2 agonists often have a sedating effect, and are commonly used as anesthesia-enhancers in surgery, as well as in ... These are sympatholytic drugs that block the effects of beta adrenergic receptors while having little or no effect on alpha ... These are sympatholytic drugs that block the effects of adrenergic alpha receptors while having little or no effect on beta ...

*Alpha blocker

... inverse agonist) Tamsulosin Terazosin Silodosin Selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists include: Atipamezole Idazoxan ... Beta blocker Adrenergic antagonists Katzung, Bertram; Masters, Susan (2013). Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Lange. ISBN 978-0 ... Non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonists include: Phenoxybenzamine Phentolamine Tolazoline Trazodon Selective α1- ... The proposed mechanism for yohimbine is stimulation of the adrenergic receptors that are associated with penile erection and ...

*Adrenergic agonist

... the adrenergic receptors). Directly acting adrenergic agonists act on adrenergic receptors. All adrenergic receptors are G- ... An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors. The five main categories of ... Agonists of each class of receptor elicit these downstream responses. Indirectly acting adrenergic agonists affect the uptake ... Virtual Chembook article on adrenergic drugs adrenergic agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Beta-adrenergic agonist

Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers. Beta adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ... "WHAT ARE BETA-AGONISTS?". Thoracic.org. American Thoracic Society. Retrieved 17 October 2014. Adrenergic beta-Agonists at the ... "The beta-adrenergic receptors". Yoo, B.; et al. "Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII ...

*Beta1-adrenergic agonist

Beta1-adrenergic agonists, also known as Beta1-adrenergic receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that bind selectively to the ... February 2001). "Beta1-adrenergic agonist is a potent stimulator of alveolar fluid clearance in hyperoxic rat lungs". Jpn. J. ... September 1998). "Denopamine, a beta1-adrenergic agonist, prolongs survival in a murine model of congestive heart failure ... Beta-adrenoceptors typically bind to norepinephrine release by sympathetic adrenergic nerves and to circulating epinephrine. ...

*Alpha-adrenergic agonist

Alpha blocker Adrenergic agonist Beta-adrenergic agonist Declerck I, Himpens B, Droogmans G, Casteels R (September 1990). "The ... An adrenergic alpha-agonist (or alpha-adrenergic agonists) are a class of sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates ... α Adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of alpha blockers. Alpha adrenoreceptor ligands mimic the action of ... MeSH list of agents 82000316 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Beta2-adrenergic agonist

... adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic ... Like other β adrenergic agonists, they cause smooth muscle relaxation. β2 adrenergic agonists' effects on smooth muscle cause ... 9 Beta Adrenergic Drugs beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... Discovery and development of β2 agonists Ramanujan K. Common beta-agonist inhalers more than double death rate in COPD patients ...

*Use of beta-adrenergic agonists livestock

Beta-adrenergic agonists, or β-agonists, are non-hormonal growth promotants that help animals put on muscle instead of fat. ... "Beta-agonists: What are they and should I be concerned?". Retrieved 9 January 2017. "Beta agonists in cattle debate beefs up". ... "Use of Beta-Agonists in Cattle Feed". Retrieved 9 January 2017. "Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed and ... But problems may exist with all β-agonists supplementation, and not just for animals. The family of β-agonists includes β1-, β2 ...

*Benzodiazepine

Gross ME (2001). "Tranquilizers, α2-adrenergic agonists, and related agents". In Adams RH. Veterinary Pharmacology and ... These long-acting metabolites are partial agonists. Short-acting compounds have a median half-life of 1-12 hours. They have few ... Ballenger JC (2000). "Benzodiazepine receptors agonists and antagonists". In Sadock VA, Sadock BJ, Kaplan HI. Kaplan & Sadock's ...

*Orexigenic

α2 adrenergic antagonists[citation needed] - mirtazapine, mianserin Mixed α1/β blockers - carvedilol α2 Adrenergic agonists - ... quetiapine Adrenergic antagonists: β blockers - propranolol, etc. Paradoxically, β-adrenergic agonists are also listed. ... Agents with orexigenic effects include the following: 5-HT2C receptor antagonists/inverse agonists - mirtazapine, olanzapine, ... pregabalin Ghrelin receptor agonists such as anamorelin, GHRP-6, ibutamoren, ipamorelin, and pralmorelin MC4 receptor ...

*Bronchospasm

Beta2-adrenergic agonists are recommended for bronchospasm. Short acting (SABA) Terbutaline Salbutamol Levosalbutamol Long ... Both of these medications activate alpha-1 adrenergic receptors that result in smooth muscle constriction. Non-selective beta ...

*Brimonidine

... is an α2 adrenergic agonist. α2 agonists, through the activation of a G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the ... Peripheral α2 agonist activity results in vasoconstriction of blood vessels (as opposed to central α2 agonist activity that ... The increased uveoscleral outflow from prolonged use may be explained by increased prostaglandin release due to α adrenergic ...

*Tretoquinol

... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. "Synthesis of 6,7-dihydrox-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives". Tetrahedron. ...

*Mivazerol

... is an alpha-adrenergic agonist. Fox K, Dargie HJ, de Bono DP, Oliver MF, Wülfert E, Kharkevitch T (September 1999). " ... "Effect of an alpha(2) agonist (mivazerol) on limiting myocardial ischaemia in stable angina". Heart. 82 (3): 383-5. doi:10.1136 ...

*Zinterol

... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. Its structure is based on soterenol (antiarrhythmic) and phentermine. Heubach JF, Graf ...

*Dexmedetomidine

Similar to clonidine, it is an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors in certain parts of the brain. Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride ... Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist. Unlike opioids and other sedatives such as propofol, ...

*Xylazine

... is a potent α2 adrenergic agonist. When xylazine and other α2 adrenergic receptor agonists are administered, they ... Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. It is used for sedation, anesthesia ... Park, JW; Chung, HW; Lee, EJ; Jung, KH; Paik, JY; Lee, KH (29 April 2013). "α2-Adrenergic agonists including xylazine and ... As an agonist, xylazine leads to a decrease in neurotransmission of norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system. ...

*Talipexole

... is a D2 dopamine receptor agonist and interacts both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. It also is an α2-adrenergic ... Dopamine agonists in schizophrenia: a review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1995;5 Suppl:43-53. PMID 8775758 Japanese Ministry of ... Talipexole (B-HT920, Domnin) is a dopamine agonist that is marketed as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease in Japan by ... agonist. The main side effects are drowsiness, dizziness, hallucinations and minor gastrointestinal complaints. In 2008 the ...

*Alifedrine

... is a partial beta-adrenergic agonist. Effects of the novel beta-adrenergic partial agonist alifedrine on cardiac ...

*Cimaterol

... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. Dichloroisoprenaline Byrem TM, Beermann DH, Robinson TF (April 1998). "The beta-agonist cimaterol ...

*Nasal congestion

Alpha-adrenergic agonists are the first treatment of choice. They relieve congestion by constricting the blood vessels in the ...

*Opioid use disorder

"Alpha₂-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD002024 ...

*Zilpaterol

... (zilpaterol hydrochloride; codenamed RU 42173) is a β2 adrenergic agonist. Under its trade name, Zilmax, it is used ... Verhoeckx KC, Doornbos RP, Witkamp RF, van der Greef J, Rodenburg RJ (January 2006). "Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists induce ... A. Plascencia; N. Torrentera & R.A. Zinn (1999). "Influence of the β-Agonist, Zilpaterol, on Growth Performance and Carcass ...

*Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume

"Assessment of compliance in children using inhaled beta adrenergic agonists". Ann Allergy. 62 (5): 406-9. PMID 2566291. Herpes ...

*List of investigational anxiolytics

D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, and H1 receptor antagonist [10] ... mGluR2 and mGluR3 agonist [13] Tianeptine oxalate (TNX-601) - atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist [14] Verucerfont (GSK-561679, ... Agomelatine (AGO-178; Valdoxan) - melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist[1] Riluzole sublingual ( ... 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 5-HT2A receptor antagonist [4] Vilazodone (EMD-68843, SB-659746A; Viibryd) - 5-HT1A receptor partial ...

*Phenylpropanolamine

Although originally thought to act as a direct agonist of adrenergic receptors, PPA was subsequently found to show only weak or ... However, such substitution greatly enhances agonist activity at both α- and β- adrenergic receptors. Although ephedrine is less ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists: CLASSIFICATION OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS". In ... The stereoisomers of the drug have only weak or negligible affinity for α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Many sympathetic ...
1. Earlier studies have shown that exposure of fat-cells to insulin results in the rapid increased phosphorylation of an acid-soluble 22 kDa protein and that increases in phosphorylation were also evident in cells exposed to adrenaline [Belsham & Denton (1980) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 8, 382-383; Belsham, Brownsey, Hughes & Denton (1980) Diabetologia 18, 307-312]. 2. The effects of adrenaline are shown to be brought about through beta-adrenergic receptors and to be mimicked by other agents which increase cell cyclic AMP concentrations. The maximum extent of phosphorylation is about 60% of that observed with insulin. Increased phosphorylation is also observed in fat-cells exposed to vasopressin, oxytocin and phorbol esters, but not to alpha-adrenergic agonists. 3. No changes in the phosphorylation of the protein are evident in epididymal fat-pads from fat-fed, starved or starved/refed animals, despite the large changes in protein composition of fat-cells which accompany these nutritional alterations. ...
Cheng, N., Enright, K., Roberts, P., Turner, C., Browne, G. (2012). Primary Cardiac Arrest Following Sport or Exertion in Children Presenting to an Emergency Department: Chest Compressions and Early Defibrillation Can Save Lives, But Is Intravenous Epinephrine Always Appropriate? Pediatric Emergency Care, 28(4), 336-339. [More Information] ...
In this study the, in vitro, influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on human β-adrenoceptors was investigated. Incubation of normal human pulmonary membranes with PAF, LTB4 and LTC4 affected...
Background: Prehospital resuscitation for patients with major trauma emphasized load-and-go principle. However, for those with traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA), the role of prehospital intravenous epinephrine (PIE) remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of PIE in patients with TCPA.. Method: We analyzed data from an Utstein registry for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Taipei to test the association between PIE and outcomes of TCPAs. Enrollees were adult patients (≧18 year-old) with TCPA. Patients with signs of obvious death like decapitation or rigor mortis, or with existing do-not-resuscitation order were excluded. Primary outcome was survival to admission, and secondary outcome was survival to discharge. A subgroup analysis was performed by stratified total prehospital time.. Result: From Jun 1, 2010 to May 31, 2013 there were total 514 cases enrolled. PIE was administrated in 43 (8.4%) cases. Patients who received PIE were more likely with witnessed ...
Indirect agonists do not physically bind adrenergic receptors. Instead, these compounds indirectly lead to receptor activation through a variety of possible mechanisms which include promoting release of endogenously-stored norepinephrine from presynaptic terminals as well as inhibition of norepinephrine re-uptake and degradation from the synapse ...
Adrenaline Vs Epinephrine People from many parts across the world have heard about adrenaline and epinephrine. A certain region may know more about adrenaline
Xylanaest 1% mit Epinephrin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Xylanaest 1% mit Epinephrin is available on the Drugs.com website.
Xylanaest 2% mit Epinephrin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Xylanaest 2% mit Epinephrin is available on the Drugs.com website.
Looking for online definition of Alpha2-adrenergic agonist in the Medical Dictionary? Alpha2-adrenergic agonist explanation free. What is Alpha2-adrenergic agonist? Meaning of Alpha2-adrenergic agonist medical term. What does Alpha2-adrenergic agonist mean?
Epinephrine Auto Injector is available in 2 doses, 0.15 mg and 0.3 mg. Epinephrine Dose for Anaphylaxis is based on patients weight. Know more.
1. A satisfactory method for the direct determination of the pulmonary arterial pressure in rats is described.. 2. The arithmetical mean of the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery in a series of thirty-four normal albino rats under nembutal anesthesia is 256 mm. H20 (18.8 mm. Hg).. 3. Intravenous epinephrine causes an abrupt but briefly sustained rise in the pulmonary arterial pressure with a gradual return to normal.. ...
Alpha-2-Adrenergic Agonists can be effective in treating Back Pain. Learn about Alpha-2-Adrenergic Agonists, see related evidence, and find other smart treatments for Back Pain at FoundHealth.
Hi everybody! I havent been reading or posting to ITSAN or Fb for a while now. Im three years and a half into TSW and I can say my life is pretty normal now, skin is much better, I look healthy again:). SInce I also had a bad (clinically proven) adrenal suppression, which was discovered 2 years into TSW and was treated with substitution cortisol pills- 20mg per day-10 plus 5 plus 5mg) I thought it would be good to share my experience with this. I was taking the pills for one year and I had a testing of hormons after 6 and 12 months. After 6 months my adrenals were still supressed, but after 12 months cortisol levels were back to normal again (I could also feel that- I wasnt tired anymore, skin condition was stable...). Actually that happened last december (2014) so im completely off cortisol (after weaning off slowly of course) for almost 2 months now and there has been NO WORSENINGS! I didnt even notice when exactly I stopped taking the pills, it went so smoothly:) My skin is great. SO for ...
United States Adrenergic Agonists Market Report 2016 is a market research report available at US $3800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Alpha Adrenergic Central Agonist, Central Adrenergic Agonist, Methyl-Dopa, Methyldopa, Aldomet, Guanabenz, Wytensin.
Find patient medical information for Epinephrine Intramuscular on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have been looking into the effects of drugs called beta 2 adrenergic agonists on unborn children. The drugs are used to treat asthma and to inhibit or slow down labour but the study found that they may also increase the incidence of autism, mental-health problems, cognitive problems and poor school performance. The drugs are thought to have an adverse effect by disrupting the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems but it is important to remember that early labour and asthma in pregnancy can also have adverse effects on mothers and children. You should always see your doctor before stopping taking medicine. ...
Inotropic mechanisms of dopexamine hydrochloride in horses.: Mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic effects of dopexamine were investigated in 8 halo
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the quizlet psychology, epinephrine drip indications, low norepinephrine depression
Dopacard infusion contains the active ingredient dopexamine hydrochloride, which is a type of medicine called a sympathomimetic stimulant.
However, it is not surprising that epinephrine caused your heart rate to speed up (its expected to do this), though you might just be more sensitive to it than m...
Chimney begins at 14:05 If it isnt obvious, I had never climbed a chimney before so why not jump on a string of 5.9s. Luckily a group passed us just before beginning the pitch and I had ...
What is Patella Luxation? The normal patella runs in an up and down direction within a groove on the thigh bone. A luxating patella can slip in and out of its normal position in the patella g... read more ...
If intramuscular epinephrine is not available quickly, give epinephrine IV. Epinephrine IV (intravascular) 1:10,000 concentration (0.1 mg/mL): give epinephrine 0.1 mg IV slowly over 1-3 minutes. Note that the concentration of epinephrine that is given intravascularly and is often on code carts is different than the concentration of epinephrine that is given intramuscularly. This can cause dosing errors and cardiovascular complications due to overdosing. The 10mL prefilled syringes of epinephrine used in cardiac arrest on the code carts are 1mg of epinephrine in a 10mL prefilled syringe. Therefore, to give 0.1mg for anaphylaxis, you only give 1/10th (1mL) of the prefilled syringe that is given in the ACLS algorithms! Usually a response is observed after a single dose, giving you time to prepare an epinephrine infusion. If there is an inadequate response to the first dose, a second dose can be given. ...
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If intramuscular epinephrine is not available quickly, give epinephrine IV. Epinephrine IV (intravascular) 1:10,000 concentration (0.1 mg/mL): give epinephrine 0.1 mg IV slowly over 1-3 minutes. Note that the concentration of epinephrine that is given intravascularly and is often on code carts is different than the concentration of epinephrine that is given intramuscularly. This can cause dosing errors and cardiovascular complications due to overdosing. The 10mL prefilled syringes of epinephrine used in cardiac arrest on the code carts are 1mg of epinephrine in a 10mL prefilled syringe. Therefore, to give 0.1mg for anaphylaxis, you only give 1/10th (1mL) of the prefilled syringe that is given in the ACLS algorithms! Usually a response is observed after a single dose, giving you time to prepare an epinephrine infusion. If there is an inadequate response to the first dose, a second dose can be given. ...
Looking for epinephrine? Find out information about epinephrine. hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some... Explanation of epinephrine
Phenylephrine is a selective ?1-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, and to increase blood...
Randy I. Dorn State Superintendent Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction Old Capitol Building P.O. Box Olympia, WA Epinephrine Administration Recommendations 2013 Authorizing
Is Epinehrine a Steroid? Read about epinehrine and its composition, effects on the systems and pharmacology alongwith many other related ...
Adrenaline兔多克隆抗体(ab37091)经WB, ELISA, ICC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Looking for adrenergic agents as vasoconstrictor? Find out information about adrenergic agents as vasoconstrictor. A nerve or an agent that causes blood vessel constriction. one of a group of pharmacological agents that cause the constriction of the smooth muscles of... Explanation of adrenergic agents as vasoconstrictor
Health, ...Epinephrine is the first line of treatment for patients suffering from...Title: Paramedic Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Allergic Re...Lead Author: Nabil El Sanadi M.D. chief medical officer of emergency...By the Numbers: A total of 92 paramedic run sheets were reviewed 40 w...,Life-saving,epinephrine,under,utilized,by,paramedics,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Methods and kits for treating or preventing psoriasis or a symptom associated with psoriasis in a subject are described. The methods involve topical applications to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, such as brimonidine.
Epinephrine. Molecular model of the hormone and neurotransmitter epinephrine (C9.H13.N.O3), also known as adrenaline. As a drug, it is used to treat cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis, and superficial bleeding. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue) and oxygen (red). - Stock Image C035/7601
Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the ...
Use Google powered SiteComber to search within various sites for PROCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE W EPINEPHRINE. Links to searches for PROCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE W EPINEPHRINE can be found here.
Adrenaline information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Teva, Adrenaline indications, usages and related health products lists
By creating the new epinephrine tablet, Mutasem Rawas-Qalaji, Ph.D., fills a need in the market to improve the lives of those suffering from severe allergic reactions.
Chimney begins at 14:05 If it isnt obvious, I had never climbed a chimney before so why not jump on a string of 5.9s. Luckily a group passed us just before beginning the pitch and I had ...
Ive only had one patient with true anaphylaxsis, a young 19y/o female on a first date with a new boyfriend. He told us that she had taken a mouthful of food and he just sat there and watched her face swell and turn red, luckly we were in the area and on scene within 2 minutes and got two shots of adrenaline into her while transporting straight to hospital, a good save. I never did find out if he was going to ask her out again ...
Comparative Study on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms for Seismic Response Controls of Structures: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7456-1.ch082: This chapter introduces three new multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) for minimum distributions of both actuators and sensors within seismically
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epinephrine is the primary drug administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to reverse cardiac arrest. Epinephrine increases arterial blood pressure and coronary perfusion during CPR via alpha-1-adrenoceptor agonist eff
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Epinephrine maintains blood pressure, antagonizes the effects of the released mediators, and inhibits further release of mediators. Health care professionals are sometimes reluctant to administer epin... more
Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiologic properties of epinephrine-induced necrotic myocardium. AU - Gilmour, R. F.. AU - Zipes, D. P.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018076481&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018076481&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018076481. VL - 26. JO - Journal of Investigative Medicine. JF - Journal of Investigative Medicine. SN - 1081-5589. IS - 5. ER - ...
An association between cardiac arrhythmias and ethanol use has been observed for some time. The sympathetic nervous system presumably plays an important role in the manifestation of cardiovascular...
High-dose epinephrine was no better than standard-dose epinephrine for improving survival after cardiac arrest. One of the greatest challenges for physicians is to rescue a person from a potentially reversible state of cardiopulmonary arrest. The modern era of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) evolved from human studies in the 1950s and 1960s. Many highly touted improvements in our resuscitative techniques have appeared in the literature over the past 30 years. They were met with enthusiasm but have failed to improve survival. The approach of the 2 studies by Brown and Stiell and their colleagues was established in animal models in which high-dose epinephrine apparently improved efficacy. Animal studies, however, are difficult to extrapolate directly to humans because animals have different chest conformities; they have changing CPR mechanics; normal animal heart, lung, and neural axes are involved; and the arrest occurs in a very controlled environment that is optimized for resuscitation. ...
Sympathetically maintained pain is treated topically by administering to the site where sympathetically maintained pain is present an α-1-adrenergic antagonist, α-2-adrenergic agonist, or other drug that depletes or blocks synthesis of sympathetic norepinephrine, known collectively as sympatholytic agents. Chemical formulas for several sympatholytic agents are given.
The Canadian parliament is scheduled to vote on a motion that could pave the way for increased awareness, meaningful policies and laws surrounding food allergy and anaphylaxis. "With Motion M-230, we want to look at how we can help coordinate a thoughtful government response to anaphylaxis, to raise public understanding of life threatening allergies, and… Read more ». ...
COLUMBUS-State Representative Derek Merrin (R-Monclova Township) introduced House Bill 101, known as the "Epinephrine Accessibility Act," which seeks to make epinephrine auto-injectors more affordable and accessible. National media has reported on the sky-rocketing cost for EpiPens, produced by Mylan Pharmaceuticals, which is reported to control about 90 percent of the epinephrine auto-injector market. The price for EpiPens has increased about 500 percent in recent years, standing at a $600 retail price.. ...
Ophthalmic compositions having negligible side effects on the heart can be obtained by using as the active ingredient an adrenergic β receptor agonist having a high selectivity toward adrenergic β2 receptor. These compositions are usable as preventives or therapeutics for xerophthalmic disorder and keratoconjunctival disorder.
Methods and products for treating or preventing erythema or a symptom associated with erythema in a subject are described. The methods involve topically applying to an affected skin area a topical aqueous gel composition comprising about 0.01% to about 10% by weight of at least one α-adrenergic receptor agonist and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
Impax Labs issued an update on its Epinephrine Injection, USP Auto-Injector 0.15mg and 0.3mg, the generic of Adrenaclick, indicating the product is currently available.
Leen dit bij een bibliotheek! Asterix in Switzerland. [Goscinny; Uderzo.] -- Asterix and Obelix travel to Switzerland in search of a certain flower for a poison antidote.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplementation with a single β-adrenergic agonist (β-AA) or a sequence of β-AA on cow performance, carcass characteristics, and mRNA relative abundance of cull cows implanted and fed a concentrate diet. Sixty cull cows were implanted with Revalor-200 (200 mg of trenbolone acetate and 20 mg of estradiol) and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n = 15/treatment): CON = fed a concentrate diet only; RH = supplemented with ractopamine-HCl for the last 25 d before slaughter; ZH = supplemented with zilpaterol-HCl for 20 d before a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter; RH + ZH = supplemented with RH for 25 d, followed by ZH for 20 d before a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. Ractopamine-HCl was supplemented at a dose of 200 mg·animal(-1)·d(-1), and ZH was supplemented at 8.33 mg/kg (100% DM basis) of feed. All cows were fed a concentrate diet for 74 d. Each treatment had 5 cows per pen and 3 replicate pens. Body weights were collected on d 1, 24, ...
Our present neurochemical and behavioral data show, for the first time, that (1) insulin enhances cocaine-sensitive monoamine transporter function in rat NAc, thereby displaying brain-region specificity, and (2) NAc insulin reduces impulsive behavior and enhances cocaine-induced impulsivity, in agreement with the crucial role of monoamine neurotransmission in the NAc in inhibitory response control. Therefore, the pancreatic hormone insulin may play a role in inhibitory control deficits such as that observed in drug abuse, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. Considering the involvement of insulin in cognitive and motivational processes that depend on DA neurotransmission, insulin receptors and their downstream substrates (IRS-2 and PI3K) in rat brain are densely expressed in DA neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and activation of these receptors enhances PI3K activity and DAT mRNA expression (Figlewicz et al., 1994; Pardini et al., 2006; Figlewicz and ...
Compounds of formula (I) defined herein act both as muscarinic receptor antagonists and beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists and are useful for the prevention and/or treatment of broncho-obstructive or inflammatory diseases.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 32619-42-4(Oleuropein) for price inquiry. where to buy 32619-42-4(Oleuropein).Also offer free database of 32619-42-4(Oleuropein) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
group of persons with spinal cord injury will receive blinded beta-2 adrenergic agonist capsule. extended release beta-2 adrenergic agonist: Albuterol extended release belongs to a class of drugs known as bronchodilators. It works in the airways by opening breathing passages and relaxing muscles.. ...
The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. Three groups of granulocytes were studied: 1) cells treated with isoproterenol (10−6 to 10−3 M); 2) cells treated with propranolol (10−
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Benjamin L Farah, Rohit A Sinha, Yajun Wu, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Boon-Huat Bay, Paul M Yen].
and alpha1adrenergic agonists are common ingredients in over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold preparations. Phenylephrine is also available as nasal drops. Following overdose in children, these agents have the potential to cause serious toxicity incl
Keep your epinephrine auto-injectors or inhaler at close reach at all times! Stop digging thru your backpack, purse, or bag for your Auvi-Q carriers
One only needs to turn on the television to see how popular extreme sports are in todays culture. What is this phenomenon of the adrenaline junkie?
The amniote organizer (Hensens node) can induce a complete nervous system when grafted into a peripheral region of a host embryo. Although BMP inhibition has been implicated in neural induction, non-neural cells cannot respond to BMP antagonists unless previously exposed to a node graft for at least 5 hours before BMP inhibitors. To define signals and responses during the first 5 hours of node signals, a differential screen was conducted. Here we describe three early response genes: two of them, Asterix and Obelix, encode previously undescribed proteins of unknown function but Obelix appears to be a nuclear RNA-binding protein. The third is TrkC, a neurotrophin receptor. All three genes are induced by a node graft within 4-5 hours but they differ in the extent to which they are inducible by FGF: FGF is both necessary and sufficient to induce Asterix, sufficient but not necessary to induce Obelix and neither sufficient nor necessary for induction of TrkC. These genes are also not induced by retinoic
Nine subjects were randomized to the subcutaneous epinephrine group (epinephrine solution) and 8 to the intramuscular injection group (EpiPen Auto-Injector). The mean peak plasma epinephrine concentration in the subcutaneous group was 1802 ± 214 pg/mL. The mean time to reach maximum plasma concentrations was 34 ± 14 minutes in this group, with only 2 subjects achieving maximum concentration by 5 minutes. In contrast, the mean peak maximum plasma epinephrine concentration in the intramuscular group was 2136 ± 351 pg/mL. The mean time to reach maximum plasma concentration was 8 ± 2 minutes (P , .05, compared to subcutaneous group), with 6 achieving the peak concentration by 5 minutes. No serious adverse effects were reported in either group. ...
In earlier studies, we found that a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol, facilitated cardiac resuscitation, reduced postresuscitation myocardial ectopy, and improved postresuscitation survival. However, the potential adverse effe
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
Catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs are classified as direct-acting, indirect-acting, or mixed-acting sympathomimetics (Figure 12-1). Direct-acting sympathomimetic drugs act directly on one or more of the adrenergic receptors. These agents may exhibit considerable selectivity for a specific receptor subtype (e.g., phenylephrine for α1, terbutaline for β2) or may have no or minimal selectivity and act on several receptor types (e.g., epinephrine for α1, α2, β1, β2, and β3 receptors; norepinephrine for α1, α2, and β1 receptors). Indirect-acting drugs increase the availability of norepinephrine (NE) or epinephrine to stimulate adrenergic receptors. This can be accomplished in several ways: ...
On One Hand: Alpha 2 agonist act as vasodilatorsCommon alpha 2 agonist drugs are alpha-methyldopa, clonidine, guanfacine and guanabenz. These drugs act to dilate blood vessels in the body to decrease resistance so that more blood can flow through the vessels. Side effects of alpha 2 agonists usually cause dry mouth, sedation, orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia and impotence because of over stimulation of alpha 2 receptors in the body.On the Other: Low dose alpha 2 antagonists improves side effectsAlpha 2 antagonists have been used to alleviate side effects from the drug L-dopa. L-dopa is given to patients who have Parkinson's disease. Th...
For centuries, ricin, the toxin contained in the seeds (beans) of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), has been used for homicidal purposes, although it has never been released or used in battle as a biological weapon of war. The plant is found primarily in Asia and Africa but has taken root in all temperate and subtropical regions around...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rate of compliance for having an emergency epinephrine autoinjector readily accessible in adults with allergies, and to determine factors that negatively influence adults with allergies for having an emergency epinephrine autoinjector readily accessible.. ...
Physicians administering live, attenuated mumps and measles vaccine prepared in chick embryos keep epinephrine available. Epinephrine will not treat these viral infections. What is the purpose of keeping this drug on.
[111 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Epinephrine Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Epinephrine market is valued at...
Epinephrine Sun/Shade beta - SuperTopos climbing discussion forum is the worlds most popular community discussion forum for people who actively climb outdoors.
Epinephrine acts by increasing the levels of cyclic AMP leading to bronchodilation and stimulation of the heart and central nervous system.
Epinephrine or adrenalin is a hormone molecule formed in the adrenal glands of animals by chemical modification of the amino acid tyrosine, according to the National Center for Biotechnology...
Epinephrine sulfoconjugate | C9H13NO6S | CID 53471836 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
ADRENALIN (Epinephrine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Autonomic PharmacologyCHOLINERGIC & PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC AGENTS cholinergic and parasympathomimetic agents can be divided into th...

December 2017 - When do the patents on MIDODRINE HYDROCHLORIDE expire, and when will generic MIDODRINE HYDROCHLORIDE be...December 2017 - When do the patents on MIDODRINE HYDROCHLORIDE expire, and when will generic MIDODRINE HYDROCHLORIDE be...

alpha-Adrenergic Agonist Mechanism of Action. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) Categories for MIDODRINE ...
more infohttps://www.drugpatentwatch.com/p/tradename/MIDODRINE+HYDROCHLORIDE

Guanfacine - definition of guanfacine by The Free DictionaryGuanfacine - definition of guanfacine by The Free Dictionary

The alpha 2 adrenergic agonists clonidine and guanfacine were developed 30 years ago to treat hypertension, but have been used ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor inhibition of hippocampal epileptiform activity: comparisons of ligand efficacy and potency ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/guanfacine

Metaproterenol Sulfate -  Drug label and information - Rx Drugs InfoMetaproterenol Sulfate - Drug label and information - Rx Drugs Info

Metaproterenol sulfate is a beta adrenergic agonist bronchodilator. The pharmacologic effects of beta adrenergic agonist drugs ... Beta adrenergic agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or ... since the action of beta adrenergic agonists on the vascular system may be potentiated. ... when beta agonists and methylxanthines were administered concurrently. The significance of these findings when applied to ...
more infohttp://rxdrugsinfo.com/drug-info-label/metaproterenol-sulfate

Adrenergic agonist - WikipediaAdrenergic agonist - Wikipedia

Further information: Adrenergic receptor. Directly acting adrenergic agonists act on adrenergic receptors. All adrenergic ... An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors. The five main categories of ... Virtual Chembook article on adrenergic drugs. *adrenergic+agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Indirectly acting adrenergic agonists affect the uptake and storage mechanisms involved in adrenergic signalling. ...
more infohttp://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAdrenergic_agonist

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β-2 adrenergic agonists. Paradoxical lactic acidosis with subsequent worsening: case report ...
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Cyanide Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Anticonvulsants, Other, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic AgonistsCyanide Toxicity Medication: Antidotes, Anticonvulsants, Other, Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists

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Alpha2 adrenergic agonists for the management. of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane Review) by. Gowing L, Farrell M, Ali R, White J. ... Ten studies compared a treatment regime based on an alpha2 adrenergic agonist with one based on reducing doses of methadone. ... From the comparison of alpha2 adrenergic agonist regimes with reducing doses of methadone, withdrawal intensity is similar to, ... REVIEWERS CONCLUSIONS: Treatment regimes based on the alpha2 adrenergic agonists clonidine and lofexidine, and those based on ...
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Familial Dysautonomia Medication: Benzodiazepines, H2 receptor antagonists, Alpha-adrenergic agonists, CorticosteroidsFamilial Dysautonomia Medication: Benzodiazepines, H2 receptor antagonists, Alpha-adrenergic agonists, Corticosteroids

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Adrenergic agonist (2) - definition of adrenergic agonist (2) by The Free DictionaryAdrenergic agonist (2) - definition of adrenergic agonist (2) by The Free Dictionary

... adrenergic agonist (2) pronunciation, adrenergic agonist (2) translation, English dictionary definition of adrenergic agonist ( ... agonist. (redirected from adrenergic agonist (2)). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ag·o·nist. (ăg′ə-nĭst). n. ... Adrenergic agonist (2) - definition of adrenergic agonist (2) by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/ ... agonist - a muscle that contracts while another relaxes; "when bending the elbow the biceps are the agonist". antagonistic ...
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α-Adrenergic agonists and enterotoxins. PETER M. NEWSOME, MALCOLM N. BURGESS, MADELAINE R. BURGESS, GEOFFREY D. HOLMAN, STEVEN ... α-Adrenergic agonists and enterotoxins. PETER M. NEWSOME, MALCOLM N. BURGESS, MADELAINE R. BURGESS, GEOFFREY D. HOLMAN, STEVEN ... α-Adrenergic agonists and enterotoxins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Society ...
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Beta-2 Adrenergic Agonist (Oral Route, Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo ClinicBeta-2 Adrenergic Agonist (Oral Route, Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

... www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/beta-2-adrenergic-agonist-oral-route-injection-route/side-effects/DRG-20069364 ... Adrenergic bronchodilators are medicines that stimulate the nerves in many parts of the body, causing different effects. ... All of the other adrenergic bronchodilators are available only with your doctors prescription. ...
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Beta-2 Adrenergic Agonist (Oral Route, Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo ClinicBeta-2 Adrenergic Agonist (Oral Route, Injection Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

Although not all of the side effects listed above have been reported for each of these medicines, they have been reported for at least one of them. All of these medicines are similar, so many of the above side effects may occur with any of the medicines.. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
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α2-adrenergic Agonists & Tricyclic Antidepressants | Pain Modelα2-adrenergic Agonists & Tricyclic Antidepressants | Pain Model

α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) are found in many areas in throughout the nervous system, but the α2ARs on pre- and post- ... Although neuropathic and other forms of chronic pain are common indications for the clinical use of α2AR agonists as well, they ... These receptors can also be targeted pharmacologically through administration of selective agonists or through the inhibition ...
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α2-adrenergic Agonists & Tricyclic Antidepressants | Pain Modelα2-adrenergic Agonists & Tricyclic Antidepressants | Pain Model

α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) are found in many areas in throughout the nervous system, but the α2ARs on pre- and post- ... Although neuropathic and other forms of chronic pain are common indications for the clinical use of α2AR agonists as well, they ... These receptors can also be targeted pharmacologically through administration of selective agonists or through the inhibition ...
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Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity?Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity?

Alpha2-adrenergic AgonistsThese agents may reduce sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system (CNS).Clonidine (Catapres ... Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity?. Updated: Mar 01, 2018 ... Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists. These agents may reduce sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system (CNS). ... encoded search term (Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity?) ...
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Differential Diagnosis: Beta adrenergic agonist, Multiple skin lesionsDifferential Diagnosis: Beta adrenergic agonist, Multiple skin lesions

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Alpha-adrenergic Agonists for the Management of Opioid Withdrawal - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family PhysicianAlpha-adrenergic Agonists for the Management of Opioid Withdrawal - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Alpha-adrenergic agonists were more efficacious than placebo in the management of opioid withdrawal, but are best reserved as ... ALPHA-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL. Benefits. Harms. NNT = 3 to prevent one episode of severe ... ALPHA-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL. Benefits. Harms. NNT = 3 to prevent one episode of severe ... Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD002024. ...
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Adrenergic agonist - WikipediaAdrenergic agonist - Wikipedia

... the adrenergic receptors). Directly acting adrenergic agonists act on adrenergic receptors. All adrenergic receptors are G- ... An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors. The five main categories of ... Agonists of each class of receptor elicit these downstream responses. Indirectly acting adrenergic agonists affect the uptake ... Virtual Chembook article on adrenergic drugs adrenergic agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
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What is Alpha2-adrenergic agonist? Meaning of Alpha2-adrenergic agonist medical term. What does Alpha2-adrenergic agonist mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alpha2-adrenergic agonist in the Medical Dictionary? Alpha2-adrenergic agonist explanation ... adrenergic receptor. (redirected from Alpha2-adrenergic agonist) adrenergic receptor. Etymology: L, ad + ren, kidney; Gk, ergon ... Alpha2-adrenergic agonist , definition of Alpha2-adrenergic agonist by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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Beta-adrenergic agonist - WikipediaBeta-adrenergic agonist - Wikipedia

Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers. Beta adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ... "WHAT ARE BETA-AGONISTS?". Thoracic.org. American Thoracic Society. Retrieved 17 October 2014. Adrenergic beta-Agonists at the ... "The beta-adrenergic receptors". Yoo, B.; et al. "Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII ...
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Clonidine is classified as a centrally acting alpha adrenergic agonist.Clonidine acts centrally as an imidazoline receptor ... Clonidine hydrochloride Alpha adrenergic agonist Clonidine is classified as a centrally acting alpha adrenergic agonist. ... Clonidine is classified as a centrally acting alpha adrenergic agonist.Clonidine acts centrally as an imidazoline receptor ... Clonidine is classified as a centrally acting alpha adrenergic agonist.Clonidine acts centrally as an imidazoline receptor ...
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Is the attenuation of beta-adrenergic agonist efficacy during labor caused by elevated prostaglandin E levels?Is the attenuation of beta-adrenergic agonist efficacy during labor caused by elevated prostaglandin E levels?

STUDY DESIGN: beta-Receptor function (response to beta-agonist or forskolin) was tested in monon ... Our purpose was to investigate whether attenuation of beta-adrenergic agonist efficacy during labor is due to elevated ... Adrenergic beta-Agonists / pharmacology*. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Dinoprostone / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Isoproterenol ... 31515 - Beta-adrenergic receptors: regulatory role of agonists.. 6286505 - Effect of bordetella pertussis on alpha 1 and beta- ...
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Hydroxybenzylpindolol and Hydroxybenzylpropranolol: Partial Beta Adrenergic Agonists of Adenylate Cyclase in the Rat Adipocyte ...Hydroxybenzylpindolol and Hydroxybenzylpropranolol: Partial Beta Adrenergic Agonists of Adenylate Cyclase in the Rat Adipocyte ...

... Hydroxybenzylpindolol and Hydroxybenzylpropranolol: Partial Beta Adrenergic Agonists of Adenylate Cyclase in the Rat Adipocyte ... Hydroxybenzylpindolol and Hydroxybenzylpropranolol: Partial Beta Adrenergic Agonists of Adenylate Cyclase in the Rat Adipocyte ... Hydroxybenzylpindolol and Hydroxybenzylpropranolol: Partial Beta Adrenergic Agonists of Adenylate Cyclase in the Rat Adipocyte ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/12/5/693

Use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol xinafoate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary...Use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol xinafoate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary...

Use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol xinafoate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary ... a beta-agonist bronchodilator with a duration of action substantially longer than that of short-acting beta-agonists, compared ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11316640?dopt=Abstract
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions involving the use of alpha2 adrenergic agonists (clonidine, lofexidine, guanfacine, guanabenz acetate) to manage the acute phase of opioid withdrawal. (opioids.com)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared alpha2 adrenergic agonists with another form of treatment (or placebo) to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were primarily opioid dependent. (opioids.com)
  • From the comparison of alpha2 adrenergic agonist regimes with reducing doses of methadone, withdrawal intensity is similar to, or marginally greater with alpha2 adrenergic agonists, but signs and symptoms of withdrawal occur and resolve earlier in treatment. (opioids.com)
  • REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Treatment regimes based on the alpha2 adrenergic agonists clonidine and lofexidine, and those based on reducing doses of methadone over a period of around 10 days, have similar efficacy in the management of withdrawal from heroin or methadone. (opioids.com)
  • Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Spasticity? (medscape.com)
  • a site in a sympathetic effector cell that reacts to adrenergic stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For four decades, the α 2 - adrenergic agonists they have been used in the veterinary medicine to obtain sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation, in a great variety of domestic and exotic species, although the relation of these actions with the stimulation of α 2 - adrenoreceptors were not established until 1981 by Hsu. (vin.com)
  • Although neuropathic and other forms of chronic pain are common indications for the clinical use of α2AR agonists as well, they show robust antinociception in a much wider variety of animal models, including acute and inflammatory ones. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • β3 agonists are currently in clinical research and are thought to increase the breakdown of lipids in obese patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of dietary energy, as well as the inclusion of a β -adrenergic agonist, on the production of feedlot lambs. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study evaluated salmeterol, a beta-agonist bronchodilator with a duration of action substantially longer than that of short-acting beta-agonists, compared with ipratropium, an anticholinergic bronchodilator, and placebo in patients with COPD. (nih.gov)
  • The G-protein receptor can affect the function of adenylate cyclase or phospholipase C , an agonist of the receptor will upregulate the effects on the downstream pathway (it will not necessarily upregulate the pathway itself). (rug.nl)
  • Thus, interference with agonist-occupied beta-adrenergic receptor coupling to adenylate cyclase to produce cAMP and subsequent contractile responses is induced by a factor(s) elaborated by activated immune cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Mechanism of -adrenergic preconditioning ( -PC) Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), a potent endogenous protective intervention against myocardial ischaemia, is induced by exposure of the heart to repetitive short episodes of ischaemia and reperfusion. (sun.ac.za)
  • indirect acting agonist release of biogenic amines from storage has no hydroxyl groups and is therefore hydrophobic. (cram.com)
  • Use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol xinafoate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • Agonists of each class of receptor elicit these downstream responses. (rug.nl)
  • In 2013, zilpaterol, a β agonist sold by Merck, was temporarily withdrawn due to signs of sickness in some cattle that were fed the drug. (wikipedia.org)