Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
Descriptive terms and identifying codes for reporting medical services and procedures performed by PHYSICIANS. It is produced by the AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION and used in insurance claim reporting for MEDICARE; MEDICAID; and private health insurance programs (From CPT 2002).
The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.

Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat. (1/1561)

To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (2/1561)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (3/1561)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

Activation of the adult mode of ovine growth hormone receptor gene expression by cortisol during late fetal development. (4/1561)

The developmental and tissue-specific regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expression is complex and involves alternate leader exon usage. The transcript composition of hepatic GHR mRNA has therefore been determined in fetal sheep during late gestation and after experimental manipulation of fetal plasma cortisol levels by fetal adrenalectomy and exogenous cortisol infusion, using RNase protection assays and a riboprobe containing exons 1A, 2, and 3 of the ovine GHR gene. Expression of the adult liver-specific GHR mRNA transcript containing exon 1A was not detected earlier than 138 days of gestation (term 145 +/-2 days). Thereafter, expression of this leader exon increased and accounted for 25-30% of the total GHR mRNA in the fetal liver at term. Hepatic GHR mRNA derived from leader exons other than 1A was detectable at 97 days and increased in abundance toward term in parallel with the normal prepartum rise in fetal plasma cortisol. Abolition of this cortisol surge by fetal adrenalectomy prevented both the activation of exon 1A expression and the prepartum rise in GHR mRNA derived from the other leader exons in fetal ovine liver. Conversely, raising cortisol levels by exogenous infusion earlier in gestation prematurely activated exon 1A expression and enhanced the abundance of GHR mRNA transcripts derived from the other leader exons. Cortisol therefore appears to activate the adult mode of GHR gene expression in fetal ovine liver during late gestation. These observations have important implications for the maturation of the somatotrophic axis and for the onset of GH-dependent growth after birth.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid enhances interleukin-1-induced pressor response in freely moving rats through its effect on nitric oxide release. (5/1561)

We investigated whether changes in nitric oxide (NO) release might be responsible for the modulation by glucocorticoids of the pressor response to i.p. injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in freely moving rats. In such rats, IL-1beta (10 microgram/kg) induced a biphasic pressor response, with a rise in the plasma concentration of NOx (NO2(-) and NO3(-): metabolites of NO) during the second phase. Systemic pretreatment with an exogenous glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), enhanced the second phase of the pressor response and completely suppressed the increase in plasma NOx. Treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor), enhanced the pressor response while attenuating the increase in plasma NOx. After bilateral adrenalectomy, IL-1beta induced a smaller pressor response, but a larger increase in plasma NOx; dexamethasone reversed these changes. Our results suggest that endogenous NO moderates the pressor response to IL-1beta in freely moving rats, and that glucocorticoids enhance the IL-1beta-induced pressor response at least in part by reducing endogenous NO release.  (+info)

Endogenous glucocorticoids protect against cytokine-mediated lethality during viral infection. (6/1561)

Certain cytokines activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis for glucocorticoid release, and these hormones can protect against cytokine-mediated pathologies. However, endogenous activation of such a pathway has not been established during infections. A prominent glucocorticoid response peaks 36 h following murine CMV (MCMV) infection, coincident with circulating levels of the cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF, and IL-6, and dependent on IL-6 for maximal release. These studies examined functions of the hormone induction. Mice rendered glucocorticoid deficient by adrenalectomy were more susceptible than intact mice to MCMV-induced lethality, and the increased sensitivity was reversed by hormone replacement. Lack of endogenous glucocorticoids resulted in increases in IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF, and IL-6 production, as well as in mRNA expression for a wider range of cytokines, also including IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. Viral burdens did not increase, and actually decreased, in the livers of glucocorticoid-deficient mice. TNF, but not IFN-gamma, was required for increased lethality in the absence of endogenous hormone. These results conclusively demonstrate the importance of induced endogenous glucocorticoids in protection against life-threatening effects resulting from infection-elicited cytokine responses. Taken together with the dependence on induced IL-6, they document existence of an immune system-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathway for regulating endogenous responses to viral infections.  (+info)

Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of central corticotropin-releasing factor. (7/1561)

Immune activation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) provides a negative feedback mechanism to modulate peripheral inflammatory responses. We investigated whether central CRF attenuates endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte recruitment during endotoxemia in rats and determined its mechanisms of action. As measured by intravital microscopy, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a dose-dependent increase in leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and emigration in mesenteric venules, which was associated with upregulation of endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Intracisternal injection of CRF abrogated both the increased expression of ICAM-1 and leukocyte recruitment. Intravenous injection of the specific CRF receptor antagonist astressin did not modify leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions induced by a high dose of LPS but enhanced leukocyte adhesion induced by a low dose. Blockade of endogenous glucocorticoids but not alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) receptors reversed the inhibitory action of CRF on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions during endotoxemia. In conclusion, cerebral CRF blunts endothelial upregulation of ICAM-1 and attenuates the recruitment of leukocytes during endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory effects of CRF are mediated by adrenocortical activation and additional mechanisms independent of alpha-MSH.  (+info)

Fetal rat adrenal steroidogenesis and steroid transfer to adrenalectomized mother. (8/1561)

On the 22nd day of gestation in rats, fetuses of acutely adrenalectomized mothers were injected subcutaneously with 0.43 muCi 4-14C-progesterone in 0.05 ml saline. Ten and 20 min after injection to fetuses, samples were taken to determine the 14C-progesterone metabolites in the plasma and adrenal glands. After extraction of the samples taken, the metabolites were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and identified by autoradiography. 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone and 11beta-hydroxyprogesterone were identified in the plasma of injected fetuses, and, in far smaller amounts, in the plasma of their mothers. The plasma of noninjected fetuses also contained very small amounts of these corticoids. The fetal adrenal glands contained far smaller amounts of radioactive steroids than the fetal plasma did. The results obtained show that steroids of fetal origin can cross the placenta in and out, constituting evidence that the fetal adrenal glands are the only source of the plasma corticoids of their adrenalectomized mothers.  (+info)

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Adrenal gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function or structure of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are various types of adrenal gland diseases, some of which include:

1. Adrenal Insufficiency: A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and skin hyperpigmentation.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: A condition characterized by an excess of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, or it can result from long-term use of steroid medications.
3. Adrenal Cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and high blood pressure.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that develops in the adrenal glands and causes an overproduction of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Symptoms may include high blood pressure, headaches, sweating, and anxiety.
5. Adrenal Hemorrhage: A condition where bleeding occurs in the adrenal glands, often as a result of severe trauma or infection. This can lead to adrenal insufficiency and other complications.
6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An inherited disorder that affects the production of cortisol and other hormones in the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, and short stature.

Treatment for adrenal gland diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. These tumors produce excessive amounts of hormones called catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline. This can lead to a variety of symptoms such as high blood pressure, sweating, headaches, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.

Pheochromocytomas are typically slow-growing and can be benign or malignant (cancerous). While the exact cause of these tumors is not always known, some genetic factors have been identified that may increase a person's risk. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control blood pressure before and after surgery.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Nelson's syndrome is a rare condition that occurs in some patients with a history of Cushing's disease who have undergone bilateral adrenalectomy (removal of both adrenal glands). Following the surgery, these patients may develop enlargement of the pituitary gland (pituitary tumor) and increased production of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) from the remaining pituitary tissue. This results in hyperpigmentation of the skin due to the melanocyte-stimulating property of ACTH, as well as other symptoms related to hormonal imbalance. It is named after the endocrinologist Don Nelson who first described this condition in 1958.

Adrenocortical hyperfunction, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a condition characterized by the overproduction of cortisol hormone from the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress.

In Adrenocortical hyperfunction, the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol, leading to a range of symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, muscle weakness, mood changes, and high blood pressure. The condition can be caused by several factors, including tumors in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, long-term use of corticosteroid medications, or genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands.

Treatment for Adrenocortical hyperfunction depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include surgery to remove tumors, medication to reduce cortisol production, or radiation therapy. It is essential to diagnose and treat this condition promptly, as long-term exposure to high levels of cortisol can lead to serious health complications such as diabetes, osteoporosis, and heart disease.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Hypophysectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal or partial removal of the pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, just above the nasal cavity, and is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hypophysectomy may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In some cases, it may be used to treat pituitary tumors or other conditions that affect the function of the pituitary gland. It may also be performed as a research procedure in animal models to study the effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on various physiological processes.

The surgical approach for hypophysectomy may vary depending on the specific indication and the patient's individual anatomy. In general, however, the procedure involves making an incision in the skull and exposing the pituitary gland through a small opening in the bone. The gland is then carefully dissected and removed or partially removed as necessary.

Potential complications of hypophysectomy include damage to surrounding structures such as the optic nerves, which can lead to vision loss, and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additionally, removal of the pituitary gland can result in hormonal imbalances that may require long-term management with hormone replacement therapy.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Metyrapone is a medication that is primarily used in the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by excessive levels of cortisol hormone in the body. It works as an inhibitor of steroidogenesis, specifically blocking the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxylase, which is involved in the production of cortisol in the adrenal gland.

By inhibiting this enzyme, metyrapone prevents the formation of cortisol and leads to an accumulation of its precursor, 11-deoxycortisol. This can help restore the balance of hormones in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with Cushing's syndrome.

It is important to note that metyrapone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

Pituitary irradiation is a medical procedure that involves the use of targeted radiation therapy to treat conditions affecting the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls various hormonal functions in the body, and any abnormalities or tumors in this area can lead to hormonal imbalances and other related health issues.

In pituitary irradiation, a radiation oncologist uses external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver precise and focused doses of high-energy radiation to the pituitary gland. The goal is to destroy or shrink the tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. This procedure can be used as a primary treatment option, an adjuvant therapy following surgery, or in cases where surgical intervention is not feasible or has been unsuccessful.

The effects of pituitary irradiation on hormone production may take months or even years to manifest fully. Patients will typically require regular follow-ups with their healthcare team to monitor hormonal levels and manage any potential side effects, which can include fatigue, headaches, vision changes, and cognitive impairment. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy might be necessary to address hormonal deficiencies resulting from the treatment.

Cortisone is a type of corticosteroid hormone that is produced naturally in the body by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and helps to regulate metabolism, reduce inflammation, and suppress the immune system. Cortisone can also be synthetically produced and is often used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and skin disorders. It works by mimicking the effects of the natural hormone in the body and reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Cortisone can be administered through various routes, including oral, injectable, topical, and inhalational.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Myelolipoma is a type of benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland, which is located on top of each kidney. This tumor is composed of both fatty tissue (lipoma) and cells that are similar to those found in the bone marrow (myeloid). Myelolipomas are usually small and asymptomatic, but they can grow larger and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, depending on their size and location.

Myelolipomas are rare tumors that typically affect middle-aged to older adults, with a slight female predominance. They are usually discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical conditions. In most cases, myelolipomas do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or grow large enough to pose a risk of bleeding or rupture. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for symptomatic or complicated myelolipomas.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is a medical condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a source outside of the pituitary gland, typically from a tumor in another part of the body. The most common sources of ectopic ACTH are small-cell lung carcinomas, but it can also occur with other types of tumors such as thymic carcinoids, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and bronchial carcinoids.

The excessive production of ACTH leads to an overproduction of cortisol from the adrenal glands, resulting in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome. These symptoms can include weight gain, muscle weakness, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, mood changes, and high blood pressure, among others.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is typically more severe than pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and it may be more difficult to diagnose and treat due to the underlying tumor causing the excessive ACTH production. Treatment usually involves removing the tumor or controlling its growth, as well as managing the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome with medications that block cortisol production or action.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Aminoglutethimide is a medication that is primarily used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It works by blocking the production of certain hormones in the body, including estrogen and cortisol. Aminoglutethimide is an inhibitor of steroid synthesis, specifically targeting the enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones.

The medication is available in oral form and is typically taken 2-3 times a day. Common side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, skin rash, and changes in appetite or weight. More serious side effects may include liver damage, severe allergic reactions, and changes in heart rhythm.

It's important to note that aminoglutethimide can interact with other medications, so it's crucial to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are currently taking before starting this medication. Additionally, regular monitoring of liver function and hormone levels may be necessary during treatment with aminoglutethimide.

Metanephrine is a catecholamine metabolite, specifically a derivative of epinephrine (adrenaline). It is formed in the body through the metabolic breakdown of epinephrine by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Metanephrines, including metanephrine and normetanephrine, are primarily produced in the adrenal glands but can also be found in other tissues in smaller amounts.

Elevated levels of metanephrines in the blood or urine may indicate a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, or a paraganglioma, a similar type of tumor located outside the adrenal glands. These tumors can cause excessive production of catecholamines, including epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to increased metanephrine levels.

It is essential to differentiate between metanephrine and normetanephrine as they have distinct clinical implications. Normetanephrine is a derivative of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), while metanephrine originates from epinephrine. The measurement of both free metanephrines and normetanephrines in plasma or urine is often used to diagnose and monitor pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion, also known as Cushing's disease, is a condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. This results in an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, leading to a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome.

In Cushing's disease, a benign tumor called an adenoma develops on the pituitary gland, causing it to release excess ACTH. This in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol than necessary. The resulting high levels of cortisol can cause various symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face (central obesity), thinning of the skin, bruising, weakness, fatigue, mood changes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of infections.

It is important to distinguish Cushing's disease from other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as cortisol-producing adrenal tumors or exogenous sources of corticosteroid use, as the treatment approach may differ. Treatment for Cushing's disease typically involves surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, with additional medical management and/or radiation therapy in some cases.

Normetanephrine is defined as a major metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline), which is formed by the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) on metanephrine. It is primarily produced in the adrenal gland and is also found in the sympathetic nervous system. Normetanephrine is often measured in clinical testing to help diagnose pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal glands that can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms due to excessive production of catecholamines. Increased levels of normetanephrine in the urine or plasma may indicate the presence of a pheochromocytoma or other conditions associated with increased catecholamine release.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Adrenal cortex function tests are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate the proper functioning of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing several essential hormones. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

There are several types of adrenal cortex function tests, including:

1. Cortisol testing: This test measures the levels of cortisol in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulation test: This test measures the adrenal gland's response to ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. The test involves administering synthetic ACTH and measuring cortisol levels before and after administration.
3. Aldosterone testing: This test measures the levels of aldosterone in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
4. Dexamethasone suppression test: This test involves administering dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, to suppress cortisol production. The test measures cortisol levels before and after administration to determine if the adrenal glands are overproducing cortisol.
5. Androgen testing: This test measures the levels of androgens, such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing excessive amounts of these hormones.

Abnormal results from adrenal cortex function tests may indicate conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytoma.

Desoxycorticosterone (also known as desoxycorticosterone or DCZ) is a natural steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is a weak glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid, which means it has some effects on blood sugar metabolism and regulates electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Desoxycorticosterone is used as a medication in the form of its synthetic acetate ester, desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA), to treat Addison's disease, a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. DCA helps to replace the missing mineralocorticoid activity and prevent the symptoms of low blood pressure, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances associated with Addison's disease.

It is important to note that desoxycorticosterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have significant side effects if not properly monitored.

Hypokalemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low potassium levels in the blood, specifically when the concentration falls below 3.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate heart function, nerve signals, and muscle contractions.

Hypokalemia can result from various factors, including inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium loss through the urine or gastrointestinal tract, or shifts of potassium between body compartments. Common causes include diuretic use, vomiting, diarrhea, certain medications, kidney diseases, and hormonal imbalances.

Mild hypokalemia may not cause noticeable symptoms but can still affect the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. More severe cases can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, cramps, paralysis, heart rhythm abnormalities, and in rare instances, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and replenishing potassium levels through oral or intravenous (IV) supplementation, depending on the severity of the condition.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

The Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus (PVN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus, which is a part of the brain that regulates various autonomic functions and homeostatic processes. The PVN plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress, as well as the control of fluid and electrolyte balance, cardiovascular function, and energy balance.

The PVN is composed of several subdivisions, including the magnocellular and parvocellular divisions. The magnocellular neurons produce and release two neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone), into the circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. These neuropeptides play important roles in social behavior, reproduction, and fluid balance.

The parvocellular neurons, on the other hand, project to various brain regions and the pituitary gland, where they release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the stress response. The PVN also contains neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a key neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and the stress response.

Overall, the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus is an essential component of the brain's regulatory systems that help maintain homeostasis and respond to stressors. Dysfunction of the PVN has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, and mood disorders.

Urology is a surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. This includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate gland, and testicles. Urologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in this field, and they may perform various surgical procedures such as cystoscopy, lithotripsy, and radical prostatectomy to treat conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, enlarged prostate, and infertility.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) is a system of medical codes, developed and maintained by the American Medical Association (AMA), that are used to describe medical, surgical, and diagnostic services provided by healthcare professionals. The codes are used for administrative purposes, such as billing and insurance claims processing, and consist of a five-digit alphanumeric code that identifies the specific service or procedure performed.

The CPT code set is organized into three categories: Category I codes describe common medical, surgical, and diagnostic services; Category II codes are used for performance measurement and tracking of quality improvement initiatives; and Category III codes are used for emerging technologies, experimental procedures, and services that do not have a defined CPT code.

Healthcare professionals and facilities rely on the accuracy and specificity of CPT codes to ensure appropriate reimbursement for their services. The AMA regularly updates the CPT code set to reflect changes in medical practice and technology, and provides guidance and resources to help healthcare professionals navigate the complexities of coding and billing.

Quality improvement (QI) in a healthcare setting is a systematic and continuous approach to improving patient care and outcomes by identifying and addressing gaps or deficiencies in care processes, protocols, and systems. It involves the use of evidence-based practices, data analysis, and performance measurement to drive changes that lead to improvements in the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare services.

QI aims to reduce variations in practice, eliminate errors, prevent harm, and ensure that patients receive the right care at the right time. It is a collaborative process that involves healthcare professionals, patients, families, and other stakeholders working together to identify opportunities for improvement and implement changes that lead to better outcomes. QI initiatives may focus on specific clinical areas, such as improving diabetes management or reducing hospital-acquired infections, or they may address broader system issues, such as improving patient communication or reducing healthcare costs.

QI is an ongoing process that requires a culture of continuous learning and improvement. Healthcare organizations that prioritize QI are committed to measuring their performance, identifying areas for improvement, testing new approaches, and sharing their successes and failures with others in the field. By adopting a QI approach, healthcare providers can improve patient satisfaction, reduce costs, and enhance the overall quality of care they provide.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

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Treatments and Tools for Adrenalectomy. Find Adrenalectomy information, treatments for Adrenalectomy and Adrenalectomy symptoms ... Adrenalectomy - MedHelps Adrenalectomy Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... my husband had a left adrenalectomy,2 days later we found him and he wouldnt wake up. his ... ... Well, Ive just had my second 8am cortisol since my left adrenalectomy, and it again shows ... ...
... or adrenalectomy (surgery to remove your adrenal glands) at MSK. It will also help you understand what to expect during your ... About Your Nephrectomy or Adrenalectomy * About Your Kidneys and Adrenal Glands * About Your Nephrectomy or Adrenalectomy * ... An adrenalectomy is the removal of your adrenal glands. Surgery can be done using different techniques. Your surgeon will talk ... 1 Day Before Your Nephrectomy or Adrenalectomy. Note the time of your surgery. A staff member will call you after 2 p.m.. the ...
However, the impact of adrenalectomy on BP within trHTN patients has never been reported. Our present study aims to investigate ... Laparoscopic adrenalectomy effectively trims blood pressure (BP) elevation secondary to various functional adrenal disorders. ... Conclusions In summary, this current study implicates that adrenalectomy is an efficacious and safe surgical strategy for BP ... Patients and Methods In our current study, 117 patients diagnosed with trHTN and performed with unilateral adrenalectomy were ...
Left adrenalectomy done. Stapled pancreatic end underrun with 2-0 PDS continuous suture. Drain kept. Specimen retrieved using a ... Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy. S Velmurugan, HOD of GI and Lap Surgery, R Villalan ... After informed consent, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy was performed. ...
Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Tumors. Single Team Experience.. We present our series of 46 Laparoscopic adrenalectomies ... 1. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Gaining experience by graded approach. Dalvi A, Thapar P et al. J Minimal Access Surgery 2006;2: ...
The bag was removed through the 12mm port with minimal dilatation of the port with Pean clamps. Notes ...
Adrenalectomy causes a delayed increase of inactive plasma renin in rats : Journal of Hypertension. ... Adrenalectomy causes a delayed increase of inactive plasma renin in rats. Nielsen, Arne H.; Johannessen, Arne; Poulsen, Knud ... Using a new assay for inactive renin in rat plasma, inactive renin was unchanged 24 h after bilateral adrenalectomy but ...
... the noninvasive diagnostic option could improve the identification of primary aldosteronism and candidates for adrenalectomy. ... Upon analysis, results indicated the accuracies of MTO at predicting biochemical and clinical success following adrenalectomy ... Noninvasive CT Scan Could Identify Primary Aldosteronism Patients Eligible for Adrenalectomy. .social-ris-container { display: ... the noninvasive diagnostic option could improve the identification of primary aldosteronism and candidates for adrenalectomy. ...
robotic-assisted adrenalectomy is a superior technique to conventional laparoscopy in managing adrenal tumors, even in the case ... Objective: To compare the safety and effectiveness of robot-assisted adrenalectomy (RA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). ... Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of robotic-assisted and laparoscopic in adrenalectomy: A systematic review and meta- ... Conclusion: robotic-assisted adrenalectomy is a superior technique to conventional laparoscopy in managing adrenal tumors, even ...
Adrenalectomy Overview. This surgery removes one or both adrenal glands. These small glands are on top of each of your kidneys ...
Adrenalectomy-Open and minimally invasive. / Brunt, L. Michael; Rawlings, Arthur. Fischers Mastery of Surgery: Sixth Edition. ... Adrenalectomy-Open and minimally invasive. Fischers Mastery of Surgery: Sixth Edition. Vol. 1 Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP ... Brunt, L. M., & Rawlings, A. (2012). Adrenalectomy-Open and minimally invasive. In Fischers Mastery of Surgery: Sixth Edition ... Brunt, LM & Rawlings, A 2012, Adrenalectomy-Open and minimally invasive. in Fischers Mastery of Surgery: Sixth Edition. vol. 1 ...
After the unilateral adrenalectomy, the size of the remaining right adrenal mass was reduced and the serum cryptococcal antigen ... Unilateral adrenalectomy was quite effective in controlling the cryptococcosis in this case. Even in patients with bilateral ... To control the cryptococcosis, a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, followed by antifungal therapy. ... adrenal cryptococcosis, unilateral adrenalectomy should be an option for treatment of disseminated cryptococcosis. ...
RESULTS: During the study period, 58 patients underwent adrenalectomy via PRA, and 41 underwent adrenalectomy via TLA. The ... METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the charts of patients who underwent minimally invasive adrenalectomy via PRA ... BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is the standard of care for the surgical management of benign adrenal disease. The ... A Canadian centres experience with prone retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.. Kathleen Garber, Adrienne Melck, Khalil Merali. ...
When compared to open adrenalectomy, laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has been shown to have lower intraoperative blood loss, ... open adrenalectomy was the gold standard for benign and malignant adrenal diseases. With the introduction of laparoscopy, ... Adrenalectomy. Introduction. Prior to recent advancements in surgical technology, open adrenalectomy was the gold standard for ... When compared to open adrenalectomy, laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has been shown to have lower intraoperative blood loss, ...
In this excellent iMas Video, we see Dr. Parveen Bhatia perform the procedure on a patient with a left adrenal 6cm. tumor. Good descriptions, with clear da Vinci video. It is narrated and also has labels and PowerPoints to help show the important points. Robotic surgery with external photos, video and da Vinci camera video, 13:12 ...
Adrenalectomy. The MAS approach can be applied to adrenal tumors, such as pheochromocytoma, and incidentally found adrenal ... This approach can be used for renal biopsy, nephrectomy, heminephrectomy, nephroureterectomies, nephropexy, adrenalectomy, and ...
The procedure of removing an adrenal gland is called an adrenalectomy. The adrenal gland may be removed on one side of both ... We perform this procedure as a laparoscopic surgery known as a laparoscopic adrenalectomy. This is the procedure of choice for ... We are one of very few surgeons in the Central Florida area who perform laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Our positive outcome speak ...
Discover services with adrenalectomy surgery cost in India. ... Comprhensive guide on Adrenalectomy surgery in the best ... Adrenalectomy Surgery in India. Adrenalectomy, a surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands, is performed in India ... What is Adrenalectomy Surgery?. Adrenalectomy, also known as adrenal gland removal, is a surgical procedure performed to remove ... Can I still have children after adrenalectomy? In most cases, adrenalectomy does not affect fertility or the ability to have ...
Since its first description by Gagner and colleagues in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become increasingl... ... Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: the preferred choice? A comparison to open adrenalectomy. J Urol. 1998 Aug. 160(2):325-9. [QxMD ... encoded search term (Laparoscopic Right Adrenalectomy) and Laparoscopic Right Adrenalectomy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Laparoscopic Right Adrenalectomy. Updated: Jun 19, 2015 * Author: William W Hope, MD; Chief Editor: Kurt E Roberts, MD more... ...
An adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the adrenal gland. lets learn more about laparoscopic adrenalectomy surgery. ... adrenalectomy surgery, laparoscopic adrenalectomy, robotic adrenalectomy, surgical removal of adrenal gland ... Adrenalectomy (Adrenal Gland) Surgery : 5 Things to Know. Dr. Saket Narnoli. , news. , Adrenalectomy (Adrenal Gland) Surgery : ... Some other adrenalectomy surgery procedures. *The adrenalectomy is sometimes done from the behind side of the body and not via ...
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. / Fletcher, David. Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress. Vol. N/A ... Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress. Vol. N/A. Melbourne: Royal ... Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress. Vol. N/A Melbourne : Royal ... Fletcher, D. (1994). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Annual Scientific Congress (Vol. N/A ...
View more ,Corticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia has been documented as a distinct rare subtype of Cushings syndrome, and we know of fewer than 70 case reports in English [2, 3, 7-10]. In these patients, the adrenal glands are appreciably enlarged in contrast to the hyperplastic adrenal glands noted in other primary causes of Cushings syndrome [11]. The adrenal hyperplasia seems to be at least partly autonomous, similar to that seen in cortical neoplasms, but the exact aetiology is unknown. To our knowledge, it has never been documented before in Chinese patients. In this paper, we reported its unusual clinicopathological features in 2 Chinese patients, and discuss diagnosis and treatment ...
Comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open adrenalectomy for adrenal tumor. J Korean Soc Endosc Laparosc Surg 2009;12: ... Hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy might be an alternative to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for moderate sized right side ... Reasons for conversion from laparoscopic to open or hand-assisted adrenalectomy: review of 261 laparoscopic adrenalectomies ... The comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open adrenalectomy. J Korean Surg Soc 2006;70:363-9. ...
Return to Article Details Laparoscopic Bilateral Adrenalectomy with the Transabdominal Lateral Approach Download Download ...
Adrenalectomy produces many changes in gastric functional parameters including gastric acid secretion, gastric motility and ... Adrenalectomy or propranolol did not protect the animals against the reserpine induced injury. It is concluded that the adrenal ... Adrenalectomy produces many changes in gastric functional parameters including gastric acid secretion, gastric motility and ... Effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric mucus secretion and mucosal injury in pyloric ligated rats. ...
Adrenalectomy can be performed in two ways.. *In the "open" surgery, the surgeon makes one large surgical cut to remove the ... Adrenalectomy is an operation in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine ...
Adrenalectomy is an operation performed by both urologists and general surgeons, however the majority are performed by general ... A total of 3358 patients who underwent adrenalectomy were included, 3012 (90%) by a general surgeon and 334 (10%) by a ... Surgical specialty did not make a difference in outcomes for patients undergoing adrenalectomy despite a large disparity in the ... If no differences exist, an argument can be made that urologists should be doing more adrenalectomies. ...

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