The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo. (1/1268)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (2/1268)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in adrenal medulla endothelial cells. (3/1268)

We investigated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells with the whole cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Depolarization elicited an inward current that was carried by Ca2+ and was composed of a transient (T) current, present in all the cells tested, and a sustained (L) current, present in 65% of them. We separated these currents and measured their individual kinetic and gating properties. The activation threshold for T current was approximately -50 mV, and its maximum amplitude was -49.8 +/- 4.8 pA (means +/- SE, n = 19) at 0 mV. The time constant was 10.2 +/- 1.5 ms (n = 4) for activation and 18.4 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 4) for inactivation. The L current activated at -40 mV, and it reached a plateau at -20.1 +/- 2.3 pA (n = 6). Its activation time course was a single exponential with an activation time contant of 26.8 +/- 2.3 ms (n = 4). Current-voltage curves, kinetics, gating, response to BAY K 8644, nifedipine, amiloride, and different selectivity for Ba2+ and Ca2+ indicated that the underlying channels for the observed currents are only of the T- and L-types that resemble those of the endocrine secretory cells.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (4/1268)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Studies on cyclic nucleotides in the adrenal gland. V. Adenylate cyclase in the adrenal medulla. (5/1268)

Effects of various chemical agents eliciting the catecholamine-release on the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP generating system have been studied in the secretory process of the bovine adrenal medulla slices. Cyclic AMP levels were not affected at the interval of the maximal increase of the catecholamine-release by acetylcholine, but increased gradually some time after the end of the release/or at the beginning of the restoration of catecholamine in the medulla tissue. This delayed increase in the medullary cyclic AMP is not attributed to a direct involvement in 'stimulus-secretion coupling process' of the medullary secretion, but rather may be caused by release of intracellular catecholamine.  (+info)

Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP. (6/1268)

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Electrical excitability of cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/1268)

1. Adult human and gerbil adrenal medullary cells were maintained in dissociated cell culture and studied by micro-electrode penetration. 2. In the best recordings, chromaffin cell transmembrane potentials exceeded -50mV. 3. Chromaffin cells were capable of generating all-or-nothing over-shooting action potentials, similar to those generated by sympathetic neurones. 4. The action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6)g/ml.) but were not blocked by removal of Ca or by CoCl2 (10 mM). We conclude that the action potentials are probably generated by a Na mechanism. 5. Chromaffin cells are depolarized by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). This depolarization was accompanied by an increased membrane conductance and could trigger action potentials. 6. Action potentials were also found in cells in fresh slices of gerbil adrenal medullae.  (+info)

Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats. (8/1268)

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Neonatal sympathectomy using a combined treatment with antiserum to nerve growth factor and guanethidine during the first 4 weeks after birth was carried out in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral adrenal demedullation was performed in 4-week-old sympathectomized SHR and WKY rats. The development of hypertension in SHR was prevented by sympathectomy, but the blood pressure (BP) was still higher than in age-matched WKY rats. Demedullation reduced the BP of sympathectomized SHR to the same level as that of WKY rats. Heart rates of SHR and WKY rats were not affected by the treatments. Morphometric measurements of the mesenteric arteries showed that sympathectomy significantly reduced the medial mass in the mesenteric arteries of SHR, mainly through a reduction in the number of smooth muscle cell layers. In sympathectomized SHR, demedullation increased the lumen size of muscular arteries under maximally relaxed conditions, which might explain the ...
Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. However, bovine adrenal medulla also contain muscarini
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We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
1. The lipid composition of the membranes from isolated 5-hydroxytryptamine-storage organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and of those from chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla was compared. 2. In contrast with the membranes of the chromaffin granules, those of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles did not contain lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin). 3. Both the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and the relative proportions of phosphatidylethanolamine (kephalin), phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine were about the same in both membranes, whereas phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and sphingomyelin showed somewhat higher values in the membranes of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles. 4. In conclusion, the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from blood platelets is probably not correlated with the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the membranes of the storage organelles and may thus differ from the mechanism of catecholamine release in adrenal medulla.. ...
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Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
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OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
The adrenal gland is a paired retroperitoneal organ located on the upper pole of each kidney. It receives its arterial supply from the superior, middle, and in…
Comments, concepts and statistics about Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.
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the case.. a 44 year old male presents to your Emergency Department with severe, crushing retrosternal chest pain. He reports that the pain started suddenly approximately one hour ago whilst at rest.. [Read more…]. ...
Mice, Peroxisome, Role, Knockout Mice, Liver, Peroxisomes, Adipose Tissue, Adrenal Medulla, Nervous System, Neurons, Peripheral Nervous System, Tissue, Tissues, Biogenesis, Pathologies, Patients, Cell, Hepatocytes, Organelles, Metabolism
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.. AU - Sabol, S. L.. AU - Dandekar, Satya. AU - Kranzler, L. S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7124494. AN - SCOPUS:0020021542. VL - 33. SP - 175. EP - 181. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. The effects of various doses of dbcAMP ranging from 0.001 mM up to 1 mM and equimolar amounts of theophylline were recorded by phase contrast optics and catecholamine histochemistry (glyoxylic acid method) over six days. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of the normally occurring outgrowth of Schwann cells, chromaffin cells and axons from the explants. Maintenance of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in chromaffin cells was dose-dependent, too. Since theophylline is known to enhance intracellular levels of cAMP only, these effects are probably due to the action of cAMP. cAMP obviously maintains the degree of differentiation of chromaffin cells. Thus it could be argued that a certain degree of dedifferentiation is a prerequisite for the formation of axons from these cells. ...
The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. We coined the term Molecular cytoarchitecture of exocytosis to define the interaction between SNARE proteins, calcium channel and lately nicotinic receptors (integrating Dr. Criado main line) and the cohesive F-actin cortical network in order to improve secretory efficiency ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
Our previous study demonstrated that microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) dramatically increased glucose uptake in the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscles, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT) in conscious unrestrained rats, as assessed in vivo by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose method. Here we examined the role of the sympathetic nervous system and insulin in enhanced glucose uptake by tissues after hypothalamic leptin injection. Pretreatment with guanethidine significantly suppressed the increased glucose uptake by the tissues in response to leptin injected into the VMH, whereas bilateral adrenal demedullation had no significant effect. Treatment with propranolol but not phenoxybenzamine also decreased significantly enhanced glucose uptake by the tissues. We further examined the interaction of the effects of hypothalamic leptin and insulin administered peripherally by clamping the glucose concentrations at a constant level. When leptin was injected into ...
Passage of current for brief periods through electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus virtually always resulted in a distinctive biphasic hyperglycaemia in the case of electrodes capable of eliciting feeding at similar current intensities. The biphasic hyperglycaemic response was sometimes elicited by electrodes aimed at the feeding area but not capable of eliciting feeding. The response remained under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Electrodes in other regions of the hypothalamus gave monophasic hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia or no blood glucose change. The hyperglycaemic phases of the biphasic response were diminished by an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocking agent and by bilateral adrenal demedullation. The intermediate lowering of blood glucose concentration could be eliminated by injection of atropine or by sub-diaphragmatic bilateral vagotomy. It is therefore possible that the hypothalamic feeding system is directly connected to autonomic systems influencing endocrine regulation of glucose ...
Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. Exposure of the cells for 5 hr to 8-Br cAMP produces, 48 hr later, a dose-related increase in the TH activity; 8-Br cGMP fails to modify TH. The increase in TH activity caused by 8-Br cAMP is due to an increase of the Vmax and is preceded by an activation of cytosol cAPK associated with a decrease of the total cytosol cAPK. A sustained increase in nuclear phosphorylation begins 8 to 12 hr after 8-Br cAMP application. The delayed increase in TH activity induced by 8-Br cAMP is blocked by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, colchicine and vinblastine. The reduction of the TH induction by colchicine and vinblastine ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlorpromazine and glucose metabolism. AU - Jori, A.. AU - Bernardi, D.. AU - Garattini, S.. PY - 1964/12. Y1 - 1964/12. N2 - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after arabinose load.. AB - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after ...
The Adrenal Glands are composed of two distinct parts, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla secretes two hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in response to sympathetic stimulation. … ...
Cancer is often suspected from clinical signs. X-rays, ultrasound and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scans may be useful in detecting the tumors, including metastases.. To identify the tumor type precisely, it is necessary to examine the tumor itself. This involves exploratory surgery, often with total removal of the tumor. After removal, the tissue samples are submitted for microscopic examination by histopathology. Specially prepared and stained tissue sections are made at a specialized laboratory where the slides will be examined by a veterinary pathologist.. The histopathology report typically includes words that indicate whether a tumor is benign (non-spreading, local growth) or malignant (capable of spreading to other body sites). These, together with the origin or type of tumor, the grade (degree of resemblance to normal cells or differentiation) and stage (how large it is and extent of spread) indicate how the cancer is likely to behave.. The ...
by competing in triathlons sits there trembling for a long time after the crisis has passed.. Does everyone in the restaurant suddenly suffer from adrenal stress? Absolutely. Do all 86 people need to be on herbal drugs good for the adrenals to prepare them for such adrenal stress? Absolutely not.. Quantitatively, the strength and duration of the adrenal stress response varies tremendously from one person to the next. But those who suffer ill effects during the 30 seconds of crisis and in the several minutes after it is clear the crisis has passed, are not victims of adrenal stress, but victims of whatever metabolic imbalance they carried with them into the restaurant.. A certain percentage of the people in that restaurant have a Sympathetic Imbalance - chronic catecholamine adrenal medulla stress. How do they respond to the frightening trauma of an assault right before their eyes? There is a tremendous outpouring of stress hormones, and those people will remain in a heightened state of ...
Plechners website offers a full explanation about adrenal medulla deficiency. With this immune endocrine imbalance, the IGA, IgG, and IgM all are weak. This weakness reduces the guts ability to absorb nutrients. According to Dr. Plechner, if the IGA is below fifty-eight, then animals cannot absorb their nutrients efficiently. And with the lack of an ability to take in the correct balance of nutrients, the animals ability to stay healthy is reduced. Over many months or years, the immune system progressively becomes more compromised. By balancing the gut with the right nutrients, MBRT, and giving the patient the added thyroid and/or adrenal support it needs, the immunoglobulins will become more normal and absorption of nutrients can occur. The laboratory evaluation for Plechner Syndrome can be done at Veterinary Diagnostic Services in Texas, and will give your practitioner the values. ...
When the body produces too much adrenaline, a person likely has phaeochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla, according to the Society for Endocr
epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration.
By Dr. Jennifer L. Franz. As we approach the increasingly joyful, yet seemingly stressful holidays, we begin to feel the effects of the stresses of the season on our bodies. In an effort to have our holiday shopping, cooking, visiting relatives, and friends balanced, it is an added stress to our already hectic lives.. In the body, hormones that are controlled by our nervous system are secreted when we are under stress. Your nervous system, housed within your backbone, sends messages through it from the brain to an array of different systems in the body. One of those many systems is your hormonal system. Cortisol is the primary hormone produced in the anterior pituitary portion of the brain. When the body is under stress, either chemical, emotional, or physical, specific signals from our nervous system send messages to the adrenal medulla, another part of our brain, and regulate the release of epinephrine. Epinephrine affects blood calcium levels and adversely affects our blood pressure. The ...
Other Diseases in Children 13.1 Neuroblastoma Cause: Malignancy arising from cells of neural crest that form sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla Epidem: Most common malignant tumor of infancy (J Pediatr 1975;86:254). Accounts for 6-8% of all childhood malignancies; | 90% cases diagnosed in children | 5 yr (J Nucl Med 2004;45:1172). Most common primary site…
At the lateral edges of the neural plate, ridges appear that grow and fold towards each other to form a tube, the neural tube. The cells that lead this development are called Neural crest cells (C), and when they have completed their role in forming the neural tube, they go on to form some more specialised parts of the nervous system including the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla (D). ...
Summary of C16orf89 (MGC45438) expression in human tissue. Expression in several tissues, distinct in adrenal medulla and colloid staining in thyroid gland.
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or- ... Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia". In Gardner, D. G.; Shoback, D. (eds.). Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (9th ed.). ... Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the ... Extremely high levels of catecholamine can also be caused by neuroendocrine tumors in the adrenal medulla, a treatable ...
Epinephrine synthesis and therefore PNMT location has been largely found to be contained in the adrenal medulla or adrenal ... "The Adrenal Medulla" (PDF). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacology & ... Jiang W, Uht R, Bohn MC (1989). "Regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA in the rat adrenal medulla by ... Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine ...
PMID 6. Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal ...
Anne Marie McNicol (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla oblongata to increase the volume ... the axons of neurons which innervate glomus type I cells synapse in the caudal portion of the solitary nucleus in the medulla. ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (August 15, 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla-IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
But the adrenal medulla, in contrast to the adrenal cortex, is not required for survival. In adrenalectomized patients ... Adrenaline is synthesized in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland and a small number of neurons in ... The adrenal medulla is a minor contributor to total circulating catecholamines (L-DOPA is at a higher concentration in the ... While PNMT is found primarily in the cytosol of the endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla (also known as chromaffin cells), it ...
This did neither occur with the adrenal cortex nor with any other tissue. The adrenal medulla hence contained "une matière ... At the same time that Salter unwittingly made use of the adrenal medulla, the French physician Alfred Vulpian found that there ... The experiment has been called "the first indirect demonstration of the role of the adrenal medulla as an endocrine organ ... Stephen W. Carmichael; Rochester (1989). "The history of the adrenal medulla". Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2 (2): 83-99. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: myelin basic protein". Anderson TR, Slotkin TA (August 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of ...
They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes ... Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe. 24 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1007/s00292- ... Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advance (Springer ed.). p. 281. WHO ... Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant. They are most of the time in the ...
... after which the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals ... adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) -> stress hormones (30 varieties) travel in the blood stream ...
... it liberated catecholamines from the adrenal medulla; it showed muscarine-like and sympathomimetic effects in some assays, and ...
The adrenal medulla is the innermost part of the adrenal gland and contains neural crest derived chromaffin cells which secrete ... Freed, W. J.; Poltorak, M.; Becker, J. B. (Nov 1990). "Intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts: a review" (PDF). Experimental ... adrenal medulla sympathetic ganglia carotid body retinal pigment epithelium embryonic stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells ... "Transplantation Techniques and the Survival of Adrenal Medulla Autografts in the Primate Brain". Annals of the New York Academy ...
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ...
It is also produced by the adrenal medulla. Bell DR (2009). Medical physiology : principles for clinical medicine (3rd ed.). ... Extracts of the adrenal gland were first obtained by Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski in 1895. These extracts, which he ... Epinephrine is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons in the brain where it acts as a ... Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Bateman RC, ...
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... P. Laduron, P. van Gompel, J. Leysen and M. Claeys (1974). " In vivo formation of epinine in adrenal medulla. A possible step ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Fischer WH, ...
The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... There is no parasympathetic stimulation to the adrenal medulla. In general, increased levels of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine ... Nervous influence over the heart rate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata. The ...
At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead the presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on ... Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, thereby ... Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... with the exception of the sweat glands and the adrenal medulla: Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both ...
"Gintonin facilitates catecholamine secretion from the perfused adrenal medulla". Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 20 (6): 629-639. ...
PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ... Cell culture Adrenal medulla Cellular differentiation Pheochromocytoma Greene, L A; Tischler, A S (July 1976). "Establishment ... It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Adrenal Gland and Paraganglia - Embryology". Westerink, R. H. S.; Ewing, A. G. (15 ...
Caffeine causes the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. In small doses, caffeine can improve endurance. Recently, ...
The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ... "Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla". Stem Cells. 27 (10): 2602-13. doi:10.1002 ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ...
This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). LDCVs are 70-200 nm in size and exist throughout the ...
Hagn C, Schmid KW, Fischer-Colbrie R, Winkler H (October 1986). "Chromogranin A, B, and C in human adrenal medulla and ... Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin- ... Wilson BS, Phan SH, Lloyd RV (February 1986). "Chromogranin from normal human adrenal glands: purification by monoclonal ... "Antibacterial activity of glycosylated and phosphorylated chromogranin A-derived peptide 173-194 from bovine adrenal medullary ...
... may refer to: Chromaffin cells, neuroendocrine cells in the adrenal medulla. Chromophil cells, hormone producing ...
Studies have suggested that glucose, together with epinephrine from the adrenal medulla have an effect on memory. Although high ... Gold, Paul E. (2014). "Regulation of memory - from the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons". Brain Research ... This increase in adrenal output raises the physical strength and endurance levels of the person and sharpens their senses, ... which causes the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. This chain reaction occurs when faced with a threatening situation ...
Acute overdose may cause fever, hypoglycemia, heart failure, coma, and unrecognized adrenal insufficiency. ... as thyroid hormones may cause an acute adrenal crisis by increasing the metabolic clearance of glucocorticoids.[20] For oral ... Levothyroxine is also contraindicated for people with uncorrected adrenal insufficiency, ...
Talk:Adrenal artery. *Talk:Adrenal cortex. *Talk:Adrenal medulla. *Talk:Adventitia. *Talk:Alar ligament ...
Epinephrine and norepinephrine (E/NE) are produced by the adrenal medulla through sympathetic stimulation and the local effects ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions ...
Adrenal axis. *Adrenal cortex *Aldosterone. *Cortisol. *Cortisone. *DHEA. *DHEA-S. *Androstenedione. *Adrenal medulla * ...
... from bovine adrenal medulla". Nature. 313 (5997): 57-9. PMID 3965972.. *^ Liebisch DC, Seizinger BR, Michael G, Herz A (1985 ... a major product of proenkephalin in brain but not in adrenal medulla". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... and adrenal medulla". Journal of Neurochemistry. 45 (5): 1495-503. PMID 4045460.. ...
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.[1] It is located at the center of the ... The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. The deficiency in circulating ... In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex. ... The adrenal medulla is the principal site of the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into the catecholamines; epinephrine, ...
Adrenal axis. *Adrenal cortex *Aldosterone. *Cortisol. *Cortisone. *DHEA. *DHEA-S. *Androstenedione. *Adrenal medulla * ...
... chronically elevated ACTH levels occur in primary adrenal insufficiency (e.g. Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production ... ACTH receptors outside the adrenal gland[edit]. As indicated above, ACTH is a cleavage product of the pro-hormone, ... These are mainly not associated with the pituitary-adrenal axis. MC2R is the ACTH receptor. While it has a crucial function in ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, diseases in the production of cortisol. *Nelson's syndrome, the rapid enlargement of the ACTH ...
... the medulla oblongata stimulates the adrenal medulla, via "preganglionic" sympathetic nerves, to secrete epinephrine ( ... The medulla oblongata then distributes messages along motor or efferent nerves belonging to the autonomic nervous system to a ... Angiotensin II is a hormone which acts on the adrenal cortex, causing the release into the blood of the steroid hormone, ... The angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone released from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands has an effect on ...
Adrenal gland. Cortex. *Zona glomerulosa. *Zona fasciculata. *Zona reticularis. Medulla. *Chromaffin cell ...
髓質(英语:Adrenal medulla) *腎上腺嗜鉻細胞瘤(英语:Pheochromocytoma)(PCC) ... 腎上腺腫瘤(英语:Adrenal tumor). *皮質 *腎上腺皮質
The cells in the adrenal medulla that release adrenaline and noradrenaline proved to have properties between endocrine cells ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ... released by the adrenal cortex.. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing ... as do corticosteroids secreted from the adrenal gland under the influence of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. The study of these ...
neerupealiste koores (inglise adrenal cortex) steroidide süntees. neerupealiste säsis (inglise adrenal medulla) adrenaliini ja ...
Pheochromocytoma[35] (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Adrenal[edit]. A variety of adrenal cortical abnormalities can cause hypertension, In primary aldosteronism there is a clear ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ...
Adrenal. *Islets of Langerhans. General anatomy: systems and organs, regional anatomy, planes and lines, superficial axial ...
Adrenal axis. *Adrenal cortex *Aldostéron. *Kortisol. *Kortison. *DHEA. *DHEA-S. *Androsténédion. *Adrenal medulla *Épinéfrin ...
These baroreceptors send signals ultimately to the medulla of the brain stem, specifically to the rostral ventrolateral medulla ... Aldosterone release: This steroid hormone is released from the adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II or high serum ... Angiotensin II also causes an increase in the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands. ... RVLM). The medulla, by way of the autonomic nervous system, adjusts the mean arterial pressure by altering both the force and ...
Adrenal medulla produces *Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin ... Adrenal glands[change , change source]. *Adrenal glands *Adrenal cortex produces *Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona ... Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes ...
Ganglion Cells reside in the adrenal medulla and retina where they are involved in the sympathetic response. Of the ~1.3 ... where the signal is projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla, or the gustatory nucleus of the solitary ...
Adrenal gland. Cortex. *Zona glomerulosa. *Zona fasciculata. *Zona reticularis. Medulla. *Chromaffin cell ...
Adrenal axis. *Adrenal cortex *Aldosterone. *Cortisol. *Cortisone. *DHEA. *DHEA-S. *Androstenedione. *Adrenal medulla * ...
Ang VT, Jenkins JS (April 1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically " ... Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis ... Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release ...
... peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla.[6] Tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan ...
... adrenal medulla, kidney medulla and developing follicles of the ovary.[18] Animal studies[edit]. Reproductive tissue[edit]. ...
The pituitary gland is important for mediating the stress response, via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) ...
Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ...
Adrenal axis. *Adrenal cortex *aldosterone. *cortisol. *cortisone. *DHEA. *DHEA-S. *androstenedione. *Adrenal medulla * ...
... secretion of the epinephrine and cortisol from the adrenal medulla, and relaxation of the bladder wall. The parasympathetic ... Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Sexually Abused Girls *^ Taylor, Shelley, and Sirois, Fuschia. (2012). ... The ANS receives inputs from the medulla, hypothalamus, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, midbrain and monoamine nuclei.[36] ... The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress.[1] ...
Epinephrine - released by the adrenal medulla during the fasting state, when body is under metabolic duress. It stimulates ... ACTH - Stimulates the synthesis and release of Cortisol (zona fasiculata of adrenal cortex in adrenals ... ADH (Vasopressin/AVP) - Induces the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids (Zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in kidney); ... Angiotensin II - Induces Aldosterone synthesis and release (zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex in kidney) ...
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.[1] It is located at the center of the ... The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. The deficiency in circulating ... In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex. ... The adrenal medulla is the principal site of the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into the catecholamines; epinephrine, ...
... Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal ... Underfunction of the adrenal medulla is virtually unknown. However, a tumor called a pheochromocytoma produces norepinephrine ... and epinephrine and is equivalent to overfunction of the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas arise within the adrenal medulla or ... The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine is secreted in response to ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
adrenal gland medulla synonyms, adrenal gland medulla pronunciation, adrenal gland medulla translation, English dictionary ... definition of adrenal gland medulla. adrenal gland top: cross section of a right adrenal gland bottom: placement of adrenal ... adrenal gland. (redirected from adrenal gland medulla). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to adrenal ... Adrenal gland medulla - definition of adrenal gland medulla by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/adrenal+ ...
Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla Br Med J 1954; 1 :1287 ... Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla. Br Med J 1954; 1 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in ... The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). ... adrenal medulla listen (uh-DREE-nul meh-DOO-luh) The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The ... The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla. ...
HART, M.N.; CYRUS, A. Hyaline globules of the adrenal medulla. Am. J. Clin., v.49, p.387-391, 1968. [ Links ]. ... McCONNEL, E.E.; TALLEY, F.A. Intracitoplasmatic hyaline globules in the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals. Vet. Pathol., v. ... No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated ... strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were ...
Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina. E E Baetge, R R ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ...
The adrenal cortex produces cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Cortisol is pr... more ... Adrenal medullae normally secrete 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine. Sympathetic stimulation results in secretion. ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?) and What is the normal function of the adrenal ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?. Updated: Oct 11, 2018 ...
Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal… ... Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble ...
... were found to be abundant in normal adrenal medulla as well as pheochromocytoma tissue arising from adrenal medulla, and there ... Human proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide in pheochromocytoma and normal adrenal medulla Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 ... but the biosynthesis or metabolism of PAMP in pheochromocytoma may be different from that of normal adrenal medulla. ... lower than that in adrenal medullae (0.384 +/- 0.041). The present data indicate that PAMP is biosynthesized from ...
Increased adrenal medulla-derived plasma catecholamines were necessary and sufficient to increase body temperature ... In summary, these data demonstrate that leptin stimulates a hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-BAT axis, which is necessary and ... Leptin mediates postprandial increases in body temperature through hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-adipose tissue crosstalk. ... Leptin mediates postprandial increases in body temperature through hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-adipose tissue crosstalk. ...
Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The ... Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... This input to the adrenal medulla may explain why core body exercises are so helpful in modulating responses to stress. Calming ...
A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands. In general they originate in the chromaffin cells. They are ... A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands. In general they originate in the chromaffin cells. ... They are also known as phaeochromocytoma (PCC). Closely related tumors include extra-adrenal paragangliomas. ...
... the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline ( ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla ( ... Each adrenal gland has 2 layers.. *The adrenal medulla (inner ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the ... The adrenal glands control many processes in the body. Their job is to keep the body in balance by making various hormones that ...
Pages in category "Adrenal medulla hormones". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. ...
Adrenal medullary cells in adult primates contain catecholamines and several neuropeptides. Among these peptides are several ... and leu-enkephalin appeared to be colocalized in the same cells of the adrenal medulla. Twenty-six adrenals from fetuses 15-26 ... The adrenal medulla of a 24-week-old human fetus as well as medullas of 11 134- to 172-day-old rhesus fetuses were ... Adrenal Medulla / embryology*, enzymology. Animals. Catecholamines / biosynthesis*. Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. ...
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. III. Studies of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase as a Marker for Catecholamine Storage ...
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. VI. Effect of Reserpine on the Dopamine β-Hydroxylase and Catecholamine ...
Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For as ... Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex. It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For ... The adrenal cortex (being a cortex) is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland while the adrenal medulla (being a medulla) is ... 1. The adrenal cortex is the outermost part that covers the adrenal medulla, while the adrenal medulla is the centermost or ...
The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy. H ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ...
Vitamin C is an important cofactor for both adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.. Study Abstract. The adrenal gland is among the ... Interestingly, both the adrenal cortex and the medulla accumulate such high levels of ascorbate. Ascorbic acid is a cofactor ... Here we provide an overview on the role of vitamin C in the adrenal cortex and medulla derived from in vitro and in vivo ... various cell culture studies confirm a crucial role for vitamin C for both the adrenal cortex as well as the adrenal medulla ...
Adrenal medulla grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... a piece of adult mouse adrenal medulla was grafted unilaterally into mouse striatum 1 week after MPTP treatment. This MPTP ... To investigate the consequences of grafting adrenal medullary tissue into the brain of a rodent model of Parkinsons disease, ... These observations suggest that, in mice, adrenal medullary grafts exert a neurotrophic action in the host brain to enhance ...
Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: ... We also observed that DBV injection into an acupoint activates SPNs leading to release of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine ... have also shown that the hyperalgesic action of the vagal nerve is decreased by suppression of adrenal medulla-derived ... Collectively, these results demonstrate that suppression of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine, which acts on β-adrenoceptors ...
Are Important for Development and Maintenance of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons Innervating the Adrenal Medulla. Andreas ... Are Important for Development and Maintenance of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons Innervating the Adrenal Medulla ... Are Important for Development and Maintenance of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons Innervating the Adrenal Medulla ... Are Important for Development and Maintenance of Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons Innervating the Adrenal Medulla ...
An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.. M ... Secretory components of the adrenal medulla were compared in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in stroke-prone ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ...
In this study, we have investigated the distribution of PACAP and the PACAP type I receptor in the adrenal medulla of newborn ... Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and PACAP type I receptors in the rat adrenal medulla ... Our observations on the distribution of PACAP peptide and PACAP receptors in the adrenal medulla suggest that both chromaffin ... presence of both ligand and receptors in newborn rats may indicate a role for PACAP in the development of the adrenal medulla. ...
Adrenal glands are two pyramid - shaped structures that sit on top of the kidneys , one gland each kidney . Adrenal glands ... Adrenal Medulla Gland - . adrenal glands: medulla. adrenal medulla: neuroendocrine organ secretion: sympathetic nervous ... Adrenal Medulla. - Adrenal medulla. prof. k. sivapalan. strtucture. location- centre of adrenal gland and paravertibral ... Adrenal Gland Medulla - . erika jones alyssa leslie 8b. l ocation. the adrenal gland medulla sits atop the kidney. h ...
NCI: A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm affecting the adrenal medulla. (NCI05) ... Malignant Adrenal Medulla Neoplasm Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0344456 ...
  • medulla glandulae suprarenalis ) is part of the adrenal gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines , including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine , in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland . (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner portion of adrenal gland. (medicinenet.com)
  • Norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland acts to narrow blood vessels and raise blood pressure. (medicinenet.com)
  • The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasms include: Pheochromocytoma (most common), a catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla Neuroblastoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system Ganglioneuroma, a tumor in the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer part of the adrenal gland, called the adrenal cortex , produces steroid hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inner part of the adrenal gland, called the adrenal medulla , produces epinephrine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both technical PCP- and EC-7-related neoplasms were observed in three organs/systems: liver, adrenal gland medulla , and vascular endothelium (hemangiosarcomas). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). (cancer.gov)
  • Although inclusion bodies were present in adrenal glands devoid of other histological alterations, they were more abundant in cases in which the adrenal gland had other alterations. (scielo.br)
  • Transgenic mice containing the hPNMT gene with either 2 or 8 kilobases of 5'-flanking sequence were produced and resulted in expression of hPNMT mRNA in the adrenal gland and eye. (pnas.org)
  • Neuroscientists at the University of Pittsburgh have identified the neural networks that connect the cerebral cortex to the adrenal medulla - the inner part of the adrenal gland, located above each kidney, which is responsible for the body's rapid response in stressful situations. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). (urologyhealth.org)
  • Pheochromocytoma in the adrenal gland is rarely cancerous, but it may be linked to cancer in other glands, like the thyroid. (urologyhealth.org)
  • Each adrenal gland has 2 layers. (urologyhealth.org)
  • The adrenal cortex (being a cortex) is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland while the adrenal medulla (being a medulla) is the middle or inner layer of the adrenal gland. (differencebetween.net)
  • 1. The adrenal cortex is the outermost part that covers the adrenal medulla, while the adrenal medulla is the centermost or middle portion of the adrenal gland. (differencebetween.net)
  • 3. The hormones of the adrenal cortex are released by virtue of ACTH stimulation from the anterior pituitary gland while the hormones of the adrenal medulla are released because of various nerve signals for stress reaction (response). (differencebetween.net)
  • The adrenal gland is among the organs with the highest concentration of vitamin C in the body. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The data derived from these animal models and various cell culture studies confirm a crucial role for vitamin C for both the adrenal cortex as well as the adrenal medulla further underlining the interdependence of the two endocrine systems united in one gland. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Cumulative studies from our laboratories indicate that the activation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) that innervate the adrenal gland partially underlie DBV's anti-inflammatory action. (hindawi.com)
  • An adrenal gland has an outerpartcalledtheadrenal cortexandinnerpartcalledtheadrenal medulla. (slideserve.com)
  • Because NPY-like immunoreactive material (NPY-IR) is stored in chromaffin granules we chose to investigate, using the retrogradely perfused bovine adrenal gland, whether nicotinic cholinergic receptor stimulation results in the secretion of this material. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The endocrine system includes the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pituitary gland and specialized cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The pituitary gland at the base of the brain links to the other endocrine glands and regulates hormone production by the adrenals, thyroid and sexual organs as well as growth and the body's day-to-day cycles of activity (diurnal rhythm). (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Each adrenal gland has two parts. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • A hormone produced in the pituitary gland (called adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH) controls the outer part, called the adrenal cortex. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • In this sense, it has been described that catecholamine release in the intact adrenal gland recruits different calcium channels than those recruited during secretion from cultured. (lu.se)
  • Blog: Living With Myself & An Adrenal Gland (Adrenal Medulla) Tumor: Ph. (curezone.org)
  • A CT scan showed it's a tumor inside the right adrenal gland- the adrenal medulla, and it's the culprit that's been driving me nuts for years! (curezone.org)
  • Carmichael SW, Pfeiffer GL (1985) Histochemical localization of monoamine oxidase type A and B in the adrenal gland. (springer.com)
  • Carmichael SW, Pfeiffer GL (1987) Monoamine oxidase A and B in the human adrenal gland and phaeochromocytoma. (springer.com)
  • adrenal medulla the inner portion of the adrenal gland , where epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The centre of the adrenal gland, which is a neuroendocrine "organ" which produces catecholamines (epinephrine/adrenaline & norepinephrine/ noradrenaline) in response to stress signals from the peripheral nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The central tissue of the adrenal gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inner part of the ADRENAL GLAND that secretes the hormones ADRENALINE and noradrenaline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inner part of the adrenal gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. an adrenal gland. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the outer part of the adrenal gland made up of an external zona glomerulosa, a deeper zona fasciculata and a zona reticularis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Called also adrenal gland cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • hypofunction of the adrenal gland, particularly the cortex, leading to signs of weakness and loss of sodium, chloride and water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is located in the centre of each adrenal gland. (cancer.ca)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex, the outer part of the adrenal gland, to produce its hormones. (innerbody.com)
  • The endocrine glands include the pituitary gland (which lies immediately underneath the brain), the thyroid gland (in the front of the neck), the parathyroid glands (just behind the thyroid gland), and the adrenal glands (on top of the kidneys in the abdomen). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The type of hormone that is overproduced depends on the part of the adrenal gland affected by the tumour. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Tumours of the adrenal gland can develop in either the cortex or the medulla. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • A small number of phaeochromocytomas start outside the medulla part of the adrenal gland and are known as extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Only one adrenal gland is usually affected. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The presence of multiplicity of subtypes in the adrenal medulla membranes suggests a diversity of functions of muscarinic receptors in the adrenal gland. (sparrho.com)
  • Medullary part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). (gutenberg.org)
  • the adrenal gland is located atop the kidneys. (britannica.com)
  • The distinct endocrine glands are the adrenals, thyroid, parathyroids, pituitary gland and islets in the pancreas, although hormones are produced by many cells in other tissues. (vcahospitals.com)
  • This slide is a section of an adrenal gland from a mammal showing the cortex and medulla. (gosciencecrazy.com)
  • Like the pituitary gland, the two sections of the adrenals evolved from two entirely different types of tissue. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • The nervous system will compensate for a lack of adrenal hormones for some time, but healing the thyroid, healing the entire adrenal gland, and if need be, healing the endocrine system as a whole, is the only way to ensure returned health to the adrenal medulla. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • What Is Adrenal Gland Adenoma? (webmd.com)
  • What Is an Adrenal Gland Adenoma? (webmd.com)
  • If you have an adrenal gland adenoma, you have a tumor on your adrenal gland, but it's not cancer . (webmd.com)
  • Most adrenal gland adenomas don't cause any problems -- they just take up space. (webmd.com)
  • If you do have symptoms, it's because you have a functioning tumor that could be in either part of the adrenal gland: the outer part (the cortex) or the inner part (the medulla). (webmd.com)
  • You can usually have laparoscopic surgery, where the adrenal gland and tumor are removed through small openings made in your body. (webmd.com)
  • The secretory organs that make up the human endocrine system, such as the anterior pituitary gland , the adrenal glands , and the pancreas , synthesize and secrete specific hormones. (britannica.com)
  • A "corticoid" is any hormone made in the CORTEX of the adrenal gland. (slideshare.net)
  • The adrenal, or suprarenal, gland is paired with one gland located near the upper portion of each kidney . (cancer.gov)
  • Each gland is divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla . (cancer.gov)
  • The cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland , like the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary, develop from different embryonic tissues and secrete different hormones. (cancer.gov)
  • The hypothalamus of the brain influences both portions of the adrenal gland but by different mechanisms. (cancer.gov)
  • Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The test is usually done to diagnose an adrenal gland tumor called pheochromocytoma . (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5 - THE ADRENAL GLANDS PART I: THE ADRENAL MEDULLA", The Endocrine System (Second Edition), Churchill Livingstone, pp. 53-60, doi:10.1016/b978-0-7020-3372-8.00005-7, ISBN 978-0-7020-3372-8, retrieved 2020-12-17 Dum, Richard (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • Either of two small, dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above each kidney, consisting of the cortex, which secretes several steroid hormones, and the medulla, which secretes epinephrine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. (cancer.gov)
  • Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated in a retrospective study. (scielo.br)
  • The correlation between certain diseases and the development of inclusion bodies is not known, which highlights the importance of further studies on these inclusions in adrenal glands of bovines. (scielo.br)
  • A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands. (knowcancer.com)
  • The adrenal glands are found above each kidney. (urologyhealth.org)
  • The adrenal glands control many processes in the body. (urologyhealth.org)
  • We used immunocytochemistry to study the ontogeny of leu-enkephalin and the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes dopamine beta-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in adjacent sections of 14 fetal rhesus and 31 fetal human adrenal glands. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, in thin serial sections of these glands, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, and leu-enkephalin appeared to be colocalized in the same cells of the adrenal medulla. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The subcellular distribution of dopamine β-hydroxylase in homogenates of rabbit adrenal glands has been measured to determine the possibility of using the enzyme as a marker to trace the fate of the catecholamine storage vesicle membranes following secretion of adrenaline. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These studies show that a large fraction of the total dopamine β-hydroxylase activity of the adrenal glands is present in the 26,000 x g supernatant fraction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chlorisondamine had no effect on the total dopamine β-hydroxylase and catecholamine content of the adrenal glands or on the buoyant density, even though there was a slight reduction of the activities in segments A and B of the gradients. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both anatomical regions are parts of the adrenal glands. (differencebetween.net)
  • Noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, neuropeptide Y, and chromogranins A and B were significantly higher in adrenal glands of SHRSP than those of WKY rats at 4 months. (ahajournals.org)
  • What are the adrenal glands? (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The adrenal glands are a pair of distinct glands located close to the kidneys. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands may be hyperplasia (non-cancerous cell overgrowths) or cancerous. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The inner, reddish-brown portion of the adrenal glands that synthesizes, stores, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. of or produced by the adrenal glands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fifty years later, a Guy's Hospital physician, Thomas Addison, showed that the adrenal glands were necessary for life, by identifying them as the site of damage in a previously mysterious and ultimately fatal illness, which became known as Addison's disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The biggest increase in the amount of cortisol produced by the adrenal glands is seen during surgery, although modern anaesthetics minimize the increase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, so the tumours are also called endocrine tumours . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The adrenal glands produce a number of vital hormones essential for survival. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • There are two parts of the adrenal glands. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • When a tumour develops in the adrenal glands, it often causes too much of a particular hormone to be produced. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Rarely, tumours may occur in both adrenal glands. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The adrenal glands are a pair of glands located above each kidney. (portcolbornevet.com)
  • The adrenal glands have an outer cortex which is responsible for producing many chemicals (hormones) that influence certain organs and metabolic activities in the body. (portcolbornevet.com)
  • The pituitary links to other glands through its hormones and regulates hormone production by the adrenal, thyroid and sexual organs as well as growth and day-to-day cycles of activity (diurnal rhythm). (vcahospitals.com)
  • The most common hormone produced by pituitary tumors stimulates the adrenal cortex leading to clinical signs associated with overstimulation of these glands (hyperadrenocorticism or Cushing's disease). (vcahospitals.com)
  • The clinical signs of primary pituitary tumors that secondarily affect the adrenal glands are the same as those of primary adrenocortical tumors. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The rats were sacrificed and the adrenal glands were dissected and processed for histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff and for immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, ubiquitin and tyrosine hydroxylase. (viamedica.pl)
  • A variety of teaching and learning methods will be used to cover the molecular and clinical features of the relevant hormones, glands and their disorders.This includes physiology and disorders of the gonadotrophs, prolactin, growth hormone and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as disorders of the posterior pituitary and structural disorders of the pituitary. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The adrenal glands are composed of two entirely separate sections, the cortex and the medulla. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • The adrenal glands produce adrenaline (80%) and noradrenaline (20%), more commonly known among the medical establishment as epinephrine and norepinephrine. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually referred to as an axis, for example the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary , thyroid , and adrenal glands. (wikidoc.org)
  • Your two adrenal glands , one on each kidney , make hormones. (webmd.com)
  • But some of them are functioning tumors -- that means they make the same hormones as your adrenal glands. (webmd.com)
  • A classic example of such a situation is Cushing disease , in which a small pituitary tumour produces excess quantities of adrenocorticotropin that cause hyperfunction and hyperplasia of the adrenal glands. (britannica.com)
  • Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a tumor called a pheochromocytoma produces norepinephrine and epinephrine and is equivalent to overfunction of the adrenal medulla. (medicinenet.com)
  • The present data indicate that PAMP is biosynthesized from adrenomedullin precursor, but the biosynthesis or metabolism of PAMP in pheochromocytoma may be different from that of normal adrenal medulla. (nih.gov)
  • What is Pheochromocytoma (Adrenal Medulla Tumor)? (urologyhealth.org)
  • The major disorder of the adrenal medulla is pheochromocytoma , a neoplasm characterized by excessive catecholamine secretion. (mhmedical.com)
  • Synaptic activation of the adrenal medulla causes catecholamine secretion which is known to be modified by various neuropeptides and other factors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • it can be due either to overstimulation of the adrenal cortex by an excessive secretion of ACTH from a tumour of the anterior pituitary (the context in which Cushing encountered it), or to an abnormal growth of cortisol-secreting tissue in the adrenals themselves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. (sparrho.com)
  • Increased adrenal medulla-derived plasma catecholamines were necessary and sufficient to increase body temperature postprandially, a process that required both fatty acids generated from adipose tissue lipolysis and β-adrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). (jci.org)
  • Adrenal medullary cells in adult primates contain catecholamines and several neuropeptides. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results suggest that the fetal adrenal may be capable of cosecretion of catecholamines and enkephalins, at least by the end of the second trimester of gestation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. (aspetjournals.org)
  • During the stress response adrenal medullary chromaffin cells release catecholamines to the bloodstream. (lu.se)
  • This is revealed by the presence of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and tyramine-released pool of catecholamines in PC12, resembling that in adrenergic neurones, and their absence in adrenal chromaffin cells. (springer.com)
  • In the final analysis the inter-relationship between MAO-A activity and the presence of tyramine-releasable pool of catecholamines in adrenergic neurons and PC12 cells may have a genetic basis and could be important in illuminating the differentiation of neural crest into adrenergic neurones and adrenal medulla on the one hand and chromaffin cells to PC12 cells on the other. (springer.com)
  • Composed mainly of hormone-producing chromaffin cells , the adrenal medulla is the principal site of the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. (gutenberg.org)
  • Calcium is released by exocytosis together with catecholamines from bovine adrenal medullary cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The adrenal medulla secretes catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine). (mhmedical.com)
  • The adrenal medulla can be regarded as a specialized sympathetic ganglion, in which preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers (using acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter) directly make contact with postganglionic cells, which secrete catecholamines (mainly epinephrine) directly into the circulation. (mhmedical.com)
  • citation needed] Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones . (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be attributed to the pathological process in Parkinson's disease affecting cells of the adrenal medulla. (viamedica.pl)
  • Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the source of neurons that influence the adrenal medulla. (kurzweilai.net)
  • This observation," said Dr. Strick, "raises the possibility that activity in these cortical areas when you re-imagine an error, or beat yourself up over a mistake, or think about a traumatic event, results in descending signals that influence the adrenal medulla in just the same way as the actual event. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Additional links with the adrenal medulla were discovered in cortical areas that are active during mindful mediation and areas that show changes in bipolar familial depression. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Decreased plasma levels of corticosterone and altered morphology of mitochondrial membranes indicate additional effects of the deficiency on adrenal cortical function. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Benign tumours of the cortex are called adrenal cortical adenomas. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Malignant tumours are called adrenal cortical carcinomas. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Boxers, Boston Terriers and Dachshunds have the highest incidence of pituitary tumors causing adrenal cortical hyperactivity. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenal cortical function. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (medicinenet.com)
  • Its medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline and its cortex secretes several steroid hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in sending nerve signals. (cancer.gov)
  • The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). (urologyhealth.org)
  • The adrenal medulla (inner part) makes epinephrine (also called adrenaline). (urologyhealth.org)
  • The adrenal medulla (internal part) produces two hormones that are called adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Noradrenaline controls circulation. (houseandhome.org)
  • The adrenal medulla is involved in releasing hormone-like substances, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), into the blood. (cancer.ca)
  • Catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla activate adrenal adrenergic chromaffin cells to secrete adrenaline which mobilises glucose. (edu.au)
  • [16] First causing a release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal medulla , it causes stimulation . (wikidoc.org)
  • The adrenal medulla develops from neural tissue and secretes two hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine . (cancer.gov)
  • The adrenal cortex produces cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. (medscape.com)
  • The adrenal cortex (outer part) makes steroid hormones (such as cortisone and aldosterone). (urologyhealth.org)
  • Adrenal adenomas (benign, actively secreting growths in the cortex) cause hyper-production of aldosterone, which may account for as much as 25% of patients with high blood pressure. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • 2. The adrenal cortex releases various hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and androgens) while the adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine. (differencebetween.net)
  • These adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the adrenal medulla is a clump of neurons that play a major role in the autonomic nerve system. (differencebetween.net)
  • These observations suggest that, in mice, adrenal medullary grafts exert a neurotrophic action in the host brain to enhance recovery of dopaminergic neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gold, PE 2014, ' Regulation of memory - From the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons ', Brain Research Bulletin , vol. 105, pp. 25-35. (syr.edu)
  • A case of a morphologically distinctive tumor of the adrenal medulla occurring in a 54-year-old woman is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study was performed to investigate the histopathological changes in the adrenal medulla of AS/AGU rat, a model of Parkinson's disease, in comparison with Albino Swiss (AS) rats. (viamedica.pl)
  • The histological and immunohistological changes in the adrenal medulla could explain the failure of outcome of adrenal autograft therapy in Parkinson's disease. (viamedica.pl)
  • Overall, these results indicate that circuits exist to link movement, cognition and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla and the control of stress. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Adrenal medullae normally secrete 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine. (medscape.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is responsible for producing hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. (portcolbornevet.com)
  • This epinephrine predominance occurs because the enzyme phenylethanolamine N -methyltransferase (PMNT), which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine, is upregulated by cortisol, which is found in high concentration locally from the surrounding adrenal cortex. (mhmedical.com)
  • What are the layers of the adrenal cortex (from outside to in), and what hormones do they each primarily secrete? (cram.com)
  • NCI: A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm affecting the adrenal medulla. (linkedlifedata.com)
  • Sustentaculoma: report of a case of a distinctive neoplasm of the adrenal medulla. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pathology of the adrenal medulla is primarily caused by neoplasm (tumors) or otherwise poor nervous system functionality, but there are many other issues that can cause too much or not enough of the two hormones. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a modified ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas arise within the adrenal medulla or elsewhere in the sympathetic nervous system. (medicinenet.com)
  • who are chronically sleep-deprived, exhibit dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system, the main physiological stress response systems ( Joels and Baram, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is proposed that chlorpromazine, caffeine or d -amphetamine can evoke catecholamine release by mobilizing different calcium pools within the adrenal medullary chromaffin cell and that magnesium can block this effect. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Modulation by endogenously released ATP and opioids of chromaffin cell calcium channels in mouse adrenal slices. (semanticscholar.org)
  • None of these tumors is common but tumors of the pituitary that produce the hormone ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal cortex are the least rare. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The most common hormone is adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), excess of which leads to increased size and activity of the adrenal cortex and over-production of adrenal hormones. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Problems in the cortex or the medulla, then, can result in high blood pressure. (urologyhealth.org)
  • abstract = "Epinephrine, released into blood from the adrenal medulla in response to arousing experiences, is a potent enhancer of learning and memory processing. (syr.edu)
  • Tumors of the nerve cells of the medulla are rare but benign adrenal ganglioneuromas occur in older animals and malignant adrenal neuroblastomas can develop in young animals. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • MEN1 is associated with adrenal adenomas (benign) and MEN2 is associated with phaeochromocytomas (which can sometimes be malignant). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Central part of adrenal that arose from neural tissue (image A) . (auanet.org)
  • There is a significant decrease of tissue catecholamine levels in the adrenals. (wellnessresources.com)
  • To investigate the consequences of grafting adrenal medullary tissue into the brain of a rodent model of Parkinson's disease, a piece of adult mouse adrenal medulla was grafted unilaterally into mouse striatum 1 week after MPTP treatment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adrenal medullary tissue was collected from parkinsonian patients at autopsy and at the time of autologous transplantation of the adrenal medulla to the caudate nucleus, and from nonparkinsonian patients at autopsy and during nephrectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • To understand the physiological role of muscarinic receptors in the bovine adrenal medulla it is important to identify the pharmacological subtypes present in this tissue. (sparrho.com)
  • Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. (meta.org)
  • Anatomic distribution of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue in the newborn. (mhmedical.com)
  • Baker PF, Knight DE (1984) Calcium control of exocytosis in bovine adrenal medullary cells. (springer.com)
  • The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. (scielo.br)
  • In summary, these data demonstrate that leptin stimulates a hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-BAT axis, which is necessary and sufficient to induce lipolysis and, as a result, increase body temperature after refeeding. (jci.org)
  • Closely related tumors include extra-adrenal paragangliomas. (knowcancer.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y release from the adrenal medulla after cholinergic receptor stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones of several types. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The adrenal cortex produces different types of hormones, which are known collectively as steroids. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Although male hormones (androgens) and female hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) are mainly produced by the testicles and ovaries, the adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of androgens and oestrogen in both men and women. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones and produces three main types of steroid hormones. (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • A lack of hormones from the adrenal medulla produces no significant effects. (cancer.gov)
  • Studies on PC12 and isolated adrenal chromaffin cells have revealed that PC12 cells have a closer identity to the adrenergic nerve ending than do the chromaffin cells. (springer.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is innervated by sympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers in the splanchnic nerve. (semanticscholar.org)
  • the medulla is regulated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus. (cancer.gov)
  • Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells have been described in various species including humans. (scielo.br)
  • The adrenal medulla works with the autonomic nervous system (the unconscious processes like breathing and digestion). (organiclifestylemagazine.com)
  • Adrenal medullary tumors are rare but pheochromocytomas are the most common type and usually occur in middle aged to older dogs. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Adrenal medullary pheochromocytomas are most common in Boxer dogs. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • The adrenal cortex releases three kinds of hormones namely: the glucocorticoids, the mineralocorticoids and the androgens. (differencebetween.net)
  • We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. (lu.se)
  • Glucocorticoids are secreted by the middle region of the adrenal cortex. (cancer.gov)
  • Functional characterization of alpha9-containing cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the rat adrenal medulla: implication in stress-induced functional plasticity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Amperometric study of the kinetics of exocytosis in mouse adrenal slice chromaffin cells: physiological and methodological insights. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Abnormalities can occur in the medulla, and although rare, a significant growth called a phaeochromocytonza can arise. (houseandhome.org)
  • This effect may be relevant to the symptomatic recovery in Parkinson's disease patients who have received adrenal medullary grafts. (sciencemag.org)
  • The outcome of the autograft therapy for Parkinson's disease including autologous cells from adrenal medulla was disappointing. (viamedica.pl)
  • These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β -adrenoceptors. (hindawi.com)
  • the cortex migrate to the medulla, where they enter the bloodstream through the medullary veins, adding to the lymphocytes seen in the peripheral blood and the lymphoid organs. (britannica.com)
  • Long-term cardio-metabolic outcomes in patients with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: is the risk real? (lww.com)
  • Nodular Hyperplasia of Adrenal Medulla in Hypertension. (annals.org)