Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dopamine beta-HydroxylasePheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Chlorisondamine: A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Protein PrecursorsParaganglioma, Extra-Adrenal: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Adrenal Cortex HormonesMuscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.IodobenzenesPC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Bretylium CompoundsHyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Nerve Tissue ProteinsZona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enkephalin, Leucine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo. (1/1268)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (2/1268)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in adrenal medulla endothelial cells. (3/1268)

We investigated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells with the whole cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Depolarization elicited an inward current that was carried by Ca2+ and was composed of a transient (T) current, present in all the cells tested, and a sustained (L) current, present in 65% of them. We separated these currents and measured their individual kinetic and gating properties. The activation threshold for T current was approximately -50 mV, and its maximum amplitude was -49.8 +/- 4.8 pA (means +/- SE, n = 19) at 0 mV. The time constant was 10.2 +/- 1.5 ms (n = 4) for activation and 18.4 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 4) for inactivation. The L current activated at -40 mV, and it reached a plateau at -20.1 +/- 2.3 pA (n = 6). Its activation time course was a single exponential with an activation time contant of 26.8 +/- 2.3 ms (n = 4). Current-voltage curves, kinetics, gating, response to BAY K 8644, nifedipine, amiloride, and different selectivity for Ba2+ and Ca2+ indicated that the underlying channels for the observed currents are only of the T- and L-types that resemble those of the endocrine secretory cells.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (4/1268)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Studies on cyclic nucleotides in the adrenal gland. V. Adenylate cyclase in the adrenal medulla. (5/1268)

Effects of various chemical agents eliciting the catecholamine-release on the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP generating system have been studied in the secretory process of the bovine adrenal medulla slices. Cyclic AMP levels were not affected at the interval of the maximal increase of the catecholamine-release by acetylcholine, but increased gradually some time after the end of the release/or at the beginning of the restoration of catecholamine in the medulla tissue. This delayed increase in the medullary cyclic AMP is not attributed to a direct involvement in 'stimulus-secretion coupling process' of the medullary secretion, but rather may be caused by release of intracellular catecholamine.  (+info)

Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP. (6/1268)

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Electrical excitability of cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/1268)

1. Adult human and gerbil adrenal medullary cells were maintained in dissociated cell culture and studied by micro-electrode penetration. 2. In the best recordings, chromaffin cell transmembrane potentials exceeded -50mV. 3. Chromaffin cells were capable of generating all-or-nothing over-shooting action potentials, similar to those generated by sympathetic neurones. 4. The action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6)g/ml.) but were not blocked by removal of Ca or by CoCl2 (10 mM). We conclude that the action potentials are probably generated by a Na mechanism. 5. Chromaffin cells are depolarized by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). This depolarization was accompanied by an increased membrane conductance and could trigger action potentials. 6. Action potentials were also found in cells in fresh slices of gerbil adrenal medullae.  (+info)

Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats. (8/1268)

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Neonatal sympathectomy using a combined treatment with antiserum to nerve growth factor and guanethidine during the first 4 weeks after birth was carried out in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral adrenal demedullation was performed in 4-week-old sympathectomized SHR and WKY rats. The development of hypertension in SHR was prevented by sympathectomy, but the blood pressure (BP) was still higher than in age-matched WKY rats. Demedullation reduced the BP of sympathectomized SHR to the same level as that of WKY rats. Heart rates of SHR and WKY rats were not affected by the treatments. Morphometric measurements of the mesenteric arteries showed that sympathectomy significantly reduced the medial mass in the mesenteric arteries of SHR, mainly through a reduction in the number of smooth muscle cell layers. In sympathectomized SHR, demedullation increased the lumen size of muscular arteries under maximally relaxed conditions, which might explain the ...
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We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
1. The lipid composition of the membranes from isolated 5-hydroxytryptamine-storage organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and of those from chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla was compared. 2. In contrast with the membranes of the chromaffin granules, those of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles did not contain lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin). 3. Both the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and the relative proportions of phosphatidylethanolamine (kephalin), phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine were about the same in both membranes, whereas phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and sphingomyelin showed somewhat higher values in the membranes of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles. 4. In conclusion, the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from blood platelets is probably not correlated with the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the membranes of the storage organelles and may thus differ from the mechanism of catecholamine release in adrenal medulla.. ...
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Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
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OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
The adrenal gland is a paired retroperitoneal organ located on the upper pole of each kidney. It receives its arterial supply from the superior, middle, and in…
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the case.. a 44 year old male presents to your Emergency Department with severe, crushing retrosternal chest pain. He reports that the pain started suddenly approximately one hour ago whilst at rest.. [Read more…]. ...
Mice, Peroxisome, Role, Knockout Mice, Liver, Peroxisomes, Adipose Tissue, Adrenal Medulla, Nervous System, Neurons, Peripheral Nervous System, Tissue, Tissues, Biogenesis, Pathologies, Patients, Cell, Hepatocytes, Organelles, Metabolism
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...
Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. The effects of various doses of dbcAMP ranging from 0.001 mM up to 1 mM and equimolar amounts of theophylline were recorded by phase contrast optics and catecholamine histochemistry (glyoxylic acid method) over six days. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of the normally occurring outgrowth of Schwann cells, chromaffin cells and axons from the explants. Maintenance of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in chromaffin cells was dose-dependent, too. Since theophylline is known to enhance intracellular levels of cAMP only, these effects are probably due to the action of cAMP. cAMP obviously maintains the degree of differentiation of chromaffin cells. Thus it could be argued that a certain degree of dedifferentiation is a prerequisite for the formation of axons from these cells. ...
The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. We coined the term "Molecular cytoarchitecture of exocytosis" to define the interaction between SNARE proteins, calcium channel and lately nicotinic receptors (integrating Dr. Criado main line) and the cohesive F-actin cortical network in order to improve secretory efficiency ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
Our previous study demonstrated that microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) dramatically increased glucose uptake in the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscles, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT) in conscious unrestrained rats, as assessed in vivo by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose method. Here we examined the role of the sympathetic nervous system and insulin in enhanced glucose uptake by tissues after hypothalamic leptin injection. Pretreatment with guanethidine significantly suppressed the increased glucose uptake by the tissues in response to leptin injected into the VMH, whereas bilateral adrenal demedullation had no significant effect. Treatment with propranolol but not phenoxybenzamine also decreased significantly enhanced glucose uptake by the tissues. We further examined the interaction of the effects of hypothalamic leptin and insulin administered peripherally by clamping the glucose concentrations at a constant level. When leptin was injected into ...
Passage of current for brief periods through electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus virtually always resulted in a distinctive biphasic hyperglycaemia in the case of electrodes capable of eliciting feeding at similar current intensities. The biphasic hyperglycaemic response was sometimes elicited by electrodes aimed at the feeding area but not capable of eliciting feeding. The response remained under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Electrodes in other regions of the hypothalamus gave monophasic hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia or no blood glucose change. The hyperglycaemic phases of the biphasic response were diminished by an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocking agent and by bilateral adrenal demedullation. The intermediate lowering of blood glucose concentration could be eliminated by injection of atropine or by sub-diaphragmatic bilateral vagotomy. It is therefore possible that the hypothalamic feeding system is directly connected to autonomic systems influencing endocrine regulation of glucose ...
Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. Exposure of the cells for 5 hr to 8-Br cAMP produces, 48 hr later, a dose-related increase in the TH activity; 8-Br cGMP fails to modify TH. The increase in TH activity caused by 8-Br cAMP is due to an increase of the Vmax and is preceded by an activation of cytosol cAPK associated with a decrease of the total cytosol cAPK. A sustained increase in nuclear phosphorylation begins 8 to 12 hr after 8-Br cAMP application. The delayed increase in TH activity induced by 8-Br cAMP is blocked by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, colchicine and vinblastine. The reduction of the TH induction by colchicine and vinblastine ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlorpromazine and glucose metabolism. AU - Jori, A.. AU - Bernardi, D.. AU - Garattini, S.. PY - 1964/12. Y1 - 1964/12. N2 - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after arabinose load.. AB - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after ...
The Adrenal Glands are composed of two distinct parts, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla secretes two hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in response to sympathetic stimulation. … ...
Cancer is often suspected from clinical signs. X-rays, ultrasound and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scans may be useful in detecting the tumors, including metastases.. To identify the tumor type precisely, it is necessary to examine the tumor itself. This involves exploratory surgery, often with total removal of the tumor. After removal, the tissue samples are submitted for microscopic examination by histopathology. Specially prepared and stained tissue sections are made at a specialized laboratory where the slides will be examined by a veterinary pathologist.. The histopathology report typically includes words that indicate whether a tumor is benign (non-spreading, local growth) or malignant (capable of spreading to other body sites). These, together with the origin or type of tumor, the grade (degree of resemblance to normal cells or differentiation) and stage (how large it is and extent of spread) indicate how the cancer is likely to behave.. The ...
by competing in triathlons sits there trembling for a long time after the crisis has passed.. Does everyone in the restaurant suddenly suffer from "adrenal stress"? Absolutely. Do all 86 people need to be on herbal drugs "good for the adrenals" to prepare them for such adrenal stress? Absolutely not.. Quantitatively, the strength and duration of the adrenal stress response varies tremendously from one person to the next. But those who suffer ill effects during the 30 seconds of crisis and in the several minutes after it is clear the crisis has passed, are not victims of adrenal stress, but victims of whatever metabolic imbalance they carried with them into the restaurant.. A certain percentage of the people in that restaurant have a Sympathetic Imbalance - chronic catecholamine adrenal medulla stress. How do they respond to the frightening trauma of an assault right before their eyes? There is a tremendous outpouring of stress hormones, and those people will remain in a heightened state of ...
Plechners website offers a full explanation about adrenal medulla deficiency. With this immune endocrine imbalance, the IGA, IgG, and IgM all are weak. This weakness reduces the guts ability to absorb nutrients. According to Dr. Plechner, if the IGA is below fifty-eight, then animals cannot absorb their nutrients efficiently. And with the lack of an ability to take in the correct balance of nutrients, the animals ability to stay healthy is reduced. Over many months or years, the immune system progressively becomes more compromised. By balancing the gut with the right nutrients, MBRT, and giving the patient the added thyroid and/or adrenal support it needs, the immunoglobulins will become more normal and absorption of nutrients can occur. The laboratory evaluation for Plechner Syndrome can be done at Veterinary Diagnostic Services in Texas, and will give your practitioner the values. ...
When the body produces too much adrenaline, a person likely has phaeochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla, according to the Society for Endocrinology. Symptoms of this condition include...
epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration.
At the lateral edges of the neural plate, ridges appear that grow and fold towards each other to form a tube, the neural tube. The cells that lead this development are called Neural crest cells (C), and when they have completed their role in forming the neural tube, they go on to form some more specialised parts of the nervous system including the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla (D). ...
Summary of C16orf89 (MGC45438) expression in human tissue. Expression in several tissues, distinct in adrenal medulla and colloid staining in thyroid gland.
Expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) was examined in normal human adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytoma by using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) were used as catecholamine biosynthetic markers and chromogranin A (CGA) as a marker for secretory granules. Catecholamine content was measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In normal human adrenal medulla (n=5), all chromaffin cells demonstrated strong TH, PNMT and NAT immunoreactivity. NAT was co-localized with PNMT and was located within the cytoplasm with a punctate appearance. Human phaeochromocytomas demonstrated strong TH expression (n=20 samples tested) but variable NAT and PNMT expression (n=24). NAT immunoreactivity ranged from absent (n=3) to weak (n=10) and strong (n=11) and, in some cases, occupied an apparent nuclear location. Unlike the expression seen in normal human adrenal medullary tissue, NAT ...
Investigations into the effects of culturing bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in the presence (72 h) of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, forskolin, and reserpine on the level and release of [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are reported. The assay for [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 immunoreactivity recognises both peptide B, the 31-amino acid carboxy-terminal segment of proenkephalin, and its heptapeptide fragment, [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7. Treatments that elevate cyclic AMP increase the amount of peptide immunoreactivity in these cells; this is predominantly peptide B-like immunoreactivity in both control cells and cyclic AMP-elevated cells. Treatment with reserpine gives no change in total immunoreactivity levels, but does not result in increased accumulation of the heptapeptide [Met]enkephalyl-Arg6-Phe7 at the expense of immunoreactivity that elutes with its immediate precursor, peptide B. Cyclic AMP treatment causes either no change or a decrease in levels of accumulated
Dopamine-ß-hydroxylase (DßH), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, is the only enzyme of the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway located in the chromaffin granules of adrenal medulla. Within the granules, two populations of DßH exist: a water-soluble fraction found within the granule matrix and a membrane-bound, amphiphilic fraction embedded in the surrounding bilayer. The amphiphilic form was purified to homogeneity following its extraction from the membrane with the non-ionic detergent BRIJ 58. Three steps were required to achieve complete purification: adsorption to ConA-Sepharose, adsorption to DEAE Sephadex A-25, and chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, Sepharose 6B, or Sepharose CL-4B. The presence of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml BRIJ 58 was essential for protein recovery. The enzymatic and structural characteristics of membrane-bound DßH were found to be similar to those of soluble DßH. Initial velocity data indicated a Ping-pong or double-displacement reaction with ...
S. Karanth, W. H. Yu, A. Walczewska, C. Mastronardi, S. M. McCann, Ascorbic acid acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the hypothalamus to inhibit stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release by scavenging nitric oxide, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, 97, 4, ...
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) secrete several neuroactive substances that are effective in influencing pain sensitivity in the central nervous system as well as enhancing the recovery of the intrinsic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in patients w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of central control of adrenal catecholamine biosynthesis and release. AU - Slotkin, T. A.. AU - Chantry, Caroline J. AU - Bartolome, J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - In the mature rat, sympatho-adrenal Stressors evoke release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla accompanied by stimulation of activity of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes; both processes are controlled transsynaptically by impulses arising in the central nervous system. In the neonatal rat, drugs which ordinarily elicit sympatho-adrenal reflexes do not evoke neurally-mediated release and do not induce tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine beta-hydroxylase, despite the fact that the central nervous system senses the stimuli and sends impulses down sympathetic preganglionic neurons; reflex responses first appear toward the end of the first week of postnatal life and are fully mature by 10 days of age. Since the immature adrenal medulla is capable of secreting catecholamines and inducing tyrosine ...
The sympathetic nervous system is activated by a variety of threats to organismal homeostasis. The adrenomedullary chromaffin cell is the core effector of sympathetic activity in the peripheral nervous system. By design, the chromaffin cell secretory response is mutable so that release can be rapidly tuned to drive context-dependent changes in physiological function. However, the mechanisms by which this tuning is achieved with such high temporal fidelity and context specificity remain unclear. This represents a major gap in our understanding of the sympatho-adrenal system since it is known to modify the function of nearly every organ system in the body. In chromaffin cells, the trigger for stimulus-evoked exocytosis is a rise in intracellular Ca2+. The level of intracellular Ca2+ accumulation varies with the stimulus intensity and secretagogue. Ca2+ regulates release by acting on the Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin (Syt) protein family, driving their penetration into membranes that harbor anionic lipids,
Adrenavive II, Bovine Adrenal Cortex 125mg (90 Capsules) Adrenavive II contains 125mg of freeze-dried Bovine Adrenal Cortex per capsule, from Procepts proprietary farm sources in Europe. Our grass-fed cattle are reared as nature intended, without the use of growth-promoting hormones or antibiotics. For most of the year they are free to range on natural grass pastures and whilst protected indoors during the winter months, they are fed naturally fermented grass (silage). The whole adrenal glands are collected by EU approved abattoirs, before careful removal of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is then freeze-dried and processed at low temperatures to carefully preserve its raw nutritional value. Pure, Simple, Quality Nutrition Free-range bovine adrenal cortex Grass fed on natural pastures Reared without the use of growth promoting hormones or antibiotics No solvent, enzymatic or heat-based removal of fats Nothing is removed. Just raw, premium quality, adrenal cortex, processed at
The cells of the adrenal cortex are of mesodermal origin, in contrast to the neuroectodermal cells of the adrenal medulla. Human embryonic adrenogonadal progenitor cells first appear at around the fourth week of gestation between the urogenital ridge and dorsal mesentery. These progenitor cells give rise to the steroidogenic cells of the gonads and to the adrenal cortex. The adrenal and gonadal cells then separate-the adrenal cells migrate retroperitoneally to the cranial pole of the mesonephros, and the gonadal cells migrate caudally. Between the seventh and eighth weeks of development, sympathetic cells from the neural crest invade the primitive adrenal and become the adrenal medulla. By the end of the eighth week, the rudimentary adrenal has become encapsulated and is associated with the upper pole of the kidney, which at this time is much smaller than the adrenal. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Studies of the bovine adrenal gland. II. The histological and cytochemical effects of the administration of 1,1 dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane on the adrenal cortices of dairy calves.. AU - WEBER, A. F.. AU - BELL, J. T.. AU - SELLERS, A. F.. PY - 1958/1/1. Y1 - 1958/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70449194696&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70449194696&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 13498236. AN - SCOPUS:70449194696. VL - 19. SP - 51. EP - 57. JO - American Journal of Veterinary Research. JF - American Journal of Veterinary Research. SN - 0002-9645. IS - 70. ER - ...
24 hour fasting and adrenoreceptor blocking agent influence on adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in ...
Although the adrenal medulla is not an essential organ, it is well known that it plays a role in the regulation of blood sugar through the effect of epinephrine on glycogenolysis. At the present time, adrenal medullary insufficiency is just emerging as a recognized syndrome.. In 1959, Broberger, Jungner, and Zetterstrom reported several children with "idiopathic spontaneous hypoglycemia of infancy" (McQuarries syndrome) whose epinephrine secretion failed to increase after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. They postulated that the cause of the spontaneous fasting hypoglycemia was a failure of the adrenal medulla to increase secretion of epinephrine during hypoglycemia.. We have studied six infants ...
14:0 NPS PC Substrate for Lp-PLA2 Enzyme Activity Assay Gram quantities available! Contact us today!. SJK Global Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA) Assay is a quantitative immunoassay for measuring VMA in human urine.. VMA is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines: epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.. Urinary VMA is elevated in patients with catecholamine secreting tumors including pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.. VMA levels in urine are also related to adrenal medulla hyperplasia (AMH). Research shows that medulla hyperplasia, hypertension, nocturnal hypoxemia and congestive heart failure may lead to elevated Vanilmandelic acid in patients urine. ...
We have recently demonstrated that bovine adrenal medulla contains a soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), which is localized in the cytosol. In the present study, this PLA(2) was purified 1,097-fold using sequential concanavalin A, hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange, gel filtration, and an additional anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme is activated over the range of 20-1,000 mu M Ca2+ and has a pH optimum near 8.0. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein has a molecular mass of 26 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.6 as revealed by isoelectric focusing. The cytosolic PLA(2) is not inhibited by NaCl, and the enzymatic activity is stimulated at low concentrations of Triton X-100 (0.01%) and deoxycholate (1 mM) but inhibited at higher concentrations (0.1% and 3 mM, respectively) of these detergents. Furthermore, heat treatment (57 degrees C, 5 min) reduced the enzymatic activity by 80%, whereas glycerol (30%) increased the activity. ...
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of acidic, soluble proteins with widespread neuroendocrine distribution in secretory vesicles. Although the precise function of the chromogranins remains elusive, knowledge of their structure, distribution, and potential intracellular and extracellular roles, especially that of chromogranin A, has greatly expanded during recent years. Chromogranin A is coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis from vesicles in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings. Thus, measurement of its circulating concentration by radioimmunoassay may be a useful probe of exocytotic sympathoadrenal activity in humans, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we explore the storage, structure, and function of chromogranin A, and parameters that influence its circulating levels. We have also measured plasma chromogranin A concentrations in different groups of patients with hypertension, including those with pheochromocytoma. ...
Literature References: Endogenous catcholamine with combined a- and b-agonist activity. Principal sympathomimetic hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Isoln from animal adrenal glands: Takamine, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 20, 746 (1901); Aldrich, Am. J. Physiol. 5, 457 (1901). Synthesis of dl-form: Stolz, Ber. 37, 4149 (1904); Payne, Ind. Chem. 37, 523 (1961). Historic review of syntheses: Loewe, Arzneim.-Forsch. 4, 583 (1954). Resolution of dl-form: Fl?cher, Z. Physiol. Chem. 58, 189 (1908). Configuration: Pratesi et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1958, 2069. Acute toxicity: A. M. Lands et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 90, 110 (1947). HPLC determn in plasma and urine: C. R. Benedict, J. Chromatogr. 385, 369 (1987). Comprehensive description: D. H. Szulczewski, W.-H. Hong, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 7, 193-229 (1978). Physiologic review: Malmejac, Physiol. Rev. 44, 186 (1964). Review of biosynthesis: L. A. Pohorecky, R. J. Wurtman, Pharmacol. Rev. 23, 1-35 (1971); of pharmacology and clinical use in ...
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Inhibition by tramadol of muscarinic receptor-induced responses in cultured adrenal medullary cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing cloned M〈sub〉1〈/sub〉 ...
The Adrenal Stress Index The adrenals are two small glands, each weighing 3 to 5 grams, that are located above the kidneys. The adrenals have one of the highest rates of blood flow per gram of tissue, and the highest content of Vitamin C per gram of any tissue in the body.. Each adrenal gland is composed of two separate functional entities. The outer zone, or cortex, accounts for 80% to 90% of the gland, and secretes adrenal steroids (Cortisol, DHEA(S) and Aldosterone). The inner zone, or medulla, comprises 10% to 20% of the gland, and secretes the catecholamines adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. Cortisol, DHEA and adrenaline are the three main adrenal stress hormones.. The Adrenal Rhythm & Its Importance ...
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, b-cell, bone, bone marrow, brain, cartilage, cerebellum, cerebrum, cervix, colon, ear, embryonic tissue, endocrine, esophagus, eye, fetus, gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney, liver, lung, lymph node, lymphoreticular, mammary gland, muscle, nervous, ovary, pancreas, pancreatic islet, parathyroid, peripheral nervous system, pineal gland, pituitary gland, placenta, pooled tissue, prostate, retina, salivary gland, skin, stem cell, stomach, synovium, t-cell, testis, thymus, thyroid, uncharacterized tissue, uterus, ...
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Amines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine and are secreted from the thyroid and the adrenal medulla. Solubility of the various hormone classes varies. Amine hormones (notably epinephrine) are stored as granules in the cytoplasm until needed.. ...
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The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS ...
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As clinical volumes have increased again, we will be hosting Cases for Aces once per week: Every Tuesday at 11am PST / 2 pm EST ! Follo... ...
By: Dr. Michael Lam, MD, MPH; Justin Lam, ABAAHP, FMNM While there once wasnt much concern that small, non-severe infections ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
Dopamine beta-monooxygenase is shown to catalyze the oxidation of N,N,N,N-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to its cation radical in the presence of a regular substrate and molecular oxygen. The enzyme-mediated oxidation of TMPD is stoichiometrically coupled with the hydoxylation of the substrate to the corresponding enzymatic product. TMPD is kinetically well behaved as an alternate electron donor for the enzyme with a potency comparable to that of the most efficient electron donor, ascorbate. Dopamine beta-monooxygenase mediated oxidation of TMPD has been employed to design a convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the enzyme. The finding that TMPD is a well behaved facile alternate electron donor for dopamine beta-monooxygenase raises some interesting novel questions regarding the specificity and chemistry of the reduction site, which may have important implications on the reduction of active site coppers of the enzyme ...
Definition of chromaffin cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is chromaffin cell? Meaning of chromaffin cell as a finance term. What does chromaffin cell mean in finance?
Definition of Chromaffin cells in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Chromaffin cells? Meaning of Chromaffin cells as a legal term. What does Chromaffin cells mean in law?
Author: Nili, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006-12-01; Title: Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells
In this video, Ms. Jishu Baiju explained about Adrenal gland which is an endocrine gland and is of two types, Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla. Hormones Adrenalin and Nor-Adrenalin come under Adrenal Medulla where as Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, and Sex hormones come under Adrenal Cortex.. .embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; }. ...
A rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the adrenal cortex. Cancer of the adrenal cortex is also called adrenocortical carcinoma. The inside layer of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal medulla. Cancer that starts in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Responsiveness of Cultured Adrenal Cells to Adrenocorticotropin and Prostaglandin E1. T2 - Cell Density, Cell Division, and Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis. AU - Hornsby, Peter J.. AU - Gill, Gordon N.. PY - 1981/1. Y1 - 1981/1. N2 - In cultured bovine adrenocortical cells, responsiveness to ACTH, as assessed by the maximal rate of ACTHstimulated cAMP production, has been found to depend on cell density and cell proliferation, while the maximal rate of prostaglandin E1, (PGE1)-stimulated cAMP production was constant.The combination of low cell density and normal cell proliferation caused a specific decline in responsiveness to ACTH. Responsiveness did not decline at any density when proliferation was inhibited by mitomycin C treatment. Specific declines in responsiveness to ACTH were also seen when cultures were treated with cycloheximide or sodium butyrate. When protein synthesis was completely inhibited by cycloheximide treatment, responsiveness to ACTH declined ...
Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Wegenhorst, U.; Stecher, B.; Spicher, K.; Rosenthal, W.; Gratzl, Manfred (1992): Exocytosis from permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is differently modulated by guanosine 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Evidence for the involvement of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 284: pp. 321-326 [PDF, 3MB] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proenkephalin peptide F immunoreactivity in different circulatory biocompartments after exercise. AU - Bush, Jill A.. AU - Mastro, Andrea Marie. AU - Kraemer, William J.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - This study was the first study to examine the three circulatory biocompartments (plasma, white blood cell layer (WBC) and red blood cell layer (RBC)) and determine PF concentrations before and after exercise. Proenkephalin peptide F (PF) is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla. PF is co-packaged with epinephrine, and both can be co-secreted in response to similar stimuli. PF and epinephrine have shown immunomodulating properties. Ten healthy resistance trained men performed six sets of 10 RM squats with 2 min rest periods between sets and 10 healthy active men were matched and served as resting controls. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 15 min post-exercise and were analyzed for lactate, cortisol, ...
Z5229132 (talk) Group 1, Adrenal Medulla: The History section is very detailed - more weight on the history of neural crest discovery related to the adrenal medulla specifically would be appreciated, as this is your topic, but I do think that it is good that you have maintained a focus on neural crest. I think your section on genes and transcription factors is well described - I like that you have given a mouse model example. I presume the links to the sites will be added as proper references later. I also think the image of the cascade of catecholamine synthesis is helpful for those interested in the pathway, though its location is currently too far away from this section on the page. However, this is a minor issue and something that might be tidied up nearer the end of the assignment. You currently dont have any abnormalities/abnormal development information. It would be nice to see some example here such as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. In "current research" you have copied and pasted the ...
Respiratory distress is a very common problem in newborns. It can be due to several causes, notably pneumonia, sepsis, heart disease, congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract, and so on. GNB is a rare tumor in the newborn period. Rarer still is GNB presenting with respiratory distress. Most cases present before 10 years of age. After a literature search, we could find only one case which had presented at birth and another case at 13 days of life [2]. GNB arises from the sympathetic chain; anywhere from the adrenal medulla to the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia. The most common sites of origin are adrenal medulla (35%), extra-adrenal retroperitoneum (30-35%) and posterior mediastinum (20%) [3]. In 1981, Adam et al. reported a series of 80 cases all of which arose from the posterior mediastinum [2]. Rarely, they can be found in other sites, for example, neck, pelvis, lungs, nervous system and so on [3-8]. The mode of presentation depends on the area of involvement; they may present with ...
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The adrenal glands are a pair of triangular-shaped organs that rest on top of the kidneys. Each gland is made up of 2 parts: the cortex, which is responsible for the production of cortisone and the medulla which secretes adrenaline. The adrenal cortex helps to maintain the salt and water balance in the body. It is also involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of blood sugar. It also produces a sex hormone similar to that secreted by the testes. The adrenal medulla produces the hormone adrenaline when the body is under stress. This hormone speeds up the rate of metabolism and produces other physiological changes designed to help the body cope with danger.
An adrenal fatigue diet is a nutritional plan that has been specifically formulated to combatadrenal fatigue. In alternative medicine, adrenal fatigue is a condition where the adrenal gland is thought suffer a decreased ability to synthesize sufficient levels of cortisol and other hormones. It is thought that the condition may be brought on by excess stress, and that it can be treated with supplements or dietary changes. Some of the changes involved in an adrenal fatigue diet typically include eating a variety of high-quality protein sources and vegetables, while staying away from certain fruits and avoiding white flour and sugar altogether.. The purpose of an adrenal fatigue diet is to naturally support the adrenals with a regular intake of natural, healthy food. This usually involves eating four to five times a day, with the first meal ideally coming soon after waking. It is thought that adrenal fatigue is compounded by, or associated with, low blood sugar, so it is important to boost the ...
An adrenal fatigue diet is a nutritional plan that has been specifically formulated to combatadrenal fatigue. In alternative medicine, adrenal fatigue is a condition where the adrenal gland is thought suffer a decreased ability to synthesize sufficient levels of cortisol and other hormones. It is thought that the condition may be brought on by excess stress, and that it can be treated with supplements or dietary changes. Some of the changes involved in an adrenal fatigue diet typically include eating a variety of high-quality protein sources and vegetables, while staying away from certain fruits and avoiding white flour and sugar altogether.. The purpose of an adrenal fatigue diet is to naturally support the adrenals with a regular intake of natural, healthy food. This usually involves eating four to five times a day, with the first meal ideally coming soon after waking. It is thought that adrenal fatigue is compounded by, or associated with, low blood sugar, so it is important to boost the ...
Dating back to our ancestors, our bodies were designed to protect ourselves from perceived danger from predators and other threats. When faced with an emergency, our bodies kick into gear what is known as the "fight or flight" mode. During the "fight or flight" response the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. This ultimately leads to a cascade of events that secretes adrenaline, cortisol and other stress hormones to release energy to prepare for battle or to run away. Unfortunately, because so many people have abused their system and have sluggish liver and thyroid function, the adrenals are called upon try to provide energy for daily use. However, that is not what the adrenals were designed for and after prolonged overuse and abuse the adrenals will giveout/adrenal exhaustion but adrenals are never the primary problem, just the final failure of long term stress and dysfunction of the liver, thyroid, digestion, nutrient deficiencies, ...
Dating back to our ancestors, our bodies were designed to protect ourselves from perceived danger from predators and other threats. When faced with an emergency, our bodies kick into gear what is known as the "fight or flight" mode. During the "fight or flight" response the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. This ultimately leads to a cascade of events that secretes adrenaline, cortisol and other stress hormones to release energy to prepare for battle or to run away. Unfortunately, because so many people have abused their system and have sluggish liver and thyroid function, the adrenals are called upon try to provide energy for daily use. However, that is not what the adrenals were designed for and after prolonged overuse and abuse the adrenals will giveout/adrenal exhaustion but adrenals are never the primary problem, just the final failure of long term stress and dysfunction of the liver, thyroid, digestion, nutrient deficiencies, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Turnover rate of tyrosine hydroxylase during trans synaptic induction. AU - Chuang, D.. AU - Zsilla, G.. AU - Costa, E.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - The tyrosine hydroxylase of adrenal medulla was induced by exposing the rats to 40 for 4 hr. The synthesis rate of normal and induced tyrosine hydroxylase was measured by radiochemical and immunoprecipitation methods. Incorporation of 3H into the enzyme was normal 6 hr after the beginning of the stress but was greater than normal at 10 hr and reached a maximum increase of 65% at 16 hr. Beginning 20 hr after stress application the rate of 3H incorporation declined and approached normal values between 30 and 50 hr. The thyrosine hydroxylase activity was not yet increased 10 hr after the beginning of the stress; however, it was increased at 16 hr and a maximal increment was reached at 24 hr. This new steady state was maintained for the following 24 hr. The enzyme activity then declined, with a half life of about 3 days. The radioactivity ...
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Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH; dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is a copper-containing glycoprotein consisting of four identical subunits and catalyzes the oxidation of dopamine to norepinephrine. It requires ascorbic acid as an electron donor. DBH is localized in the norepinephrinergic and epinephrinergic neurons in the central nervous system. The enzyme exists in the secretory vesicles as both soluble and membrane-bound forms. The soluble form is secreted with catecholamines by exocytosis whereas the membrane-bound form is recycled into the vesicles ...
Looking for lumbar splanchnic nerve? Find out information about lumbar splanchnic nerve. see nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment.... Explanation of lumbar splanchnic nerve
TheInfoList.com - (Nicotine) Contents1 Psychoactive effects 2 Uses2.1 Medical 2.2 Enhancing performance 2.3 Recreational3 Adverse effects3.1 Metabolism Metabolism and body weight 3.2 Vascular system 3.3 Cancer 3.4 Fetal development 3.5 Reinforcement Reinforcement disorders 3.6 Use of other drugs4 Overdose 5 Pharmacology5.1 Pharmacodynamics5.1.1 Central nervous system 5.1.2 Sympathetic nervous system 5.1.3 Adrenal medulla5.2 Pharmacokinetics6 Chemistry6.1 Occurrence and biosynthesis 6.2 Detection in
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Anna M W Taylor, Niall P Murphy, Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill].
Ang VT, Jenkins JS (April 1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... the adrenal medulla,[39] the thymus[40] and the pancreas.[41] The finding of significant amounts of this classically " ... Additionally, bilateral interactions with numerous systems, including the dopamine system, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis ... Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release ...
They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes ... Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe. 24 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1007/s00292- ... Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advance (Springer ed.). p. 281. WHO ... Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant. They are most of the time in the ...
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or- ... Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia". In Gardner, D. G.; Shoback, D. Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (9th ed.). New York ... Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the ... Extremely high levels of catecholamine can also be caused by neuroendocrine tumors in the adrenal medulla, a treatable ...
Epinephrine synthesis and therefore PNMT location has been largely found to be contained in the adrenal medulla or adrenal ... "The Adrenal Medulla" (PDF). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther ... Jiang, W; Uht, R; Bohn, MC (1989). "Regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA in the rat adrenal medulla ... Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine ...
Wallace, E.F.; Evans, C.J.; Jurik, S.M.; Mefford, I.N.; Barchas, J.D. (1982). "Carboxypeptidase B activity from adrenal medulla ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.773bj.x. Anne Marie McNicol (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine ... specifically the dorsal inspiratory center in the medulla oblongata) to increase the volume and rate of breathing. The glomus ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the medulla oblongata ( ...
This did neither occur with the adrenal cortex nor with any other tissue. The adrenal medulla hence contained "une matière ... At the same time that Salter unwittingly made use of the adrenal medulla, the French physician Alfred Vulpian found that there ... The experiment has been called "the first indirect demonstration of the role of the adrenal medulla as an endocrine organ ... H. Blaschko; A. D. Welch (1953). "Localization of adrenaline in cytoplasmic particles of the bovine adrenal medulla". Naunyn- ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal ...
There is no parasympathetic stimulation to the adrenal medulla.[11] Thyroid hormones[edit]. In general, increased levels of the ... The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata. The ... Cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitory areas are components of the paired cardiac centers located in the medulla oblongata of ...
Adrenal medulla produces *Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin ... Adrenal glands[change , change source]. *Adrenal glands *Adrenal cortex produces *Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona ... Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes ...
After which, the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals ... adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) ->stress hormones (30 varieties) travel in the blood stream to ...
... it liberated catecholamines from the adrenal medulla; it showed muscarine-like and sympathomimetic effects in some assays, and ...
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Bateman RC, ...
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... P. Laduron, P. van Gompel, J. Leysen and M. Claeys (1974). " In vivo formation of epinine in adrenal medulla. A possible step ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. PMID 3597387. Fischer WH, ...
At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead the presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on ... Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, ... Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... with the exception of the sweat glands and the adrenal medulla: Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both ...
"Gintonin facilitates catecholamine secretion from the perfused adrenal medulla". Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 20 (6): 629-639. ...
Endorphins from pituitary and adrenal medulla act on immune system. Activity of the immune system is correlated with ... This syndrome consists of an enlargement of the adrenal gland, atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and other lymphoid tissue, and ... Two major pathways are involved in this cross-talk: the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), and the sympathetic ... nervous system (SNS), via the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis (SAM axis). The activation of SNS during an immune response ...
The adrenal medulla produces adrenomedullary hormones in chromaffin cells, cells which are very similar in structure to post- ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ... "Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla". Stem Cells. 27 (10): 2602-13. doi:10.1002 ... Gasman S, Chasserot-Golaz S, Bader MF, Vitale N (October 2003). "Regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells: focus on ...
This was discovered via studying rat adrenal medulla cells (PC12 cells). LDCVs are 70-200 nm in size and exist throughout the ...
Diminished release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla slows the release of oxytocin[56] ... Diminished blood pressure, accommodated by both decreased stress and less adrenal release, may decrease the release of oxytocin ...
Hagn C, Schmid KW, Fischer-Colbrie R, Winkler H (October 1986). "Chromogranin A, B, and C in human adrenal medulla and ... Examples of cells producing chromogranin A (ChgA) are chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, paraganglia, enterochromaffin- ... Wilson BS, Phan SH, Lloyd RV (February 1986). "Chromogranin from normal human adrenal glands: purification by monoclonal ... "Antibacterial activity of glycosylated and phosphorylated chromogranin A-derived peptide 173-194 from bovine adrenal medullary ...
Acute overdose may cause fever, hypoglycemia, heart failure, coma, and unrecognized adrenal insufficiency. ... as thyroid hormones may cause an acute adrenal crisis by increasing the metabolic clearance of glucocorticoids.[20] For oral ... Levothyroxine is also contraindicated for people with uncorrected adrenal insufficiency, ...
... Adrenal medulla: The inner portion of adrenal gland. (The outer portion is the adrenal ... Underfunction of the adrenal medulla is virtually unknown. However, a tumor called a pheochromocytoma produces norepinephrine ... and epinephrine and is equivalent to overfunction of the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytomas arise within the adrenal medulla or ... The adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine is secreted in response to ...
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism. Recent research indicates that the adrenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
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adrenal gland medulla synonyms, adrenal gland medulla pronunciation, adrenal gland medulla translation, English dictionary ... definition of adrenal gland medulla. adrenal gland top: cross section of a right adrenal gland bottom: placement of adrenal ... adrenal gland. (redirected from adrenal gland medulla). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to adrenal ... Adrenal gland medulla - definition of adrenal gland medulla by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/adrenal+ ...
Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla Br Med J 1954; 1 :1287 ... Insulin Resistance Following Hypothalamic Lesions and Removal of the Adrenal Medulla. Br Med J 1954; 1 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
The adrenal medulla makes chemicals such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which are involved in ... The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). ... adrenal medulla listen (uh-DREE-nul meh-DOO-luh) The inner part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The ... The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla. ...
HART, M.N.; CYRUS, A. Hyaline globules of the adrenal medulla. Am. J. Clin., v.49, p.387-391, 1968. [ Links ]. ... McCONNEL, E.E.; TALLEY, F.A. Intracitoplasmatic hyaline globules in the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals. Vet. Pathol., v. ... No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated ... strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were ...
Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina. E E Baetge, R R ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ... Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina ...
The adrenal cortex produces cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Cortisol is pr... more ... Adrenal medullae normally secrete 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine. Sympathetic stimulation results in secretion. ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?) and What is the normal function of the adrenal ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?. Updated: Oct 11, 2018 ...
Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal… ... Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble ...
Increased adrenal medulla-derived plasma catecholamines were necessary and sufficient to increase body temperature ... In summary, these data demonstrate that leptin stimulates a hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-BAT axis, which is necessary and ... Leptin mediates postprandial increases in body temperature through hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-adipose tissue crosstalk. ... Leptin mediates postprandial increases in body temperature through hypothalamus-adrenal medulla-adipose tissue crosstalk. ...
Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The ... Cortical pathways to the adrenal medulla. Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the ... This input to the adrenal medulla may explain why core body exercises are so helpful in modulating responses to stress. Calming ...
A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands. In general they originate in the chromaffin cells. They are ... A Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands. In general they originate in the chromaffin cells. ... They are also known as phaeochromocytoma (PCC). Closely related tumors include extra-adrenal paragangliomas. ...
... the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline ( ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla ( ... Each adrenal gland has 2 layers.. *The adrenal medulla (inner ... Pheochromocytoma is a tumor found in the adrenal medulla (the inner part of the adrenal gland). The adrenal medulla makes the ... The adrenal glands control many processes in the body. Their job is to keep the body in balance by making various hormones that ...
Pages in category "Adrenal medulla hormones". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. ...
Adrenal medullary cells in adult primates contain catecholamines and several neuropeptides. Among these peptides are several ... and leu-enkephalin appeared to be colocalized in the same cells of the adrenal medulla. Twenty-six adrenals from fetuses 15-26 ... The adrenal medulla of a 24-week-old human fetus as well as medullas of 11 134- to 172-day-old rhesus fetuses were ... Adrenal Medulla / embryology*, enzymology. Animals. Catecholamines / biosynthesis*. Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. ...
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS, R. J. CONNETT and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. III. Studies of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase as a Marker for Catecholamine Storage ...
Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. O. H. VIVEROS, L. ARQUEROS and N. KIRSHNER ... Mechanism of Secretion from the Adrenal Medulla. VI. Effect of Reserpine on the Dopamine β-Hydroxylase and Catecholamine ...
Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For as ... Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex. It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For ... The adrenal cortex (being a cortex) is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland while the adrenal medulla (being a medulla) is ... 1. The adrenal cortex is the outermost part that covers the adrenal medulla, while the adrenal medulla is the centermost or ...
The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy. H ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ... The microtrabecular lattice of the adrenal medulla revealed by polyethylene glycol embedding and stereo electron microscopy ...
Adrenal medulla grafts enhance recovery of striatal dopaminergic fibers Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... a piece of adult mouse adrenal medulla was grafted unilaterally into mouse striatum 1 week after MPTP treatment. This MPTP ... To investigate the consequences of grafting adrenal medullary tissue into the brain of a rodent model of Parkinsons disease, ... These observations suggest that, in mice, adrenal medullary grafts exert a neurotrophic action in the host brain to enhance ...
Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: ... We also observed that DBV injection into an acupoint activates SPNs leading to release of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine ... have also shown that the hyperalgesic action of the vagal nerve is decreased by suppression of adrenal medulla-derived ... Collectively, these results demonstrate that suppression of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine, which acts on β-adrenoceptors ...
An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.. M ... Secretory components of the adrenal medulla were compared in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and in stroke-prone ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... An increased pool of secretory hormones and peptides in adrenal medulla of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. ...
NCI: A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm affecting the adrenal medulla. (NCI05) ... Malignant Adrenal Medulla Neoplasm Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0344456 ...
What tumors occur in the adrenal medulla?. Tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands may be hyperplasia (non-cancerous cell ... The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones of several types.. The inner part, or adrenal medulla, originates from the same ... Adrenal Medulla Tumors. These notes are provided to help you understand the diagnosis or possible diagnosis of cancer in your ... Unfortunately, most adrenal medulla tumors are large by the time they are diagnosed because few of them produce hormones and so ...
  • A case of a morphologically distinctive tumor of the adrenal medulla occurring in a 54-year-old woman is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. (scielo.br)
  • The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. (lu.se)
  • and in both sexes in the retina, the adrenal medulla, the thymus and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are specialized airway epithelial cells that occur as solitary cells or as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was performed to investigate the histopathological changes in the adrenal medulla of AS/AGU rat, a model of Parkinson's disease, in comparison with Albino Swiss (AS) rats. (viamedica.pl)
  • The histological and immunohistological changes in the adrenal medulla could explain the failure of outcome of adrenal autograft therapy in Parkinson's disease. (viamedica.pl)
  • Overall, these results indicate that circuits exist to link movement, cognition and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla and the control of stress. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Adrenal disorders may cause hyperfunction or hypofunction, and may be congenital or acquired. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • and TLQP-62 as well as AQEE-30 in regulating depression-like behaviors and memory The expression of VGF and VGF-derived peptides is detected in a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and specific populations of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis, adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • MEN1 is associated with adrenal adenomas (benign) and MEN2 is associated with phaeochromocytomas (which can sometimes be malignant). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Increased activity of the adrenal nerves is done through the receptors for the corticotropin-releasing factor within the ganglia within the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal medulla is driven by the sympathetic nervous system via preganglionic fibers originating in the thoracic spinal cord, from vertebrae T5-T11. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus can also affect the Purkinje cells of the heart, the adrenal medulla, the brain, and the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the sacral spinal cord and medulla, physically surrounding the sympathetic origin, and works in concert with the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Met-enkephalin is found mainly in the adrenal medulla and throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including in the striatum, cerebral cortex, olfactory tubercle, hippocampus, septum, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray, as well as the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some animal products, including liver, Muktuk (whale skin), oysters, and parts of the central nervous system, including the adrenal medulla, brain, and spinal cord, contain large amounts of vitamin C, and can even be used to treat scurvy. (wikipedia.org)