Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Compounds based on a propanolamine attached via an OXYGEN atom to a phenoxy ring. The side chain is one carbon longer than PHENYLETHYLAMINES.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
An ethanolamine derivative that is an adrenergic alpha-1 agonist. It is used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Hydrogenated alprenolol derivative where the extra hydrogens are often tritiated. This radiolabeled form of ALPRENOLOL, a beta-adrenergic blocker, is used to label the beta-adrenergic receptor for isolation and study.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds that bind to and activate PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.

Characterization of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in human umbilical vein. (1/329)

1. The present study attempted to characterize pharmacologically the subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors mediating contractions in human umbilical vein (HUV). 2. HUV rings were mounted in isolated organ baths and cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and adrenaline. Adrenaline was more potent than phenylephrine (pD2=7.29 and 6.04 respectively). 3. Isoproterenol exhibited no agonism on KCl pre-contracted HUV rings. Propranolol (1 microM) and rauwolscine (0.1 microM) did not affect the concentration-response curves to adrenaline. These results demonstrate the lack of involvement of functional beta-or alpha2-adrenoceptors in adrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. 4. The non subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin was evaluated on phenylephrine and adrenaline concentration-response curves. The effects of the competitive alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the irreversible alpha1B selective compound chloroethylclonidine (CEC) were also evaluated on adrenaline concentration-response curves. 5. The potencies of prazosin against responses mediated by adrenaline (pA2= 10.87) and phenylephrine (pA2= 10.70) indicate the involvement of prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in vasoconstriction of the HUV. 6. The potencies of 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 = 6.70) and BMY 7378 (pA2= 7.34) were not consistent with the activation of an alpha1A- or alpha1D-adrenoceptor population. 7. Exposure to a relatively low CEC concentration (3 microM) abolished the maximum response to adrenaline suggesting that this response was mediated by an alpha1B-adrenoceptor subtype. 8. We conclude that HUV express a prazosin-sensitive functional alpha1-adrenoceptor resembling the alpha1B-subtype according with the low pA2 values for both 5-methyl urapidil and BMY 7378 and the high sensitivity to CEC.  (+info)

Sympathovagal balance: how should we measure it? (2/329)

There are complex interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system inputs to the sinus node. The concept of "sympathovagal balance" reflects the autonomic state resulting from the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences. Despite widespread usage of a variety of heart rate (HR) variability parameters as indexes of sympathovagal balance, no index has been validated as a measure of sympathovagal balance. This study evaluated the utility of HR, HR variability, and a new parameter termed the vagal-sympathetic effect (VSE) as indexes of sympathovagal balance. The ideal parameter had to satisfy the following criteria: 1) the index should vary similarly among subjects in response to different autonomic conditions; 2) the variability in the index among subjects exposed to the same autonomic conditions should be small; and 3) the response of the index to various autonomic conditions should reflect the underlying changes in physiological state and have a meaningful interpretation. Volunteers [8 men, 6 women; mean age 28.5 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr] were evaluated for the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation and blockade on HR and HR variability. VSE was defined as the ratio of the R-R interval to the intrinsic R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval consistently changed in the expected directions with parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation and blockade. A general linearized model was used to evaluate the response of each parameter. VSE and R-R interval had r2 values of 0.847 and 0.852, respectively. Natural logarithm of the low-frequency power had an r2 value of 0.781 with lower r2 values for all the other HR variability parameters. The coefficient of variation was also lowest for each condition tested for the VSE and the R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval best satisfy the criteria for the ideal index of sympathovagal balance. Because it is impractical under most conditions to measure the VSE as the index of sympathovagal balance, the most suitable index is the R-R interval.  (+info)

"Uncaging" using optical fibers to deliver UV light directly to the sample. (3/329)

Photolysis or "uncaging" of caged compounds represents a significant tool in cell biology and chemistry. It provides a means for quantitative control of compound delivery with temporal and spatial resolution while observing their consequences for cellular signaling. We discuss the use of ultraviolet-transmitting optical fibers to directly deliver UV energy to the sample, combined with a nitrogen pulsed laser as a source of UV light. In this approach the size of the photolysis area is regulated by the exit aperture of the fiber tip which is controlled by pulling the optical fibers to desirable diameters. A diode (red) laser that is also coupled to the optical fiber aids the location of UV energy delivery through the fiber. We used this method to quantitatively uncage norepinephrine and calcium. The major advantage of this photolysis approach is its independence of microscope objectives and traditional optical pathways. Because the optical pathway of the microscope needs no modification to accommodate this photolysis system, integration with other experimental methods, such as electrochemistry, electrophysiology, confocal microscopy, and wide-field epifluorescence microscopy, is relatively simple.  (+info)

Contributions of adenosine receptor activation to the ocular actions of epinephrine. (4/329)

PURPOSE: Epinephrine is an effective drug for glaucoma treatment. However, the mechanisms responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of this compound are not completely understood. Adenosine is an autacoid released by all cells. This study evaluated the role of adenosine receptor activation in epinephrine-induced changes in ocular function. METHODS: Rabbits were pretreated topically with the moderately selective adenosine A1 antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT) or the adenosine A2 antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-l-propargylxanthine (DMPX). Epinephrine (500 microg) was then administered, and intraocular pressures (IOPs), pupil diameters (PDs), or total outflow facility was evaluated. In a separate group of animals, epinephrine or vehicle was administered, and aqueous humor samples obtained to evaluate changes in aqueous humor purine levels by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: In control animals, epinephrine produced a biphasic change in IOP: an initial rise in IOP of approximately 1 mm Hg from 1/2 to 1 hour followed by significant reduction in IOP of 8 to 9 mm Hg from 3 to 5 hours postadministration. These animals also exhibited a significant increase in PD of 2 to 3 mm from 1/2 to 2 hours postadministration. Pretreatment with 8-SPT (1000 microg) enhanced the initial rise in IOP, while significantly inhibiting the ocular hypotensive response. Pretreatment with 8-SPT also significantly enhanced the epinephrine-induced increase in PD. Inhibition of the epinephrine-induced reduction in IOP by 8-SPT was dose-related with an IC50 of 446 microg. Administration of 8-SPT alone did not significantly alter IOP or PD. The A2 antagonist DMPX did not alter the epinephrine-induced change in IOP or PD. In rabbits pretreated with 8-SPT, the epinephrine-induced increase in outflow facility was significantly reduced by 60% when compared with those in rabbits treated with epinephrine alone. In vehicle-treated rabbits, aqueous humor adenosine and inosine levels were 2.7 +/- 0.38 and 29 +/- 4.2 ng/100 microl, respectively. Three hours after epinephrine administration, adenosine and inosine levels had significantly increased to 11 +/- 1.6 and 66 +/- 4.4 ng/100 microl, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that in rabbits epinephrine administration stimulates adenosine release in the anterior segment. This rise in endogenous levels of adenosine then leads to the activation of ocular adenosine receptors and is in part responsible for the ocular hypotensive action of epinephrine.  (+info)

Activation of a thioesterase specific for very-long-chain fatty acids by adrenergic agonists in perfused hearts. (5/329)

We have recently described an acyl-CoA thioesterase specific for very-long-chain fatty acids, named ARTISt, that regulates steroidogenesis through the release of arachidonic acid in adrenal zona fasciculata cells. In this paper we demonstrate the presence of the protein as a 43 kDa band and its mRNA in cardiac tissue. The activity of the protein was measured using an heterologous cell-free assay in which it is recombined with adrenal microsomes and mitochondria to activate mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Isoproterenol and phenylephrine activate the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner (10(-10)-10(-6) M). Both propranolol (10(-5) M) and prazosin (10(-5) M) block the action of isoproterenol and phenylephrine respectively. Antipeptide antibodies against the serine lipase motif of the protein and the Cys residue present in the catalytic domain also block the activity of the protein. Taken together, our results confirm the presence of ARTISt in heart and provide evidence for a catecholamine-activated regulatory pathway of the enzyme in that tissue.  (+info)

Influence of G protein type on agonist efficacy. (6/329)

An agonist at a specific G protein-coupled receptor may exhibit a range of efficacies for any given response in a cell-specific manner. We report that the relationship between different states of agonism is regulated by the type of G protein expressed in the cell. In NIH-3T3 alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) transfectants, the alpha(2)-AR agonists clonidine, oxymetazoline, UK-14304, and epinephrine increased [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding in a dose-dependent manner from a basal value of 101.2 +/- 6. 5 fmol/mg to a maximal response (100 microM) of 196.6 +/- 9.8, 182.3 +/- 2, 328.1 +/- 11.2, and 340.6 +/- 3 fmol/mg, respectively. Thus, clonidine and oxymetazoline behaved as partial agonists. Receptor-mediated activation of G proteins in membrane preparations was blocked by cell pretreatment with pertussis toxin, indicating receptor coupling to the subgroup of pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein (Gialpha2,3) expressed in NIH-3T3 cells. Ectopic expression of Goalpha1 but not Gialpha1 increased the relative efficacy of clonidine and oxymetazoline such that the two ligands now behaved as close to full agonists in this assay system. The relationship between full and partial agonists in the different genetic backgrounds was not altered by progressive reduction in the amount of G protein available for coupling to receptor. The increased efficacy observed for clonidine in the Goalpha1 transfectants was not due to changes in the relative affinities or amounts of high-affinity, Gpp(NH)p-sensitive binding of agonist. These data suggest that there is little difference in the ability of clonidine to interact with or stabilize alpha(2)-AR-Gialpha2/Gialpha3 versus alpha(2)-AR-Goalpha1 complexes, but that the subsequent step of signal transfer from receptor to G protein is more readily achieved for the clonidine/alpha(2)-AR/Goalpha1 complex. Such observations have important implications for receptor theory and drug development.  (+info)

Differential effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on cAMP response and g(i3)alpha protein expression in cultured sympathetic neurons. (7/329)

The effect of 24-h pretreatment with epinephrine (EPI) or norepinephrine (NE) on alpha(2)- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced, cAMP responses and G(i3)alpha-protein expression was studied in primary cultures of rat superior cervical ganglionic (SCG) neurons. SCG neurons, 10 to 12 days in culture, accumulated cAMP when stimulated with the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol and the preferential beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 blocked this response. Similarly, the preferential alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, implying that cultured SCG neurons possess functional alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors. A 24-h treatment of SCG neurons with EPI or NE induced desensitization of the cAMP response to the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol. Simultaneously, EPI treatment increased the maximal inhibitory cAMP response to the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 and NE was without effect. Immunoblotting analyses of G(i3)alpha subunits revealed that 24-h EPI but not NE treatment induces a 3- to 4-fold increase in the expression of G(i3)alpha subunits. Furthermore, EPI-induced up-regulation of alpha-subunit expression can be blocked by the preferential beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 but not by the preferential beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist CGP 20712A. Our results suggest that changes in alpha(2)-adrenoceptor responsiveness induced by EPI may involve activation of beta(2)-adrenoceptors that influence the expression of inhibitory G proteins. Thus, primary cultures of sympathetic neurons by possessing functional alpha(2)- and beta-adrenoceptors may be a suitable model system to study the signaling mechanisms of "cross talk" between these adrenoceptor subtypes, which are known to play a central role in cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Mental well-being in alcohol withdrawal: relationship to alpha2-adrenoceptor function. (8/329)

The possible relationship between postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function, as assessed by the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine (CLON) and aspects of mental well-being by self-report of mood using the Swedish Mood Adjective Check List, was investigated in alcohol-dependent patients in the early withdrawal period. Patients had blunted GH responses to CLON and worse mental well-being than control subjects immediately after the end of alcohol intake. No relation was found between mental well-being and postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function. After 1 week, the GH responses to CLON remained blunted, whereas the state of mental well-being had improved to levels similar to those of control subjects. The results further support a downregulated alpha2-adrenoceptor function during 1 week of alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, even if subsensitive postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function was not generally related to state of mood, patients with the lowest postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptor function reported the highest levels in the dimensions pleasantness/unpleasantness and activation/deactivation when sober.  (+info)

Symptoms of pulmonary edema may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Coughing up frothy sputum
* Chest pain or tightness
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, chest x-rays, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment options include oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to manage underlying conditions such as heart failure or sepsis. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide mechanical ventilation.

Prevention measures for pulmonary edema include managing underlying medical conditions, avoiding exposure to pollutants and allergens, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In summary, pulmonary edema is a serious condition that can impair lung function and lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other respiratory symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

... the adrenergic receptors). Directly acting adrenergic agonists act on adrenergic receptors. All adrenergic receptors are G- ... Ephedrine Pseudoephedrine Adrenergic receptor Alpha adrenergic agonist List of adrenergic drugs Siegel, George J; et al. (2006 ... An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors. The five main categories of ... Agonists of each class of receptor elicit these downstream responses. Indirectly acting adrenergic agonists affect the uptake ...
... an α2A adrenergic receptor agonist. Medetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist. Nonspecific agonists act as agonists at both alpha- ... Alpha-adrenergic agonists are a class of sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors. The ... Cirazoline is an α1 adrenergic agonist and an α2 adrenergic antagonist". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics ... but there was an increased incidence of hypotension and bradycardia Alpha blocker Adrenergic agonist Beta-adrenergic agonist ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic ... Like other β adrenergic agonists, they cause smooth muscle relaxation. β2 adrenergic agonists' effects on smooth muscle cause ... Discovery and development of β2 agonists β3-adrenergic agonist Eric, Hsu; Tushar, Bajaj. "Beta 2 Agonists". NCBI. Retrieved 5 ... Adrenergic beta-Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Medicine (Webarchive ...
The β3 (beta 3) adrenergic receptor agonist or β3-adrenoceptor agonist, also known as β3-AR agonist, are a class of medicine ... Beta-adrenergic agonist Beta2-adrenergic agonist "Betmiga , European Medicines Agency". www.ema.europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-10-02 ... a selective β1-AR agonist with additional β3-AR agonist activity, exerts its cardio-protective effects. β3-AR agonists have the ... A Potent and Selective β3 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ...
Beta1-adrenergic agonists, also known as Beta1-adrenergic receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that bind selectively to the ... Examples include: denopamine β1 agonist dobutamine β1>β2 agonist xamoterol β1 partial agonist epinephrine Epinephrine is a non- ... this means it also stimulates the beta 2 adrenergic receptor. Therefore, epinephrine is a Beta2-adrenergic agonist. ... February 2001). "Beta1-adrenergic agonist is a potent stimulator of alveolar fluid clearance in hyperoxic rat lungs". Jpn. J. ...
Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, causing widening of the airways ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers: beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ... Adrenergic+beta-Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Delbruck, Max. "The beta- ... adrenergic receptors". PMID 12439640. Yoo, B.; et al. "Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII ...
Beta-adrenergic agonists, or β-agonists, are non-hormonal growth promotants that help animals put on muscle instead of fat. The ... "Beta-agonists: What are they and should I be concerned?". Retrieved 9 January 2017. "Beta agonists in cattle debate beefs up". ... But problems may exist with all β-agonists supplementation, and not just for animals. The family of β-agonists includes β1-, β2 ... "Temple Grandin Explains Animal Welfare Problems With Beta-Agonists". Retrieved 9 January 2017. "Use of Beta-Agonists in Cattle ...
Adams, H. Richard (2013). "Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists". In Riviere, Jim E.; Papich, Mark G. (eds.). Veterinary ... Rhinitis Medicamentosa at eMedicine Adams, H. Richard (2013). "Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists". In Riviere, Jim E.; Papich ... Lacroix, Jean-Silvain (1989). "Adrenergic and non-adrenergic mechanisms in sympathetic vascular control of nasal mucosa". Acta ... At first, the vasoconstrictive effect of alpha-receptors dominates, but with continued use of an alpha agonist, this effect ...
α2 adrenergic antagonists[citation needed] - mirtazapine, mianserin Mixed α1/β blockers - carvedilol α2 Adrenergic agonists - ... quetiapine Adrenergic antagonists: β blockers - propranolol, etc. Paradoxically, β-adrenergic agonists are also listed. Not ... 5-HT2C receptor antagonists/inverse agonists - mirtazapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, amitriptyline, cyproheptadine, lurasidone ... pregabalin Ghrelin receptor agonists such as anamorelin, GHRP-6, ibutamoren, ipamorelin, and pralmorelin MC4 receptor ...
Gross ME (2001). "Tranquilizers, α2-adrenergic agonists, and related agents". In Adams RH (ed.). Veterinary Pharmacology and ... These long-acting metabolites are partial agonists. Short-acting compounds have a median half-life of 1-12 hours. They have few ... Ballenger JC (2000). "Benzodiazepine receptors agonists and antagonists". In Sadock VA, Sadock BJ, Kaplan HI (eds.). Kaplan & ... and visits involving a combination of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiapine receptor agonists had almost four-times increased ...
Adrenergic agonists, such as phenylephrine and cyclomydril. Adrenergic agonists may be used if strong mydriasis is needed in ... Hence adrenergic agonists mimic the activity of norepinephrine, which is how they induce mydriasis. Natural release of the ... Sympathetic stimulation of the adrenergic receptors causes the contraction of the radial muscle and subsequent dilation of the ... Dissociatives such as dextromethorphan (an SSRI and sigma-1 agonist). Certain GABAergic drugs, such as phenibut and GHB. ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonist Alpha-adrenergic agonist Asthma Beta blocker Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor ... Adrenergic agonists that are selective for the β2 subtype cause bronchial dilation and might be expected to relieve the ... Long-lasting β2-agonists are often given in a combination with corticosteroids to treat asthma. Short-acting β2-agonists are ... The fundamental pharmacophore for all adrenergic agonists is a substituted phenethylamine which increases the duration of ...
... "β2-Adrenergic agonists attenuate organic dust-induced lung inflammation". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and ...
Gowing L, Farrell M, Ali R, White JM (May 2016). "Alpha₂-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal". The ... Buprenorphine is a partial opioid receptor agonist. Unlike methadone and other full opioid receptor agonists, buprenorphine is ... Methadone is a full-opioid agonist used for both opioid overuse treatment and for chronic pain. It is the most commonly ... Dihydrocodeine is an opioid agonist. It may be used as a second line treatment. A 2020 systematic review found low quality ...
... is an α2 adrenergic agonist. α2 agonists, through the activation of a G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the ... Peripheral α2 agonist activity results in vasoconstriction of blood vessels (as opposed to central α2 agonist activity that ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Imidazolines, Organobromides, Ophthalmology drugs, Quinoxalines, Wikipedia medicine ... The increased uveoscleral outflow from prolonged use may be explained by increased prostaglandin release due to α adrenergic ...
... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. "Synthesis of 6,7-dihydrox-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives". Tetrahedron. ...
... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. Its structure is based on soterenol (antiarrhythmic) and phentermine. Heubach JF, Graf ...
"Assessment of compliance in children using inhaled beta adrenergic agonists". Ann Allergy. 62 (5): 406-9. PMID 2566291. Herpes ...
The efficacy of β-adrenergic agonists, atosiban, and indomethacin is a decreased odds ratio (OR) of delivery within 24 hours of ... "Tocolysis with nifedipine or beta-adrenergic agonists: a meta-analysis1". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 97 (5): 840-847. doi:10.1016 ... Current evidence suggests that first line treatment with β2 agonists, calcium channel blockers, or NSAIDs to prolong pregnancy ... Commonly used tocolytic medications include β2 agonists, calcium channel blockers, NSAIDs, and magnesium sulfate. These can ...
Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Amphetamine alkaloids, Anorectics, Beta-adrenergic ... Although originally thought to act as a direct agonist of adrenergic receptors, PPA was subsequently found to show only weak or ... However, such substitution greatly enhances agonist activity at both α- and β- adrenergic receptors. Although ephedrine is less ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists: CLASSIFICATION OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS". In ...
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists can be used to manage the symptoms of acute withdrawal. Lofexidine and clonidine are also used for ... adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD002024. doi: ...
6, p. 1019 Vartak A.P. & Crooks P.A. (2009). "A Scalable Enantioselective synthesis of the alpha2-adrenergic Agonist, ...
1998). "Discovery of L-755,507: A subnanomolar human β 3 adrenergic receptor agonist". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters ... 1999). "Human β 3 adrenergic receptor agonists containing cyclic ureidobenzenesulfonamides". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonists target receptors in the smooth muscle cells in bronchioles causing them to relax and allow improved ... The two major types are beta2-adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics; either in long-acting or short-acting forms. ... agonist in one inhaler versus long-acting beta(2)-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane Database of ... "Long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus either tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for chronic ...
... is a potent α2 adrenergic agonist. When xylazine and other α2 adrenergic receptor agonists are administered, they ... It is an analog of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. In veterinary anesthesia, xylazine is often ... Park JW, Chung HW, Lee EJ, Jung KH, Paik JY, Lee KH (April 2013). "α2-Adrenergic agonists including xylazine and ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Analgesics, Equine medications, Thiazines). ...
... is an agonist at the α-2A, 2B, and 2C adrenergic receptor subtypes, with the highest activity at the alpha-2A ... It is an α2A adrenergic receptor agonist. It was approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States in ... Lofexidine is structurally analogous to clonidine, another α2 adrenergic receptor agonist used for treatment of opioid ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Antihypertensive agents, Chloroarenes, Imidazolines, Phenol ethers). ...
... is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Fox K, Dargie HJ, de Bono DP, Oliver MF, Wülfert E, Kharkevitch T (September ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Imidazoles, Salicylamides, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... 1999). "Effect of an alpha(2) agonist (mivazerol) on limiting myocardial ischaemia in stable angina". Heart. 82 (3): 383-5. doi ...
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Allyl compounds, Azepanes, D2-receptor agonists, Dopamine agonists, Thiazoles, All stub ... Talipexole is a D2 dopamine receptor agonist and interacts both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. It also is an α2-adrenergic ... Talipexole (B-HT920, Domnin) is a dopamine agonist that is marketed as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease in Japan by ... Page accessed 9 December 2014 Benkert O, Müller-Siecheneder F, Wetzel H (1995). "Dopamine agonists in schizophrenia: a review ...
... is a partial beta-adrenergic agonist. Metzenauer, P.; Dedecke, R.; Göbel, H.; Martorana, P. A.; Stroman, F.; ... Szelenyi, I. (1989). "Effects of the novel beta-adrenergic partial agonist alifedrine on cardiac performance in dogs with acute ... Beta-adrenergic agonists, Endocrine system, Phenylethanolamines, Substituted amphetamines, All stub articles, Organic chemistry ...
... is a beta-adrenergic agonist. Dichloroisoprenaline Byrem TM, Beermann DH, Robinson TF (April 1998). "The beta-agonist cimaterol ...
D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, and H1 receptor antagonist [12] ... mGluR2 and mGluR3 agonist [16] Tianeptine oxalate/naloxone (TNX-601) - atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist [17] Fasedienol ( ... Agomelatine (AGO-178; Valdoxan) - melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist[1] Riluzole sublingual ( ... 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 5-HT2A receptor antagonist [4] Vilazodone (EMD-68843, SB-659746A; Viibryd) - 5-HT1A receptor partial ...
Stimulatory factors: Beta-adrenergic agents, cholinergic agents, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) Inhibitory factor: ... Cholecystokinin agonists). ...
This along with the observed beneficial effects of sigma-1 receptor agonist and SSRI fluvoxamine in patients with SARS-COV-2 ... α1A and α2 adrenergic, and NMDA receptors NE-100 Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): Methylphenylpiracetam[better source ... Pharmacological studies with σ1 agonists often follow a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Thus care should be taken when ... Agonists: PRE-084 ANAVEX2-73 Donepezil Fluvoxamine Fluoxetine Citalopram Amitriptyline L-687,384 SA-4503 Dipentylamine ...
In these cases, curative agents such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists are used to modify epinephrine and norepinephrine ...
... has been found to cause more damage to neurons in the presence of group I mGluR agonists. On the other hand, agonists of group ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors are also thought to affect dopaminergic and adrenergic neurotransmission. Like other glutamate ... There is also growing evidence that group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists may play a role in the treatment of ... A dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for signaling induced by agonists. Eight different types of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 ...
Lohse MJ, Benovic JL, Codina J, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ (June 1990). "beta-Arrestin: a protein that regulates beta-adrenergic ... "Core engagement with β-arrestin is dispensable for agonist-induced vasopressin receptor endocytosis and ERK activation". ... rhodopsin and β2-adrenergic receptor, it showed preference for the latter. Arrestin-3. The second non-visual arrestin cloned ... and Ursula Wilden and in the β-adrenergic system by Martin J. Lohse and co-workers. In response to a stimulus, GPCRs activate ...
These medications include short-acting beta agonists (SABAs) such as albuterol which typically last 4-6 hours, and long-acting ... Rau, JL (Jul 2000). "Inhaled adrenergic bronchodilators: historical development and clinical application". Respir Care. 45 (7 ... B-receptor agonists: Medications that stimulate the β2 receptor subtype on pulmonary smooth muscle will result in smooth muscle ... beta agonists (LABAs) such as salmeterol which lasts 12 hours. For example, during an acute asthma exacerbation where airway ...
... is a transcriptional activator in alpha 1-adrenergic agonist-stimulated cardiac myocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Beta-adrenergic agonists, Catecholamines, Isopropyl compounds). ... All of the early β2 agonist catecholamines used for ... It can be called the "granddaughter of adrenalin" in the line of β2 agonists that gave quick relief for bronchospasm and asthma ... Isoetharine is a selective short-acting β2 adrenoreceptor agonist. ...
... mesylate (Tornalate) is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in ... Beta2-adrenergic agonists, Benzoate esters, Prodrugs, Withdrawn drugs, Tert-butyl compounds, Phenylethanolamines, 4-Tolyl ... Walker, Susannah B.; Kradjan, Wayne A.; Bierman, C. Warren (6 May 1985). "Bitolterol Mesylate: A Beta-adrenergic Agent; ...
... a selective alpha2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonist, produces spinal antinociception in mice". The Journal of ... Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Antihypertensive agents, Chloroarenes, Chloropyrimidines, Imidazolines, Phenol ethers, ... Moxonidine is a selective agonist at the imidazoline receptor subtype 1 (I1). This receptor subtype is found in both the ... Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation alpha-2/imidazoline receptor agonist antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of ...
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, Phytocannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Resorcinols, Terpeno-phenolic compounds). ... It appears to be unique among cannabinoid compounds by also having high affinity and activity at alpha-2 adrenergic receptors ... the potent activity of cannabigerol at alpha-2 adrenergic receptors raises concerns about its safety for human consumption, ... "Evidence that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a highly potent alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and moderately potent 5HT1A ...
... adrenergic receptor - adrenodoxin - aequorin - aerobic respiration - agonist - alanine - albumin - alcohol - alcoholic ... alpha adrenergic receptor - alpha helix - alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - alpha-2 adrenergic receptor - alpha-beta T-cell antigen ... beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta-thromboglobulin - ... Inverse agonist - invertebrate peptide receptor - invertebrate photoreceptor - Ion channel - ion channel gating - Ionic bond - ...
Alpha2-adrenergic agonists, such as brimonidine and apraclonidine, work by a dual mechanism, decreasing aqueous humor ... Prostaglandin agonists work by opening uveoscleral passageways. Beta-blockers, such as timolol, work by decreasing aqueous ... Less-selective alpha agonists, such as epinephrine, decrease aqueous humor production through vasoconstriction of ciliary body ... Alpha 2 agonists (brimonidine, apraclonidine) both decrease fluid production (via inhibition of AC) and increase drainage. ...
... 's predominant mechanism of action is as a potent and selective histamine H1 receptor inverse agonist. This action ... and the α1-adrenergic receptor. The weak antiserotonergic effects of hydroxyzine likely underlie its usefulness as an ... identification of 4-methylhistamine as the first potent and selective H4 receptor agonist". The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, 2-Quinolones, Quinolinols, Phenylethanolamines, Phenol ethers, All stub articles, ... Bronchodilators: Beta2-Agonists and Anticholingercs". Clinical Asthma. 1600 John F. Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 1800, Philadelphia ... adrenoceptor agonists: current and future direction". British Journal of Pharmacology. 163 (1): 4-17. doi:10.1111/j.1476- ... is a non-catechol experimental ultra-long-acting β adrenoreceptor agonist (ultra-LABA) that was in clinical trials before 2010 ...
Using a β2 adrenergic receptor preparation derived from transfected HEK 293 cells, Liappakis and co-workers found that in wild- ... Considered to be an antagonist of β1 and β2 receptors, and an agonist of β3 receptors. J.Axelrod (1962). "Purification and ... Although apparently adrenergic effects were evident in the guinea pigs (see "Pharmacology", above), the investigators concluded ... These results led the authors to suggest that N-methylphenylethanolamine was acting on both α and β adrenergic receptors. ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, adrenergic agents such as alpha-1 blockers and beta-blockers and alpha-2 agonists, ...
MDA constitutes part of the core structure of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist protokylol. MDA was first synthesized by C. ... 5-HT2A agonists, 5-HT2B agonists, 5-HT2C agonists, Benzodioxoles, Entactogens and empathogens, Euphoriants, Psychedelic drugs, ... and α2C-adrenergic receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. The (S)-optical isomer of MDA is more potent than the (R ... It is also an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors and shows affinity for the α2A-, α2B-, ...
α-MSH and ACTH are both peptides derived from processed POMC, and both activate the other MCR's, but ACTH is the only agonist ... while the ACTH receptor and the β2 adrenergic receptor are relatively distantly-related with a sequence identity of ... MCR's have both endogenous agonists and antagonists. ...
The S1P1 agonist was approved for patients with MS in March, 2020 under the brand name Zeposia and sold by BMS. In 2011, ... The β2-adrenergic receptor work was quickly followed up 9 months later by the determination of the structure of the human A2A ... 2014: The human P2Y receptor 12 (P2Y12) bound to antagonist or agonist; the human Delta opioid receptor at 1.8A and the first ... In addition to these inactive-state structures, Stevens and colleagues solved the structure of an agonist-bound A2A adenosine ...
... has been shown to bind to human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1) as an agonist. β-PEA is also an ... "Dissociation Constants of Adrenergic Amines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (6): 2611-3. doi:10.1021/ja01150a055 ...
Mauriège P, De Pergola G, Berlan M, Lafontan M (May 1988). "Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent ... ICI-118,551 is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker. ICI binds to the β2 subtype with ... Branca C, Wisely EV, Hartman LK, Caccamo A, Oddo S (December 2014). "Administration of a selective β2 adrenergic receptor ... Nagaraja S, Iyer S, Liu X, Eichberg J, Bond RA (July 1999). "Treatment with inverse agonists enhances baseline atrial ...
In contrast to dopamine, fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor agonist with no effect on beta adrenoceptors, although there is ... Since fenoldopam is an intravenous agent with minimal adrenergic effects that improves renal perfusion, in theory it could be ... Grenader A, Healy DP (July 1991). "Fenoldopam is a partial agonist at dopamine-1 (DA1) receptors in LLC-PK1 cells". J. ... Hughes AD, Sever PS (1989). "Action of fenoldopam, a selective dopamine (DA1) receptor agonist, on isolated human arteries". ...
February 2000). "Agonist and antagonist actions of yohimbine as compared to fluparoxan at alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, ... It behaves as an antagonist at α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2, and as a partial ... Yohimbine is an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and has been used in a variety of research projects. It is a veterinary drug ... Saenz de Tejada I, Kim NN, Goldstein I, Traish AM (March 2000). "Regulation of pre-synaptic alpha adrenergic activity in the ...
Alpha-adrenergic agonists may cause urinary retention by stimulating the contraction of the urethral sphincter. Calcium channel ...
Brexpiprazole, approved by the US FDA in 2015, has a similar binding profile to aripiprazole as a partial D2 agonist with ... May 2013). "Atypical antipsychotics and effects of adrenergic and serotonergic receptor binding on insulin secretion in-vivo: ... de Boer SF, Koolhaas JM (December 2005). "5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists and aggression: a pharmacological challenge of ... For example, aripiprazole will act as a dopamine agonist at lower concentrations, but blocks the receptor at higher ...
5-HT1A agonists, Adrenergic receptor modulators, Alpha-2 blockers, Aminotetralins, D1-receptor agonists, D2-receptor agonists, ... α1B-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 273 nM) α2A-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 338 nM) α2B-adrenergic receptor (Ki = 27 nM) α2C-adrenergic ... D3 receptor agonists, D4 receptor agonists, D5 receptor agonists, Phenols, Thiophenes). ... as an antagonist at the α2B-adrenergic receptor, and as a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor. Though it has affinity for a ...
Epinephrine is an α and β adrenergic agonist that has been used to treat other upper respiratory tract illnesses, such as croup ... Several studies have shown that bronchodilation with β-adrenergic agents such as salbutamol may improve symptoms briefly but do ... Chavasse, Richard JPG; Seddon, Paul; Bara, Anna; McKean, Michael C. (2002). "Short acting beta2‐agonists for recurrent wheeze ...
... acts as an α1-adrenergic and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist with approximately 10-fold selectivity for the ... Dual effects of yohimbine, rauwolscine and corynanthine as alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists and 5-HT-receptor agonists". Naunyn- ... This is in contrast to yohimbine and rauwolscine which have around 30-fold higher affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor over ... the α1-adrenergic receptor. As a result, corynanthine is not a stimulant (or an aphrodisiac for that matter), but a depressant ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Adrenergic Agonists [Drug Class] (4361 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Adrenergic Agonists [Drug Class] (4364 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
Beta1/Beta2 Adrenergic Agonists. Class Summary. These agents increase heart rate and contractility. ...
Direct agonists directly interact with the adrenergic receptors, whereas indirect agonists typically stimulate the release of ... The beta-2 adrenergic agonists are a large group of drugs that mimic the actions of naturally occurring catecholamines such as ... Direct agonists directly interact with the adrenergic receptors, whereas indirect agonists typically stimulate the release of ... Beta-2 Adrenergic Agonists No authors listed In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [ ...
Beta2-adrenergic agonists. Class Summary. These agents promote cellular reuptake of potassium, possibly via the cyclic gAMP ... Albuterol is an adrenergic agonist that increases the plasma insulin concentration, which may, in turn, help shift K+ into the ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: beta2-Adrenergic Agonist [Drug Class] (258 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
Alpha₂-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal Linda Gowing 1 , Michael Farrell, Robert Ali, Jason M White ... Alpha₂-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal Linda Gowing et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016. . ... Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal. Gowing L, Farrell MF, Ali R, White JM. Gowing L, et al. ... Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal. Gowing L, Farrell MF, Ali R, White JM. Gowing L, et al. ...
Alpha/Beta-Adrenergic Agonists. Class Summary. Adrenergic agonist agents cause vasoconstriction and bronchodilation and reduce ... It has alpha-agonist effects that include increased peripheral vascular resistance and reduced vascular permeability. ...
Agonist and antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in purified membranes from human platelets. Implications of ... Agonist and antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in purified membranes from human platelets. Implications of ... Agonist and antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in purified membranes from human platelets. Implications of ... Agonist and antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in purified membranes from human platelets. Implications of ...
Adrenergic agonists can be categorized as direct or indirect. Direct agonists bind to the receptor, whereas indirect agonists ... Adrenergic agonists and antagonists produce their clinical effects by interacting with the adrenergic receptors (ie, ... "Adrenergic Agonists & Antagonists." Morgan & Mikhails Clinical Anesthesiology, 6e Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. ... Adrenergic Agonists & Antagonists. In: Butterworth IV JF, Mackey DC, Wasnick JD. Butterworth IV J.F., & Mackey D.C., & Wasnick ...
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists -- administration & dosage ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Adrenergic alpha-Agonists -- administration ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Adrenergic Agonists [Drug Class] (4356 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & ...
Regulation of protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin and beta-adrenergic agonists in rat epididymal fat ... Regulation of protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin and beta-adrenergic agonists in rat epididymal fat ...
Classification of Adrenergic agonists with drugs including all categories and subcategoires ...
Next, the effect of the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) agonist, clenbuterol, was evaluated as a potential treatment for uremic ... ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy and oxidative stress in uremic mice. ... ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy and oxidative stress in ... Although the ß2-AR agonist can increase the muscular mass with ROS reduction, development of therapeutic interventions for ...
Repurposing beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists for Alzheimers disease: beneficial effects in a mouse model BIBLIOGRAPHIC ... Methods: CL-316,243, a specific β3AR agonist, was administered to the triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) and non- ... As β3AR agonists are being clinically developed for metabolic disorders, repurposing them in AD could be a valuable therapeutic ... One-month treatment with a β3AR agonist increased recognition index by 19% in 16-month-old 3xTg-AD mice compared to pre- ...
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3.3.3. Alpha-2-adrenergic agonists. Perioperative systemic use of alpha-2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine also ... the alpha-2-delta ligands pregabalin and gabapentin and the alpha-2-adrenergic agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine. ... Other components such as ketamine and alpha-2 agonists are used in specific indications. The role of corticosteroids is not yet ... Effect of perioperative systemic alpha2 agonists on postoperative morphine consumption and pain intensity: systematic review ...
Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/agonists. Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 /antagonists & ...
What are the main side effects of adrenergic agonists?. Standard. What are the main side effects of adrenergic agonists?. Table ... What do beta 2 adrenergic agonists do?. The beta-2 adrenergic agonists act mainly on the smooth muscle of the vasculature, ... Which condition is an adverse effect of a beta adrenergic agonist?. *Which of the following is a side effect of beta adrenergic ... Which condition is an adverse effect of a beta adrenergic agonist?. Although minor compared to those of epinephrine, beta ...
Albuterol, a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a ...
alpha-adrenergic agonists. *anticholinergics and antispasmodics. *antidepressants. *antihistamines and decongestants. * ...
Historical overview of the effect of β-adrenergic agonists on beef cattle production. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014; 27:757- ... Effects of immunocastration and a β-adrenergic agonist on retail cuts of feedlot finished Nellore cattle. Animal 2018; 12:1690- ... Effects of combining immunocastration and β-adrenergic agonists on the meat quality of Nellore cattle. Livest Sci 2019; 226:13- ... Effects of feeding beta-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) on cortisol, respiration rate (RR), body temperature, and temperament scores ...
Discuss the Salmeterol beta 2 adrenergic agonists in detail? Health Science Science NursingPHARMACY 205 ... online solution: Discuss the Salmeterol beta 2 adrenergic agonists in detail?. Uncategorized ... Discuss the Salmeterol beta 2 adrenergic agonists in detail? Health Science Science NursingPHARMACY 205 ...
... and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine.It has been used in the treatment of severa ... An alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used in the treatment of ... It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists. ...
Medications for asthma (Beta-adrenergic agonists). Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine can stimulate the heart. Some ...
Adrenergic beta-Agonists / administration & dosage* * Adrenergic beta-Agonists / adverse effects * Adult * Aged ...
Alpha-adrenergic agonists. Like prostaglandin analogs, these drops help with drainage and lessen the amount of fluid your eye ...
  • ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy and oxidative stress in uremic mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Albuterol, a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by a β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin or the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316243 (termed CL) indicated that insulin preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with internal membranes (endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi), whereas CL preferentially phosphorylated/activated PDE3B associated with caveolae. (lu.se)
  • Regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and energetics in the diabetic renal proximal tubule by the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol. (nih.gov)
  • We previously demonstrated that the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol induced mitochondrial biogenesis and promoted recovery from acute kidney injury. (nih.gov)
  • Direct agonists directly interact with the adrenergic receptors, whereas indirect agonists typically stimulate the release of endogenous catecholamines. (nih.gov)
  • Agonist and antagonist binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in purified membranes from human platelets. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adrenergic agonists and antagonists produce their clinical effects by interacting with the adrenergic receptors (ie, adrenoceptors). (mhmedical.com)
  • Direct-acting sympathomimetic drugs act directly on 1 or more of the adrenergic receptors. (mhmedical.com)
  • However, certain non-catecholamines with both direct and indirect effects on adrenergic receptors show significant β 2 activity and are used clinically for these effects. (mhmedical.com)
  • Brown fat cells have β3-adrenergic receptors on their surface. (nih.gov)
  • Several other tissues also have β3-adrenergic receptors, including white fat and the bladder. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Aaron Cypess-now at NIH's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), while working at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston-and colleagues examined whether this drug might activate β3-adrenergic receptors on brown fat cells to increase metabolism in humans. (nih.gov)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic agonists are a large group of drugs that mimic the actions of naturally occurring catecholamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. (nih.gov)
  • The term adrenergic originally referred to the effects of epinephrine ( adren aline), although norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is the primary neurotransmitter responsible for most of the adrenergic activity of the sympathetic nervous system. (mhmedical.com)
  • Although minor compared to those of epinephrine, beta agonists usually have mild to moderate adverse effects, which include anxiety, hypertension, increased heart rate, and insomnia. (steadyprintshop.com)
  • To assess the efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol added to tiotropium in patients eligible for inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta(2)-agonist combination therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol is an adrenergic agonist that increases the plasma insulin concentration, which may, in turn, help shift K + into the intracellular space. (medscape.com)
  • The preferred bronchodilator has changed from methylxanthines, and anticholinergics methylxanthines to beta -adrenergic agonists. (cdc.gov)
  • online solution: Discuss the Salmeterol beta 2 adrenergic agonists in detail? (geewriters.com)
  • An alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. (ariflam.com)
  • The complexes present in insulin-stimulated cells contained tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and its downstream signalling proteins, whereas CL-activated complexes contained beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, PKA-RII [PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase)-regulatory subunit] and HSL. (lu.se)
  • Randomised controlled trials comparing alpha2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine, lofexidine, guanfacine, tizanidine) with reducing doses of methadone, symptomatic medications or placebo, or comparing different alpha2-adrenergic agonists to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were opioid dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main thermogenic driver in mammals and its stimulation, through β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR) agonists or cold acclimation, counteracts metabolic deficits in rodents and humans. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, produces β3-adrenergic receptor at levels higher than nearly every other organ in the body. (nih.gov)
  • The liver injury typically arises within a few days of starting high dose intravenous beta adrenergic agonists, is usually asymptomatic, not associated with jaundice, and rapidly reversed once the medication is stopped. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenergic agonists can be categorized as direct or indirect. (mhmedical.com)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic agonists are used largely as bronchodilators in the management of asthma, both in control of acute symptomatic attacks as well as chronic, long term prevention and management. (nih.gov)
  • The use of beta adrenergic agonists in asthma has not been associated with elevations in serum aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase levels or in causing clinically apparent liver disease. (nih.gov)
  • Inhaled beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (beta(2)-agonists) are the most commonly used asthma medications in many Western countries. (steadyprintshop.com)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic agonists act mainly on the smooth muscle of the vasculature, bronchial tree, intestines and uterus. (nih.gov)
  • When given in large doses or after intentional overdose, beta adrenergic agonists can cause liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • Which of the following is the most common side effect of beta 2 agonist? (steadyprintshop.com)
  • 7] The most common side effects of beta-2 agonists involve the cardiac, metabolic, or musculoskeletal system. (steadyprintshop.com)
  • Which condition is an adverse effect of a beta adrenergic agonist? (steadyprintshop.com)
  • Which of the following is a side effect of beta-adrenergic blockers? (steadyprintshop.com)
  • Which of the following is an adverse effect of beta 2 agonist Hypo? (steadyprintshop.com)
  • Among these additives, beta-adrenergic agonists (β-AAs), such as zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RH), which are synthetic and nonhormonal compounds with a powerful anabolic effect on skeletal muscle, have been used to improve animal performance and lean meat production [ 1 - 3 ]. (animbiosci.org)
  • Evidence for involvement of an adrenal catecholamine in the beta-adrenergic inhibition of oxytocin release in lactating rats. (nih.gov)
  • Use of any known adrenergic agonists, CYP3A or CYP2D6 substrates, cardiac beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, systemic corticosteroids, monoamine oxidase (Nirengi et al. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenergic agonist agents cause vasoconstriction and bronchodilation and reduce vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists. (ariflam.com)
  • A short-acting β 1 -selective adrenergic blocking agent (β-blocker). (drugs.com)
  • To assess the effectiveness of interventions involving the use of alpha2-adrenergic agonists compared with placebo, reducing doses of methadone, symptomatic medications, or an alpha2-adrenergic agonist regimen different to the experimental intervention, for the management of the acute phase of opioid withdrawal. (nih.gov)
  • It has alpha-agonist effects that include increased peripheral vascular resistance and reduced vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • What are the main side effects of adrenergic agonists? (steadyprintshop.com)
  • Classification of adrenergic receptor agonists (sympathomimetic amines) and drugs that produce sympathomimetic-like effects. (mhmedical.com)
  • Effects of the β-adrenergic agonist metaproterenol were studied daily gain, carcass composition and feed consumption of Varamini female lambs were studied. (ac.ir)
  • Since metabolic disorders and AD share strong pathogenic links, we hypothesized that BAT stimulation through a β3AR agonist could exert benefits in AD as well. (nih.gov)
  • SAN automaticity was also responsive to β-adrenergic and cholinergic pharmacological stimulation, showing a consequent shift in the localization of the origin of pacemaker activity. (nature.com)
  • As β3AR agonists are being clinically developed for metabolic disorders, repurposing them in AD could be a valuable therapeutic strategy. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that β3AR agonist administration decreased body weight and improved peripheral glucose metabolism and BAT thermogenesis in both non-transgenic and 3xTg-AD mice. (nih.gov)
  • Next, the effect of the ß2- adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) agonist, clenbuterol , was evaluated as a potential treatment for uremic sarcopenia . (bvsalud.org)
  • One-month treatment with a β3AR agonist increased recognition index by 19% in 16-month-old 3xTg-AD mice compared to pre-treatment (14-month-old). (nih.gov)
  • Although the ß2-AR agonist can increase the muscular mass with ROS reduction, development of therapeutic interventions for restoring skeletal muscle function is still awaited. (bvsalud.org)
  • We previously identified spinophilin as a regulator of α 2 adrenergic receptor (α 2 AR) trafficking and signaling in vitro and in vivo (Science 304:1940-1944, 2004). (elsevierpure.com)