Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (1/296)

1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea.  (+info)

alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat heart. (2/296)

We examined whether insulin and catecholamines share common pathways for their stimulating effects on glucose uptake. We perfused isolated working rat hearts with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [2-3H]glucose (5 mmol/L, 0.05 microCi/mL) and sodium oleate (0.4 mmol/L). In the absence or presence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin (3 micromol/L), we added insulin (1 mU/mL), epinephrine (1 micromol/L), phenylephrine (100 micromol/L) plus propranolol (10 micromol/L, selective alpha-adrenergic stimulation), or isoproterenol (1 micromol/L) plus phentolamine (10 micromol/L, selective beta-adrenergic stimulation) to the perfusate. Cardiac power was found to be stable in all groups (between 8.07+/-0.68 and 10.7+/-0. 88 mW) and increased (25% to 47%) with addition of epinephrine, but not with selective alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. Insulin and epinephrine, as well as selective alpha- and beta-receptor stimulation, increased glucose uptake (the following values are in micromol/[min. g dry weight]: basal, 1.19+/-0.13; insulin, 3.89+/-0.36; epinephrine, 3.46+/-0.27; alpha-stimulation, 4.08+/-0.40; and beta-stimulation, 3.72+/-0.34). Wortmannin completely inhibited insulin-stimulated and selective alpha-stimulated glucose uptake, but it did not affect the epinephrine-stimulated or selective beta-stimulated glucose uptake. Sequential addition of insulin and epinephrine or insulin and alpha-selective stimulation showed additive effects on glucose uptake in both cases. Wortmannin further blocked the effects of insulin on glycogen synthesis. We conclude that alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake in rat heart through a PI3-K-dependent pathway. However, the additive effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and insulin suggest 2 different isoforms of PI3-K, compartmentation of PI3-K, potentiation, or inhibition by wortmannin of another intermediate of the alpha-adrenergic signaling cascade. The stimulating effects of both the alpha- and the beta-adrenergic pathways on glucose uptake are independent of changes in cardiac performance.  (+info)

S-16924, a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties. IV. A drug discrimination comparison with clozapine. (3/296)

The novel benzodioxopyrrolidine (S-16924) displays a clozapine-like profile of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors, in addition to potent agonist activity at serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors. S-16924 (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and clozapine (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) generated robust discriminative stimuli (DS) and displayed full mutual generalization. The D4 antagonists L-745,870 and S-18126, the D1/D5 antagonist SCH-39166, and the D3 antagonist S-14297 showed at most partial generalization to S-16924 and clozapine. The D2/D3 antagonist raclopride fully generalized to S-16924, but only partially generalized to clozapine. The 5-HT2A antagonist MDL-100, 907 fully generalized to S-16924 and two further 5-HT2A antagonists, fananserin and SR-46349, showed partial generalization. However, MDL-100,907, fananserin, and SR-46349 showed less pronounced generalization to clozapine. Similarly, the 5-HT2C antagonists SB-200,646 and SB-206,553 more markedly generalized to S-16924 than to clozapine. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+/-)-8-dihydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Full generalization was obtained to both S-16924 and clozapine for the clozapine congeners, olanzapine and quetiapine. In distinction, the benzisoxazole, risperidone, and the phenylindole, sertindole, weakly generalized to S-16924 and clozapine. However, the benzisoxazole ziprasidone, which possesses 5-HT1A agonist properties, generalized fully to S-16924 but not to clozapine. Finally, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine generalized fully to clozapine and partially to S-16924. In conclusion, S-16924 and clozapine display both communalities and differences in their "compound" DS; this likely reflects their respective complex patterns of interaction with multiple monoaminergic receptors. Although no specific receptor was identified as underlying the clozapine DS, 5-HT1A agonist as well as D2 and 5-HT2A/2C antagonist properties contribute to the S-16924 DS.  (+info)

beta2-adrenergic cAMP signaling is uncoupled from phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins in canine heart. (4/296)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) subtype signaling in in vitro preparations have raised doubts as to whether the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is activated in the same manner in response to beta2-AR versus beta1-AR stimulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study compared, in the intact dog, the magnitude and characteristics of chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic effects of cAMP accumulation, PKA activation, and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of key effector proteins in response to beta-AR subtype stimulation. In addition, many of these parameters and L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) were also measured in single canine ventricular myocytes. The results indicate that although the cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation cascade activated by beta1-AR stimulation could explain the resultant modulation of cardiac function, substantial beta2-AR-mediated chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic responses occurred in the absence of PKA activation and phosphorylation of nonsarcolemmal proteins, including phospholamban, troponin I, C protein, and glycogen phosphorylase kinase. However, in single canine myocytes, we found that beta2-AR-stimulated increases in both ICa and contraction were abolished by PKA inhibition. Thus, the beta2-AR-directed cAMP/PKA signaling modulates sarcolemmal L-type Ca2+ channels but does not regulate PKA-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the dissociation of beta2-AR signaling from cAMP regulatory systems is only apparent and that beta2-AR-stimulated cAMP/PKA signaling is uncoupled from phosphorylation of nonsarcolemmal regulatory proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling.  (+info)

Neurometabolic effects of psilocybin, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled PET study with [18F]FDG. (5/296)

The neurometabolic effects of the hallucinogen psilocybin (PSI; 0.2 mg/kg), the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE; 2 mg/kg) and the stimulant d-methamphetamine (METH; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg) and the drugs' interactions with a prefrontal activation task were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucoseFDG-positron emission tomographicPET study (each group: n = 8). Subjects underwent two scans (control: word repetition; activation word association) within 2-4 weeks. Psilocybin increased rMRGlu in distinct right hemispheric frontotemporal cortical regions, particularly in the anterior cingulate and decreased rMRGlu in the thalamus. Both MDE and METH induced cortical hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. In the MDE group, cortical hypometabolism was more pronounced in frontal regions, with the exception of the right anterior cingulate, which tended to be hyperactive. Cognitive activation-related increases in left frontocortical regions were attenuated under all three psychoactive substances, but less so under MDE. Taking into account performance data and subjective reports on task difficulty, these effects may result from different mechanisms across the three groups. Our PSI data are in line with studies on acute schizophrenic patients suggesting frontal overactivity at rest, but diminished capacity to activate prefrontal regions upon cognitive demand. The MDE data support the hypothesis that entactogens constitute a distinct psychoactive substance class, which takes an intermediate position between stimulants and hallucinogens.  (+info)

Glucose uptake during centrally induced stress is insulin independent and enhanced by adrenergic blockade. (6/296)

Glucose utilization increases markedly in the normal dog during stress induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of carbachol. To determine the extent to which insulin, glucagon, and selective (alpha/beta)-adrenergic activation mediate the increment in glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and glucose production (R(a)), we used five groups of normal mongrel dogs: 1) pancreatic clamp (PC; n = 7) with peripheral somatostatin (0.8 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and intraportal replacement of insulin (1,482 +/- 84 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and glucagon (0.65 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)) infusions; 2) PC plus combined alpha (phentolamine)- and beta (propranolol)-blockade (7 and 5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively; alpha+beta; n = 5); 3) PC plus alpha-blockade (alpha; n = 6); 4) PC plus beta-blockade (beta; n = 5); and 5) a carbachol control group without PC (Con; n = 10). During ICV carbachol stress (0-120 min), catecholamines, ACTH, and cortisol increased in all groups. Baseline insulin and glucagon levels were maintained in all groups except Con, where glucagon rose 33%, and alpha, where insulin increased slightly but significantly. Stress increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose in Con, PC, and alpha but decreased it in beta and alpha+beta. The MCR increment was greater (P < 0.05) in beta and alpha+beta than in Con, PC, and alpha. R(a) increased (P < 0.05) in all groups but was attenuated in alpha+beta. Stress-induced lipolysis was abolished in beta (P < 0.05). The marked rise in lactate in Con, PC, and alpha was abolished in alpha+beta and beta. We conclude that the stress-induced increase in MCR is largely independent of changes in insulin, markedly augmented by beta-blockade, and related, at least in part, to inhibition of lipolysis and glycogenolysis, and that R(a) is augmented by glucagon and alpha- and beta-catecholamine effects.  (+info)

beta-adrenergic agonists stimulate Na+-K+-Cl- cotransport by inducing intracellular Ca2+ liberation in crypt cells. (7/296)

Epinephrine and beta-adrenergic agonists (beta1 and beta2 for isoproterenol, beta1 for dobutamine, beta2 for salbutamol) stimulated K+ (or 86Rb) influx mediated by the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and the Na+-K+ pump in isolated colonic crypt cells. Preincubation with bumetanide abolished the epinephrine effect on the Na+-K+ pump, suggesting that the primary effect is on the cotransporter. Maximal effect was obtained with 1 microM epinephrine with an EC50 of 91.6 +/- 9.98 nM. Epinephrine-induced K+ transport was blocked by propranolol with an IC50 of 134 +/- 28.2 nM. alpha-Adrenergic drugs did not modify K+ transport mechanisms. Neither Ba2+ nor tetraethylammonium nor DIDS modified the adrenergic enhancement on the cotransporter. In addition, epinephrine did not affect K+ efflux. Dibutyryl cAMP did not alter K+ transport. Reduction of extracellular Ca2+ to 30 nM did not influence the response to epinephrine. However, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished epinephrine-induced K+ transport. Ionomycin increased Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport activity. Moreover, epinephrine increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a process inhibited by propranolol. In conclusion, epinephrine stimulated the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in a process mediated by beta1- and beta2-receptors and modulated by intracellular Ca2+ liberation.  (+info)

Sympathetic inhibition, leptin, and uncoupling protein subtype expression in normal fasting rats. (8/296)

To further investigate neural effects on leptin and uncoupling proteins (UCPs), we studied in vivo perturbations intended to block adrenergic input to peripheral tissues. We examined plasma leptin, leptin mRNA, and adipose and muscle UCP subtype mRNA in rats treated with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (AMPT-ME), which inhibits catecholamine synthesis and 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA), which is toxic to catecholinergic nerve terminals but, unlike AMPT-ME, does not enter the central nervous system. Intraperitoneal AMPT-ME, 250 mg/kg, was administered at 1800 and 0700 the following day, and rats were killed at 1200-1400. All rats were fasted with free access to water during this time. Intraperitoneal AMPT-ME increased plasma leptin by 15-fold, increased interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and epididymal fat leptin mRNA by 2- to 2.5-fold, and also increased plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. Intraperitoneal AMPT-ME decreased IBAT UCP-3 mRNA to 40% of control, while it increased epididymal adipose UCP-3 mRNA approximately twofold. Intravenous AMPT-ME, 250 mg/kg, administered to conscious rats for 5 h decreased lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, increased plasma leptin (5.89 +/- 1.43 compared with 2.75 +/- 0.31 ng/ml in vehicle-treated rats, n = 7, P < 0.05), and decreased cardiac rate with no sustained change in blood pressure. Intraperitoneal 6HDA, 100 mg/kg, as a single dose at 1800, increased plasma leptin approximately twofold after 18-20 h, increased IBAT (but not epididymal fat) leptin mRNA by two- to threefold, and decreased IBAT UCP-3 mRNA to 30-40% of control. Neither AMPT-ME nor 6HDA significantly altered mRNA encoding gastrocnemius muscle UCP-3, IBAT UCP-1, or IBAT and epididymal UCP-2. In summary, AMPT-ME and 6HDA increased plasma leptin and upregulated leptin mRNA expression. AMPT-ME also resulted in complex tissue and subtype-specific modulation of adipose UCP mRNA. These data are consistent with interaction between leptin and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in regulation of fat cell energy utilization. However, the in vivo modulation of leptin and UCPs appears complex and, beyond a causal effect of SNA per se, may depend on concurrent changes in plasma insulin, glucose, and circulatory hemodynamics.  (+info)

Commissioner Weston asked if we are going to try to make this policy cover those types of projects like we ran into in Cache Valley with the sidewalk program. Howard Richardson replied that the policy principally deals with curb, gutter and sidewalk replacement; the management, jurisdiction and maintenance of it. Commissioner Weston referred to a section of the policy which says, . . . on Federal-aid projects where the facilities are not eligible for Federal funds any funds made available by legislative appropriations, contributions of property owners, cities, counties, other parties or any combination of the foregoing will be used. He said that seems pretty inclusive and covers most any sidewalk with which were involved whether its sidewalk money, or any other kind. His concern, as he has mentioned before, is that we pass the money through in the sidewalk program, and then let it die. They put the sidewalks in and we may look at them or we may not. Are we looking at that closely enough when ...
The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. Three groups of granulocytes were studied: 1) cells treated with isoproterenol (10−6 to 10−3 M); 2) cells treated with propranolol (10−
Atenololo, un beta competitivo (1)-adrenergici antagonista selettivo, ha la più bassa solubilità lipidica di questa classe di farmaci. Anche se è simile al metoprololo, atenololo differisce da pindololo e propranololo in quanto non ha caratteristiche intrinseche simpaticomimetica o attività stabilizzante di membrana. Latenololo è usato da solo o con clortalidone nella gestione di ipertensione ed edema ...
The role of norepinephrine in the development of amygdaloid kindling in rats was investigated. In the first experiment, pretreatment with the noradrenergic neurotoxin, DSP-4 (63 mg/kg, ip), whose action is reportedly specific to locus coeruleus neurons, markedly accelerated the rate of kindling. DSP-4 treated animals and saline controls required 3.8 and 7.5 after-discharges (ADs) to kindle respectively. Furthermore, DSP-4 treatment lengthened the latency of the onset to clonus during the first stage 5 seizure. Norepinephrine levels measured in the telencephalon were lowered by 45% with DSP-4 treatment, whereas dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were unaffected. -- In an attempt to test the hypothesis that a tonic presence of norepinephrine serves to inhibit kindling development, rats were treated with DSP-4, and chronically infused (icv) with either norepinephrine (5 ug/.5 ul/hr), or the vehicle, via an osmotic minipump. Telencephalic norepinephrine levels were not raised by the infusion of ...
Heuer, A., Smith, G. A. and Dunnett, S. B. (2013), Comparison of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra and the medial forebrain bundle on a lateralised choice reaction time task in mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 37: 294-302. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12036 ...
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RT-PCR data showed that the mRNA levels of gammaGCS, the rate-limiting enzyme of gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH) synthesis, were increased by 6-OHDA after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; the mRNA levels of GPx, GR, and GST did not alter in 6-OHDA-treated astrocytes after treatment for 24 h and 48 h; and 6-OHDA increased the mRNA levels and the activity of gammaGT after treatment for 48 h, which induced a decrease in GSx levels, despite the up-regulation of gammaGCS after exposure to 6-OHDA for 48 h. (15960885) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - α2-adrenergic modulation of colonic tone during hyperventilation. AU - Bharucha, Adil E.. AU - Novak, Vera. AU - Camilleri, Michael. AU - Zinsmeister, Alan R.. AU - Hanson, Russell B.. AU - Low, Phillip A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Our aims were to assess the role of adrenergic modulation in the hyperventilation-induced increase in colonic tone. Of 40 healthy volunteers, 12 received placebo (saline) and the remaining 28 received either clonidine, yohimbine, phenylephrine, or ritodrine. Time-frequency mapping of heart rate based on Wigner distribution assessed variations in parasympathetic and sympathetic activity during hyperventilation. Tone in the descending colon was recorded by a barostat balloon before, during, and after 5 min of hyperventilation. Heart rate spectral analysis suggested diminished sympathetic and vagal activity during hyperventilation and increased sympathetic and vagal activity after hyperventilation. Adrenergic agents influenced (P = 0.01) the tonic ...
The adrenergic amines noradrenaline and adrenaline increased flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase by approx. 50%. This effect, which appears to be mediated by an alpha-adrenergic mechanism, was accompanied by a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Although ionophore A23187 mimicked the effects of the adrenergic amines, vasopressin was completely without effect on either phenylalanine hydroxylation or enzyme phosphorylation. Flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase in young rats (80 g) was insensitive to alpha-adrenergic, but sensitive to beta-adrenergic, agents. Consistent with previous observations [Fisher & Pogson (1984) Biochem. J. 219, 79-85] the present data indicate a close correlation between phosphorylation state and flux rate (i.e. enzyme activity). ...
The effects of coffee have been shown to act as a colonic stimulant. Caffeinated coffee stimulates colonic activity, most notably in the transverse/descending colon, in magnitude similar to a meal, 60% stronger than water, and 23% stronger than decaffeinated coffee. [1]Moreover, the consumption of both water and caffeine causes a decrease in the rectal sensory threshold for the desire to defecate, while anal sphincter pressure after caffeine intake is significantly higher than after water intake. This may result in an earlier desire to defecate. Coffee has also been shown to have an effect on defecation by increasing rectal tone by 45% (measured with a barostat) thirty minutes after consumption.. Studys primary objective: To determine if the use of coffee in the postoperative period will reduce time to recovery of GI function by at least one day in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations. (This will be assessed by twice daily interview of patients as to whether they have passed ...
The lack of β-adrenergic modulation in VEDS cardiomyocytes suggests that one or more components of the signaling cascade were missing or functionally inactive. To identify these components, we assayed the functional activity of different elements in the β-adrenergic enzymatic cascade. A key finding was that ICaL was strongly stimulated by cell dialysis with the catalytic subunit of PKA in both VEDS and LDS cardiomyocytes. In contrast to a previous report6 in which fast current rundown was observed using Ba2+ as a charge carrier, we could accurately measure the stimulating effect of the catalytic subunit of PKA on ICaL in VEDS cardiomyocytes. The catalytic subunit of PKA produced a maximal ICaL stimulation. Importantly, ICaL stimulation by the catalytic subunit of PKA was found to be similar (≈3 times) in VEDS, LDS, and ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the adult mouse heart. These data provide strong evidence for similar structural properties of the Ca2+ channel or a closely related ...
Anfetamine e destroanfetamina, agenti sypathomimetic non catechloamine, sono utilizzati in combinazione per il trattamento di deficit di attenzione e iperattività (ADHD) o di narcolessia. Adderall è costituito da equivalente quantità di aspartato anfetamine, solfato di anfetamina, saccarato destroanfetamina e solfato destroanfetamina ...
Norfenefrine (INN) or meta-octopamine (3-octopamine), also known as 3,β-dihydroxyphenethylamine, is an adrenergic agent used as a sympathomimetic drug which is marketed in Europe, Japan, and Mexico.[1][2] Along with its structural isomer p-octopamine and the tyramines, norfenefrine is a naturally occurring, endogenous trace amine and plays a role as a minor neurotransmitter in the brain.[3] Some brand names for it include Coritat, Energona, Hypolind, and Novadral. ...
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OBJECTIVE: Myocardial damage induced by isoproterenol is believed to be secondary to increased oxygen demands on the heart. Our objective was to test an additional primary action of isoproterenol on tissue and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and to compare these effects with the effects of other adrenergic agents in the presence of adrenergic inhibitors. DESIGN: Prospective, dose-response study. SETTING: Research laboratory at a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (200 to 350 g), slightly anesthetized with ether and divided into several groups. INTERVENTIONS: In 26 rats, the heart was removed, cut into fine slices (0.5-mm thickness), and placed in an ice-cold buffer. In 22 animals, the hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner and chopped and processed for mitochondrial studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We determined the following: a) the direct in vitro effects of isoproterenol and related catecholamines on normal oxygen uptake using myocardial ...
The availability of HSL-deficient mice provides an excellent opportunity to assess the importance of this enzyme in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis, through both the pleiotropic effects of circulating FFAs released from fat stores and the activation of endogenous lipolysis in nonadipose tissues. We focused on the possible in vivo and in vitro alterations of insulin secretion in HSL-deficient mice, but we also obtained valuable information about the overall sensitivity of these animals to the action of insulin.. For the discussion of our results, it is useful to summarize the previously reported phenotypic features of HSL-null mice, as observed by Osuga et al. (10) and ourselves (9). Common characteristics of these two independently created HSL-deficient strains are: 1) adipose tissue alterations with histological evidence of increased size and striking heterogeneity of adipocyte diameters; 2) preservation of basal WAT lipolysis but loss of that stimulated by β-adrenergic agents; ...
3H]Dihydroergocryptine, a nonselective alpha adrenergic antagonist, the alpha-1 selective antagonist, [3H]prazosin and the alpha-2 selective antagonist, [3H]yohimbine, were used to study binding sites in rat renal membranes. To establish a correlation between binding and a biological function, the ability of alpha adrenergic agents to stimulate or inhibit vasoconstriction was quantified in vitro using an isolated perfused kidney preparation. Binding with each radioligand was rapid, saturable and specific. Moreover, the order of potencies of a variety of adrenergic agents, determined by competitive inhibition studies, suggested that the binding of each radioligand was to sites with alpha adrenergic specificity. The total number of binding sites in these rat renal membranes. determined with [3H]dihydroergocryptine (Bmax, 212 fmol/mg of protein; KD, 12.8 nM) was approximately equal to the sum of binding site concentrations determined with the alpha-1 and alpha-2 selective radioligands (Bmax, 57 and ...
&splt;p>Sagger Mawri, MD and Khalid George, MD&splt;/p> &splt;p>December 11, 2015&splt;/p> &splt;p>A 64-year-old woman with history of lumbar compression fracture status post L3-L5 kyphoplasty two weeks prior presented to the emergency department complaining of worsening lower extremity weakness since her spinal surgery. Her symptoms became severe and limited her ability to stand or ambulate. She also endorsed urinary and bowel incontinence. On examination, she demonstrated moderately reduced bilateral lower extremity strength and reduced rectal tone without sensory deficits or clonus. Computed tomography with contrast is obtained.&spamp;nbsp;&splt;/p> &splt;div>&splt;img src=&doublequot;http://www.sgim.org/Image Library/JGIM/Web Only/Clinical Images/Cement-in-IVC.jpg&doublequot; alt=&doublequot;cement in ivc&doublequot; objectid=&doublequot;2e147345-cd18-4229-b9dd-0c7bcc216c14&doublequot; imagesiteid=&doublequot;8039ce09-e7da-47e1-bcec-df96b5e411f4&doublequot; />&splt;/div> &splt;p>&spamp;nbsp;&splt;/p
In the present study, in agreement with others (Breese and Traylor, 1971, 1972; Breese et al., 1984), there was an extensive reduction in the neostriatal content of DA (97%), HVA (98%) and DOPAC (89%) in 6-OHDA-treated rats, regardless of HAL treatment (table 1). Neostriatal NE content was unaltered, probably reflecting effectiveness of desipramine pretreatment in protecting noradrenergic neurons from 6-OHDA destruction. As expected, neostriatal concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly elevated by neonatal 6-OHDA treatment (table 1, P , .01), reflecting the known proliferative sprouting of 5-HT fibers in the forebrain of rats lesioned neonatally with 6-OHDA (Stachowiak et al., 1984;Berger et al., 1985; Snyder et al., 1986).. Spontaneous oral activity of intact rats remained at a consistently low level for the entire duration of the experiment (fig. 1). Also, neonatal 6-OHDA treatment alone did not increase the level of spontaneous oral activity (fig. 1). The HAL dose (1.5 mg/kg/day) ...
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Guanethidine Sulfate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Guanethidine Sulfate is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
N. Van Camp, Vreys, R., Van Laere, K., Lauwers, E., Beque, D., Verhoye, M., Casteels, C., Verbruggen, A., Debyser, Z., Mortelmans, L., Sijbers, J., Nuyts, J., Baekelandt, V., and Van Der Linden, A., Morphologic and functional changes in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion rat model for Parkinsons disease discerned with microSPECT and quantitative MRI., Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 65-75, 2010. ...
N. Van Camp, Vreys, R., Van Laere, K., Lauwers, E., Beque, D., Verhoye, M., Casteels, C., Verbruggen, A., Debyser, Z., Mortelmans, L., Sijbers, J., Nuyts, J., Baekelandt, V., and Van Der Linden, A., Morphologic and functional changes in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion rat model for Parkinsons disease discerned with microSPECT and quantitative MRI., Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 65-75, 2010. ...
What is the medial forebrain bundle?Discuss the evidence for and against its involvement in reward.In addition, review the evidence showing that the brains dopamine pathways are critically involved in pleasure and reward.. The MFB goes by throughout the lateral hypothalamus and the basal forebrain inside a rostral-caudal route. The MFB does have its principal projections to those regions of Brodmann places (BA) 8, 9, 10, 11, 11m. The superior frontal place of MFB jobs to BA 8, 9, 10 the rostral midsection frontal tasks to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9, 10) lateral orbitofrontal of MFB reveals its projections to nucleus accumbens septi (NAC) and ventral striatum as subcortical compensate linked constructions.[1]. It has both climbing and descending materials. The mesolimbic pathway, and that is a assortment of dopaminergic neurons that assignments from your ventral tegmental location to the nucleus accumbens, is a component pathway of the MFB.[2]. The MFB is among the two significant ...
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1. Only serious buyers. Be 100% sure that you want to purchase the items before placing an order. Please do not back out after confirming order. If youre not interested in the item anymore, please do inform us ...
光大 guāngdà, splendid/magnificent/abbr. for 中國光大銀行,中国光大银行[Zhōng guó Guāng dà Yín háng], China ...
alpha-2 adrenergic agentsEdit. Rebound hypertension, above pre-treatment level, was observed after clonidine,[15] and ...
Adrenergic blocking agents. V. 1-Amino-3-(substituted phenoxy)-2-propanols". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (4): 638-42. ... Prenalterol exhibits adrenergic agonist activity in spite of an interposed oxymethylene group. The stereospecific synthesis ... with isopropylamine followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the O-benzyl ether affords the β1-adrenergic selective adrenergic ...
Walker, Susannah B.; Kradjan, Wayne A.; Bierman, C. Warren (6 May 1985). "Bitolterol Mesylate: A Beta-adrenergic Agent; ... Bitolterol mesylate (Tornalate) is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in ...
... a beta-adrenergic agent. Chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and clinical efficacy in asthma". ...
Clark BK (May 1992). "Beta-adrenergic blocking agents: their current status". AACN Clinical Issues in Critical Care Nursing. 3 ... The selective agents (atenolol, metoprolol) are preferred to the non-selective agents (propranolol). There are several ( ... These agents should be avoided whenever possible as there is upwards of seven times more beta-adrenoceptor antagonism than ... Adrenergic (Epinephrine and metanephrine) More likely to indicate an adrenal tumor[non-primary source needed] When plasma ...
Gross ME (2001). "Tranquilizers, α2-adrenergic agonists, and related agents". In Adams RH (ed.). Veterinary Pharmacology and ... A reversal agent for benzodiazepines exists, flumazenil (Anexate). Its use as an antidote is not routinely recommended because ... Although they are second-line agents, benzodiazepines can be used for a limited time to relieve severe anxiety and agitation. ... Kintz P (2007). "Bioanalytical procedures for detection of chemical agents in hair in the case of drug-facilitated crimes". ...
Direct intraspinal injection of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the α-adrenergic agents dexmedetomidine ... "Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians". European Journal of Pharmacology. 316 (2): 205- ... The relative analgesic potency of 11 opioid agents (μ-opioid receptor agonists - fentanyl, levorphanol, methadone, morphine, ... relative analgesic potency of μ-opioids in amphibians was correlated with the relative analgesic potency of these same agents ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG; Kjaergaard; Lauritsen (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate ...
Kjaergaard N, Kjaergaard B, Lauritsen JG (June 1988). "Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive ... It is also used in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 due to its anti-adrenergic effects. It has shown to be ... Phenoxybenzamine forms a permanent covalent bond with adrenergic receptors. Based on known information about the structures of ... "Phenoxybenzamine binding reveals the helical orientation of the third transmembrane domain of adrenergic receptors". J. Biol. ...
A Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agent for the Treatment of Glaucoma". Arch Ophthalmol. 95 (4): 601-4. doi:10.1001/archopht. ... Yale researcher Marvin Sears, observed that timolol, a beta-adrenergic agent, had an intraocular pressure lowering effect in ... This agent was subsequently used to effectively treat Herpes Simplex keratitis, the primary cause of corneal blindness in the ... IDU was proven effective and resulted in the discovery of the first antiviral agent used in humans to treat an active viral ...
It is a sympathomimetic agent with marked alpha adrenergic activity. It is a vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing ...
Tafreshi MJ, Weinacker AB (August 1999). "Beta-adrenergic-blocking agents in bronchospastic diseases: a therapeutic dilemma". ... It works by blocking β1-adrenergic receptors in the heart and dilating blood vessels. Nebivolol was patented in 1983 and came ... Bakris G (May 2009). "An in-depth analysis of vasodilation in the management of hypertension: focus on adrenergic blockade". J ... Sawa M, Harada H (2006). "Recent Developments in the Design of Orally Bioavailable β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists". Current ...
... is an antihypertensive agent. It is used in the form of its sulfate. Guanadrel is a postganglionic adrenergic ... blocking agent. Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the norepinephrine pump; guanadrel slowly ...
for pioneering signal transduction therapy and for developing tyrosine kinase inhibitors as effective agents against cancer and ... for developing agents which block beta adrenergic and histamine receptors.. 1983/4 Не присуждалась ...
Falkay G, Kovács L (1986). "Affinity of tocolytic agents on human placental and myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors". Journal ... Giorgino FL, Egan CG (2010). "Use of isoxsuprine hydrochloride as a tocolytic agent in the treatment of preterm labour: a ...
It acts as a blocking agent for adrenergic neurons. When radiolabeled, it can be used in nuclear medicinal diagnostic ... It localizes to adrenergic tissue and thus can be used to identify the location of tumors such as pheochromocytomas and ... It also accumulates in norepinephrine transporters in adrenergic nerves in the heart, lungs, adrenal medulla, salivary glands, ... Iobenguane, or MIBG, is an aralkylguanidine analog of the adrenergic neurotransmitter norepinephrine and a radiopharmaceutical ...
adrenergic uptake inhibitors (en) , adrenergic agent (en) , sympathomimetic drug (en) , stimulant (en) eta dopaminergiko. ...
"Cardiovascular adverse drug reaction associated with combined beta-adrenergic and calcium entry-blocking agents". Journal of ... Peroutka SJ (November 1983). "The pharmacology of calcium channel antagonists: a novel class of anti-migraine agents?". ...
It stimulates β adrenergic receptors. Abou-Mohamed G, Nagarajan R, Ibrahim TM, Caldwell RW (March 1996). "Characterization of ... the adrenergic activity of arbutamine, a novel agent for pharmacological stress testing". Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 10 ...
Meta-[I-131]iodobenzylguanidine is a radio-labeled analog of the adrenergic blocking agent guanethidine.[37] Radioactivity is ...
These agents also commonly have action at α-adrenergic receptors and/or 5-HT receptors. This lack of receptor selectivity is ... Agents where the main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; ... They can be classified on the basis of chemical structure, and agents within these groups have similar properties. Two aromatic ... Patient response and occurrence of adverse drug reactions vary greatly between classes and between agents within classes. The ...
... can also be a side effect of alpha-1 blockers (alpha1 adrenergic blocking agents). Alpha1 blockers ...
Sympatholytic agents, such as the alpha-adrenergic blocker prazosin, may provide temporary relief to secondary Raynaud's ...
... alpha1 adrenergic blocking agents). Alpha1 blockers inhibit vasoconstriction normally initiated by the baroreceptor reflex upon ...
Several agents, including alpha adrenergic blockers (such as tamsulosin) and calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), may ... intravenous agents or even instillation of certain irrigating agents directly onto the stone can be performed, using antegrade ... Uroliths present in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder may be better defined by the use of this contrast agent. Stones can also ... Normal urine contains chelating agents, such as citrate, that inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of calcium- ...
... (AY-28,228) is an antihypertensive agent which acts as a selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It also ... A new class of potent antihypertensive agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 30 (2): 388-94. doi:10.1021/jm00385a022. PMID ... Prazosin Ketanserin David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412- ...
beta-blockers, β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor ... These agents are capable of exerting low-level agonist activity at the β-adrenergic receptor while simultaneously acting as a ... β1-adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart and in the kidneys.[4] β2-adrenergic receptors are located mainly in ... Agents specifically labeled for glaucoma *Betaxolol,[84] carteolol,[84] levobunolol,[84] timolol,[84] metipranolol[88] ...
However, there is little, if any, empirical evidence that vasoactive drugs (α-adrenergic blocking agents or calcium channel ...
Imidazolines are sympathomimetic agents, with primary effects on α adrenergic receptors and little if any effect on β ... A direct sympathomimetic, Oxymetazoline binds to α1 adrenergic receptors and α2 adrenergic receptors, most notably. One study ... α2 adrenergic receptors. Since vascular beds widely express α1 receptors, the action of oxymetazoline results in ... although its pharmacological effects may be reversed by α adrenergic antagonists such as phentolamine. In the event of a ...
Other stimulators include the powerful vasoconstriction-inducing agents, angiotensin II, endothelins, and alpha adrenergic ... Many agents stimulate cells and tissues to produce 20-HETE in vitro and in vivo. Androgens are particularly potent stimulators ... There are a variety of pharmacological agents which inhibit the synthesis of 20-HETE including various fatty acid analogs that ... This platelet hyper-responsiveness to epinephrine, particularly if also exhibited to other platelet-aggregating agents, could ...
... increase beta adrenergic receptors while decreasing alpha adrenergic receptors- which results in increased levels of ... Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ...
腎上腺素受體激動藥 (α(英語:Alpha-adrenergic agonist) ... 釋放劑(英語:Releasing agent) (RA). *♦ 異構調節 : 正向異位調節(英語:
Such proteins can only be separated from the membranes by using detergents, nonpolar solvents, or sometimes denaturing agents. ... G protein coupled receptors (e.g., Beta-adrenergic receptor). *Seipin. See alsoEdit. *Membrane protein ...
... adrenergic agents such as alpha-1 blockers and beta-blockers and alpha-2 agonists, antiplatelet agents (aspirin and clopidogrel ...
A closely related type of drug is a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA). ... an increase in adrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.[1] ...
... is used as an antihypertensive agent postoperatively, and also intravenously (IV) to treat a hypertensive crisis.[4] ... Fenoldopam is used as an antihypertensive agent.[2] It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 1997 ... Since fenoldopam is the only intravenous agent that improves renal perfusion, in theory it could be beneficial in hypertensive ...
It behaves as an antagonist at α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and dopamine D2, and as a partial ... Yohimbine has high affinity for the α2-adrenergic receptor, moderate affinity for the α1 receptor, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT ... Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, and has been used in a variety of research projects. It is a veterinary drug ... February 2000). "Agonist and antagonist actions of yohimbine as compared to fluparoxan at alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, ...
Instead, it may act as a serotonin and/or norepinephrine releasing agent.[citation needed] ... Triggle, D. J. (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall / CRC. ISBN 0-412-46630-9.. .mw-parser- ...
Adrenergic storm Alcohol Amphetamine Anaemia Antiarrhythmic agents Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ... antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... General: adrenergic neurone blocker, astringent, ocular lubricant. *Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, ...
It acts as a monoamine releasing agent with 20- to 48-fold selectivity for releasing dopamine versus serotonin. It is most ...
and the class of agent it belongs to but this usually needs manual wikilinking, eg for Seretide: ... Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist,Long-Acting Beta2 Agonist]] ...
Leffler, Esther B.; Spencer, Hugh M.; Burger, Alfred (1951). "Dissociation Constants of Adrenergic Amines". Journal of the ... antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others. Many of these psychoactive compounds ...
... anxiolytic agents, adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists.[5] ... Other anticholinergic agents that have tried to include propantheline bromide and benztropine.[citation needed] ... which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?][19][20] ...
First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the selective serotonin-norepinephrine ... adrenergic inhibitors, antipsychotics, and even anticonvulsants), benzodiazepines should be considered relatively ...
Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
... not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are ... Alpha-adrenergic agonist. *Beta blocker. *Dopamine agonist. *Dopamine antagonist. *Incretin mimetic. *Nonsteroidal anti- ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
NGF has not been found in human saliva; however, researchers find human saliva contains such antibacterial agents as secretory ... Norepinephrine binding to α-adrenergic receptors will cause an increase in intracellular calcium levels leading to more fluid ... If norepinephrine binds β-adrenergic receptors, it will result in more protein or enzyme secretion vs. fluid secretion. ... antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozyme.[1] The enzymes found in saliva are essential in beginning the process ...
Alox5 and presumably human ALOX5 functions may vary widely depending on the agents stimulating their and types of metabolites ... As a second drug added to corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors appear inferior to Beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs in the ... they form; the specific tissues responding to these agents; the times (e.g. early versus delayed) at which observations are ... human neutrophils treated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then stimulated with physiological agents. ...
Assays have shown that selective NRIs have insignificant penchant for mACh, α1 and α2 adrenergic, or H1 receptors.[22] ... Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... Combination of mechanisms of action in a single active agent is an important development in psychopharmacology.[28] ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... "Combining opioid and adrenergic mechanisms for chronic pain". Postgraduate Medicine. 126 (4): 98-114. doi:10.3810/pgm.2014.07. ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ...
DMA is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015).[6] A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities.[6] ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Adrenergic stimulants, such as ephedrine, may act by directly binding and activating the receptors that norepinephrine and ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ...
... ("3,4-MDPEA" or just "MDPEA"), also known as homopiperonylamine, is a substituted phenethylamine formed by adding a methylenedioxy group to phenethylamine. It is structurally similar to MDA, but without the methyl group at the alpha position. According to Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL, MDPEA appears to be biologically inactive. This is likely because of extensive first-pass metabolism by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. However, if MDPEA were either used in high enough of doses (e.g., 1-2 grams), or in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), it is probable that it would become sufficiently active, though it would likely have a relatively short duration of action. This idea is similar in concept to the use of selective MAOA inhibitors and selective MAOB inhibitors in augmentation of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and phenethylamine (PEA), respectively. ...
Drugs: In particular, alcohol, nasal decongestants with adrenergic effects, NSAIDs, MAOIs, adrenoceptor stimulants, and ... Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine[ ... causing excessive stimulation of adrenergic receptors, which results in peripheral vasoconstriction and cardiac stimulation. ...
adrenergic blocking agent synonyms, adrenergic blocking agent pronunciation, adrenergic blocking agent translation, English ... dictionary definition of adrenergic blocking agent. adj. 1. Activated by or capable of releasing epinephrine or a similar ... substance, especially in the sympathetic nervous system: adrenergic receptors. ... adrenergic. (redirected from adrenergic blocking agent). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. ...
Adrenergic neuronal blocking agent definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... A drug that blocks sympathetic nerve impulses but does not inhibit the responses of adrenergic receptors to epinephrine and ...
adrenergic neuron-blocking agent synonyms, adrenergic neuron-blocking agent pronunciation, adrenergic neuron-blocking agent ... 2. One empowered to act for or represent another: an authors agent; an insurance agent. 3. ... English dictionary definition of adrenergic neuron-blocking agent. n. 1. One that acts or has the power or authority to act. ... agent. → وَكِيل agent agent Vertreter πράκτορας agente agentti agent agent agente 代理人 대리인 agent agent agent agente агент ombud ...
Beta2-adrenergic Agonist Agent. Class Summary. Beta-agonists relax bronchial smooth muscle by action on beta2 -receptors, with ... Sympathomimetic agents. Class Summary. Epinephrine, administered intramuscularly, is the drug of choice for the treatment of ... These agents are more effective in preventing histamine response than in reversing it. They act by competitive inhibition of ... These agents are used to treat minor allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. They prevent histamine response in sensory nerve ...
Nonetheless, acute treatment with the anticholinergic agent atropine and/or the adrenergic agonist isoproterenol may be ... Anticholinergic Agents. Class Summary. Atropine, by vagolytic effect, increases the heart rate. Although it may also be used ... Beta1/Beta2 Adrenergic Agonists. Class Summary. When given systemically, isoproterenol stimulates beta receptors in the heart, ... Isoproterenol has sympathomimetic effects; specifically, beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist activity. ...
Beta-blockers belong to a larger class of medicines called adrenergic inhibitors. They may be used in pills by themselves or in ...
"Adrenergic Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adrenergic Agents" was a major or minor topic ... Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic ... "Adrenergic Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Gaspari R. Reply to: In a subset of PEA patients, do continuous infusions of adrenergic agents improve chances of ROSC? ...
Naltrexone and Adrenergic Agents to Reduce Heroin Use in Heroin Addicts. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Naltrexone and Adrenergic Agents to Reduce Heroin Use in Heroin Addicts. Official Title ICMJE Heroin Addiction Treatment: ... Naltrexone and Adrenergic Agents. Brief Summary Naltrexone is a medication that is currently used to treat drug and alcohol ...
What is adrenergic blocking agents? Meaning of adrenergic blocking agents medical term. What does adrenergic blocking agents ... Looking for online definition of adrenergic blocking agents in the Medical Dictionary? adrenergic blocking agents explanation ... Adrenergic blocking agents , definition of adrenergic blocking agents by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... redirected from adrenergic blocking agents). Also found in: Dictionary. sympatholytic drugs Drugs that inhibit nerve impulses ...
1. alpha-adrenergic blocking agent (n.). any of various drugs that block alpha-adrenergic receptors; used in treating benign ... 2. beta-adrenergic blocking agent (n.). any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and ... rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system ...
... Gastroenterology. 1999 ... Nitrergic and alpha2-adrenergic modulation of gastric sensory and motor function were assessed in this study. ...
What is alpha-adrenergic blocking agent? Meaning of alpha-adrenergic blocking agent medical term. What does alpha-adrenergic ... Looking for online definition of alpha-adrenergic blocking agent in the Medical Dictionary? alpha-adrenergic blocking agent ... alpha-adrenergic blocking agent (alpha-blocker) (alpha-blocking agent) any of a group of drugs that selectively inhibit the ... As with beta-adrenergic blocking agents, alpha-blocking agents compete with the catecholamines at peripheral autonomic receptor ...
Beta 2 adrenergic receptor · Beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · Beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ... beta 2 adrenergic receptor · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ... beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating ... beta 2 adrenergic receptor · beta 2 adrenergic receptor blocking agent · beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent · ...
However, because both agents exert a negative chronotropic effect, their combined ... 0/Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0/Calcium Channel Blockers From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects*, therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bradycardia / chemically ... However, because both agents exert a negative chronotropic effect, their combined use may cause bradyarrhythmias with resultant ...
The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. Three groups ... Effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability Article type: Research Article ... Abstract: The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. ...
The disclosure provides cosmetic and therapeutic compositions of alpha-adrenergic agents. Compositions of the disclosure may be ... Compositions and uses of alpha-adrenergic agents - Google Patents. Compositions and uses of alpha-adrenergic agents Download ... 239000000464 Adrenergic Agents Substances 0.000 title abstract description 28 * 210000000744 Eyelids Anatomy 0.000 claims ... adrenergic agent. composition. subject. Prior art date. 2016-01-26. Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not ...
Acute and Chronic Effects of an Adrenergic Beta-Receptor Blocking Agent (Propranolol) in Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias. ... Acute and Chronic Effects of an Adrenergic Beta-Receptor Blocking Agent (Propranolol) in Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias ... The effects of intravenous and oral administration of propranolol, an adrenergic beta-receptor blocking agent, have been ... Acute and Chronic Effects of an Adrenergic Beta-Receptor Blocking Agent (Propranolol) in Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias ...
The agents duties include the... Explanation of adrenergic neuron blocking agent ... Find out information about adrenergic neuron blocking agent. a person representing a business concern, esp a travelling ... Agents are also called "intelligent agents," "personal agents" and "bots." See mobile agent, bot and workflow.. ... redirected from adrenergic neuron blocking agent). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial. agent. a ...
Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics. M. E. ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ...
Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia.. G D Fink, L G Paulo and ... Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia.. G D Fink, L G Paulo and ... Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia.. G D Fink, L G Paulo and ... Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia. ...
Central Alpha-Agonist Agents, Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers, Direct Vasodilators, and Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donors", ... central agents, alpha blockers, direct vasodilating agents, and exogenous nitric oxide donors. These antihypertensive drugs are ... central agents, alpha blockers, direct vasodilating agents, and exogenous nitric oxide donors. These antihypertensive drugs are ... Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Title:Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments ...
Effects of adrenergic agents, vasopressin and ionophore A23187, on the phosphorylation of, and flux through, phenylalanine ... Effects of adrenergic agents, vasopressin and ionophore A23187, on the phosphorylation of, and flux through, phenylalanine ... Effects of adrenergic agents, vasopressin and ionophore A23187, on the phosphorylation of, and flux through, phenylalanine ... Effects of adrenergic agents, vasopressin and ionophore A23187, on the phosphorylation of, and flux through, phenylalanine ...
... potential role of beta2-adrenergic stimulants as new therapeutic agents for myocarditis ... More, more, and even more beta2-adrenergic agents for treating acute asthma in children: is the adrenergic approach the only ... Design and synthesis of bivalent yohimbine derivatives as potential subtype-selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agents. ... beta-adrenergic receptor modifications in target organs of broiler chickens fed with a diet containing beta2-adrenergic agents ...
Adrenergic neurone blocking agents. 3. Heterocyclic analogs of guanoxan. by Joachim Augstein et al. ... Adrenergic neurone blocking agents. 3. Heterocyclic analogs of guanoxan.. *. Joachim Augstein, Andrew Monro, Glenn Potter, ...
b-adrenergic receptors are divided into two types b 1 and b2. ... b-adrenergic agonists are the preferred initial rescue ... b-adrenergic agonists are the preferred initial rescue medication for acute bronchospasm. b-adrenergic receptors are divided ... The b-adrenergic agonists used today are analogues of naturally occurring sympathomimetics ( Tab.l.e... 64-5). The ideal ... The most common side effect of b-adrenergic drugs is skeletal muscle tremor. Patients may also experience nervousness, anxiety ...
The role of beta adrenergic blocking agents in the management of the patient with acute myocardial infarction. by D Arensberg ... The role of beta adrenergic blocking agents in the management of the patient with acute myocardial infarction.. *. D Arensberg ... article{Arensberg1981TheRO, title={The role of beta adrenergic blocking agents in the management of the patient with acute ...
alpha adrenergic blocking agents Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents are drugs used to lower blood pressure. They work by relaxing ... Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents also lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart by slowing the heart rhythm and ... These drugs are also called alpha blockers, alpha-adrenergic antagonists and alpha-adrenergic blockers. ...
Alpha-Adrenergic Agents. Antihypertensive effect of alpha-adrenergic blockers such as guanethidine, betanidine, reserpine, ... A variety of adverse reactions not listed above have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be ... Beta- adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the postural hypotensive effect of the first dose of prazosin, probably by ... Bronchospasm: Administer a beta2-stimulating agent and/or a theophylline derivative.. Cardiac Failure: Administer digitalis ...
Beta-adrenergic Agents. Caution is advised in the coadministration of COMBIVENT RESPIMAT and other sympathomimetic agents due ... In addition, beta-adrenergic agents have been reported to produce electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T ... Beta-adrenergic agents may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients (possibly through intracellular shunting) which has ... Beta-receptor blocking agents and albuterol inhibit the effect of each other. Beta-receptor blocking agents should be used with ...
Beta adrenergic blocking agents. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1971 Jan; 17(1): 10-5. ...
  • Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters. (harvard.edu)
  • The therapeutic potential of beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists in the treatment of autoimmune diseases has been reported. (eurekamag.com)
  • b-adrenergic agonists are the preferred initial rescue medication for acute bronchospasm . (barnardhealth.us)
  • The b-adrenergic agonists used today are analogues of naturally occurring sympathomimetics ( Tab.l.e... 64-5). (barnardhealth.us)
  • Objective: To review extant data on the efficacy and safety of anxiolytic medications (benzodiazepines, buspirone, and other serotonin 1A agonists), adrenergic agents (β-blockers and α 2 -adrenergic agonists clonidine and guanfacine), and the opiate antagonist naltrexone that have been used to treat various psychopathologies in children and adolescents. (umn.edu)
  • Long-acting beta 2 -adrenergic agonists (LABA), such as salmeterol, the active ingredient in SEREVENT ® DISKUS ® , increase the risk of asthma-related death. (drugs.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adrenergic Agonists" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adrenergic Agonists" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Adrenergic Agonists" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • What is the role of beta-adrenergic agonists in urinary incontinence treatment? (medscape.com)
  • A guideline from the American Urological Association recommends beta-3-adrenergic receptor agonists as second-line therapy in patients with an inadequate response to behavioral therapy. (medscape.com)
  • In support of this effort we developed 3D pharmacophore maps and 3D QSAR relationships for α 1 and α 2 adrenergic agonists and D2 dopaminergic agonists [ 18 - 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Adrenergic agonists are used as 2nd to 4th line agents in the management of glaucoma. (escrs.org)
  • adrenergic agonists, including Apraclonidine. (escrs.org)
  • adrenergic receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A drug that blocks sympathetic nerve impulses but does not inhibit the responses of adrenergic receptors to epinephrine and other adrenergic amines. (dictionary.com)
  • Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. (harvard.edu)
  • also used to distinguish types of radioactive decay, brain waves or rhythms, adrenergic receptors, and secretory cells that stain with acid dyes, such as the alpha cells of the pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alpha-adrenergic blocking agent ( alpha-blocker ) ( alpha-blocking agent ) any of a group of drugs that selectively inhibit the activity of alpha receptors in the sympathetic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • some compete for both α 1 and α 2 receptors (for example, phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride), whereas others are primarily either α 1 (for example, prazosin, terazosin) or α 2 receptor blocking agents (for example, yohimbine). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Based on the proposed selectivity of butoxamine for beta2 adrenergic receptors and of practolol for beta1 adrenergic receptors, it is suggested that ESF production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia may involve the activation of beta2 adrenergic receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • b-adrenergic receptors are divided into two types: b 1 and b2. (barnardhealth.us)
  • In vitro studies and in vivo pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that albuterol has a preferential effect on β 2 -adrenergic receptors compared with isoproterenol. (nih.gov)
  • While it is recognized that β 2 -adrenergic receptors are the predominant receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, recent data indicated that 10% to 50% of the β-receptors in the human heart may be β 2 -receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The affinity constants (K(A)) of arbutamine and isoproterenol for cardiac beta 1 -adrenergic receptors, as determined by competition binding assays, were found to be 7.32 and 6.04, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, arbutamine stimulated beta 3 -adrenergic receptors in guinea pig ileum. (elsevier.com)
  • It stimulates cardiac beta 1 -, tracheal beta 2 -, and adiopocyte beta 3 -adrenergic receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Arbutamine does not stimulate alpha-adrenergic receptors at concentrations that were high enough to maximally activate the beta-adrenergic receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • in the guinea pig trachea, the effect may be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 which further comprises the reduction or avoidance of adverse effects associated with antagonism of α 1 -adrenergic receptors. (google.com)
  • Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors. (harvard.edu)
  • These agents relax beta-adrenergic receptors that are contained in smooth muscle, such as the bladder. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent catechol amine research at Abbott focused on various adrenergic receptors with a goal to reduce dopaminergic effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Any agent that inhibits transmission of sympathetic nerve stimuli regardless of whether alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors are involved. (tabers.com)
  • Although catecholamines do not cross the blood-brain barrier, circulating Epi from the adrenal medulla may communicate with the central nervous system and stress circuitry by activating vagal nerve β-adrenergic receptors to release norepinephrine, which could then stimulate release of the same from the nucleus tractus solitarius and locus coeruleus. (nih.gov)
  • If chronic Epi over expression does elicit illness, possibilities for alternative therapeutics exist through regulating stress-induced Epi expression, adrenergic receptor function and/or corticosteroid effects on Epi, adrenergic receptors and the stress axis. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine is an adrenergic blocking agent used to treat mild to moderate hypertension via the disruption of norepinephrine vesicular storage. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Direct intraspinal injection of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the α-adrenergic agents dexmedetomidine and clonidine, produced a dose-dependent elevation of pain thresholds in the Northern grass frog, Rana pipiens. (okstate.edu)
  • Carlos G. Musso and Jose Alfie, "Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly-Second Line Treatments: Aldosterone Antagonists, Central Alpha-Agonist Agents, Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers, Direct Vasodilators, and Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donors", Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2014) 12: 170. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These drugs are also called alpha blockers, alpha-adrenergic antagonists and alpha-adrenergic blockers. (heart.org)
  • All of these therapies--angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents (betablockers), aldosterone antagonists, hydralazine/ isosorbide dinitrate, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy--are effective in treating heart failure, with the benefits outweighing the risks. (freethesaurus.com)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonists, compositions comprising .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonists that are optionally substituted with at least one NO or NO.sub.2 moiety and compounds that donate, transfer or release nitric oxide or elevate levels of endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and methods for treating sexual dysfunctions in males and females. (patentgenius.com)
  • Barrett, A.M.: A survey of the pharmacological properties of adrenergic β-receptor antagonists. (springer.com)
  • The isoproterenol-induced decrease in SCC was also blocked by non-selective α-adrenergic antagonists. (elsevier.com)
  • 50%. This effect, which appears to be mediated by an alpha-adrenergic mechanism, was accompanied by a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase. (biochemj.org)
  • Beta-blockers belong to a larger class of medicines called adrenergic inhibitors. (howstuffworks.com)
  • specifically, beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist activity. (medscape.com)
  • Combivent Respimat (ipratropium bromide and albuterol) Inhalation Spray is a combination of an anticholinergic bronchodilator and a selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator that open airways in the lungs to help patients with COPD breathe better indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (rxlist.com)
  • Albuterol sulfate, chemically known as (1,3-benzenedimethanol, α'-[[(1,1dimethylethyl) amino] methyl]-4-hydroxy, sulfate (2:1)(salt), (±)- is a relatively selective beta2-adrenergic bronchodilator. (rxlist.com)
  • Activation of human brown adipose tissue by a ß3-adrenergic receptor agonist. (harvard.edu)
  • Bitolterol mesylate (Tornalate) is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirabegron (Myrbetriq), a beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist, causes relaxation of the detrusor miuscle and increases bladder capacity. (medscape.com)
  • 1. The changes in plasma volume, haemodynamic variables, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone were studied in forty-one hypertensive patients after administration of adrenergic-blocking agents. (clinsci.org)
  • CVADRs are not uncommon in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease and/or hypertension treated with the concomitant use of calcium antagonist and beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An appropriate therapy for RH can be achieved by the addition of second line antihypertensive drugs: antialdosteronic diuretics, central agents, alpha blockers, direct vasodilating agents, and exogenous nitric oxide donors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The mechanism of bronchodilator action of b-adrenergic drugs involves stimulation of the enzyme adenyl cyclase, which converts intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (barnardhealth.us)
  • In addition to bronchodilation, b-adrenergic drugs inhibit mediator release and promote mucociliary clearance. (barnardhealth.us)
  • The most common side effect of b-adrenergic drugs is skeletal muscle tremor. (barnardhealth.us)
  • These drugs have nearly been replaced by newer agents produced by chemical modification of the parent compound. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Aerosol therapy with b2-adrenergic drugs produces excellent bronchodilation and is favored over both the oral and parenteral routes. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents are drugs used to lower blood pressure. (heart.org)
  • The prime action of β-adrenergic drugs is to stimulate adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (nih.gov)
  • Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other β-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients. (nih.gov)
  • Beta Adrenergic Blocking Agents, also called beta blockers, are drugs that slow the heartbeat, lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts and reduce blood vessel contraction in the heart, brain and throughout the body. (heart.org)
  • Drugs: adrenergic agents (isoproterenol), diuretics. (answers.com)
  • Ahlquist, R.P.: Present state of α- and β-adrenergic drugs II. (springer.com)
  • Beumer, H.M.: Adverse effects of β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs on respiratory function. (springer.com)
  • Transmembrane electrical measurements were performed on the isolated rabbit iris-ciliary body to study direct effects of adrenergic drugs on the ciliary epithelium. (elsevier.com)
  • Auvi-Q belongs to a group of drugs called sympathomimetic agents. (rxwiki.com)
  • The role of beta adrenergic blocking agents in the management of the patient with acute myocardial infarction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As with beta-adrenergic blocking agents , alpha-blocking agents compete with the catecholamines at peripheral autonomic receptor sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cardiovascular adverse drug reaction associated with combined beta-adrenergic and calcium entry-blocking agents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5. This study suggests that the decrease in plasma renin activity was related to the lowering of the heart rate rather than to sodium retention and that adrenergic-blocking agents can impair the normal relationship between stroke index and plasma volume, between plasma volume and plasma renin activity, and between plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone. (clinsci.org)
  • Effects of beta adrenergic blocking agents on erythropoietin production in rabbits exposed to hypoxia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Alpha-adrenergic blocking agents also lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart by slowing the heart rhythm and lessening the force of the heartbeat. (heart.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Beta adrenergic blocking agents. (who.int)
  • Beta adrenergic blocking agents. (who.int)
  • The mechanism of the antihypertensive effects of beta-blocking agents has not been fully elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • The quantitative analysis by (1)H NMR of labetalol, oxprenolol and four other beta-adrenergic blocking agents is described. (meta.org)
  • Beta-adrenergic blocking agents and dental vasoconstrictos. (freethesaurus.com)
  • beta-adrenergic blocking agents should be avoided in such cases. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Because of the potential effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on blood pressure and pulse, these agents should be used with caution in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency. (freethesaurus.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of alpha adrenergic blocking agents on myocardial toxicity of cardiac glycosides in guinea-pigs. (who.int)
  • Infants may be especially sensitive to the effects of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents may be absorbed into the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In addition, some studies in animals have shown that beta-adrenergic blocking agents increase the chance of death in the animal fetus. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Before using ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents, make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or if you may become pregnant. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Betaxolol and timolol, and maybe other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, when taken by mouth, may pass into the breast milk. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, it is not known whether ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents pass into the breast milk, and these medicines have not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Asthma (or history of), chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or other lung disease-Severe breathing problems, including death due to bronchospasm (spasm of the bronchial tubes), have been reported in patients with asthma following use of some ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents (carteolol, levobunolol, metipranolol, and timolol). (mayoclinic.org)
  • The response of acute anterior poliomyelitis to the adrenergic blocking agents and hot pack therapy. (agfisicos.com)
  • Nonetheless, acute treatment with the anticholinergic agent atropine and/or the adrenergic agonist isoproterenol may be warranted. (medscape.com)
  • The β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol caused a dose-dependent decrease in the SCC. (elsevier.com)
  • This suggests that isoproterenol interacted with the α 1 -adrenergic sensitive pathway in the rabbit ciliary process. (elsevier.com)
  • adrenergic receptor antagonist, wherein the imidazoline .alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • Pretreatment (5 × 10 -5 m) with the non-selective β-adrenergic antagonist timolol had no effect while the non-selective α-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, completely prevented the α agonist-induced decrease in SCC. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of intravenous and oral administration of propranolol, an adrenergic beta-receptor blocking agent, have been studied in 29 patients with various cardiac arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stevens, CW & Brenner, GM 1996, ' Spinal administration of adrenergic agents produces analgesia in amphibians ', European Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 316, no. 2-3, pp. 205-210. (okstate.edu)
  • Black, J.W., Stephenson, J.S.: Pharmacology of a new adrenergic β-receptor-blocking compound (nethalide). (springer.com)
  • Lopressor, metoprolol tartrate USP, is a selective beta1-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available in 5- mL ampuls for intravenous administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Metoprolol tartrate is a selective beta 1 -adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available as 25 mg, 37.5 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg tablets for oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • Metoprolol is a beta 1 -selective (cardioselective) adrenergic receptor blocker. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol sulfate, is a salt of racemic albuterol and a relatively selective β -adrenergic bronchodilator chemically described as α 1 -[( tert -butylamino) methyl]-4- hydroxy - m -xylene-α, α'-diol sulfate (2:1) (salt). (nih.gov)
  • Displacement of the leaving group with isopropylamine followed by hydrogenolytic removal of the O-benzyl ether affords the β1-adrenergic selective adrenergic agonist prenalterol (6). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blockers, are available only with a physician's prescription. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unsuspected bronchospasm in association with topical timolol - a common problem in elderly people: can we easily identify those affected and do cardioselective agents lead to improvement? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thermogenic response to ESLB was completely blocked by additional microinjection of an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocker, phentolamine, into the hypothalamic area where the noradrenergic fibres were presumed to terminate. (springer.com)
  • Gaspari R. Reply to: In a subset of PEA patients, do continuous infusions of adrenergic agents improve chances of ROSC? (harvard.edu)
  • Wong ML. In a subset of PEA patients, do continuous infusions of adrenergic agents improve chances of ROSC? (harvard.edu)
  • Intravenous b-agonist infusions offer no advantage over aerosolized or MDI-delivered agents and carry potential risk. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution is a combination of the β 2 -adrenergic bronchodilator, albuterol sulfate, and the anticholinergic bronchodilator, ipratropium bromide. (nih.gov)
  • These agents are used in the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm. (medscape.com)
  • adrenergic drops, including Apraclonidine, which were used for the management of uncontrolled glaucoma. (escrs.org)
  • adrenergic drops elsewhere before their referral to us for management of uncontrolled glaucoma. (escrs.org)
  • The adrenergic amines noradrenaline and adrenaline increased flux through phenylalanine hydroxylase by approx. (biochemj.org)
  • Zeisberger, E., Brück, K.: Alteration of shivering threshold in cold- and warm-adapted guinea pigs following intrahypothalamic injections of noradrenaline and of an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocking agent. (springer.com)
  • Any drug that inhibits the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and of adrenergic hormones. (tabers.com)
  • Guanadrel is a sympatholytic agent with similar pharmacologic properties as guanethidine. (brainkart.com)
  • Advair HFA should be used for patients not adequately controlled on a long-term asthma control medication such as an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or whose disease warrants initiation of treatment with both an ICS and long-acting beta 2 -adrenergic agonist (LABA). (drugs.com)
  • Wyamine Sulfate Injection is a brand name medication included in a group of medications called Adrenergic and dopaminergic agents . (rxwiki.com)
  • For example, bacteria that cause disease are agents of the specific diseases they cause, and medicine is a therapeutic agent. (tabers.com)
  • Although ionophore A23187 mimicked the effects of the adrenergic amines, vasopressin was completely without effect on either phenylalanine hydroxylation or enzyme phosphorylation. (biochemj.org)
  • 4. a drug or other agent having an epinephrinelike effect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, because both agents exert a negative chronotropic effect, their combined use may cause bradyarrhythmias with resultant symptoms of cerebral, coronary, and systemic hypoperfusion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. (iospress.com)
  • The investigators intend to determine the effect of adrenergic blockade on 1) short-term physiology, behavior, and cognition and 2) long-term neuropsychological outcomes after severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effect of LB-46, a new beta adrenergic blocking agent, on pulse and blood pressure at rest and after exercise in healthy volunteers. (bvsalud.org)
  • It may be necessary to use antiarrhythmic agents for concomitant tachyarrhythmia. (medscape.com)
  • However, concomitant adrenergic changes seem stressor dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Yohimbine has been identified by medical researchers as an alpha-2 adrenergic blocking agent useful in the treatment and diagnosis of some types of male erectile impotence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The α-adrenergic response was mediated by the α 1 subtype since prazosin, but not yohimbine, blocked the induced reduction in SCC. (elsevier.com)
  • This agent possesses alpha-agonist effects that include increased peripheral vascular resistance, reversed peripheral vasodilatation, systemic hypotension, and vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • Such agents would be useful in congestive heart failure and shock because they would not have the hemodynamic side effects of parenterally administered dopamine. (hindawi.com)
  • The primary hypothesis is that adrenergic blockade after severe TBI will be associated with increased ventilator-free days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The hypothalamic transmission can be prevented by an alpha-adrenergic blockade. (springer.com)
  • Adrenergic Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • These agents stimulate the growth or manufacture of body tissues. (tabers.com)
  • Sympathomimetic action of an adrenergic beta receptor blocking agent, 4-(2-isopropylamino-1-hydroxyethyl) methanesulphonanilid hydrochloride (MJ1999). (bvsalud.org)
  • Pilomotor function is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease: A study of the adrenergic axon-reflex response and autonomic functions. (harvard.edu)
  • Especially in the phrase "intelligent agent" it implies some kind of automatic process which can communicate with other agents to perform some collective task on behalf of one or more humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These agents are used to treat minor allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. (medscape.com)
  • Allergic reactions, severe (history of)-Use of an ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agent may reduce the effectiveness of the medicine (epinephrine) used to treat severe allergic reactions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ventilatory function was measured by recording partial expiratory flow volume (PEFV) curves on which maximum flow rates at 50% and 25% vital capacity are calculated following oral administration of 500 milligrams of ascorbic-acid, the mean reductions of ventilatory capacity being significantly smaller in comparison with placebo administration (P less than contractions induced by histamine and relaxes the tissue in the absence of other agents. (cdc.gov)