The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo. (1/1268)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (2/1268)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in adrenal medulla endothelial cells. (3/1268)

We investigated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells with the whole cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Depolarization elicited an inward current that was carried by Ca2+ and was composed of a transient (T) current, present in all the cells tested, and a sustained (L) current, present in 65% of them. We separated these currents and measured their individual kinetic and gating properties. The activation threshold for T current was approximately -50 mV, and its maximum amplitude was -49.8 +/- 4.8 pA (means +/- SE, n = 19) at 0 mV. The time constant was 10.2 +/- 1.5 ms (n = 4) for activation and 18.4 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 4) for inactivation. The L current activated at -40 mV, and it reached a plateau at -20.1 +/- 2.3 pA (n = 6). Its activation time course was a single exponential with an activation time contant of 26.8 +/- 2.3 ms (n = 4). Current-voltage curves, kinetics, gating, response to BAY K 8644, nifedipine, amiloride, and different selectivity for Ba2+ and Ca2+ indicated that the underlying channels for the observed currents are only of the T- and L-types that resemble those of the endocrine secretory cells.  (+info)

Lambert-Eaton antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents but paradoxically increase exocytosis during stimulus trains in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. (4/1268)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease that affects neurotransmitter release at peripheral synapses. LEMS antibodies inhibit Ca2+ currents in excitable cells, but it is not known whether there are additional effects on stimulus-secretion coupling. The effect of LEMS antibodies on Ca2+ currents and exocytosis was studied in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using whole-cell voltage clamp in perforated-patch recordings. Purified LEMS IgGs from five patients inhibited N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ current components to different extents. The reduction in Ca2+ current resulted in smaller exocytotic responses to single depolarizing pulses, but the normal relationship between integrated Ca2+ entry and exocytosis (Enisch and Nowycky, 1996) was preserved. The hallmark of LEMS is a large potentiation of neuromuscular transmission after high-frequency stimulation. In chromaffin cells, stimulus trains can induce activity-dependent enhancement of the Ca2+-exocytosis relationship. Enhancement during trains occurs most frequently when pulses are brief and evoke very small amounts of Ca2+ entry (Engisch et al., 1997). LEMS antibody treatment increased the percentage of trains eliciting enhancement through two mechanisms: (1) by reducing Ca2+ entry and (2) through a Ca2+-independent effect on the process of enhancement. This leads to a paradoxical increase in the amount of exocytosis during stimulus trains, despite inhibition of Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Studies on cyclic nucleotides in the adrenal gland. V. Adenylate cyclase in the adrenal medulla. (5/1268)

Effects of various chemical agents eliciting the catecholamine-release on the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP generating system have been studied in the secretory process of the bovine adrenal medulla slices. Cyclic AMP levels were not affected at the interval of the maximal increase of the catecholamine-release by acetylcholine, but increased gradually some time after the end of the release/or at the beginning of the restoration of catecholamine in the medulla tissue. This delayed increase in the medullary cyclic AMP is not attributed to a direct involvement in 'stimulus-secretion coupling process' of the medullary secretion, but rather may be caused by release of intracellular catecholamine.  (+info)

Regulation of basal expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme genes by PACAP. (6/1268)

We have previously reported that the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is important in the gene regulation of both induction and basal expressions of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been shown to activate the intracellular cAMP/PKA pathway. In the present study, using primary cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells, we determined whether the basal activity of the PACAP receptor might play a role in the maintenance of the basal expression of these enzyme genes via the cAMP/PKA pathway. The potent PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP (6-38) caused a reduction of TH and DBH mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner as well as their enzyme activities and TH protein level. The effects of PACAP (6-38) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 exhibited generally similar trends, and were not additive in the reduction of TH and DBH gene expression and activities, suggesting that they take a common intracellular signaling pathway. The antagonist also caused decreases in the intracellular norepinephrine and epinephrine levels similar to the effect of H-89. Taken together, the data suggests that PACAP is involved in the regulation of maintenance of the catecholamine synthesizing enzymes TH and DBH by utilizing the cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Electrical excitability of cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. (7/1268)

1. Adult human and gerbil adrenal medullary cells were maintained in dissociated cell culture and studied by micro-electrode penetration. 2. In the best recordings, chromaffin cell transmembrane potentials exceeded -50mV. 3. Chromaffin cells were capable of generating all-or-nothing over-shooting action potentials, similar to those generated by sympathetic neurones. 4. The action potentials were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10(-6)g/ml.) but were not blocked by removal of Ca or by CoCl2 (10 mM). We conclude that the action potentials are probably generated by a Na mechanism. 5. Chromaffin cells are depolarized by the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh). This depolarization was accompanied by an increased membrane conductance and could trigger action potentials. 6. Action potentials were also found in cells in fresh slices of gerbil adrenal medullae.  (+info)

Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats. (8/1268)

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The actions of propofol on inhibitory amino acid receptors of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells and rodent central neurones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin in bovine adrenal medulla and secretion of PC1 and PC2 from this tissue. AU - Kirchmair, R.. AU - Egger, C.. AU - Gee, P.. AU - Hogue-Angeletti, R.. AU - Fischer-Colbrie, R.. AU - Laslop, A.. AU - Winkler, H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Fonds zur F6rderung ,ter wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Austria), by the Dr. Legerlotz-Stiftung and by funds from NIH (Grant NS 22697, R.H.-A.). PY - 1992/8/31. Y1 - 1992/8/31. N2 - The subcellular distribution of PC1, PC2 and furin was determined in bovine adrenal medulla by immunoblotting of fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation. PC1 and PC2 were found to be confined to chromaffin granules whereas furin (C-terminal-peptide) was absent from these organelles. Stimulation of bovine adrenal medulla by carbamoylcholine chloride induced the secretion of PC1 and PC2. The secreted enzymes had the same molecular size as PC1 and PC2 present in ...
Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin in the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of [3H]MPP+, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP+ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent ...
Neonatal sympathectomy using a combined treatment with antiserum to nerve growth factor and guanethidine during the first 4 weeks after birth was carried out in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral adrenal demedullation was performed in 4-week-old sympathectomized SHR and WKY rats. The development of hypertension in SHR was prevented by sympathectomy, but the blood pressure (BP) was still higher than in age-matched WKY rats. Demedullation reduced the BP of sympathectomized SHR to the same level as that of WKY rats. Heart rates of SHR and WKY rats were not affected by the treatments. Morphometric measurements of the mesenteric arteries showed that sympathectomy significantly reduced the medial mass in the mesenteric arteries of SHR, mainly through a reduction in the number of smooth muscle cell layers. In sympathectomized SHR, demedullation increased the lumen size of muscular arteries under maximally relaxed conditions, which might explain the ...
Catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla is evoked largely by nicotinic receptor activation. However, bovine adrenal medulla also contain muscarini
Start Over You searched for: Authors International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) ✖Remove constraint Authors: International Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology 1986 : Coolfont, W. Va.) Languages English ✖Remove constraint Languages: English Subjects Cellular Structures ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Cellular Structures ...
Buy BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal Medulla 8-22) (CAS 412961-36-5), a water soluble SNSR agonist. Join researchers using high quality BAM (8-22) (Bovine Adrenal…
We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) permeabilized with staphylococcal α-toxin release [3H]dopamine after addition of micromolar Ca2+. This does not require additional Mg2+-ATP (in contrast to bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells). We also observed Ca2+-dependent [3H]-dopamine release from digitonin-permeabilized PC 12 cells. Permeabilization with α-toxin or digitonin and stimulation of the cells were done consecutively to wash out endogenous Mg2+-ATP. During permeabilization, ATP was removed effectively from the cytoplasm by both agents but the cells released [3H]dopamine in response to micromolar Ca2+ alone. Replacement by chloride of glutamate, which could sustain mitochondrial ATP production in permeabilized cells, does not significantly alter catecholamine release induced by Ca2+. However, Mg2+ without ATP augments the Ca2+-induced release. The release was unaltered by thiol-, hydroxyl-, or calmodulin-interfering substances. Thus Mg2+-ATP, calmodulin, or proteins containing -SH or -OH ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
1. The lipid composition of the membranes from isolated 5-hydroxytryptamine-storage organelles of blood platelets of rabbits and of those from chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla was compared. 2. In contrast with the membranes of the chromaffin granules, those of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles did not contain lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin). 3. Both the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and the relative proportions of phosphatidylethanolamine (kephalin), phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine were about the same in both membranes, whereas phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and sphingomyelin showed somewhat higher values in the membranes of the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles. 4. In conclusion, the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from blood platelets is probably not correlated with the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the membranes of the storage organelles and may thus differ from the mechanism of catecholamine release in adrenal medulla.. ...
Study Flashcards On Physio: Endocrine - Adrenal Medulla and Cortex at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Adrenal medulla is derivative of? Biology Mcqs for NTS, PPSC, FPSC, SPSC, KPPSC, AJKPSC, PMS, NAT, PTS, Educators, Lecturer and all other exams.
Area of interest: Mechanisms of stress transduction at the sympatho-adrenal synapse; optical studies of hormone trafficking and secretion in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cell.
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. It was developed as a model cell line and an alternative to adrenal chromaffin primary cell cultures. PC-12 cells are able to differentiate into neuron-like cells in the presence of nerve growth factor or dexamethasone. Due to their differentiation ability and ease of culture, PC-12 cells are used in a variety of research areas ranging from drug efficacy to neurosecretion.. ...
The role of nongenomic action of estrogens on elicited catecholamine secretion and exocytosis kinetics was studied in perfused rat adrenals and in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. 17β-Estradiol as well as the estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and LY117018, but not 17α-estradiol, inhibited at the micromolar range the catecholamine output elicited by acetylcholine or high potassium. However, these agents failed to modify the secretion elicited by high Ca2+ in glands treated with the ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), suggesting that estrogens did not directly act on the secretory machinery. At the single cell level, estrogens modified the kinetics of exocytosis at nanomolar range. All of the drugs tested except 17α-estradiol produced a profound slowing down of the exocytosis as measured by amperometry. LY117018 also reduced the granule content of catecholamines. 17β-Estradiol reduced the intracellular free Ca2+ but only at micromolar concentrations, whereas nanomolar concentrations ...
The adrenal gland is a paired retroperitoneal organ located on the upper pole of each kidney. It receives its arterial supply from the superior, middle, and in…
Comments, concepts and statistics about Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.
Wikia is not accessible if youve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected ...
the case.. a 44 year old male presents to your Emergency Department with severe, crushing retrosternal chest pain. He reports that the pain started suddenly approximately one hour ago whilst at rest.. [Read more…]. ...
Mice, Peroxisome, Role, Knockout Mice, Liver, Peroxisomes, Adipose Tissue, Adrenal Medulla, Nervous System, Neurons, Peripheral Nervous System, Tissue, Tissues, Biogenesis, Pathologies, Patients, Cell, Hepatocytes, Organelles, Metabolism
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.. AU - Sabol, S. L.. AU - Dandekar, Satya. AU - Kranzler, L. S.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020021542&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7124494. AN - SCOPUS:0020021542. VL - 33. SP - 175. EP - 181. JO - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. JF - Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology. SN - 0065-2229. ER - ...
Explants of rat adrenal medulla were grown in tissue culture. The effects of various doses of dbcAMP ranging from 0.001 mM up to 1 mM and equimolar amounts of theophylline were recorded by phase contrast optics and catecholamine histochemistry (glyoxylic acid method) over six days. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of the normally occurring outgrowth of Schwann cells, chromaffin cells and axons from the explants. Maintenance of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in chromaffin cells was dose-dependent, too. Since theophylline is known to enhance intracellular levels of cAMP only, these effects are probably due to the action of cAMP. cAMP obviously maintains the degree of differentiation of chromaffin cells. Thus it could be argued that a certain degree of dedifferentiation is a prerequisite for the formation of axons from these cells. ...
The ACh-stimulated increase in [Ca2+]i in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mainly triggered by an influx of Ca2+ through the nAChR channel, VOC, and the subsequent activation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, all of which contribute to CA release. These events in response to ACh are of short duration, whereas PACAP induces large and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and CA release. The present study sought to elucidate which pathways (nAChR channel, VOC, SOC, or an unidentified channel) contribute to this peculiar Ca2+ and secretory response to PACAP.. Reports vary concerning the effect of VOC blockers on PACAP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i and CA release. For example, Przywara et al. (1996) showed that in rat cultured adrenal chromaffin cells, neither L- nor N-type VOC participates in the PACAP-induced CA release. On the other hand,Fukushima et al. (2001b) showed that nifedipine, L-type VOC antagonist, reduced PACAP-induced CA release in isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Tanaka et al. (1996) reported ...
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro...
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. Experimental approaches involve strategies using antibodies, sequence peptide design and protein overexpression that demonstrate the participation of specific protein domains in exocytosis. In addition, the role of these proteins on the secretory stages have been studied using amperometry, technique that resolves single fusion events ...
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells have been used as an excellent experimental model to study the exocytosis and therefore the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission. It is now clear that the proteins involved in the processes of vesicle docking, membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release are common to many cellular systems (SNARE hypothesis). Our research interest is focused in two different aspects of the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmission: Implication of molecular motors such myosin-actin in vesicle transport during neurosecretion and the determination of essential aminoacids of synaptobrevin or SNAP-25 implicated in the process of membrane fusion. We coined the term Molecular cytoarchitecture of exocytosis to define the interaction between SNARE proteins, calcium channel and lately nicotinic receptors (integrating Dr. Criado main line) and the cohesive F-actin cortical network in order to improve secretory efficiency ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
Our previous study demonstrated that microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) dramatically increased glucose uptake in the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscles, but not in white adipose tissue (WAT) in conscious unrestrained rats, as assessed in vivo by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose method. Here we examined the role of the sympathetic nervous system and insulin in enhanced glucose uptake by tissues after hypothalamic leptin injection. Pretreatment with guanethidine significantly suppressed the increased glucose uptake by the tissues in response to leptin injected into the VMH, whereas bilateral adrenal demedullation had no significant effect. Treatment with propranolol but not phenoxybenzamine also decreased significantly enhanced glucose uptake by the tissues. We further examined the interaction of the effects of hypothalamic leptin and insulin administered peripherally by clamping the glucose concentrations at a constant level. When leptin was injected into ...
Passage of current for brief periods through electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus virtually always resulted in a distinctive biphasic hyperglycaemia in the case of electrodes capable of eliciting feeding at similar current intensities. The biphasic hyperglycaemic response was sometimes elicited by electrodes aimed at the feeding area but not capable of eliciting feeding. The response remained under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Electrodes in other regions of the hypothalamus gave monophasic hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia or no blood glucose change. The hyperglycaemic phases of the biphasic response were diminished by an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocking agent and by bilateral adrenal demedullation. The intermediate lowering of blood glucose concentration could be eliminated by injection of atropine or by sub-diaphragmatic bilateral vagotomy. It is therefore possible that the hypothalamic feeding system is directly connected to autonomic systems influencing endocrine regulation of glucose ...
Primary cultures of chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medulla were used as a model to evaluate the ability of 8-Br cyclic AMP (8-Br cAMP) to induce tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and to study the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) in this induction. This cell preparation maintains a constant level of cyclic nucleotides, catecholamines and related enzyme activities for about four weeks. Exposure of the cells for 5 hr to 8-Br cAMP produces, 48 hr later, a dose-related increase in the TH activity; 8-Br cGMP fails to modify TH. The increase in TH activity caused by 8-Br cAMP is due to an increase of the Vmax and is preceded by an activation of cytosol cAPK associated with a decrease of the total cytosol cAPK. A sustained increase in nuclear phosphorylation begins 8 to 12 hr after 8-Br cAMP application. The delayed increase in TH activity induced by 8-Br cAMP is blocked by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, colchicine and vinblastine. The reduction of the TH induction by colchicine and vinblastine ...
RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques established the expression of APC protein both in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, which express native alpha 3 beta 4* nAChRs, and in a HEK293 cell line expressing recombinant bovine adrenal alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs (BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells). Transfection of BM alpha 3 beta 4 cells with siRNA to APC, reduced APC protein. levels to 52.4% and 61.9% of control values at 24 and 48 h after transfection. To investigate the effects of APC on the cellular distribution of alpha 3 beta 4 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine binding approaches, coupled with APC siRNA treatment, were used. Twenty-four and 48 h after APC siRNA transfection, intracellular nAChRs were significantly reduced to 71% and 68% of control, respectively, while the total population of nAChRs were. not significantly changed. Given that total cellular nAChRs represent IKK inhibitor the sum of surface and intracellular nAChRs, these studies support a re-distribution of nAChRs to the plasma membrane with APC siRNA ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlorpromazine and glucose metabolism. AU - Jori, A.. AU - Bernardi, D.. AU - Garattini, S.. PY - 1964/12. Y1 - 1964/12. N2 - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after arabinose load.. AB - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after ...
The Adrenal Glands are composed of two distinct parts, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla secretes two hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in response to sympathetic stimulation. … ...
Cancer is often suspected from clinical signs. X-rays, ultrasound and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scans may be useful in detecting the tumors, including metastases.. To identify the tumor type precisely, it is necessary to examine the tumor itself. This involves exploratory surgery, often with total removal of the tumor. After removal, the tissue samples are submitted for microscopic examination by histopathology. Specially prepared and stained tissue sections are made at a specialized laboratory where the slides will be examined by a veterinary pathologist.. The histopathology report typically includes words that indicate whether a tumor is benign (non-spreading, local growth) or malignant (capable of spreading to other body sites). These, together with the origin or type of tumor, the grade (degree of resemblance to normal cells or differentiation) and stage (how large it is and extent of spread) indicate how the cancer is likely to behave.. The ...
by competing in triathlons sits there trembling for a long time after the crisis has passed.. Does everyone in the restaurant suddenly suffer from adrenal stress? Absolutely. Do all 86 people need to be on herbal drugs good for the adrenals to prepare them for such adrenal stress? Absolutely not.. Quantitatively, the strength and duration of the adrenal stress response varies tremendously from one person to the next. But those who suffer ill effects during the 30 seconds of crisis and in the several minutes after it is clear the crisis has passed, are not victims of adrenal stress, but victims of whatever metabolic imbalance they carried with them into the restaurant.. A certain percentage of the people in that restaurant have a Sympathetic Imbalance - chronic catecholamine adrenal medulla stress. How do they respond to the frightening trauma of an assault right before their eyes? There is a tremendous outpouring of stress hormones, and those people will remain in a heightened state of ...
Plechners website offers a full explanation about adrenal medulla deficiency. With this immune endocrine imbalance, the IGA, IgG, and IgM all are weak. This weakness reduces the guts ability to absorb nutrients. According to Dr. Plechner, if the IGA is below fifty-eight, then animals cannot absorb their nutrients efficiently. And with the lack of an ability to take in the correct balance of nutrients, the animals ability to stay healthy is reduced. Over many months or years, the immune system progressively becomes more compromised. By balancing the gut with the right nutrients, MBRT, and giving the patient the added thyroid and/or adrenal support it needs, the immunoglobulins will become more normal and absorption of nutrients can occur. The laboratory evaluation for Plechner Syndrome can be done at Veterinary Diagnostic Services in Texas, and will give your practitioner the values. ...
When the body produces too much adrenaline, a person likely has phaeochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla, according to the Society for Endocr
epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration.
By Dr. Jennifer L. Franz. As we approach the increasingly joyful, yet seemingly stressful holidays, we begin to feel the effects of the stresses of the season on our bodies. In an effort to have our holiday shopping, cooking, visiting relatives, and friends balanced, it is an added stress to our already hectic lives.. In the body, hormones that are controlled by our nervous system are secreted when we are under stress. Your nervous system, housed within your backbone, sends messages through it from the brain to an array of different systems in the body. One of those many systems is your hormonal system. Cortisol is the primary hormone produced in the anterior pituitary portion of the brain. When the body is under stress, either chemical, emotional, or physical, specific signals from our nervous system send messages to the adrenal medulla, another part of our brain, and regulate the release of epinephrine. Epinephrine affects blood calcium levels and adversely affects our blood pressure. The ...
Other Diseases in Children 13.1 Neuroblastoma Cause: Malignancy arising from cells of neural crest that form sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla Epidem: Most common malignant tumor of infancy (J Pediatr 1975;86:254). Accounts for 6-8% of all childhood malignancies; | 90% cases diagnosed in children | 5 yr (J Nucl Med 2004;45:1172). Most common primary site…
At the lateral edges of the neural plate, ridges appear that grow and fold towards each other to form a tube, the neural tube. The cells that lead this development are called Neural crest cells (C), and when they have completed their role in forming the neural tube, they go on to form some more specialised parts of the nervous system including the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla (D). ...
Summary of C16orf89 (MGC45438) expression in human tissue. Expression in several tissues, distinct in adrenal medulla and colloid staining in thyroid gland.
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or- ... Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia". In Gardner, D. G.; Shoback, D. (eds.). Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (9th ed.). ... Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the ... Extremely high levels of catecholamine can also be caused by neuroendocrine tumors in the adrenal medulla, a treatable ...
Epinephrine synthesis and therefore PNMT location has been largely found to be contained in the adrenal medulla or adrenal ... "The Adrenal Medulla" (PDF). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacology & ... Jiang W, Uht R, Bohn MC (1989). "Regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA in the rat adrenal medulla by ... Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine ...
PMID 8. Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (August 15, 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". ...
Ang VT, Jenkins JS (April 1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... the adrenal medulla, the thymus and the pancreas. The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" ... Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default ... Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release ...
PMID 6. Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
PMID 8. Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (15 August 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Near the vertebral column and become sympathetic chain ganglia. Differentiation ... and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (15 August 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anne Marie McNicol (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla oblongata to increase the volume ... the axons of neurons which innervate glomus type I cells synapse in the caudal portion of the solitary nucleus in the medulla. ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (August 15, 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla-IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
Anderson, T. R.; Slotkin, T. A. (1975-08-15). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical ...
But the adrenal medulla, in contrast to the adrenal cortex, is not required for survival. In adrenalectomized patients, ... Adrenaline is synthesized in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland's adrenal medulla and a small number of neurons in the ... The adrenal medulla is a major contributor to total circulating catecholamines (L-DOPA is at a higher concentration in the ... Adrenaline is normally produced by the adrenal glands and by a small number of neurons in the medulla oblongata. It plays an ...
... the French physician Alfred Vulpian also made discoveries about the adrenal medulla. Material scraped from the adrenal medulla ... The experiment has been called "the first indirect demonstration of the role of the adrenal medulla as an endocrine organ [and ... Stephen W. Carmichael; Rochester (1989). "The history of the adrenal medulla". Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2 (2): 83-99. doi: ... H. Blaschko; A. D. Welch (1953). "Localization of adrenaline in cytoplasmic particles of the bovine adrenal medulla". Naunyn- ...
Anderson TR, Slotkin TA (August 1975). "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine". Biochemical Pharmacology. ...
They are concentrated near the adrenal glands and essentially function the same way as the adrenal medulla. They are sometimes ... Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe. 24 (4): 280-6. doi:10.1007/s00292- ... Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advance (Springer ed.). p. 281. WHO ... Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant. They are most of the time in the ...
... after which the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals ... adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) -> stress hormones (30 varieties) travel in the blood stream ...
... it liberated catecholamines from the adrenal medulla; it showed muscarine-like and sympathomimetic effects in some assays, and ...
The adrenal medulla is the innermost part of the adrenal gland and contains neural crest derived chromaffin cells which secrete ... Freed, W. J.; Poltorak, M.; Becker, J. B. (Nov 1990). "Intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts: a review" (PDF). Experimental ... adrenal medulla sympathetic ganglia carotid body retinal pigment epithelium embryonic stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells ... "Transplantation Techniques and the Survival of Adrenal Medulla Autografts in the Primate Brain". Annals of the New York Academy ...
Chromaffin progenitor cells of the bovine adrenal medulla. Mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6 cell line) and mouse pancreatic islet ...
It is also produced by the adrenal medulla. Bell DR (2009). Medical physiology : principles for clinical medicine (3rd ed.). ... Extracts of the adrenal gland were first obtained by Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski in 1895. These extracts, which he ... Epinephrine is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons in the brain, where it acts as a ... Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
This compound has also been isolated from the adrenal medulla of pigs and cows, and from the toad, Bufo marinus. It has also ... P. Laduron, P. van Gompel, J. Leysen and M. Claeys (1974). " In vivo formation of epinine in adrenal medulla. A possible step ...
Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (18): 8532-6. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
Adrenal medulla capillaries are downstream from adrenal cortex capillaries. This portal system delivers high concentrations of ... In particular, glucocorticoids induce the enzymatic conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine in the adrenal medulla. By ... adrenal cortical hormones to the adrenal medulla. ...
The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... There is no parasympathetic stimulation to the adrenal medulla. In general, increased levels of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine ... Nervous influence over the heart rate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata. The ...
At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead, the presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on ... Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, thereby ... Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (this is the one exception to the two-neuron pathway rule: the synapse is directly ... with the exception of the sweat glands and the adrenal medulla: Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both ...
"Gintonin facilitates catecholamine secretion from the perfused adrenal medulla". Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 20 (6): 629-639. ...
It is also produced by the adrenal medulla.. *↑ Bell DR (2009). Medical physiology : principles for clinical medicine (第3rd版). ... Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral ...
... the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and ... The initial reaction is followed by activation of the pituitary gland and secretion of the hormone ACTH.[14] The adrenal gland ... The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the sacral spinal cord and medulla, physically surrounding the sympathetic ... "ACTH Action on the Adrenal". Endotext.org. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013 ...
Schober A, Parlato R, Huber K, Kinscherf R, et al «Cell Loss and Autophagy in the Extra-Adrenal Chromaffin Organ of Zuckerkandl ... En un 80-85% dels casos aquests tumors es localitzen a la medul·la de les suprarenals. Els altres casos es troben a teixits ... Păun, DL; Mirică, A «Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas: A Focus on Genetics» (en anglès). A: Clinical Management of Adrenal ... Erem C, Kocak M, Cinel A, Erso HO, Reis A «Dopamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma presenting with paroxysmal hypertension ...
... s' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio.[37] Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much ... "Morphometric analysis of heart, kidneys and adrenal glands in dromedary camel calves (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. ... Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi ...
... secretion of the epinephrine and cortisol from the adrenal medulla, and relaxation of the bladder wall. The parasympathetic ... The ANS receives inputs from the medulla, hypothalamus, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, midbrain and monoamine nuclei.[38] ... This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... Glavas, M.M.; Weinberg, J. (2006). "Stress, Alcohol Consumption, and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis". In Yehuda, S.; ...
Epinephrine - released by the adrenal medulla during the fasting state, when body is under metabolic duress. It stimulates ... ACTH - Stimulates the synthesis and release of cortisol (zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal glands) ... ADH (Vasopressin/AVP) - Induces the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids (Zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex); Induces ... Angiotensin II - Induces Aldosterone synthesis and release (zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex in kidney) ...
Berecek, K. H. and Brody, M. J. (1982). "Evidence for a neurotransmitter role for epinephrine derived from the adrenal medulla ...
... and was subsequently found in normal human and bovine adrenal medulla as well. Adrenorphin exhibits potent opioid activity, ... was named based on the fact that it was originally detected in human phaeochromocytoma tumour derived from the adrenal medulla ...
... a type of tumor involving the adrenal medulla.[citation needed] Patients with paroxysmal hypertension who test negative for ...
They are typically found inside the adrenal medulla, but can also be present right outside the adrenal medulla in tissue. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a ... The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as Pheochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can ...
There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ... The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. ...
... after they discovered extra-adrenal tissue that reacted to chromium salts, which mimicked the reaction of the adrenal medulla. ... Pheochromocytoma (PHEO or PCC) is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells, also known as ... Jacob M, Macwana S, Vivekanand D (March 2015). "Anaesthetic management of a case of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma ... an adrenal tumor or a recurrence of an adrenal tumor that had already been excised can be predicted Patients are more likely to ...
... s are confined to the neurons of the sympathetic system, and those innervating the adrenal medulla, ...
... s' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi ... "Morphometric analysis of heart, kidneys and adrenal glands in dromedary camel calves (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. ...
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ... The adrenal medulla affects energy availability, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. Recent research indicates that the ...
The neural crest of the ectoderm develops into: peripheral nervous system, adrenal medulla, melanocytes, facial cartilage. The ...
"Adrenal, Got Ghost" - 3:08 "Assim-Elim" - 3:32 "Hormone Trig" - 4:30 "Snap-Sis" - 3:08 Steve Coleman - alto saxophone Jonathan ... "Medulla-Vagus" - 6:33 "Chemical Intuition" - 3:58 "Cerebrum Crossover" - 6:46 "Limbic Cry" - 5:37 "Cardiovascular" - 2:34 " ...
Medulla is also important for implementation of self tolerance, which is mediated by CD4+CD25+Foxp3 nTreg cells. Foxp3 Treg ... hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. There are many autoimmune diseases, caused by failure of self-tolerance by TRAs ... These single positive cells migrate out of the cortex to the medulla, where the process continues as a negative selection. ... located in the inner thymic medulla. Both cTEC and mTEC participate in imposing central and peripheral tolerance. cTECs play a ...
The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper ... the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end ... At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of ... The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of ...
... reflex acetabulum Achilles tendon acoustic nerve acromion adenohypophysis adenoids adipose aditus aditus ad antrum adrenal ... medial vestibular nucleus medial vestibulospinal tract median aperture median eminence median neuropathy mediastinum medulla ...
In the medulla, the network of epithelial cells is coarser than in the cortex, and the lymphoid cells are relatively fewer in ... Addison's disease of the adrenal glands, and candida infection of body surfaces including the inner lining of the mouth and of ... It is made up of two lobes, each consisting of a central medulla and an outer cortex, surrounded by a capsule. The thymus is ... The branches reach the thymus and travel with the septa of the capsule into the area between the cortex and medulla, where they ...
... lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the adrenal medulla. The cells are arranged cords that project in ... Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease) at eMedicine Ibáñez L, Potau N, Marcos MV, de Zegher F (September 1999). " ... ACTH partially regulates adrenal androgen secretion, also CRH. In humans the reticularis layer does contain 17α-hydroxylase; ... These precursors are not further converted in the adrenal cortex if the cells lack 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Instead, ...
Generally, norepinephrine and epinephrine (hormones produced by sympathetic nerves and the adrenal gland medulla) are ...
Obianwu HO (1965-04-01). "The effect of prenylamine (segontin) on the amine levels of brain, heart and adrenal medulla in rats ...
The cells in the adrenal medulla that release adrenaline and noradrenaline proved to have properties between endocrine cells ... as do corticosteroids secreted from the adrenal gland under the influence of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. The study of these ...
Pheochromocytoma (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ... Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L (2008). "[Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals ...
The adrenal medulla can be normally present, poorly formed, or absent, however even so the effects of circulatory catecholamine ... Absent adrenal gland is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... Fung, M. M.; Viveros, O. H.; O'Connor, D. T. (16 November 2007). "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2 ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ...
The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. It is located at the center of the ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ... The adrenal medulla affects energy availability, heart rate, and basal metabolic rate. Recent research indicates that the ...
... Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol ...
The adrenal medula releases epi and nor eip in direct response to stimulation from the autonomic ns. This along with the fact ... that it is derived from the ectoderm (unlike the adrenal cortex which is derived from mesoderm), is why some almost consider it ...
TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS: STIMULATED SECRETION FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA. ROBERT S. GREENBERG and GERALD COHEN ... TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS: STIMULATED SECRETION FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA. ROBERT S. GREENBERG and GERALD COHEN ... TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS: STIMULATED SECRETION FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA. ROBERT S. GREENBERG and GERALD COHEN ... TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS: STIMULATED SECRETION FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Localization and production of peptide endocannabinoids in the rodent CNS and adrenal medulla by S. Hofer et al. ... Localization and production of peptide endocannabinoids in the rodent CNS and adrenal medulla. @article{Hofer2015LocalizationAP ... title={Localization and production of peptide endocannabinoids in the rodent CNS and adrenal medulla}, author={Stefanie Hofer ... The Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Regulation of Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenal Axis Activity. *D. Cota ...
Read the full article Basal and Stress-Induced Network Activity in the Adrenal Medulla In Vivo featuring Kent Scientific. ... Basal and Stress-Induced Network Activity in the Adrenal Medulla In Vivo. *Author(s): Jose R. Lopez Ruiz, Stephen A. Ernst, ...
The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. ... The adrenal glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. ... Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla (see Suprarenal [Adrenal] ... Adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is a completely different entity. Epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%), with minimal ...
Degenerated adrenal medulla. Inclusion Bodies. Intranuclear. Organs/Tissues Affected. Liver (LV), heart (LV), blood vessels (LV ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, ... Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. ... Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, ...
... adrenal gland (medulla); 32, ileum; 33, colon. Lanes 1-16 and lanes 17-33 were loaded with 0.5 mg and 100 mg tissue equivalent ...
Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors arising from the adrenal medulla. The average age at diagnosis is 25 years in ...
Mind-Body Interconnections: The Adrenal medulla. Posted August 21st, 2016. by Mike Boyes & filed under Aggression, Health ... Description: You probably heard about the important role that the adrenal medulla plays in our bodies rapid responses to ... Why might it be important to discover and understand the potentially broad array of connections between the adrenal medulla and ... For example the connections between the adrenal medulla in areas of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning and ...
Nicotinic effect on the adrenal medulla with catecholamine release (Tareg et al. 2001). ... Nicotinic effect on the adrenal medulla with catecholamine release (Tareg et al. 2001). ... Nicotinic effect on the adrenal medulla with catecholamine release (Tareg et al. 2001). ... Nicotinic effect on the adrenal medulla with catecholamine release (Tareg et al. 2001) ...
What is the adrenal medulla?. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland. It helps a person cope with physical ... Adrenal Glands. The Adrenal Glands. Anatomy of the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are small, triangular glands that sit on top ... The outer region is called the adrenal cortex. The inner region is called the adrenal medulla. Both parts have distinct ... The adrenal medulla secretes these hormones: * Epinephrine (adrenaline). This hormone helps the body respond to a stressful ...
... adrenal medulla, ovaries, and testes. No studies pertaining to hormones of the posterior pituitary, pancreas, or adrenal cortex ...
Is expressed in several structures, including adrenal medulla; liver; lung; nervous system; and trunk. Orthologous to human ...
Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Medulla Brain Clitoral/Preputial Gland Heart Islets, Pancreatic Kidney Liver Lung Ovary Pancreas ... Adrenal Medulla Pheochromocytoma Benign Pheochromocytoma Malignant Pheochromocytoma: Benign, Complex, Malignant, NOS Clitoral/ ... Adrenal Medulla , , Pheochromocytoma: Benign, Complex, Malignant, NOS ...
Expert treatment for adrenal medulla cancer in San Diego. Expert treatment for adrenal medulla cancer in San Diego. Scripps MD ... Pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that forms in the adrenal medulla, which is the center of ... An adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the entire adrenal gland. Nearby lymph nodes and other surrounding tissue ... Located above each kidney, adrenal glands produce steroid hormones called adrenaline and noradrenaline to control heart rate, ...
... originate from the adrenal medulla, whereas paragangliomas (PGLs) arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia.[2] Paragangliomas are ... 1. (pheochromocytoma or phaeochromocytoma or Adrenal medulla* or chromaffin cell).mp. [mp = ti, ab, hw, tn, ot, dm, mf, dv, kw ... Pheochromocytoma OR phaeochromocytoma OR adrenal medulla* OR chromaffin cell) OR (Paraganglioma OR chemodectoma OR Carotid body ... ALL = (Pheochromocytoma OR phaeochromocytoma OR chromaffin cell OR adrenal medulla)) OR((ALL = (paraganglioma OR chemodectoma ...
Adrenal Gland Adrenal Medulla Bone Marrow Brain Clitoral Gland Clitoral/Preputial Gland Epididymis Heart Islets, Pancreatic ... Adrenal Medulla Pheochromocytoma: Benign, Complex, Malignant, NOS Lung Alveolar/Bronchiolar Carcinoma or Alveolar/Bronchiolar ... Adrenal Medulla Pheochromocytoma Benign Pheochromocytoma: Benign, Complex, Malignant, NOS Brain Oligodendroglioma, Glioma, or ... Adrenal Medulla , , Pheochromocytoma: Benign, Complex, Malignant, NOS ...
Tyrosine in the skin is adrenal medulla.. 8:41 gap. -Is pasteurized orange juice of any value? ...
This article will detail how adrenal cancer is diagnosed, the signs of adrenal cancer and the different ways it is treated. ... The adrenal glands produce hormones such as adrenaline, aldosterone, and cortisol which are crucial to the proper functioning ... Adrenal cancer is cancer of one or both of the adrenal glands. ... Cancers can also arise within the adrenal medulla, the most ... Each adrenal gland has two parts: the outer portion, which is the adrenal cortex, and the inner portion, which is the medulla. ...
What is the adrenal medulla?. 200. This disorder is characterized by periods of deep depression and manic highs. ...
adrenal medulla. Term. The ________ _________ secretes a variety of steroid hormones and forms the outer three quarters of the ... The adrenal cortex secrets three major types of steroid hormones: _______, _________, and ________.. Definition. aldosterone ( ... The inner zone of the adrenal cortex, zona reticular is, secretes mostly ______, the sex hormones dominant in men.. ... acts on the adrenal cortex to promote synthesis and release of cortisol.. ...
Adrenal Cortex (HMDB: HMDB0003959). *Adrenal Medulla (HMDB: HMDB0003959). OrganGland*Adrenal Gland (HMDB: HMDB0003959) ...
Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. As such, it is not ... The differential diagnosis includes neoplasms of adrenal origin (such as adrenal cortical adenoma or adrenocortical oncocytoma ... Adrenal tumors of any type should lead the list of differential diagnoses, given the apparent lack of involvement of the renal ... There is no involvement of the renal parenchyma by the tumor and there is no evidence of normal adrenal tissue in association ...
Transplantation of fetal substantia nigra and adrenal medulla to the caudate nucleus in two patients with Parkinsons disease. ...
Actions of adrenal gland: cortex and medulla * Pancreatic hormones * Thyroid gland * Parathyroid ...
  • The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine, in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasms include: Pheochromocytoma (most common), a catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla Neuroblastoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system Ganglioneuroma, a tumor in the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. (medscape.com)
  • At age 1 year, each adrenal gland weighs approximately 1 g, and this increases with age to a final weight of 4-5 g. (medscape.com)
  • Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla (see Suprarenal [Adrenal] Gland Anatomy ). (medscape.com)
  • The fetal adrenal gland is relatively large. (medscape.com)
  • Anatomic anomalies of the adrenal gland may occur. (medscape.com)
  • Because the development of the adrenals is closely associated with that of the kidneys, agenesis of an adrenal gland is usually associated with ipsilateral agenesis of the kidney, and fused adrenal glands (whereby the two glands join across the midline posterior to the aorta) are also associated with a fused kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal heterotopia describes a normal adrenal gland in an abnormal location, such as within the renal or hepatic capsules. (medscape.com)
  • An adrenal gland is made of 2 parts. (barnesjewish.org)
  • Adrenal glands interact with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. (barnesjewish.org)
  • The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland. (barnesjewish.org)
  • Pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that forms in the adrenal medulla, which is the center of the adrenal gland. (scripps.org)
  • An adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the entire adrenal gland. (scripps.org)
  • Each adrenal gland has two parts: the outer portion, which is the adrenal cortex, and the inner portion, which is the medulla. (oncolink.org)
  • The most common tumor of the adrenal gland is a benign tumor called an adrenal adenoma. (oncolink.org)
  • The most common malignant tumors found in the adrenal gland are tumors that come from cancer cells that have metastasized (or spread) from other parts of the body to the adrenal gland through the bloodstream. (oncolink.org)
  • The ________ _________ secretes a variety of steroid hormones and forms the outer three quarters of the adrenal gland. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • No adrenal gland is identified grossly. (cap.org)
  • Adrenal carcinoma or adrenal tumor is an aggressive disease which can originate either in the cortex ( steroid hormone - producing tissue ) or medulla of the adrenal gland . (wikidoc.org)
  • These hormones stimulate the adrenal gland to generate corticosteroids. (bartleby.com)
  • Diffuse or nodular adrenal medullary hyperplasia appears to precede the development of pheochromocytomas in bulls with C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The adrenal gland, located on top of the kidneys, is made up of two parts with very distinct hormonal functions. (alleydog.com)
  • The adrenal cortex is the outer part of the gland and it produces hormones that help regulate metabolism and immune response, among other things. (alleydog.com)
  • The inner part of the gland, called the adrenal medulla, secretes important hormones for coping with stress. (alleydog.com)
  • A cell that stains with chromic salts in medulla of the suprarenal gland and paraganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, stratified analysis showed a more profound association between neuroblastoma risk and rs6435862 TG/GG variant genotypes among older children (adjusted OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.04-2.31), and children with adrenal gland-originated disease (adjusted OR=2.94, 95% CI=1.40-6.18), or with ISSN clinical stages III+IV disease (adjusted OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.09-2.84). (medsci.org)
  • G polymorphisms may contribute to increased susceptibility to neuroblastoma, especially for the subjects at age ≥12 months, with adrenal gland-originated or with late clinical stage neuroblastoma. (medsci.org)
  • Although they may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain, the vast majority arise from the adrenal gland. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Each adrenal gland has two parts. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The adrenal gland burns through vitamin C, so be sure your diet includes plenty of Vitamin C foods. (countrysun.com)
  • Pre-contrast axial CT of abdomen shows a mass in the right adrenal gland (white arrow) The left adrenal gland is normal (yellow arrow). (learningradiology.com)
  • Unfortunately, many people suffer from some type of adrenal gland dysfunction which can and will result in a variety of health issues especially those related to daily energy requirements - both mental and physical. (drgangemi.com)
  • We'll learn common signs and symptoms of adrenal gland problems, their interaction with other systems of the body, and how to recover from any adrenal gland dysfunction to restore your overall health. (drgangemi.com)
  • Conventional medicine rarely addresses adrenal gland dysfunctions. (drgangemi.com)
  • Allopathic doctors feel as though a person only has an adrenal gland problem if they have some type of hormonally-related disease or condition to these glands, such as Addison's disease or Cushing's syndrome. (drgangemi.com)
  • Years of eating poorly, living in an unhealthy environment (emotionally or physically), or trauma to the physical body, such as an accident, illness, or exercising too intensely for too long, often lead to poor adrenal gland function. (drgangemi.com)
  • The cortex is the outer zone of the adrenal gland which secretes three hormones - cortisol, DHEA-S, and aldosterone. (drgangemi.com)
  • The medulla of the adrenal gland is the inner zone, (10-20% of the total gland), which secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline, (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine). (drgangemi.com)
  • The adrenal gland is considered an endocrine organ in that it secretes substances into the blood stream that have a major impact on physiologic functions. (michigansurgery.com)
  • The adrenal gland is composed of two distinct layers: the cortex and the medulla. (michigansurgery.com)
  • The cortex comprises approximately 80% of the adrenal gland. (michigansurgery.com)
  • The portion of the gland that is covered by the cortex is the medulla. (michigansurgery.com)
  • In this portion of the adrenal gland, catecholamines are produced and released into the blood circulation. (michigansurgery.com)
  • This means that the lesion is secreting any of the number of substances produced by the adrenal gland in higher than normal quantities. (michigansurgery.com)
  • Although there is some disagreement, lesions larger than 4 cm should be considered for removal of the adrenal gland. (michigansurgery.com)
  • Cushing's syndrome is specific to the adrenal gland being the site for overproduction of cortisol. (michigansurgery.com)
  • What is Benign Adrenal Gland Tumor? (anavara.com)
  • Adrenal gland tumors can either be malignant (cancerous) - growing, multiplying, and spreading to other body parts, or benign (non-cancerous) - do not multiply or spread. (anavara.com)
  • As the name suggests, the HPA axis is composed of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (both in the brain), and the adrenal glands. (health-matrix.net)
  • Familial cases are often bilateral or multicentric within an individual adrenal gland. (medscape.com)
  • Growth Clenbuterol for sale Australia hormone levels are increased by sleep, stress sections on the thyroid gland and the adrenal medulla. (rshim.com)
  • The adrenal cortex produces more than 50 steroid hormones and is the largest part of the adrenal gland. (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • The adrenal, the adrenal gland, is shown here. (coursera.org)
  • The adrenal gland itself has a connective tissue capsule that surrounds the entire gland. (coursera.org)
  • The inner portion of the gland, which is shown here, it's called the medulla. (coursera.org)
  • Therefore, despite the fact that the adrenal glands are not damaged, hormonal production can be compromised due to changes in hormone production resulting from the abnormal performance of the pituitary gland. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Other causes include destruction of the adrenal gland by granulomatous disease, metastatic tumor, hemorrhage, infarction, adrenolytic agents (mitotane), or adrenal enzyme inhibitors (trilostane). (msdvetmanual.com)
  • How Is The Adrenal Gland Related To Glucose Levels? (timberbrit.com)
  • Does the adrenal gland regulate glucose? (timberbrit.com)
  • Adrenal gland cortisol: Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland and promotes gluconeogenesis. (timberbrit.com)
  • Does your adrenal gland affect insulin? (timberbrit.com)
  • Cortisol is a steroid hormone also secreted from the adrenal gland. (timberbrit.com)
  • What happens when the adrenal gland is not functioning properly? (timberbrit.com)
  • and adrenaline, which is released from the adrenal gland medulla. (timberbrit.com)
  • Finally, the chemical concoction triggered by the pituitary gland is received by the adrenal gland after which the latter starts secreting stress and threat-responsive hormones in the body. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • This exhaustion affects the entire adrenal gland: adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • The HPA axis is used when explaining the many sections of the brain and organs involved in adrenal gland hormonal regulation. (arizonafamilyhealthcentre.com)
  • The cortex is the large outer region of the adrenal gland . (osmosis.org)
  • If we zoom in further, we can see some of the blood vessels of the adrenal gland . (osmosis.org)
  • Just outside of the capsule, there are small afferent blood vessels that are branches of the suprarenal arteries that supply blood to the adrenal gland . (osmosis.org)
  • Moving deeper into the adrenal gland , the zona fasciculata is the largest of the three zones and comprises about 65 to 80 percent of the cortex. (osmosis.org)
  • Instead of clusters of cells, unlike the ones we saw in the zona glomerulosa, the secretory cells in this layer are arranged in long cords or columns of cells, often just one to two cells thick that are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the adrenal gland . (osmosis.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas are tumors affecting the adrenal medulla, the central portion of the adrenal gland. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is the central part of the adrenal gland surrounded by the cortex. (chartexamples.com)
  • Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The _________ __________ is composed of modified sympathetic ganglia that secrete catecholamines (mostly epinephrine) to mediate rapid responses in the fight-or-flight situations and takes up a little over a quarter of the inner mass of the adrenal glands. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Magnesium ions also may interfere with the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Catecholamines (e.g. epinephrine/adrenaline) are secreted as hormones from the adrenal medulla. (cibmtr.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas arise from the adrenal medullary chromaffin cells that normally synthesize and secrete the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The medulla is the inner part and produces dopamine and catecholamines (which consist of adrenaline/epinephrine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine). (anavara.com)
  • The biosynthesis and storage of catecholamines in chromaffin cell tumors may differ from the biosynthesis and storage in the normal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Homovanillic acid is one of the inactive derivatives of catecholamines excreted by the adrenal medulla and certain tumours (pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas). (biron.com)
  • Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is a neuroendocrine lesion in the adrenal medulla composed of chromaffin cells producing excess amount of catecholamines. (jmust.org)
  • The catecholamines are produced by sympathetic nerve endings and by the inside portion of the adrenal glands called the medulla. (arizonafamilyhealthcentre.com)
  • The medulla synthesizes catecholamines. (excelimmune.com)
  • The adrenal glands make hormones such as adrenaline, aldosterone, and cortisol. (oncolink.org)
  • acts on the adrenal cortex to promote synthesis and release of cortisol. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Among other functions, the adrenal cortex secretes cortisol, a hormone that helps the body cope with the effects of stress. (countrysun.com)
  • During pregnancy, maternal cortisol is regulated by the placenta, uterine decidua, and fetal membrane, in addition to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis [2] . (researchgate.net)
  • Cortisol is the major adrenal hormone that is released in response to blood sugar changes, inflammation , and of course stress. (drgangemi.com)
  • The interaction, or perhaps I should say relationship, between cortisol and DHEA is important to understand when discussing the adrenal glands role in overall health. (drgangemi.com)
  • Addison's disease is caused by the decreased release of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. (queenvillageah.com)
  • Your adrenals are also responsible for producing steroid hormones from cholesterol, including DHEA, progesterone, estrogen, testosterone and cortisol. (health-matrix.net)
  • What is more, chronic stress can suppress the HPA axis, leading to lower production of cortisol by the adrenals. (health-matrix.net)
  • As it happens, it seems that leptin enhances your flight or fight response and it inhibits the secretion of steroid hormones (cortisol) by the adrenals. (health-matrix.net)
  • Adrenal fatigue refers to the concept of too much stress depleting your adrenals and causing a decrease in the output of adrenal hormones, particularly cortisol. (health-matrix.net)
  • Cortisol is one important adrenal cortex steroid hormone, and want Anavar tablets for sale more information, we speak for this time of the cutting, the cutting anabolic steroids. (rshim.com)
  • If you suspect that your dog has a hormone imbalance, Dr. Mercola's Adrenal Balance formula contains quality ingredients that can help support cortisol and hormone balances. (all-about-bichon-frises.com)
  • When blood sugar levels are low, our adrenal glands produce the hormone cortisol to raise blood sugar levels. (timberbrit.com)
  • Too much cortisol over an extended period leads to adrenal fatigue. (timberbrit.com)
  • With adrenal insufficiency, the inability to increase cortisol production with stress can lead to an addisonian crisis . (timberbrit.com)
  • The continuous stressful and hectic schedule activates the adrenal glands ultimately, which keeps on releasing cortisol constantly. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Cortisol is produced and released by the outer portion of the adrenal glands called the cortex. (arizonafamilyhealthcentre.com)
  • and the zona fasciculata and reticularis, which together produce cortisol and adrenal androgens. (excelimmune.com)
  • Steroids that are produced almost exclusively by the adrenal glands are cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, aldosterone, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone. (excelimmune.com)
  • Adrenal production of cortisol is approximately 25 mg/day and that of aldosterone is 100 μg/day. (excelimmune.com)
  • Serum cortisol inhibits CRH and corticotropin secretion, thus preventing excessive cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands. (excelimmune.com)
  • Corticotropin stimulates cortisol secretion and promotes the growth of the adrenal cortex in conjunction with growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2. (excelimmune.com)
  • Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors arising from the adrenal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (cap.org)
  • In 2017, WHO presented an update on recent classification of adrenal tumors (in fourth edition of the World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors ). (wikidoc.org)
  • Abdominal CT scan allowed making the adrenal origin of tumors precise. (scirp.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors that originate from the adrenal medulla. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Extra-adrenal sites for related tumors (paragangliomas) have been reported in other tissues, including the heart. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The tumors arise from the primitive neuroectodermal cells or neural crest cells (adrenal medulla precursor). (radiopaedia.org)
  • The impact of genetics and genomics on clinical medicine is becoming more and more important Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field. (elsevier.com)
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. (elsevier.com)
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease. (elsevier.com)
  • images .in The adrenal glands can develop tumors when their cells begin to mutate and take a different form (tumor). (anavara.com)
  • The majority of adrenal tumors are benign adrenal tumors. (anavara.com)
  • What Are Benign Adrenal Tumors? (anavara.com)
  • Benign adrenal tumors are non-cancerous tumors or masses that form in the adrenal glands. (anavara.com)
  • Non-functional (inactive) benign adrenal tumors do not produce hormones. (anavara.com)
  • Functional (active) benign adrenal tumors produce and secrete the same hormones as the part of the adrenal glands they occupy. (anavara.com)
  • Benign adrenal tumors form in each part of the adrenal glands, and the tumors that form in the parts are named differently. (anavara.com)
  • The term paraganglioma refers to any extra-adrenal or nonfunctional tumor of the paraganglion system, whereas functional tumors are referred to as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. (medscape.com)
  • Usually, extra-adrenal tumors (extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas) are located in the abdomen along the sympathetic chain and constitute about 10% of sporadic cases. (medscape.com)
  • Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla, which is part of the adrenal glands. (all-about-bichon-frises.com)
  • Patients with pheochromocytomas should undergo surgical resection, with laparoscopic adrenalectomy preferred for patients with single, small intra-adrenal tumors without malignant features. (roshreview.com)
  • The PCI 2 cell line is derived from an induced pheochromocytoma and, when grown in a serum-supplemented medium, PCI 2 cells exhibit many features of their normal counterparts, adrenal chromaffin cells (Greene and Tischler 1976). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alpha blockers and phenoxybenzamine (regitin) have a diagnostic role in pheochromocytoma, hypertensive disease, hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla. (biosantepharma.com)
  • First cultured by Greene and Tischler in 1976, PC-12 cells originated from a pheochromocytoma (neuroendocrine tumor) of the rat adrenal medulla. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Pheochromocytoma - This is a disease of the adrenal medulla whereby excess "adrenaline" hormones are produced. (michigansurgery.com)
  • Lenders JWM & Eisenhofer G. Pathophysiology and diagnosis of disorders of the adrenal medulla: focus on pheochromocytoma. (jmust.org)
  • Pheochromocytoma, an adrenal tumor that secretes excess amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • A 3 cm adrenal mass consistent with a pheochromocytoma without malignant features is visualized on CT scan. (roshreview.com)
  • A pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (roshreview.com)
  • The following scenarios warrant a high index of suspicion: family history of pheochromocytoma, genetic syndrome that is associated with pheochromocytoma (MEN2, VHL, NF1), prior resection of pheochromocytoma, or adrenal mass consistent with pheochromocytoma. (your-doctor.net)
  • The patient above had a family history of pheochromocytoma and an incidentally found adrenal mass, which qualify for a high index of suspicion and thus further confirmation with plasma-fractionated metanephrines. (your-doctor.net)
  • While the long term or chronic stress responses are regulated via the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) pathway. (bartleby.com)
  • [3] In humans and most mammals, the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are the two major systems that respond to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the condition allows it, [CV004 trade name] should be given as a single daily dose (daytime) or a single dose every second day, to reduce suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (who.int)
  • The adrenal cortex secretes hormones that have an effect on the body's metabolism. (barnesjewish.org)
  • The adrenal cortex secretes hormones into the bloodstream. (barnesjewish.org)
  • The inner zone of the adrenal cortex, zona reticular is, secretes mostly ______, the sex hormones dominant in men. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The medulla triggers the "flight or fight" response and secretes adrenaline. (countrysun.com)
  • Adrenal medulla secretes Epinephrine and Nor-Epinephrine . (freezingblue.com)
  • The pituitary also secretes endorphins (en-DOR-fins), chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain. (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
  • Located above each kidney, adrenal glands produce steroid hormones called adrenaline and noradrenaline to control heart rate, blood pressure and other body functions. (scripps.org)
  • The medulla (the inner portion) makes the chemicals epinephrine (also called adrenaline) and norepinephrine. (oncolink.org)
  • Adrenal insufficiency has to do with adrenaline and noradrenaline and the adrenal medulla. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • These situations can result in the hypothalamus to activate the adrenal medulla, which then begins to secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine hormones. (bartleby.com)
  • The adrenals are located on top of your kidneys and they are responsible for producing noradrenaline and adrenaline which are important for your "fight or flight" acute response. (health-matrix.net)
  • The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine. (all-about-bichon-frises.com)
  • On fight and flight situations Adrenaline is released by the adrenal glands. (chartexamples.com)
  • [ 1 ] Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) originate from the adrenal medulla, whereas paragangliomas (PGLs) arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia. (medscape.com)
  • To elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological significance of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, respectively) in human sympathoadrenal system, the contents of these peptides in normal human sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, and pheochromocytomas were determined by specific radioimmunoassays combined with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (jci.org)
  • These results suggest the physiological roles of Met- and Leu-enkephalin in sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands and their pathophysiological significances in pheochromocytomas. (jci.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas can be found in both adrenal glands and in areas far away from the adrenal glands, referred to as paragangliomas. (michigansurgery.com)
  • Adrenal pheochromocytomas are most often found on the right side and are sporadic, unilateral, and intra-adrenal. (medscape.com)
  • 4 NCCs migrate ventrally at mouse embryonic day 9.5 to the dorsal aorta where they receive inductive signals to form sympathetic ganglia or continue to the adrenal anlage to form chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. (nature.com)
  • 2002a) and chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla ( Cho et al. (archive.org)
  • The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. (medscape.com)
  • Contrast media -- Kidneys (native and transplant) -- Adrenal glands -- Upper tract (pelvicalyceal system and ureter) -- Lower tract (bladder and urethra) -- Male genital (prostate, penis, scrotum) -- Female genital i (uterus and cervix) -- Female genital ii (ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, and vulva) -- Retroperitoneum -- Review and miscellaneous. (stanford.edu)
  • The adrenal glands are mustard colored, small triangular or crescent shaped organs that are located on the upper pole of both kidneys. (michigansurgery.com)
  • A layer of fatty tissue separates the adrenal glands from the kidneys. (michigansurgery.com)
  • The adrenal glands are two in number, each located at the top of the left and right kidneys. (anavara.com)
  • Thus, the Ancient Chinese texts say that the root of Yin and Yang in our bodies is in the kidneys, meaning the small adrenal glands, which are attached to the kidneys. (yang-sheng.com)
  • There are two adrenal glands that sit above the kidneys, each about the size of a walnut. (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • The adrenal glands in a dog are located just in front of the kidneys. (all-about-bichon-frises.com)
  • You have two adrenals just as you have two kidneys in your body. (coursera.org)
  • The adrenal glands are located over the kidneys and are made up of different tissues. (hickeysolution.com)
  • The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located just above or superior to the kidneys and are also in the retroperitoneal space of the abdominal cavity. (osmosis.org)
  • Adrenal glands are small, triangular glands located on top of both kidneys and are about the size of an index finger, measuring approximately half an inch in height and about three inches long. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • He zeroed in on his adrenal glands, which sit atop the kidneys on either side of the lower abdomen. (edu.bd)
  • The adrenal glands produce hormones. (oncolink.org)
  • During periods of stress (exercise, starvation, fear) the adrenal glands produce and release a number of hormones that optimize the body to best manage the stressors. (michigansurgery.com)
  • Both the inner and outer regions of adrenal glands produce all the major hormones which we have discussed so far. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • However, when the adrenal glands produce too much or too little of these hormones, they can have a negative effect on an individual's health, including their ability to cope with physical and emotional stress. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is what can be considered the head master of your adrenals. (health-matrix.net)
  • So today we going to talk about the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. (coursera.org)
  • H is for hypothalamus, P is for pituitary, A is for adrenal. (arizonafamilyhealthcentre.com)
  • These adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nussdorfer, "Paracrine control of adrenal cortical function by medullary chromaffin cells ," Pharmacological Reviews, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Blockade of adrenal medullary stimulation in cats by competitive & depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. (who.int)
  • And within the medulla, there are the large medullary veins that drain blood into the suprarenal veins. (osmosis.org)
  • Such OT induced ACTH secretion is inhibited by adrenal glucocorticoid hormones (GC), however regular HPA axis negative feedback, and ACTH secretion is not only induced by OT. (scirp.org)
  • There are several syndromes that are attributed to excess secretion of adrenal hormones. (michigansurgery.com)
  • To begin with, adrenal fatigue is the name of the dysfunction of hormonal secretion from adrenal glands that are vital for life. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Adrenal fatigue is a condition that destabilizes the normal function of your adrenal glands and severely disrupts the hormonal secretion process. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • 1,2,7] They can arise in the adrenal medulla and also, in around 10% of cases, in the extra-adrenal paraganglionic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1,3-5] These extra-adrenal tumours are known as paragangliomas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The adrenal medulla is responsible for producing hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. (stclairveterinary.com)
  • The adrenal medulla regulates the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine. (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • What does the adrenal medulla secrete when stimulated by the sympathetic Ns? (studystack.com)
  • When a person reaches this stage, other major functions of the body becomes affected as well because adrenal glands also secrete hormones that are directly responsible for managing blood/sugar levels, resistance to infections, and digestive system. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • The adrenal medula releases epi and nor eip in direct response to stimulation from the autonomic ns. (studentdoctor.net)
  • Which autonomic receptor is activated by low concentrations of epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla and causes vasodilation? (proprofs.com)
  • Mechanisms of hypoglycaemia associated autonomic failure: the involvement of opioid signalling in the adrenal medulla. (edu.au)
  • As the enkephalins are widely distributed neurotransmitters and neurohormones found in the brain, spinal cord, pituitary, adrenal medulla, autonomic nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract, changes in their concentration may influence many functions. (cdc.gov)
  • An adrenal adenoma will cause symptoms if it is making an excess of hormones like aldosterone, which can cause high blood pressure. (oncolink.org)
  • However, some of these preganglionic neurons pass right on through this second ganglion and into the adrenal medulla . (biology-pages.info)
  • Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example the connections between the adrenal medulla in areas of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning and performance of movement may help us to account for why core body exercises are so helpful to us in moderating our responses to stress. (wileypsychologyupdates.ca)
  • ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to make and release corticosteroid hormones into the blood. (barnesjewish.org)
  • ACTH makes its way through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands. (teachingexpertise.com)
  • It is the one who produces the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), responsible for boosting the production of other hormones by the adrenal cortex. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Confirmation requires adrenal function testing using the ACTH stimulation test. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Neuroblastoma is a common childhood cancer that grows in parts of the nervous system or adrenal glands. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adrenal adenomas are benign masses that may or may not produce excess hormones. (michigansurgery.com)
  • An endocrine organ benign neoplasm that arises within the adrenal medulla, releasing epinephrines and norepinephrines hormones that cause either episodic or persistent high blood pressure. (zfin.org)
  • Treatment for adrenal disorders depends on which hormone is affected and the symptoms that are present. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • The outer region is called the adrenal cortex. (barnesjewish.org)
  • The adrenal cortex (the outer portion) makes steroid hormones. (oncolink.org)
  • The adrenal glands are actually composed of two separate functional entities, the outer cortex and the inner medulla. (drgangemi.com)
  • The outer part is the adrenal cortex . (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
  • They have two compartments: the adrenal medulla (inner compartment) and the adrenal cortex (outer compartment). (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • Adrenal cortex: Strong labelling in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Now, let's take a closer look at the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. (osmosis.org)
  • The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones , also known as corticosteroids. (hickeysolution.com)
  • This chapter examines disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal medulla. (nursingresearchers.com)
  • It then explores disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal cortex. (nursingresearchers.com)
  • Disorders of the adrenal cortex and medulla can result in glucose intolerance or overt diabetes mellitus . (timberbrit.com)
  • Adrenal disorders include any abnormality, irregularity or medical condition that affects the adrenal glands. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • What are common adrenal disorders? (adeclittlerock.com)
  • Our kind and caring professionals are dedicated to providing the highest level of care for every patient and specialize in treating adrenal disorders with expertise you can trust. (adeclittlerock.com)
  • In it, he found an important passage discussing how adrenal disorders could mirror thyroid disorders. (edu.bd)
  • Re: What about adrenal insufficiency? (oneradionetwork.com)
  • What is called "adrenal insufficiency" is oxytocin insufficiency. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Oxytocin insufficiency has to do with oxytocin and vasopressin and the adrenal cortex. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency is the loss of the ability to spectral-shift, shape-shift, and "eat" through our skin. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Common in age 40, but developing at any age, Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or chronic primary adrenocortical insufficiency , affects both men and women. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency: primary or secondary? (hickeysolution.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be categorized as primary or secondary. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency is the name given to a problem similar to Addison's disease. (hickeysolution.com)
  • The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • VPAC2 receptors are in blood vessels, smooth muscles, the basal part of mucosal epithelium in colon, lung, and vasculature of kidney, adrenal medulla and retina. (powershow.com)
  • AT1 receptor, which mediates most of the biological results of AT-II action, including vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and production of extracellular matrix proteins, is found in the kidney, liver, adrenal cortex, and blood vessels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adrenal glands are small, triangular glands that sit on top of each kidney. (barnesjewish.org)
  • You have two adrenal glands, each located just above each kidney. (oncolink.org)
  • Overview of the Adrenal Glands The body has two adrenal glands, one near the top of each kidney. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We have two adrenal glands consisting of a medulla and a cortex, and each sits atop a kidney. (countrysun.com)
  • Your adrenal glands are small walnut-sized glands that sit on top of each kidney. (drgangemi.com)
  • These two triangular adrenal (uh-DREE-nul) glands sit on top of each kidney. (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
  • The surgeons note an adrenal mass not previously seen on imaging, and manipulation of the kidney causes severe hypertension up to 225/135 mm Hg. (your-doctor.net)
  • There are many types of steroid hormones made by the adrenal glands. (oncolink.org)
  • Most other steroid hormones, including estrogens, are produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. (excelimmune.com)
  • Long-term, cats with hypoadrenocorticism require medications to supplement the substances released from the adrenal glands. (queenvillageah.com)
  • The adrenal cortex produces Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids. (bartleby.com)
  • PCCs are rare catecholamine-producing tumours thought to arise from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It originates from primitive sympathetic ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla or, less commonly, other sites. (ascopost.com)
  • An adrenal cortex tumor is an abnormal growth of cells in the adrenal cortex. (stclairveterinary.com)
  • Cancers that arise directly from the adrenal cortex are called adrenal cortical carcinoma (also called adrenocortical cancer or adrenal cancer). (oncolink.org)
  • 2011). α 2-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Inhibition of Catecholamine Release from the Adrenal Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats is Preserved in the Early Stages of Hypertension . (up.pt)
  • It is a cancer of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) with primary lesions found in the sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal medulla. (nature.com)
  • Chromaffin cells are found in the medulla of the adrenal glands and in small clusters in the sympathetic ganglia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ratio of Met- to Leu-enkephalin was 2.6 in human adrenal medulla, whereas it was higher in sympathetic ganglia or trunks. (jci.org)
  • Finally there also connections between the adrenal medulla and areas in the cortex that become activated during meditation and that show changes in cases of bipolar depression which may help to account for the previously observed link between stress and depression as well as help account for the potentially positive effects of mindfully focused cognitive behavioural therapy on the symptoms of depression. (wileypsychologyupdates.ca)
  • In the context of the stress reaction the ANS triggers the adrenal medulla. (teachingexpertise.com)
  • Researchers uncovered neural pathways between the cerebral cortex-a seat of conscious thought-and the adrenal medulla, which helps the body respond to stress . (goodtherapy.org)
  • Over time, sustained stress can exhaust the adrenal glands, which can affect all of your body's major physiological processes. (countrysun.com)
  • Parts of the body particularly affected by stress are the gastrointestinal tract (GI), the adrenal glands, and the lymphatic structures. (freezingblue.com)
  • The adrenal glands essentially help your body handle stress, whether acute or chronic, so they play a huge role in overall health, fitness, and well-being. (drgangemi.com)
  • If you're under any sort of stress, or have ever been under any stress, (that's everyone), either chronic or acute, your adrenal glands have helped get you through it. (drgangemi.com)
  • If you are "adrenals are shot", then your stress-coping abilities are severely depleted. (health-matrix.net)
  • Adrenal fatigue can affect anyone who experiences frequent, persistent, or severe mental, emotional or physical stress. (health-matrix.net)
  • The HPA axis, as the head master overseeing your adrenals, has an effect in your reactions to stress. (health-matrix.net)
  • Years of poor sleep, excessive stimulants such as coffee, chronic psychological stress (anything from a divorce to an economic collapse without mentioning stressful climate changes…), surgeries, traumatic events, and environmental toxicity can have a very heavy toll in your adrenals. (health-matrix.net)
  • The adrenal-medulla controls the sympathetic nervous system which is involved in the anti-stress or "fight or flight" response, the immune system, protection and stimulation of primary bodily response. (yang-sheng.com)
  • The adrenals recognize stress in different forms, not only from physical sources but from dietary, mental and emotional sources too. (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • Your adrenal glands function to modulate stress to help your body cope with the physical effects. (quitchronicfatigue.com)
  • The theory behind adrenal fatigue states that people who are constantly exposed to stress or pushing themselves harder will suffer breakdown, or burnout, of their adrenal glands. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • The root cause of adrenal fatigue mainly lies in prolonged exposure to stress or anxiety-inducing situations in life. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • This much exposure to stress, first perceived by the amygdala in our brain, triggers a chemical response towards the HPA Axis, a combined group of hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal glands. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Pathogenesis includes many genetic pathways , most prominent being Wnt-Beta catenin pathway and also association with other diseases such as multiple endocrine neoplasia ( MEN1 and MEN2 ), familial adenomatous polyposis , Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome , Li-Fraumeni syndrome , Lynch syndrome , von Hippel-Lindau disease , carney Complex / Syndrome , neurofibromatosis type 1 and congenital adrenal hyperplasia . (wikidoc.org)
  • It is not Addison's disease itself, because the cause of the problem does not originate in the adrenal glands, but in the brain. (hickeysolution.com)
  • Explanations: Glucocorticoids are produced by the adrenal cortex. (testpreppractice.net)
  • Measurement of the level of circulating glucocorticoids and steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortex. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Hypoadrenocorticism, also known as Addison's disease, is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough glucocorticoids (steroids) to allow normal body function. (queenvillageah.com)