Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseCatecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Chlorisondamine: A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Goiter, Substernal: An enlarged THYROID GLAND with at least 50% of the gland situated behind the STERNUM. It is an unusual presentation of an intrathoracic goiter. Substernal goiters frequently cause compression on the TRACHEA leading to deviation, narrowing, and respiratory symptoms.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Gingival Neoplasms
(1/1268) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

(2/1268) Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells.

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

(3/1268) L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in adrenal medulla endothelial cells.

We investigated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells with the whole cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Depolarization elicited an inward current that was carried by Ca2+ and was composed of a transient (T) current, present in all the cells tested, and a sustained (L) current, present in 65% of them. We separated these currents and measured their individual kinetic and gating properties. The activation threshold for T current was approximately -50 mV, and its maximum amplitude was -49.8 +/- 4.8 pA (means +/- SE, n = 19) at 0 mV. The time constant was 10.2 +/- 1.5 ms (n = 4) for activation and 18.4 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 4) for inactivation. The L current activated at -40 mV, and it reached a plateau at -20.1 +/- 2.3 pA (n = 6). Its activation time course was a single exponential with an activation time contant of 26.8 +/- 2.3 ms (n = 4). Current-voltage curves, kinetics, gating, response to BAY K 8644, nifedipine, amiloride, and different selectivity for Ba2+ and Ca2+ indicated that the underlying channels for the observed currents are only of the T- and L-types that resemble those of the endocrine secretory cells.  (+info)

(4/1268) Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

(5/1268) Studies on cyclic nucleotides in the adrenal gland. V. Adenylate cyclase in the adrenal medulla.

Effects of various chemical agents eliciting the catecholamine-release on the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP generating system have been studied in the secretory process of the bovine adrenal medulla slices. Cyclic AMP levels were not affected at the interval of the maximal increase of the catecholamine-release by acetylcholine, but increased gradually some time after the end of the release/or at the beginning of the restoration of catecholamine in the medulla tissue. This delayed increase in the medullary cyclic AMP is not attributed to a direct involvement in 'stimulus-secretion coupling process' of the medullary secretion, but rather may be caused by release of intracellular catecholamine.  (+info)

(6/1268) Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP.

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

(7/1268) Electrical excitability of cultured adrenal chromaffin cells.

1. Adult human and gerbil adrenal medullary cells were maintained in dissociated cell culture and studied by micro-electrode penetration. 2. In the best recordings, chromaffin cell transmembrane potentials exceeded -50mV. 3. Chromaffin cells were capable of generating all-or-nothing over-shooting action potentials, similar to those generated by sympathetic neurones. 4. The action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6)g/ml.) but were not blocked by removal of Ca or by CoCl2 (10 mM). We conclude that the action potentials are probably generated by a Na mechanism. 5. Chromaffin cells are depolarized by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). This depolarization was accompanied by an increased membrane conductance and could trigger action potentials. 6. Action potentials were also found in cells in fresh slices of gerbil adrenal medullae.  (+info)

(8/1268) Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats.

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

*  Adrenal medulla
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism. Recent research indicates that the adrenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
*  Catecholamine
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or- ... Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia". In Gardner, D. G.; Shoback, D. Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (9th ed.). New York ... Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the ... Extremely high levels of catecholamine can also be caused by neuroendocrine tumors in the adrenal medulla, a treatable ...
*  Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Epinephrine synthesis and therefore PNMT location has been largely found to be contained in the adrenal medulla or adrenal ... "The Adrenal Medulla" (PDF). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther ... Jiang, W; Uht, R; Bohn, MC (1989). "Regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA in the rat adrenal medulla ... Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine ...
*  Absent adrenal gland
The adrenal medulla can be normally present, poorly formed, or absent, however even so the effects of circulatory catecholamine ... Absent adrenal gland is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... Fung, M. M.; Viveros, O. H.; O'Connor, D. T. (16 November 2007). "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2 ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ...
*  Oxytocin
Ang VT, Jenkins JS (April 1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... the adrenal medulla, the thymus and the pancreas. The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" ... Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default ... Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: Oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release ...
*  Carboxypeptidase B
Wallace, E.F.; Evans, C.J.; Jurik, S.M.; Mefford, I.N.; Barchas, J.D. (1982). "Carboxypeptidase B activity from adrenal medulla ...
*  Health effects from noise
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
*  Glomus cell
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.773bj.x. Anne Marie McNicol (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine ... specifically the dorsal inspiratory center in the medulla oblongata) to increase the volume and rate of breathing. The glomus ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the medulla oblongata ( ...
*  History of catecholamine research
This did neither occur with the adrenal cortex nor with any other tissue. The adrenal medulla hence contained "une matière ... At the same time that Salter unwittingly made use of the adrenal medulla, the French physician Alfred Vulpian found that there ... The experiment has been called "the first indirect demonstration of the role of the adrenal medulla as an endocrine organ ... H. Blaschko; A. D. Welch (1953). "Localization of adrenaline in cytoplasmic particles of the bovine adrenal medulla". Naunyn- ...
*  Zygaena ephialtes
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
*  Paraganglion
They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes ... Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe. 24 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1007/s00292- ... Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advance (Springer ed.). p. 281. WHO ... Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant. They are most of the time in the ...
*  Truncal neural crest
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal ...
*  Stressor
After which, the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals ... adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) ->stress hormones (30 varieties) travel in the blood stream to ...
*  Candicine
... it liberated catecholamines from the adrenal medulla; it showed muscarine-like and sympathomimetic effects in some assays, and ...
*  Hes3 signaling axis
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ...
*  QPCT
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Bateman RC, ...
*  Deoxyepinephrine
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... P. Laduron, P. van Gompel, J. Leysen and M. Claeys (1974). " In vivo formation of epinine in adrenal medulla. A possible step ...
*  Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Fischer WH, ...
*  Heart rate
The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... There is no parasympathetic stimulation to the adrenal medulla. In general, increased levels of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine ... Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata. The ...
*  Autonomic nervous system
At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead the presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on ... Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, ... Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... with the exception of the sweat glands and the adrenal medulla: Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both ...
*  Gintonin
"Gintonin facilitates catecholamine secretion from the perfused adrenal medulla". Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 20 (6): 629-639. ...
*  Psychoneuroimmunology
Endorphins from pituitary and adrenal medulla act on immune system. Activity of the immune system is correlated with ... This syndrome consists of an enlargement of the adrenal gland, atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and other lymphoid tissue, and ... Two major pathways are involved in this cross-talk: the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), and the sympathetic ... nervous system (SNS), via the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis (SAM axis). The activation of SNS during an immune response ...
*  Neurohormone
The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ... "Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla". Stem Cells. 27 (10): 2602-13. doi:10.1002 ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ...
*  Vesicular monoamine transporter 1
This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). LDCVs are 70-200 nm in size and exist throughout the ...
*  Chromogranin A
Hagn C, Schmid KW, Fischer-Colbrie R, Winkler H (October 1986). "Chromogranin A, B, and C in human adrenal medulla and ... Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin- ... Wilson BS, Phan SH, Lloyd RV (February 1986). "Chromogranin from normal human adrenal glands: purification by monoclonal ... "Antibacterial activity of glycosylated and phosphorylated chromogranin A-derived peptide 173-194 from bovine adrenal medullary ...
*  Adrenorphin
... and was subsequently found in normal human and bovine adrenal medulla as well. Adrenorphin exhibits potent opioid activity, ... was named based on the fact that it was originally detected in human phaeochromocytoma tumour derived from the adrenal medulla ...
Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体(ab27956)  Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase抗体(ab27956)
Anti-Dopamine beta Hydroxylase antibody (ab27956) at 1/1000 dilution + human adrenal medulla lysate. Predicted band size : 68 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-antibody-ab27956.html
Medical Definition of Adrenal medulla  Medical Definition of Adrenal medulla
... Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal ... Underfunction of the adrenal medulla is virtually unknown. However, a tumor called a pheochromocytoma produces norepinephrine ... and epinephrine and is equivalent to overfunction of the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas arise within the adrenal medulla or ... The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine is secreted in response to ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9702
Adrenal medulla - Wikipedia  Adrenal medulla - Wikipedia
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism. Recent research indicates that the adrenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_medulla
Intracytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in adrenal medulla of bovine  Intracytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in adrenal medulla of bovine
HART, M.N.; CYRUS, A. Hyaline globules of the adrenal medulla. Am. J. Clin., v.49, p.387-391, 1968. [ Links ]. ... McCONNEL, E.E.; TALLEY, F.A. Intracitoplasmatic hyaline globules in the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals. Vet. Pathol., v. ... No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated ... strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352011000100035&lng=en&tlng=en
BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) | Abcam  BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) | Abcam
Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal… ... Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/bam-8-22-bovine-adrenal-medulla-8-22-ab120178.html
Definition of adrenal medulla - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute  Definition of adrenal medulla - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute
The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in ... The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). ... adrenal medulla listen (uh-DREE-nul meh-DOO-luh) The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The ... The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla. ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/adrenal-medulla
Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla | The BMJ  Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla | The BMJ
Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla Br Med J 1954; 1 :1287 ... Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla. Br Med J 1954; 1 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/1/4874/1287
What is Pheochromocytoma (Adrenal Medulla Tumor)? - Urology Care Foundation  What is Pheochromocytoma (Adrenal Medulla Tumor)? - Urology Care Foundation
... the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline ( ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla ( ... Each adrenal gland has 2 layers.. *The adrenal medulla (inner ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the ... The adrenal glands control many processes in the body. Their job is to keep the body in balance by making various hormones that ...
more infohttps://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/pheochromocytoma-
Category:Adrenal medulla hormones | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia  Category:Adrenal medulla hormones | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Pages in category "Adrenal medulla hormones". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. ...
more infohttp://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Category:Adrenal_medulla_hormones
CONCEPT Malignant Adrenal Medulla Neoplasm  CONCEPT Malignant Adrenal Medulla Neoplasm
NCI: A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm affecting the adrenal medulla. (NCI05) ... Malignant Adrenal Medulla Neoplasm Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0344456 ...
more infohttp://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0344456
Adrenal Medulla Tumors  Adrenal Medulla Tumors
What tumors occur in the adrenal medulla?. Tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands may be hyperplasia (non-cancerous cell ... The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones of several types.. The inner part, or adrenal medulla, originates from the same ... Adrenal Medulla Tumors. These notes are provided to help you understand the diagnosis or possible diagnosis of cancer in your ... Unfortunately, most adrenal medulla tumors are large by the time they are diagnosed because few of them produce hormones and so ...
more infohttp://www.lifelearn-cliented.com/iframe.php?action=view&clinic=4305&rid=233
Neuroscientists identify cortical links to adrenal medulla (mind-body connection) | Kurzweil  Neuroscientists identify cortical links to adrenal medulla (mind-body connection) | Kurzweil
Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The ... Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... This input to the adrenal medulla may explain why core body exercises are so helpful in modulating responses to stress. Calming ...
more infohttp://www.kurzweilai.net/neuroscientists-identify-cortical-links-to-adrenal-medulla-mind-body-connection
Difference Between Adrenal Medulla and Adrenal Cortex | Difference Between  Difference Between Adrenal Medulla and Adrenal Cortex | Difference Between
Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For as ... Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex. It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For ... The adrenal cortex (being a cortex) is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland while the adrenal medulla (being a medulla) is ... 1. The adrenal cortex is the outermost part that covers the adrenal medulla, while the adrenal medulla is the centermost or ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-adrenal-medulla-and-adrenal-cortex/
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology  Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. III. Studies of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase as a Marker for Catecholamine Storage ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/5/1/60
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology  Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla | Molecular Pharmacology
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. VI. Effect of Reserpine on the Dopamine β-Hydroxylase and Catecholamine ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/7/4/434
Adrenal medulla grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers | Science  Adrenal medulla grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers | Science
Adrenal medulla grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... a piece of adult mouse adrenal medulla was grafted unilaterally into mouse striatum 1 week after MPTP treatment. This MPTP ... To investigate the consequences of grafting adrenal medullary tissue into the brain of a rodent model of Parkinson's disease, ... These observations suggest that, in mice, adrenal medullary grafts exert a neurotrophic action in the host brain to enhance ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/237/4817/913.abstract
Ontogeny of enkephalin and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in the primate fetal adrenal medulla.  Ontogeny of enkephalin and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in the primate fetal adrenal medulla.
Adrenal medullary cells in adult primates contain catecholamines and several neuropeptides. Among these peptides are several ... and leu-enkephalin appeared to be colocalized in the same cells of the adrenal medulla. Twenty-six adrenals from fetuses 15-26 ... The adrenal medulla of a 24-week-old human fetus as well as medullas of 11 134- to 172-day-old rhesus fetuses were ... Adrenal Medulla / embryology*, enzymology. Animals. Catecholamines / biosynthesis*. Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Ontogeny-enkephalin-catecholamine-synthesizing-enzymes/2427537.html
The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy |...  The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy |...
The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy. H ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/2/1/57
An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. |...  An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. |...
An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.. M ... Secretory components of the adrenal medulla were compared in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in stroke-prone ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/13/5/469
Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test:...  Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test:...
Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: ... We also observed that DBV injection into an acupoint activates SPNs leading to release of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine ... have also shown that the hyperalgesic action of the vagal nerve is decreased by suppression of adrenal medulla-derived ... Collectively, these results demonstrate that suppression of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine, which acts on β-adrenoceptors ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/809062/
  • Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the source of neurons that influence the adrenal medulla. (kurzweilai.net)
  • This observation," said Dr. Strick, "raises the possibility that activity in these cortical areas when you re-imagine an error, or beat yourself up over a mistake, or think about a traumatic event, results in descending signals that influence the adrenal medulla in just the same way as the actual event. (kurzweilai.net)
  • The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. (scielo.br)
  • Vulpian even came to the insight that the substance entered "le torrent circulatoire" ("the circulatory torrent"), for blood from the adrenal veins did give the ferric chloride reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, these adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the adrenal medulla is a clump of neurons that play a major role in the autonomic nerve system. (differencebetween.net)
  • These observations suggest that, in mice, adrenal medullary grafts exert a neurotrophic action in the host brain to enhance recovery of dopaminergic neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study was performed to investigate the histopathological changes in the adrenal medulla of AS/AGU rat, a model of Parkinson's disease, in comparison with Albino Swiss (AS) rats. (viamedica.pl)
  • Secretory components of the adrenal medulla were compared in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) at both 4 and 12 months of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β -adrenoceptors. (hindawi.com)