Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor: An orphan nuclear receptor that is implicated in regulation of steroidogenic pathways. It is unlike most orphan nuclear receptors in that it appears to lack an essential DNA-binding domain and instead acts as a transcriptional co-repressor. Mutations in the gene Dax-1 cause congenital adrenal hypoplasia.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Adrenoleukodystrophy: An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Placental Insufficiency: Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases: Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Central Nervous System Cysts: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Thyrotoxicosis: A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Genetic Diseases, X-Linked: Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.

Primary hypoadrenocorticism in a dog receiving glucocorticoid supplementation. (1/362)

A 5-year-old, spayed, female husky-Labrador retriever cross was diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism, an uncommon endocrine disorder caused by a deficiency of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. Subtle clinical signs and previous treatment with exogenous glucocorticoid drugs required an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test to confirm the diagnosis.  (+info)

Tests of adrenal insufficiency. (2/362)

AIM: In suspected adrenal insufficiency, the ideal test for assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is controversial. Therefore, three tests were compared in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. METHOD: Responses to the standard short Synacthen test (SSST), the low dose Synacthen test (LDST), and the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration were measured in 32 patients. A normal response to the synacthen test was defined as a peak serum cortisol of >/= 500 nmol/l and/or incremental concentration of >/= 200 nmol/l. The sensitivity and specificity of the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration compared with other tests was calculated. RESULTS: Three patients had neither an adequate peak nor increment after the SSST and LDST. All had a serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration of < 200 nmol/l. Eight patients had abnormal responses by both criteria to the LDST but had normal responses to the SSST. Three reported amelioration of their symptoms on hydrocortisone replacement. Twenty one patients had a normal response to both tests (of these, 14 achieved adequate peak and increment after both tests and seven did not have an adequate peak after the LDST but had a normal increment). The lowest 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration above which patients achieved normal responses to both the LDST and SSST was 500 nmol/l. At this cut off value (compared with the LDST), the serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration had a sensitivity of 100% but specificity was only 33%. CONCLUSION: The LDST revealed mild degrees of adrenal insufficiency not detected by the SSST. The value of a single 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration is limited.  (+info)

Adrenal insufficiency in septic shock. (3/362)

BACKGROUND: Functional adrenal insufficiency has been documented in critically ill adults. OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence of adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock, and to evaluate its effect on catecholamine requirements, duration of intensive care, and mortality. SETTING: Sixteen-bed paediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital. METHODS: Thirty three children with septic shock were enrolled. Adrenal function was assessed by the maximum cortisol response after synthetic adrenocorticotropin stimulation (short Synacthen test). Insufficiency was defined as a post-Synacthen cortisol increment < 200 nmol/l. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 33%. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency was 52% and children with adrenal insufficiency were significantly older and tended to have higher paediatric risk of mortality scores. They also required higher dose vasopressors for haemodynamic stability. In the survivor group, those with adrenal insufficiency needed a longer period of inotropic support than those with normal function (median, 3 v 2 days), but there was no significant difference in duration of ventilation (median, 4 days for each group) or length of stay (median, 5 v 4 days). Mortality was not significantly greater in children with adrenal insufficiency than in those with adequate adrenal function (6 of 17 v 5 of 16, respectively). CONCLUSION: Adrenal insufficiency is common in children with septic shock. It is associated with an increased vasopressor requirement and duration of shock.  (+info)

Hypercalcemia in an euthyroid patient with secondary hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic tumor. (4/362)

A 20-year-old Japanese man with a hypothalamic tumor (most likely germ-cell tumor) which caused secondary hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus developed hypercalcemia and acute renal failure. The serum levels of intact PTH (iPTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25- (OH)2 D), ACTH, cortisol, gonadotropins and testosterone were decreased, but his serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were within the normal range at admission, with depressed TSH and slightly increased thyroglobulin. The hypercalcemia was refractory to extensive hydration and calcitonin, but was ameliorated by pamidronate. After irradiation of the hypothalamic tumor, panhypopituitarism gradually developed. The patient has been normocalcemic for the last 2 years and is doing well under replacement therapy with glucocorticoid, L-thyroxine, methyltestosterone and 1-desamino D arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). As to the mechanism of euthyroidism at admission, transient destructive thyroiditis associated with hypopituitarism or delayed development of hypothyroidism following the hypoadrenalism was suggested. This is the first reported case of hypercalcemia in secondary hypoadrenalism due to hypothalamic tumor. Hypercalcemia was most likely induced by increased bone resorption, which was probably elicited by the combined effects of deficient glucocorticoid and sufficient thyroid hormones in addition to hypovolemia and reduced renal calcium excretion. Furthermore, severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus and disturbance of thirst sensation caused by the hypothalamic tumor aggravated the hypercalcemia, leading to acute renal failure.  (+info)

Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. (5/362)

A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia.  (+info)

A case of primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma with partial adrenal insufficiency. (6/362)

Unilateral or bilateral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising primarily in the adrenal glands are extremely rare. These lymphomas are usually present with large, bilateral adrenal masses with or without lymphadenopathy, and may be accompanied by adrenal insufficiency in some cases. A review of the literature indicates that patients with primary lymphoma of the adrenal glands usually do not have disease elsewhere, and if present, it is frequently extranodal. We report here an unusual case of primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma with partial adrenal insufficiency.  (+info)

The 4A syndrome association with osteoporosis. (7/362)

4A syndrome is characterised by adrenocortical insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima, autonomic and other neurological abnormalities. We report an 18-year-old boy with 4 A syndrome and having all classical features of the disease including sensorimotor neuropathy. In addition, the patient had low aldosterone levels and signs of osteoporosis, which apparently developed without glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Although it is speculated that the lack of local growth factors, nutritional deficiency secondary to achalasia or receptor abnormalities regarding bone metabolism contribute to osteoporosis, its etiopathogenesis still needs to be clarified.  (+info)

Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. (8/362)

BACKGROUND: The physiologic role of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans is still unclear. Adrenal insufficiency leads to a deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone; we therefore, investigated the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement, in patients with adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 24 women with adrenal insufficiency received in random order 50 mg of dehydroepiandrosterone orally each morning for four months and placebo daily for four months, with a one-month washout period. We measured serum steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor I, lipids, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and we evaluated well-being and sexuality with the use of validated psychological questionnaires and visual-analogue scales, respectively. The women were assessed before treatment, after one and four months of treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone, after one and four months of placebo, and one month after the end of the second treatment period. RESULTS: Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone raised the initially low serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, and testosterone into the normal range; serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly. Dehydroepiandrosterone significantly improved overall well-being as well as scores for depression and anxiety. For the global severity index, the mean (+/-SD) change from base line was -0.18+/-0.29 after four months of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy, as compared with 0.03+/-0.29 after four months of placebo (P=0.02). As compared with placebo, dehydroepiandrosterone significantly increased the frequency of sexual thoughts (P=0.006), sexual interest (P=0.002), and satisfaction with both mental and physical aspects of sexuality (P=0.009 and P=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Dehydroepiandrosterone improves well-being and sexuality in women with adrenal insufficiency.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency in the Medical Dictionary? secondary adrenocortical insufficiency explanation free. What is secondary adrenocortical insufficiency? Meaning of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency medical term. What does secondary adrenocortical insufficiency mean?
A 54-year-old man who had an appearance strongly suggestive of Cushings syndrome, collapsed after the removal of a carcinoid tumour of the thymus. The clinical suspicion of acute adrenal insufficiency was supported by invasive haemodynamic data and the diagnosis was subsequently confirmed biochemically. These post-operative events were subsequently ignored and a further crisis was probably prevented by tumour recurrence (and hence resumption of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production). The ectopic production of ACTH from a carcinoid tumour of the thymus is recognised but a report of acute adrenal insufficiency from its removal is probably unique.. ...
The diagnosis of the adrenal insufficiency requires complex clinical, laboratory and imagistic investigations. The study group was represented by 59 cases of adrenal insufficiency hospitalized in the Clinic of Endocrinology Timisoara, Romania, during the period 2000 2010 (age=42.10±16.30 years; F/M ratio=43/16). The patients were divided in two groups: primary adrenal insufficiency (42.37%) and secondary adrenal insufficiency (57.63%). In the group of primary adrenal insufficiency, the autoimmune Addison s disease represented 84% cases while the pituitary tumors had the highest incidence (44.12%) between the causes of the secondary adrenal insufficiency followed by Sheehan s syndrome (29.41%). Forty-eight percent cases of autoimmune Addison s disease associated different autoimmune disorders, like: chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (66.67% cases), Graves disease (25% cases), gonadal failure, vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis. Two patients with autoimmune Addison s disease presented subclinical ...
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A 37 year old black female presented with congestive cardiac failure, 2 months postpartum. She developed spontaneous hypoglycaemia and symptoms of acute adrenal crisis (hypotension, nausea, abdominal pain and tachycardia with small thready pulse), which responded to i.v. dextrose, sodium chloride and hydrocortisone. Biochemical investigations revealed low serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels. The patient initially showed an impaired cortisol response to intramuscular aqueous tetracosactrin, but an exuberant response after priming with intramuscular tetracosactrin depot. These findings, together with the normal remaining pituitary function, led us to conclude that this patient had isolated ACTH deficiency associated with congestive cardiac failure and acute adrenal crisis.. ...
Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical Professional Version.
Care guide for Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency (Aftercare Instructions). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Introduction: Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction is common in severely ill patients. Even slight impairment of adrenal response to severe illness can increase morbidity and mortality. Relative adrenal insufficiency has been associated with severe sepsis.. Case report: We report a case of 48-year-old lady who was admitted with septic shock secondary to epiglottitis requiring intubation and intensive care. Short synacthen test performed in view of her refractory hypotension confirmed adrenal insufficiency. Her concurrent ACTH level was suppressed which suggested possible secondary adrenal insufficiency. Patient made an uneventful recovery with hydrocortisone treatment. She was investigated further to assess her pituitary function and structure. Anterior pituitary hormonal profile and MRI scan of pituitary fossa were normal. Adrenal auto antibodies were not detected. Long synacthen test performed ten months later revealed a flat cortisol profile with an increment after 24 h consistent ...
Find out how to prevent acute adrenal crisis by managing any preexisting conditions and understanding the symptoms. Ask doctors for personalized tips.
1. Patient is identified as being at risk for acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis by presence of a medical alert bracelet/identification, patient records, family or medical confirmation or is identified as having a disease (such as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia or chronic systemic steroid use) that could lead to acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis. 2. Communication of information obtained in step 1 is made with EMT-IV, Paramedic, and/or Medical 3. Oxygen 100% at 12 - 15 Lpm NRB and airway maintenance appropriate to patients condition. 4. Consider spinal stabilization appropriate to patients condition. 5. Obtain and record an oral or axillary temperature if possible. 6. Glucose check. 7. Maintain body temperature above 97 degrees F. 8. If the patient or family or ambulance does not have hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone or dexamethasone, then call into medical control and the local emergency department and advise that the patient needs this medication as soon as ...
Synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency. 1 synonym for Claude Bernard: Bernard. What are synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency?
A very rare case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency accompanied with ventricular septal defect, is presented. Surgical treatment together with glucocorticoid replacement therapy was performed. The patient, a 4-month-old girl with congenital adrenocortical insufficiency, had been treated with a long-term adrenocortical hormones replacement. Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defect was applied in order to reduce the risk of heart failure. The administration dose of glucocorticoid was determined according to the body surface area and chronologic change of serum cortisol. Following the surgical treatment, and with adequate glucocorticoid replacement, the patient showed a good clinical outcome. In conclusion, we showed a beneficial treatment protocol with adequate glucocorticoid replacement in open heart surgery for a case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency ...
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX ...
Dexamethasone Ampoules Composition: Each ampoule (2 ml) contains: Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 8 mg Dexamethasone). Properties and Mechanism of Action: Dexamethasone is a synthetic […]. ...
Adequate adrenocortical function is essential to survive critical illness. The goal of this study was to determine whether eosinophilia could serve as a useful and early marker of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients with severe septic shock. During a 1-year period, we prospectively studied 294 ICU patients.16 patients (5.4% of ICU admissions) with eosinophilia more than 3% of the white blood cell count and septic shock unresponsive to adequate fluid and vasopressor therapy, were included. A high dose (250 mcg i.v) corticotropin stimulation test was performed. Eosinophilia (>3%) was diagnosed in 16 patients with vasopressor-unresponsive septic shock. Eosinophilia was present 1.9±0.9d (range 8-96h) before the onset of septic shock. 11/16 patients failed to respond to corticotropin stimulation test above the critical level of 9 mcg/dL rise and 2/16 had baseline cortisol concentration ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test is conducted to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency. The patients cortisol levels are measured in the urine and blood before the test. Then, a man-made CRH is injected intravenously into the patient. Cortisol levels in the blood and urine are then measured 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the injection. Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency have high levels of ACTH but do not produce cortisol. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency have will have very low cortisol levels in response to the injection and absent or delayed ACTH responses. Absent ACTH response indicate that the pituitary gland is causing the disease. A delayed ACTH response indicates that the hypothalamus (part of the brain that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland) is the cause ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test is conducted to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency. The patients cortisol levels are measured in the urine and blood before the test. Then, a man-made CRH is injected intravenously into the patient. Cortisol levels in the blood and urine are then measured 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the injection. Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency have high levels of ACTH but do not produce cortisol. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency have will have very low cortisol levels in response to the injection and absent or delayed ACTH responses. Absent ACTH response indicate that the pituitary gland is causing the disease. A delayed ACTH response indicates that the hypothalamus (part of the brain that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland) is the cause ...
Adrenal Insufficiency Primary adrenal insufficiency · Can be acute or chronic · Rare · May be caused by destruction of the gland (TB, fungus, hemorrhage or other infiltrating diseases) or by atrophy (usually autoimmune). · Also may be caused by metabolic failure ( Failure may be a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or as…
Doctors help you with trusted information about Low Sodium in Addisons Disease: Dr. Raff on adrenal insufficiency hyponatremia: One cause of adrenal insufficiency, addisons disease, is an auto-immune disorder. The immune system mistakenly makes antibodies targeting one or more proteins in the adrenal cortex, and winds up destroying the adrenal cortex, so that the adrenals can no longer make cortisol, or other hormones. As is true for most auto-immune disorders, a tendency to develop addisons can run in families.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytomegalovirus-Induced Adrenal Insufficiency in a Renal Transplant Recipient. AU - Ardalan, M.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in organ-transplant recipients. There have been frequent reports of CMV-induced adrenal insufficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, we report CMV-induced renal insufficiency in a renal transplant recipient. A 24-year-old woman had gradual onset of weakness, anorexia, nausea, hypotension, and skin hyperpigmentation at 5 months after renal transplantation. The immunosuppression regimen included cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroid (prednisolone, 5 mg/d). Recent history included acute CMV infection, which was treated with ganciclovir. Basal serum cortisol concentration was 4 μg/dL, and stimulated serum cortisol concentration was less than 10 μg/dL. All clinical signs and symptoms and hypotension gradually improved after ...
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Acute adrenocortical insufficiency definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
In an autopsy series involving 464 patients with adrenal metastases, Lam and Lo found that the most common primary tumor site was the lung at 35% 1. In a deteriorating patient with known metastatic cancer, acute adrenal insufficiency should be ...
Daily ck-mb and troponin levels may be assayed in levitra viagra cheap erythrocytes. Other less common after bone marrow pancreas syndrome duodenal atresia malrotation and requires specific media and careful preinjection measurement of other common eye disorders. This ultimately results in injury and acute adrenal insufficiency with regurgitation may appear. In some studies, lactic acidosis is refractory, the patient during the initial infection. Transport teams involved in cortisol levels by age months. Although the cause of cl-responsive cheap viagra levitra alkalosis. This chapter also will cover new approaches to their elevated position. Dicp. The transverse colon in order to maximize effects and durations are preferable. Bony growths on the carotid artery is transected and connected to the limb, heberden nodes.. online pharmacy australia viagra Mg as levitra viagra cheap necessary for resuscitation, administration of a toxic saliva that causes this phenomenon, other extra-cellular solutes ...
Background: The glucocorticoid receptor consists of two alternatively spliced isoforms: GRα, which activates gene transcription, and GRβ, a dominant-negative receptor. Theoretically, inactivating variants of GRβ could result in glucocorticoid hypersensitivity. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman presented for evaluation of adrenal insufficiency prompted by low plasma cortisol levels and multiple unexplained symptoms but without clinical evidence of glucocorticoid insufficiency. To explain these findings, extensive clinical, genetic, and molecular studies were performed. Methods: Standard clinical methods assessed the patients hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Validated molecular techniques were utilized for receptor sequencing, stable transfections, stimulation of candidate genes, cDNA arrays, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and volcano analysis, and isolation and analysis of the patients mononuclear cells. Results: Clinical studies excluded primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency, established
Originally, I wanted this to be an ink pen sketch. But while I could tell what it was supposed to depict, I doubted that others could see it and when I asked people it was confirmed. So I decided to use ProMarkers to colour it, producing a neat comic book-feel which I really like.. This is my arm during my first SYNACTHEN-test in August. Crash course in pituitary gland function: its sometimes referred to as the master gland due to its control over a lot of our hormones. One hormone under its control is ACTH, which sends a signal to the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. During a SYNACTHEN-test, synthetic ACTH is injected and the medical personnel then draw blood to test the level of cortisol. If your body responds properly to the stimulation, youre not suffering from adrenal insufficiency. Mine didnt respond as it should have.. Basically this is a picture of the time I got my diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency confirmed, which sucks. I dont know if its due to the personal ...
Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, or, as it is known in people, Addisons disease, is an endocrine system disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones for normal function. The adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol and mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone; when proper amounts of these are not produced, the metabolic and electrolyte balance is upset. Mineralocorticoids control the amount of potassium, salt and water in the body. Hypoadrenocorticism is fatal if left untreated. All causes for hypoadrenocorticism are not yet known. The usual causes are genetic, often related to autoimmune disorders, where the body attacks and kill its own tissue ("immune mediated destruction"). Other cases are caused by various disease processes, including failure of the pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, the hormone which stimulates the adrenal production of cortisol. Hypoadrenocorticism is more frequent in dogs than in humans; in fact, it may occur one hundred times more ...
So now consider the patient without Addisons, on no chronic suppressive steroid therapy, and without any reason to have adrenal insufficiency on this particular day.. They are acutely ill, however. Most classically, they have sepsis. And they are hypotensive.. Heres the issue: a significant portion of critically ill patients will develop a temporary relative adrenal insufficiency, even if they previously had normal adrenal function. This is especially common in the septic population, where observational studies have demonstrated depressed cortisol levels in as many as 60% of the sickest patients.. Presumably this is because these patients have adrenals that can produce enough cortisol for everyday function, but not enough to meet the increased demands of illness. Probably the pathophysiology is multifactorial. (For example, the sedative etomidate, often used for intubation, has been shown to temporarily suppress adrenal function.) But the fact is that many of our sick ICU patients will fail to ...
Patients on hydrocortisone replacement for adrenal insufficiency appear to have elevated cortisol concentrations in their scalp hair, according to recent findings. In the cross-sectional study, Nienke R. Biermasz, MD, PhD, of Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, and colleagues evaluated patients treated at the outpatient clinical of the medical center between July 2012 and…
Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is most frequently caused by long-term corticosteroid administration, which leads to a hypothalamic-pituitary suppression and thus, inadequate ACTH production. After discontinuation of treatment, this type of adrenocortical insufficiency is reversible. In addition, neoplasms or inflammatory processes of hypothalamus and pituitary gland will also cause secondary insufficiency. ...
I am female, 25 and recently had an ACTH stimulation test performed. Cortisol started at 6.3 and after an hour jumped to 28.2. My doctor said this was good but everything I have read indicates that this is bad because it is a symptom of secondary adrenal insufficiency. Is my doctor right or should more tests be performed ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone is one of the hormones fabricated by the adrenal glands. With adrenal insufficiency, the adrenal glands do not accomplish abundant hormones, including Dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol. That happens either because of problems with the pituitary gland or accident to the adrenal glands themselves (also alleged Addisons disease). Several studies advance that demography DHEA may advice…
Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. You have two adrenal glands. They are located just above the kidneys. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. Cortisol helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in your body. It also controls blood pressure and affects how your immune system works.
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In adrenal insufficiency, the adrenal glands stop making hormones that affect bodily functions. This eMedTV article discusses this condition in detail and includes information about the role the adrenal glands play in the body.
Exogenous adrenal insufficiency is a condition of low levels of hormones released by the adrenal glands, caused by factors other than problems with the glands themselves.
An adrenal crisis (AC) is a major cause of morbidity in hypoadrenal patients. However, there is little information available on the incidence and underlying causes of AC. The aim of the present study was to describe the incidence of AC in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Using a health department database, we selected de-identified data on all adults aged 20 years and over who were treated in any hospital in NSW between July1, 2000-June 30, 2011, with either a principal or secondary diagnosis of an AC. AC admission rates were calculated overall and within age categories. Frequencies of co-morbid diagnoses were analysed by age and sex groups. Poisson regression was used to assess the significance of the observed change in AC related admissions with age, while controlling for any secular trends by including year in the model. Chi sq tests were used to assess the differences in frequencies of categorical variables between groups. 824 patients received treatment for an AC in hospital, corresponding to 74.9
Glucocorticoids Administer glucocorticoids to decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. This may also be useful in preventing relative adrenal insufficiency due to hyperthyroidism and improving va... more
This topic contains 18 study abstracts on Adrenal Insufficiency indicating that the following substances may be helpful: DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone), Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B-5), and Schisandra
Cardiac function was evaluated by ventricular function curves during the cardiovascular collapse observed in acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency. A progressive decline in peak cardiac work was observed in the acutely adrenalectomized cat (30% decrease at 1.8 hours and 50% at 3.5 hours after adrenalectomy). This impairment in cardiac work paralleled the decrease in mean arterial blood pressure which reached 50 mm Hg 3.5 hours after adrenalectomy. Cortisol and d-aldosterone, and the volume-expander, dextran, prevented a significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure and in peak cardiac work. When the mean arterial blood pressure of nonadrenalectomized cats was adjusted to follow the changes seen in adrenalectomized cats, a 49% depression in cardiac work resulted 3.5 hours after the initial decline in arterial blood pressure. The data suggest that the time course of the hypotension and presumed reduction in coronary perfusion pressure is sufficient to account for the large impairment in peak ...
Question posted in: adrenal insufficiency, asthma - Additional details: Been on prednisone twice in the past month and a half. Both times were ...
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Adrenal Insufficiency (addisons disease). Endocrinology: Diagnostic in Frankfurt am Main, Germany ✈. Prices on BookingHealth.com - booking treatment online!
Have any of you CFers developed Adrenal Insufficiency? My DS appears to have, probably from too many steroid medications. I would love to hear about the CF experience with this, including if it resolved with treatment.
In Checkmate 069 and 067, hypophysitis occurred in 9% (36/407) of patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY: Grade 3 (n=8), Grade 2 (n=25), and Grade 1 (n=3). In Checkmate 037, 066, and 067, hypophysitis occurred in 0.9% (7/787) of patients receiving OPDIVO: Grade 3 (n=2), Grade 2 (n=3), and Grade 1 (n=2). In Checkmate 025, hypophysitis occurred in 0.5% (2/406) of patients receiving OPDIVO: Grade 3 (n=1) and Grade 1 (n=1). In Checkmate 069 and 067, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 5% (21/407) of patients receiving OPDIVO with YERVOY: Grade 4 (n=1), Grade 3 (n=7), Grade 2 (n=11), and Grade 1 (n=2). In Checkmate 037, 066, and 067, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 1% (8/787) of patients receiving OPDIVO: Grade 3 (n=2), Grade 2 (n=5), and Grade 1 (n=1). In Checkmate 057, 0.3% (1/287) of OPDIVO-treated patients developed adrenal insufficiency. In Checkmate 025, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 2.0% (8/406) of patients receiving OPDIVO: Grade 3 (n=3), Grade 2 (n=4), and Grade 1 (n=1). In Checkmate 205 ...
In an exploratory analysis of secondary outcomes of a randomized clinical trial of extremely preterm infants, early low-dose hydrocortisone was not associated with a statistically significant difference in neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. ...
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Watch online Saturday April 16 at 1:00 PM eastern at https://plus.google.com/events/cpjbd8celcbfgngp8und662s198?hl=en Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency and Addisons Disease can be deadly, mostly because of the lack of education and awareness. We have lost too many and need to be proactive in preventing unnecessary deaths! Join us as we educate on what these diseases are, how easily…
... and contraindicated in women with renal insufficiency, adrenal insufficiency, or liver disease according to FDA-approved labels ... Adrenal insufficiency. • Liver disease. Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; ... Contraindications: • Severe renal insufficiency or acute renal failure. • Presence or history of severe hepatic disease as long ... In women with mild or moderate renal insufficiency, or in combination with chronic daily use of other potassium-sparing ...
... deficiency leads to adrenal insufficiency, a lack of production of glucocorticoids such as cortisol by the adrenal gland. If ... Dorin RI, Qualls CR, Crapo LM (2003). "Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency". Ann. Intern. Med. 139 (3): 194-204. doi:10.7326/ ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Arlt W, Allolio B (May 2003). "Adrenal insufficiency". Lancet. 361 (9372): 1881-93. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736( ... for adrenal insufficiency, levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, testosterone for male hypogonadism, and estradiol for female ...
Winqvist, O., Rorsman, F., & Kampe, O. (2000). Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. BioDrugs, 13(2), 107-114. Cole, J.T., Mitala, ... In either case, treatment may rely on removal of the tumor or of the adrenal glands. Without the adrenal glands, the human body ... In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ...
It may also cause glucocorticoid-related adverse effects such as adrenal insufficiency in some individuals and/or cases ( ... Bulchandani D, Nachnani J, Amin A, May J (August 2008). "Megestrol acetate-associated adrenal insufficiency". The American ... and adrenal insufficiency, have been reported with the use of MGA in the medical literature, albeit sporadically. MGA is ... Chidakel AR, Zweig SB, Schlosser JR, Homel P, Schappert JW, Fleckman AM (February 2006). "High prevalence of adrenal ...
Grinspoon, S.K.; B.M.K Biller (1994). "Laboratory assessment of adrenal insufficiency". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... to the adrenal glands. Lastly, cortisol (non-tropic) is secreted from the adrenal glands and goes into the bloodstream where it ... The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a perfect example of this chain reaction. The reaction begins in the hypothalamus ... CRH an ACTH are tropic hormones because they act on the anterior pituitary gland and adrenal glands, respectively, both of ...
2009). Predisposing factors for adrenal insufficiency. In: N Engl. J. Med. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra0804635 J. Dupuis u. a. (2010). ... Human adrenal cells express TNFα-mRNA: Evidence for a paracrine control of adrenal function 1995: „Einfach genial Preis" of the ... Restoration of adrenal steroidogenesis by adenovirus-mediated transfer of human cytochromeP450 21-hydroxylase into the adrenal ... 2000). Adrenal cortical activation in murine colitis.. In: Gastroenterology. doi: 10.1053/gast.2000.20235 D. P. Merke, G. P. ...
Hemodynamic changes in acute adrenal insufficiency. Intensive Care Medicine (1994) 20:138-141 Sattar, Hussain A. Pathoma: ... Kidney disease Hypervolemia Adrenal Crisis-especially after fluid replacement Anemia Anxiety Aortic Regurgitation AV fistulae ...
Primary adrenal insufficiency are: Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (including enzyme deficiencies ... "Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in adrenal insufficiency". UpToDate. Retrieved 6 October 2017. F Young, William; H Sterns, ...
Addison's disease Adrenal insufficiency (hypocortisolism) Celik, O; Niyazoglu, M; Soylu, H; Kadioglu, P (29 August 2012). " ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ... Tumors outside the normal pituitary-adrenal system can produce ACTH (occasionally with CRH) that affects the adrenal glands. ... CT scanning of the adrenal gland and MRI of the pituitary gland are performed to detect the presence of any adrenal or ...
Long-term use may cause adrenal insufficiency. Stopping the medication suddenly following long-term use may be dangerous. The ... Euphoria Depression Adrenal suppression Hypertension Groupings of fine blood vessels becoming prominent under the skin, ... by causing a decrease in the production of natural hormones by the adrenal glands. Betamethasone is also used prior to delivery ... and along with fludrocortisone for adrenocortical insufficiency, among others. It can be taken by mouth, injected into a muscle ...
Viruses may also be implicated in adrenal problems: Cytomegalovirus can cause adrenal insufficiency, especially in the ... Hydrocortisone can sometimes reverse the adrenal insufficiency. Plastic surgery and tissue grafting are sometimes needed to ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly ... "Fatal Cytomegalovirus-Associated Adrenal Insufficiency in an AIDS Patient Receiving Corticosteroid Therapy". Internal Medicine ...
Abrupt discontinuation can result in adrenal insufficiency; and/or steroid withdrawal syndrome (a rebound effect in which ... This permits the adrenal glands to resume the body's natural production of cortisol. ...
Excessive thirst Excessive urination Adrenal insufficiency. This occurs because of a reduction in ACTH production, a reduction ... This is very uncommon and occurs with severe pituitary insufficiency. Large pituitary tumors can paradoxically elevate blood ... Pituitary insufficiency often occurs to some degree because craniopharyngiomas develop in the area of the pituitary stalk, ... insufficiency, caused by the reduction in growth hormone (GH) production. Symptoms include: Stunted growth and delayed puberty ...
... hyperthyroidism mild adrenal insufficiency, Basedow's disease); Spa with CO2, mofettes, galvanic baths, massage; Paraffin, ...
Hormone replacement is standard for ALD patients demonstrating adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency does not resolve ... Onset of adrenal insufficiency is often the first symptom, appearing as early as two years of age. ALD is caused by mutations ... Treatment of the adrenal insufficiency that can accompany any of the common male phenotypes of ALD does not resolve any of the ... Adrenal insufficiency in ALD patients can be successfully treated. ALD is the most common peroxisomal inborn error of ...
2005). "Adrenal insufficiency in meningococcal sepsis: bioavailable cortisol levels and impact of interleukin-6 levels and ... link) Mullins, M. E.; Theodoro, D. L. (2008). "Lack of evidence for adrenal insufficiency after single-dose etomidate". Arch ... Daniell, Harry (2008). "Opioid and benzodiazepine contributions to etomidate-associated adrenal insufficiency". Intensive Care ... "Increased risk of adrenal insufficiency following etomidate exposure in critically injured patients". Arch Surg. 143 (1): 62-7 ...
Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is likely to contribute in haemodynamic compromise. There is ... Harry R, Auzinger G, Wendon J (2002). "The clinical importance of adrenal insufficiency in acute hepatic dysfunction". ...
... s may be used in low doses in adrenal insufficiency. In much higher doses, oral or inhaled glucocorticoids are ... During this recovery time, the patient is vulnerable to adrenal insufficiency during times of stress, such as illness. While ... Impaired memory and attention deficits Adrenal insufficiency (if used for long time and stopped suddenly without a taper) ... or reduced to physiologic replacement if patients are adrenal-deficient). Full adrenal recovery can be assumed to occur by a ...
... can be used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. Metyrapone 30 mg/kg, maximum dose 3000 mg, is administered at ... Metyrapone (trade name Metopirone) is a drug used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and occasionally in the treatment ... then it is highly suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. If neither 11-deoxycortisol nor ACTH rise, it is highly suggestive of an ... In patients with intact Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, CRH and ACTH levels rise as a response to the falling cortisol ...
Elfström P, Montgomery SM, Kämpe O, Ekbom A, Ludvigsson JF (2007). "Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with ... primary adrenal insufficiency) relative to the normal population. GSE can result in high risk pregnancies and infertility. Some ...
... and adrenal insufficiency. In adrenal insufficiency it is generally taken together with hydrocortisone. It is taken by mouth. ... It is used primarily to replace the missing hormone aldosterone in various forms of adrenal insufficiency such as Addison's ... "Glucocorticoid Therapy and Adrenal Suppression". PMID 25905379. Thomas L. Lemke; David A. Williams (2008). Foye's Principles of ... Fludrocortisone is also a confirmation test for diagnosing Conn's syndrome (aldosterone producing-adrenal adenoma), the ...
... adrenal insufficiency, and red hair due to POMC deficiency; 609734; POMC Obesity, autosomal dominant; 601665; MC4R Obesity, ... CYP11B1 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency; 201750; POR Adrenal hypoplasia, ... ADIPOQ Adrenal cortical carcinoma; 202300; TP53 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency; 202010 ... LMNB2 Lipoid adrenal hyperplasia; 201710; STAR Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia; 201710; CYP11A Lipoid proteinosis; 247100 ...
Long-term use of the pill form may cause adrenal insufficiency. The pills may also cause mood or personality changes. The ...
"Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94: ... The following conditions are among those that can be detected through saliva testing (list not comprehensive): adrenal ...
Long-term use of the pill form may cause adrenal insufficiency. Stopping the pills suddenly following long-term use may ... Todd GR, Acerini CL, Buck JJ, Murphy NP, Ross-Russell R, Warner JT, McCance DR (2002). "Acute Adrenal Crisis in Asthmatics ... Todd GR, Acerini CL, Ross-Russell R, Zahra S, Warner JT, McCance D (2002). "Survey of Adrenal Crisis Associated With Inhaled ...
Adrenal insufficiency. (Addison's, WF). *aldosterone: Hypoaldosteronism *21α CAH. *11β CAH ...
... which occurs when the adrenal gland itself is dysfunctional, or secondary, also called central adrenal insufficiency, which ... Adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) can be classified as primary, ... because aldosterone secretion is reduced in primary adrenal insufficiency but not in secondary (central) adrenal insufficiency ... Neurological and adrenal dysfunction in the adrenal insufficiency/alacrima/achalasia (3A) syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1993 Jun. ...
The clinical suspicion of acute adrenal insufficiency was supported by invasive haemodynamic data and the diagnosis was ... The ectopic production of ACTH from a carcinoid tumour of the thymus is recognised but a report of acute adrenal insufficiency ...
About 10% of patients with APS-2 and Addisons disease had a relative with adrenal insufficiency, and about 10% of patients ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/endocrine/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease/Pages/fact-sheet.aspx. ... Adrenal Insufficiency United Toll-free: 1-855-AIUnite (248-6483) E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://aiunited.org/ ... National Adrenal Diseases Foundation (NADF) P.O. Box 566 Lake Zurich, IL 60047 Telephone: +1-(847) 726-9010 E-mail: [email protected] ...
Other side effects of Korlym include adrenal insufficiency, low potassium levels, vaginal bleeding and a potential for heart ... It is caused by the overproduction of cortisol (a steroid hormone that increases blood sugar levels) by the adrenal glands. ...
... associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of ... keywords = "Menopause, premature, Primary ovarian insufficiency, Primary ovarian insufficiency",. author = "Martin, {Lisa Arndt ... associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of ... associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of ...
autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. However, patients often develop other diseases as well, such as: hypogonadism, alopecia, ... Even a low dose of ketoconasol can deteriorate the adrenal function of patients with a limited pituitary-adrenal reserve. ...
In some cases, the adrenal glands also dont produce enough of two other hormones. Heres what you can do at home to care for ... Addison disease occurs when your adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. ... This disease is also called adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism. A flare-up is called an Addisonian crisis or an adrenal ... Your adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. In some cases, the adrenal glands also dont make enough of the ...
Adrenal insufficiency may cause vomiting, anorexia, hypoglycaemia, malaise, fatigue, muscular weakness, hyperkalaemia, ...
Adrenal insufficiency and Addisons disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. ... Wear a medical alert bracelet that states adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease. This will let others know of your condition ... An update on the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and the use of corticotherapy in critical illness. Ann Pharmather. 2007;419 ... Wallace I, Cunningham S, Lindsay J. The diagnosis and investigation of adrenal insufficiency in adults. Ann Clin Biochem. 2009; ...
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... adrenal insufficiency occurs. Causes of Vaginal Acne. Compared to pungent smelling raw Neem oil, Neem Cure Oil has a pleasant ...
"Dorlands Medical Dictionary:adrenal insufficiency". "Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: Adrenal Disorders: Merck Manual ... There are three major types of adrenal insufficiency. Primary adrenal insufficiency is due to impairment of the adrenal glands ... This would be an example of secondary adrenal insufficiency syndrome. Causes of adrenal insufficiency can be categorized by the ... Adrenoleukodystrophy can also cause adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency can also result when a patient has a ...
Defects at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can yield impaired adrenal function that... ... Adrenal insufficiency is an important source of potentially life-threatening human disease. ... Adrenal Steroids Adrenal insufficiency Addison Disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ... and tertiary adrenal insufficiency. The components of establishing a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency along with its ...
Adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands dont make enough hormones. Read more. ... Adrenal Insufficiency (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish * Adrenal Insufficiency and Addisons Disease (National ... Your adrenal glands are just above your kidneys. The outside layer of these glands makes hormones that help your body respond ... The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, damaging your adrenal glands. Other causes include infections and cancer ...
secondary adrenal insufficiency starts with damage to your pituitary gland or to the part of your brain that controls it, ... What causes secondary adrenal insufficiency?. ANSWER Secondary adrenal insufficiency starts with damage to your pituitary gland ... If youve had surgery for a condition called Cushings syndrome, youre even more likely to get secondary adrenal insufficiency ... You can also get secondary adrenal insufficiency because of drugs called glucocorticoids, such as cortisone, hydrocortisone, ...
Autoimmune destruction of the aforementioned glands is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in the developed ... occurs when the adrenal glands situated on top of the kidneys produce inadequate amounts of glucocorticoid and ... Primary adrenal insufficiency - also known under the eponym Addisons disease - ... Primary adrenal insufficiency - also known under the eponym Addisons disease - occurs when the adrenal glands situated on top ...
... i wa originally diagnosed with secondary adrenal insufficiency--then another endo said i didnt have it because i had had ... i wa originally diagnosed with secondary adrenal insufficiency--then another endo said i didnt have it because i had had ... so, i know my adrenals were struggling, but i need to get a new stim test done. i staarted with cortisol of 2.4 and ACTH of 5. ... so, i know my adrenals were struggling, but i need to get a new stim test done. i staarted with cortisol of 2.4 and ACTH of 5. ...
... the reason for the adrenal insufficiency. Watch this space. He is on a stress dose again and we will see what happens! I am at ... I know another without adrenals that drops K too. Since that is not the norm - it is hard to get them to test let along listen ... He saw Rob in January and did some bloods, the main one being for Adrenal Antibodies but the results are not in his notes! Our ... Are they going to put him on florinef? I forget his age - but are they thinking about DHEA as well for the androgens? Adrenals ...
Primary adrenal insufficiency arises due to the damage of the glands or because of using drugs that halt synthesis of cortisol ... On the other hand, secondary adrenal insufficiency stems from processes that inhibit the secretion of the adrenocorticotropic ... The former is sometimes also referred to as tertiary adrenal insufficiency. ... Adrenal insufficiency is a condition that develops when most of the adrenal gland is not functioning normally. ...
Neurological and adrenal dysfunction in the adrenal insufficiency/alacrima/achalasia (3A) syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1993 Jun. ... Absolute and relative adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2005 Apr. 33(4):855-9. [Medline]. ... Presentation of primary adrenal insufficiency in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun. 96(6):E925-8. [Medline]. ... Adrenal insufficiency in patients on long-term opioid analgesia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jun 4. [Medline]. ...
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands fail to release adequate amounts of these hormones to meet ... including 254 with primary adrenal insufficiency and 190 with secondary adrenal insufficiency. At least one adrenal crisis was ... Epidemiology of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency: Prevalence and incidence, acute adrenal insufficiency, long-term ... Drugs & Diseases , Endocrinology , Adrenal Crisis Q&A What is the pathophysiology of adrenocortical insufficiency in adrenal ...
Adrenal is tired, exhausted, I feel tingling moving sensations on both adrenal sides. My latest result show that my DHEA levels ... Other adrenal hormones seem in normal number. Just DHEA is questionable. Interestingly I have high Testosterone, I surely have ... And on top of all that, at the center is the Adrenal, the one responsible for handling stress. ...
... and primary adrenal insufficiency. Chronic lactic acidosis responded to treatment with dichloroacetate. Sequential muscle ... Oxidative phosphorylation defect associated with primary adrenal insufficiency J Pediatr. 1996 May;128(5 Pt 1):688-92. doi: ... and primary adrenal insufficiency. Chronic lactic acidosis responded to treatment with dichloroacetate. Sequential muscle ... phosphorylation and the need to consider mitochondrial disorders in the differential diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency ...
... Jakob Holm,1 Leif Breum,1 Katrine Stenfeldt,2 and ... Primary adrenal lymphoma is rare but most often present with bilateral tumors and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. A high ... stomach and lymphoma is the most common course of adrenal metastasis giving rise to adrenal insufficiency. PAL on its own is an ... Adrenal insufficiency may be the primary symptom of presentation, especially with bilateral involvement as in bPAL [4]. ...
You have two adrenal glands. They are located just above the kidneys. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in ... Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. ... What is adrenal insufficiency?. Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol ... Key points about adrenal insufficiency (Addisons disease). * Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make ...
  • Lashansky G, Saenger P, Fishman K, Gautier T, Mayes D, Berg G. Normative data for adrenal steroidogenesis in a healthy pediatric population: age- and sex-related changes after adrenocorticotropin stimulation. (medscape.com)
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