Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An orphan nuclear receptor that is implicated in regulation of steroidogenic pathways. It is unlike most orphan nuclear receptors in that it appears to lack an essential DNA-binding domain and instead acts as a transcriptional co-repressor. Mutations in the gene Dax-1 cause congenital adrenal hypoplasia.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.

Primary hypoadrenocorticism in a dog receiving glucocorticoid supplementation. (1/362)

A 5-year-old, spayed, female husky-Labrador retriever cross was diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism, an uncommon endocrine disorder caused by a deficiency of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. Subtle clinical signs and previous treatment with exogenous glucocorticoid drugs required an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test to confirm the diagnosis.  (+info)

Tests of adrenal insufficiency. (2/362)

AIM: In suspected adrenal insufficiency, the ideal test for assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is controversial. Therefore, three tests were compared in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. METHOD: Responses to the standard short Synacthen test (SSST), the low dose Synacthen test (LDST), and the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration were measured in 32 patients. A normal response to the synacthen test was defined as a peak serum cortisol of >/= 500 nmol/l and/or incremental concentration of >/= 200 nmol/l. The sensitivity and specificity of the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration compared with other tests was calculated. RESULTS: Three patients had neither an adequate peak nor increment after the SSST and LDST. All had a serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration of < 200 nmol/l. Eight patients had abnormal responses by both criteria to the LDST but had normal responses to the SSST. Three reported amelioration of their symptoms on hydrocortisone replacement. Twenty one patients had a normal response to both tests (of these, 14 achieved adequate peak and increment after both tests and seven did not have an adequate peak after the LDST but had a normal increment). The lowest 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration above which patients achieved normal responses to both the LDST and SSST was 500 nmol/l. At this cut off value (compared with the LDST), the serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration had a sensitivity of 100% but specificity was only 33%. CONCLUSION: The LDST revealed mild degrees of adrenal insufficiency not detected by the SSST. The value of a single 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration is limited.  (+info)

Adrenal insufficiency in septic shock. (3/362)

BACKGROUND: Functional adrenal insufficiency has been documented in critically ill adults. OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence of adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock, and to evaluate its effect on catecholamine requirements, duration of intensive care, and mortality. SETTING: Sixteen-bed paediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital. METHODS: Thirty three children with septic shock were enrolled. Adrenal function was assessed by the maximum cortisol response after synthetic adrenocorticotropin stimulation (short Synacthen test). Insufficiency was defined as a post-Synacthen cortisol increment < 200 nmol/l. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 33%. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency was 52% and children with adrenal insufficiency were significantly older and tended to have higher paediatric risk of mortality scores. They also required higher dose vasopressors for haemodynamic stability. In the survivor group, those with adrenal insufficiency needed a longer period of inotropic support than those with normal function (median, 3 v 2 days), but there was no significant difference in duration of ventilation (median, 4 days for each group) or length of stay (median, 5 v 4 days). Mortality was not significantly greater in children with adrenal insufficiency than in those with adequate adrenal function (6 of 17 v 5 of 16, respectively). CONCLUSION: Adrenal insufficiency is common in children with septic shock. It is associated with an increased vasopressor requirement and duration of shock.  (+info)

Hypercalcemia in an euthyroid patient with secondary hypoadrenalism and diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic tumor. (4/362)

A 20-year-old Japanese man with a hypothalamic tumor (most likely germ-cell tumor) which caused secondary hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus developed hypercalcemia and acute renal failure. The serum levels of intact PTH (iPTH), PTH-related protein (PTH-rP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25- (OH)2 D), ACTH, cortisol, gonadotropins and testosterone were decreased, but his serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were within the normal range at admission, with depressed TSH and slightly increased thyroglobulin. The hypercalcemia was refractory to extensive hydration and calcitonin, but was ameliorated by pamidronate. After irradiation of the hypothalamic tumor, panhypopituitarism gradually developed. The patient has been normocalcemic for the last 2 years and is doing well under replacement therapy with glucocorticoid, L-thyroxine, methyltestosterone and 1-desamino D arginine vasopressin (dDAVP). As to the mechanism of euthyroidism at admission, transient destructive thyroiditis associated with hypopituitarism or delayed development of hypothyroidism following the hypoadrenalism was suggested. This is the first reported case of hypercalcemia in secondary hypoadrenalism due to hypothalamic tumor. Hypercalcemia was most likely induced by increased bone resorption, which was probably elicited by the combined effects of deficient glucocorticoid and sufficient thyroid hormones in addition to hypovolemia and reduced renal calcium excretion. Furthermore, severe dehydration due to diabetes insipidus and disturbance of thirst sensation caused by the hypothalamic tumor aggravated the hypercalcemia, leading to acute renal failure.  (+info)

Severe hyponatremia caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. (5/362)

A 60-year-old woman was admitted with severe hyponatremia. Basal values of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid hormone and cortisol were normal on admission. Impairment of water diuresis was observed by water loading test. Initially, we diagnosed her condition as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). By provocation test, we finally confirmed that the hyponatremia was caused by hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. The basal values of ACTH and cortisol might not be sufficient to exclude the possibility of adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate adrenal function by provocation test or to re-evaluate it after recovery from hyponatremia.  (+info)

A case of primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma with partial adrenal insufficiency. (6/362)

Unilateral or bilateral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising primarily in the adrenal glands are extremely rare. These lymphomas are usually present with large, bilateral adrenal masses with or without lymphadenopathy, and may be accompanied by adrenal insufficiency in some cases. A review of the literature indicates that patients with primary lymphoma of the adrenal glands usually do not have disease elsewhere, and if present, it is frequently extranodal. We report here an unusual case of primary bilateral adrenal lymphoma with partial adrenal insufficiency.  (+info)

The 4A syndrome association with osteoporosis. (7/362)

4A syndrome is characterised by adrenocortical insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima, autonomic and other neurological abnormalities. We report an 18-year-old boy with 4 A syndrome and having all classical features of the disease including sensorimotor neuropathy. In addition, the patient had low aldosterone levels and signs of osteoporosis, which apparently developed without glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Although it is speculated that the lack of local growth factors, nutritional deficiency secondary to achalasia or receptor abnormalities regarding bone metabolism contribute to osteoporosis, its etiopathogenesis still needs to be clarified.  (+info)

Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. (8/362)

BACKGROUND: The physiologic role of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans is still unclear. Adrenal insufficiency leads to a deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone; we therefore, investigated the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement, in patients with adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 24 women with adrenal insufficiency received in random order 50 mg of dehydroepiandrosterone orally each morning for four months and placebo daily for four months, with a one-month washout period. We measured serum steroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor I, lipids, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and we evaluated well-being and sexuality with the use of validated psychological questionnaires and visual-analogue scales, respectively. The women were assessed before treatment, after one and four months of treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone, after one and four months of placebo, and one month after the end of the second treatment period. RESULTS: Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone raised the initially low serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, and testosterone into the normal range; serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly. Dehydroepiandrosterone significantly improved overall well-being as well as scores for depression and anxiety. For the global severity index, the mean (+/-SD) change from base line was -0.18+/-0.29 after four months of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy, as compared with 0.03+/-0.29 after four months of placebo (P=0.02). As compared with placebo, dehydroepiandrosterone significantly increased the frequency of sexual thoughts (P=0.006), sexual interest (P=0.002), and satisfaction with both mental and physical aspects of sexuality (P=0.009 and P=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Dehydroepiandrosterone improves well-being and sexuality in women with adrenal insufficiency.  (+info)

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the dysfunction and underproduction of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response, and immune system function.

The primary cause of Addison disease is the destruction of more than 90% of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands responsible for hormone production. This damage can be due to an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the adrenal gland tissue, infections such as tuberculosis or HIV, cancer, genetic disorders, or certain medications.

The symptoms of Addison disease often develop gradually and may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, low blood pressure, darkening of the skin, and mood changes. In some cases, an acute crisis known as acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis can occur, which is a medical emergency characterized by sudden and severe symptoms such as extreme weakness, confusion, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and coma.

Diagnosis of Addison disease typically involves blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs to assess the adrenal glands' size and structure, and stimulation tests to evaluate the adrenal glands' function. Treatment usually involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and sometimes mineralocorticoids. With proper treatment and management, individuals with Addison disease can lead normal and productive lives.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Cosyntropin is a synthetic form of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is used in medical testing to assess the function of the adrenal glands. ACTH is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands.

Cosyntropin is typically administered as an injection, and its effects on cortisol production are measured through blood tests taken at various time points after administration. This test, known as a cosyntropin stimulation test or ACTH stimulation test, can help diagnose conditions that affect the adrenal glands, such as Addison's disease or adrenal insufficiency.

It is important to note that while cosyntropin is a synthetic form of ACTH, it is not identical to the natural hormone and may have slightly different effects on the body. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Adrenal cortex function tests are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate the proper functioning of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing several essential hormones. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

There are several types of adrenal cortex function tests, including:

1. Cortisol testing: This test measures the levels of cortisol in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulation test: This test measures the adrenal gland's response to ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. The test involves administering synthetic ACTH and measuring cortisol levels before and after administration.
3. Aldosterone testing: This test measures the levels of aldosterone in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
4. Dexamethasone suppression test: This test involves administering dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, to suppress cortisol production. The test measures cortisol levels before and after administration to determine if the adrenal glands are overproducing cortisol.
5. Androgen testing: This test measures the levels of androgens, such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing excessive amounts of these hormones.

Abnormal results from adrenal cortex function tests may indicate conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytoma.

Adrenal gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function or structure of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are various types of adrenal gland diseases, some of which include:

1. Adrenal Insufficiency: A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and skin hyperpigmentation.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: A condition characterized by an excess of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, or it can result from long-term use of steroid medications.
3. Adrenal Cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and high blood pressure.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that develops in the adrenal glands and causes an overproduction of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Symptoms may include high blood pressure, headaches, sweating, and anxiety.
5. Adrenal Hemorrhage: A condition where bleeding occurs in the adrenal glands, often as a result of severe trauma or infection. This can lead to adrenal insufficiency and other complications.
6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An inherited disorder that affects the production of cortisol and other hormones in the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, and short stature.

Treatment for adrenal gland diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Cortodoxone." It is possible that this term is not recognized in the field of medicine as it does not appear to be a commonly used medication, treatment, or diagnostic tool. If you have any more information about where you encountered this term or its potential meaning, I would be happy to try and provide further clarification.

Fludrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid hormone, specifically a mineralocorticoid. It is often used to treat conditions associated with low levels of corticosteroids, such as Addison's disease. It works by helping the body retain sodium and lose potassium, which helps to maintain fluid balance and blood pressure.

In medical terms, fludrocortisone is defined as a synthetic mineralocorticoid with glucocorticoid activity used in the treatment of adrenogenital syndrome and Addison's disease, and as an adjunct in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used to treat orthostatic hypotension by helping the body retain sodium and water, thereby increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

It is important to note that fludrocortisone can have significant side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These can include fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and slowed growth in children. As with any medication, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It is responsible for producing and releasing hormones such as epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). These hormones play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, preparing the body for immediate action in response to stress.

Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while also increasing blood flow to muscles and decreasing blood flow to the skin and digestive system. Norepinephrine has similar effects but is generally less potent than epinephrine. Together, these hormones help to prepare the body for physical activity and increase alertness and focus.

Disorders of the adrenal medulla can lead to a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, anxiety, and tremors. Some conditions that affect the adrenal medulla include pheochromocytoma, a tumor that causes excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and neuroblastoma, a cancerous tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the adrenal gland.

DAX-1 (Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcriptional regulator. It is also known as NR0B1 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 0, Group B, Member 1).

DAX-1 plays crucial roles in various developmental processes, including sexual differentiation and adrenal gland development. Mutations in the DAX-1 gene have been associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC), a condition characterized by defective adrenal gland development and primary adrenal insufficiency.

The term "Orphan Nuclear Receptor" refers to a class of nuclear receptors for which no natural ligand has been identified yet. DAX-1 is one such orphan nuclear receptor, as its specific endogenous ligand remains unknown. However, recent studies suggest that steroids and other small molecules might interact with DAX-1 and modulate its activity.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Hyponatremia is a condition characterized by abnormally low sodium levels in the blood, specifically levels less than 135 mEq/L. Sodium is an essential electrolyte that helps regulate water balance in and around your cells and plays a crucial role in nerve and muscle function. Hyponatremia can occur due to various reasons, including certain medical conditions, medications, or excessive water intake leading to dilution of sodium in the body. Symptoms may range from mild, such as nausea, confusion, and headache, to severe, like seizures, coma, or even death in extreme cases. It's essential to seek medical attention if you suspect hyponatremia, as prompt diagnosis and treatment are vital for a favorable outcome.

Polyendocrinopathies, autoimmune refers to a group of disorders that involve malfunction of multiple endocrine glands, caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking and damaging these glands. The endocrine glands are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various functions in the body.

There are several types of autoimmune polyendocrinopathies, including:

1. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 (APS-1): Also known as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 or APECED, this is a rare inherited disorder that typically affects multiple endocrine glands and other organs. It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene.
2. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 2 (APS-2): Also known as Schmidt's syndrome, this disorder typically involves the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and/or insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It is more common than APS-1 and often affects middle-aged women.
3. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 3 (APS-3): This disorder involves the presence of autoimmune Addison's disease, with or without other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, or vitiligo.
4. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 4 (APS-4): This is a catch-all category for individuals who have multiple autoimmune endocrine disorders that do not fit into the other types of APS.

Symptoms of autoimmune polyendocrinopathies can vary widely depending on which glands are affected and the severity of the damage. Treatment typically involves replacing the hormones that are no longer being produced in sufficient quantities, as well as managing any underlying immune system dysfunction.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Diagnostic techniques in endocrinology are methods used to identify and diagnose various endocrine disorders. These techniques include:

1. Hormone measurements: Measuring the levels of hormones in blood, urine, or saliva can help identify excess or deficiency of specific hormones. This is often done through immunoassays, which use antibodies to detect and quantify hormones.

2. Provocative and suppression tests: These tests involve administering a medication that stimulates or suppresses the release of a particular hormone. Blood samples are taken before and after the medication is given to assess changes in hormone levels. Examples include the glucose tolerance test for diabetes, the ACTH stimulation test for adrenal insufficiency, and the thyroid suppression test for hyperthyroidism.

3. Imaging studies: Various imaging techniques can be used to visualize endocrine glands and identify structural abnormalities such as tumors or nodules. These include X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine scans using radioactive tracers.

4. Genetic testing: Molecular genetic tests can be used to identify genetic mutations associated with certain endocrine disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

5. Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of tissue may be removed from an endocrine gland for microscopic examination (biopsy). This can help confirm the presence of cancer or other abnormalities.

6. Functional tests: These tests assess the ability of an endocrine gland to produce and secrete hormones in response to various stimuli. Examples include the glucagon stimulation test for gastrinoma and the calcium infusion test for hyperparathyroidism.

7. Wearable monitoring devices: Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) are wearable devices that measure interstitial glucose levels continuously over several days, providing valuable information about glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

Venous insufficiency is a medical condition that occurs when the veins, particularly in the legs, have difficulty returning blood back to the heart due to impaired valve function or obstruction in the vein. This results in blood pooling in the veins, leading to symptoms such as varicose veins, swelling, skin changes, and ulcers. Prolonged venous insufficiency can cause chronic pain and affect the quality of life if left untreated.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ADL) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the nervous system and adrenal glands. It is characterized by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the brain, leading to progressive neurological symptoms such as behavioral changes, visual loss, hearing loss, seizures, and difficulties with coordination and movement.

ADL is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein involved in the breakdown of VLCFA. Without this protein, VLCFAs accumulate in the brain and adrenal glands, leading to damage and dysfunction.

There are several forms of ADL, including:

* Childhood cerebral ADL: This is the most severe form of the disorder, typically affecting boys between the ages of 4 and 8. It progresses rapidly and can lead to significant neurological impairment within a few years.
* Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN): This form of ADL affects both men and women and is characterized by progressive stiffness, weakness, and spasticity in the legs. It typically develops in adulthood and progresses slowly over many years.
* Addison's disease: This is a condition that affects the adrenal glands, leading to hormonal imbalances and symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and low blood pressure.

There is no cure for ADL, but treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disorder. These may include dietary changes, medications to control seizures or hormone levels, and physical therapy. In some cases, stem cell transplantation may be recommended as a treatment option.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

'46, XY Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a term used to describe conditions in which individuals are born with chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. In these cases, the individual has 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY), which would typically result in the development of male characteristics. However, for various reasons, the sexual differentiation process may be disrupted, leading to atypical development of the internal and/or external sex organs.

There are several possible causes of 46, XY DSD, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or anatomical abnormalities. These conditions can range from mild to severe in terms of their impact on physical health and sexual function, and they may also have psychological and social implications.

Examples of 46, XY DSD include complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and disorders of gonadal development such as Swyer syndrome. Treatment for 46, XY DSD may involve surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and/or psychological support.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Etomidate is a intravenous anesthetic medication used for the induction of general anesthesia. It provides a rapid and smooth induction with minimal cardiovascular effects, making it a popular choice in patients with hemodynamic instability. Etomidate also has antiseizure properties. However, its use is associated with adrenal suppression, which can lead to complications such as hypotension and impaired stress response. Therefore, its use is generally avoided in critically ill or septic patients.

The medical definition of 'Etomidate' is:

A carboxylated imidazole derivative that is used as an intravenous anesthetic for the induction of general anesthesia. It has a rapid onset of action and minimal cardiovascular effects, making it useful in patients with hemodynamic instability. Etomidate also has antiseizure properties. However, its use is associated with adrenal suppression, which can lead to complications such as hypotension and impaired stress response. Therefore, its use is generally avoided in critically ill or septic patients.

Placental insufficiency is a condition in which the placenta does not provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as poor placental development, damage to the placenta, or problems with the blood flow to the placenta. As a result, the fetus may receive less oxygen and nutrients than it needs for proper growth and development, which can lead to a range of complications, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and developmental delays.

The medical definition of placental insufficiency is: "a condition in which the placenta fails to provide adequate support to the developing fetus, resulting in impaired fetal growth and development." This condition can be diagnosed through various tests, such as ultrasound, fetal monitoring, and blood tests, and may require close monitoring and management throughout pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is a medical condition where the gonads (testes) fail to develop or function properly in an individual with a 46,XY karyotype (a normal male chromosomal composition). This means that the person has one X and one Y chromosome, but their gonads do not develop into fully functional testes. As a result, the person may have ambiguous genitalia or female external genitalia, and they will typically not produce enough or any male hormones. The condition can also be associated with an increased risk of developing germ cell tumors in the dysgenetic gonads.

The severity of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY can vary widely, and it may be accompanied by other developmental abnormalities or syndromes. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the dysgenetic gonads to reduce the risk of tumor development, as well as hormone replacement therapy to support normal sexual development and reproductive function. The underlying cause of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is not always known, but it can be associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Mineralocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that primarily regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. The most important mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which is produced by the adrenal gland in response to signals from the renin-angiotensin system. Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) and water into the bloodstream, while promoting the excretion of potassium ions (K+) and hydrogen ions (H+) into the urine. This helps maintain blood pressure and volume, as well as ensuring a proper balance of electrolytes in the body. Other mineralocorticoids include cortisol and corticosterone, which have weak mineralocorticoid activity and play a more significant role as glucocorticoids, regulating metabolism and immune response.

Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also known as CYP21A2, is a crucial enzyme involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland. Specifically, it catalyzes the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol and progesterone to deoxycorticosterone in the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid pathways, respectively.

Deficiency or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a group of genetic disorders called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is characterized by impaired cortisol production and disrupted hormonal balance. Depending on the severity of the deficiency, CAH can result in various symptoms such as ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, sexual infantilism, infertility, and increased risk of adrenal crisis.

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of an infection that has spread throughout the body. It's characterized by a severe drop in blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism, which can lead to organ failure and death if not promptly treated.

In septic shock, the immune system overreacts to an infection, releasing an overwhelming amount of inflammatory chemicals into the bloodstream. This leads to widespread inflammation, blood vessel dilation, and leaky blood vessels, which can cause fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into surrounding tissues. As a result, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to vital organs, leading to organ failure.

Septic shock is often caused by bacterial infections, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. It's most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have recently undergone surgery, have chronic medical conditions, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of septic shock is critical to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves aggressive antibiotic therapy, intravenous fluids, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and supportive care in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Lacrimal apparatus diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the lacrimal system, which is responsible for producing, storing, and draining tears. The lacrimal apparatus includes the lacrimal glands, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct.

Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus can cause a range of symptoms, including watery eyes, redness, pain, swelling, and discharge. Some common conditions that affect the lacrimal apparatus include:

1. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the lacrimal glands do not produce enough tears or the tears are of poor quality, leading to dryness, irritation, and inflammation of the eyes.
2. Dacryocystitis: An infection of the lacrimal sac that can cause pain, swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
3. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A blockage in the nasolacrimal duct that can cause watery eyes, discharge, and recurrent infections.
4. Epiphora: Excessive tearing or watering of the eyes due to overflow of tears from the eye because of blocked tear ducts or increased production of tears.
5. Canaliculitis: An infection of the lacrimal canaliculi that can cause swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
6. Lacrimal gland tumors: Rare tumors that can affect the lacrimal glands and cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and protrusion of the eyeball.

Treatment for lacrimal apparatus diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Steroidogenic Factor 1 (SF-1 or NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor, playing a crucial role in the development and regulation of the endocrine system. It is involved in the differentiation and maintenance of steroidogenic tissues such as the adrenal glands, gonads (ovaries and testes), and the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain.

SF-1 regulates the expression of genes that are essential for steroid hormone biosynthesis, including enzymes involved in the production of cortisol, aldosterone, and sex steroids (androgens, estrogens). Mutations in the SF-1 gene can lead to various disorders related to sexual development, adrenal function, and fertility.

In summary, Steroidogenic Factor 1 is a critical transcription factor that regulates the development and function of steroidogenic tissues and the biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Gonadal disorders refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the gonads, which are the primary reproductive organs. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, and in males, they are the testes. These disorders can result in issues related to sexual development, reproduction, and hormone production.

Examples of gonadal disorders include:

1. Ovarian dysfunction: This includes conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and ovarian insufficiency, which can affect menstruation, fertility, and hormone levels.
2. Testicular disorders: These include conditions such as undescended testes, Klinefelter syndrome, and varicocele, which can impact sperm production, male secondary sexual characteristics, and hormone levels.
3. Gonadal dysgenesis: This is a condition where the gonads do not develop properly during fetal development, leading to ambiguous genitalia or sex chromosome abnormalities.
4. Cancer of the gonads: Both ovarian and testicular cancers can affect gonadal function and require prompt medical attention.
5. Gonadal injury or trauma: Injuries to the gonads can impact their function, leading to fertility issues or hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for gonadal disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or assisted reproductive technologies.

Metyrapone is a medication that is primarily used in the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by excessive levels of cortisol hormone in the body. It works as an inhibitor of steroidogenesis, specifically blocking the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxylase, which is involved in the production of cortisol in the adrenal gland.

By inhibiting this enzyme, metyrapone prevents the formation of cortisol and leads to an accumulation of its precursor, 11-deoxycortisol. This can help restore the balance of hormones in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with Cushing's syndrome.

It is important to note that metyrapone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications.

Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Syndrome, also known as the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD), is a condition characterized by the excessive release or action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the body.

ADH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine produced by the kidneys. In normal conditions, ADH levels increase in response to dehydration or decreased blood volume, causing the kidneys to retain water and decrease urine output.

However, in Inappropriate ADH Syndrome, there is an overproduction or inappropriate release of ADH, even when the body does not need it. This can lead to a condition called hyponatremia, which is low sodium levels in the blood. Hyponatremia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Inappropriate ADH Syndrome can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, brain tumors, lung diseases, and other medical conditions that affect the production or release of ADH. It is important to diagnose and treat Inappropriate ADH Syndrome promptly to prevent serious complications from hyponatremia. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and adjusting fluid intake and electrolyte levels as needed.

Empty Sella Syndrome is a condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of the pituitary gland in the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland. This can occur due to the herniation of the arachnoid membrane, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord, into the sella turcica, compressing or replacing the pituitary gland.

In some cases, Empty Sella Syndrome may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to hormonal imbalances due to the disruption of the pituitary gland's function. Symptoms may include headaches, vision changes, menstrual irregularities, fatigue, and decreased libido. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying hormonal deficiencies with medication or hormone replacement therapy.

Clobetasol is a topical corticosteroid medication that is used to reduce inflammation and relieve itching, redness, and swelling associated with various skin conditions. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce inflammation. Clobetasol is available in several forms, including creams, ointments, emulsions, and foams, and is usually applied to the affected area once or twice a day.

It is important to use clobetasol only as directed by a healthcare provider, as prolonged or excessive use can lead to thinning of the skin, increased susceptibility to infections, and other side effects. Additionally, it should not be used on large areas of the body or for extended periods without medical supervision.

A melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). It is primarily expressed in the adrenal gland, specifically in the zona fasciculata of the cortex. Upon activation by ACTH, MC2R stimulates the production and release of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol, through the cAMP signaling pathway. Dysfunction in this receptor can lead to various endocrine disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing's disease.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Central nervous system (CNS) cysts are abnormal fluid-filled sacs that develop in the brain or spinal cord. These cysts can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development, or they can be acquired later in life due to injury, infection, or disease.

CNS cysts can vary in size and may cause symptoms depending on their location and the amount of pressure they place on surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue. Symptoms may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, or difficulty with coordination and balance. In some cases, CNS cysts may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

There are several types of CNS cysts, including:

1. Arachnoid cysts: These are the most common type of CNS cyst and occur between the layers of the arachnoid membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
2. Colloid cysts: These cysts typically develop at the junction of the third and fourth ventricles in the brain and can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leading to increased intracranial pressure.
3. Ependymal cysts: These cysts arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system of the brain and can cause symptoms by compressing surrounding brain tissue.
4. Neuroglial cysts: These cysts are composed of glial cells, which support and protect nerve cells in the CNS.
5. Pineal cysts: These cysts develop in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located near the center of the brain.

Treatment for CNS cysts depends on their size, location, and symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be all that is necessary. However, if the cyst is causing significant symptoms or is at risk of rupturing or obstructing CSF flow, surgical intervention may be required to remove or reduce the size of the cyst.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion, also known as Cushing's disease, is a condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. This results in an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, leading to a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome.

In Cushing's disease, a benign tumor called an adenoma develops on the pituitary gland, causing it to release excess ACTH. This in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol than necessary. The resulting high levels of cortisol can cause various symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face (central obesity), thinning of the skin, bruising, weakness, fatigue, mood changes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of infections.

It is important to distinguish Cushing's disease from other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as cortisol-producing adrenal tumors or exogenous sources of corticosteroid use, as the treatment approach may differ. Treatment for Cushing's disease typically involves surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, with additional medical management and/or radiation therapy in some cases.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Thyrotoxicosis is a medical condition that results from an excess of thyroid hormones in the body, leading to an overactive metabolic state. It can be caused by various factors such as Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease, or excessive intake of thyroid hormone medication. Symptoms may include rapid heart rate, weight loss, heat intolerance, tremors, and increased sweating, among others. Thyrotoxicosis is not a diagnosis itself but a manifestation of various underlying thyroid disorders. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. It is a modified form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is converted to DHEA-S in the body for storage and later conversion back to DHEA or other steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. DHEA-S is often measured in the blood as a marker of adrenal function. It is also available as a dietary supplement, although its effectiveness for any medical purpose is not well established.

Esophageal achalasia is a rare disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In this condition, the muscles at the lower end of the esophagus fail to relax properly during swallowing, making it difficult for food and liquids to pass into the stomach. This results in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of food, chest pain, and weight loss. The cause of esophageal achalasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to damage to the nerves that control the muscles of the esophagus. Treatment options include medications to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, botulinum toxin injections, and surgical procedures such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

X-linked genetic diseases refer to a group of disorders caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. These conditions primarily affect males since they have only one X chromosome and therefore don't have a second normal copy of the gene to compensate for the mutated one. Females, who have two X chromosomes, are typically less affected because they usually have one normal copy of the gene on their other X chromosome.

Examples of X-linked genetic diseases include Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, hemophilia A and B, color blindness, and fragile X syndrome. Symptoms and severity can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the nature of the genetic mutation involved. Treatment options depend on the particular disease but may include physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, gene therapy.

Pituitary function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the proper functioning of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing several essential hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

These tests typically involve measuring the levels of different hormones in the blood, stimulating or suppressing the pituitary gland with specific medications, and assessing the body's response to these challenges. Some common pituitary function tests include:

1. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in the blood, often after a provocative test using substances like insulin, arginine, clonidine, or glucagon to stimulate GH release.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) testing: Assesses the function of the thyroid gland by measuring TSH and FT4 levels in response to TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol testing: Evaluates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by measuring ACTH and cortisol levels after a CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test or an insulin tolerance test.
4. Prolactin (PRL) testing: Measures PRL levels in the blood, which can be elevated due to pituitary tumors or other conditions affecting the hypothalamus.
5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) testing: Assesses reproductive function by measuring FSH and LH levels, often in conjunction with estradiol or testosterone levels.
6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test: Evaluates gonadal function by measuring FSH and LH levels after GnRH administration.
7. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in response to various stimuli, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucagon, or arginine.
8. Vasopressin (ADH) testing: Assesses the posterior pituitary function by measuring ADH levels and performing a water deprivation test.

These tests can help diagnose various pituitary disorders, such as hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, or pituitary tumors, and guide appropriate treatment strategies.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

All types of adrenal insufficiency will require glucocorticoid repletion. Many cases (typically, primary adrenal insufficiency ... "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:adrenal insufficiency". "Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency - Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders". ... predominantly in primary adrenal insufficiency). Depending on the cause and type of adrenal insufficiency, the mechanism of the ... adrenal dysgenesis), or enzyme deficiency (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia). Adrenal insufficiency can also occur when the ...
Adrenal insufficiency. • Liver disease. Nelson AL, Cwiak C (2011). "Combined oral contraceptives (COCs)". In Hatcher RA, ... and adrenal insufficiency are contraindicated because they increase exposure to drospirenone and/or increase the risk of ... adrenal insufficiency, presence or history of cervical cancer or other progestogen-sensitive cancers, benign or malignant liver ...
Adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening medical condition in which the adrenal gland is damaged. This leads to not enough ... Therefore, if signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency are present such as fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, or any history ... Huecker MR, Bhutta BS, Dominique E (April 2023). "Adrenal Insufficiency". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ... adrenal insufficiency should be taken into consideration as an underlying cause for delayed pubarche. Turner syndrome is a ...
... deficiency leads to adrenal insufficiency, a lack of production of glucocorticoids such as cortisol by the adrenal gland. If ... Dorin RI, Qualls CR, Crapo LM (2003). "Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency". Ann. Intern. Med. 139 (3): 194-204. doi:10.7326/ ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Arlt W, Allolio B (May 2003). "Adrenal insufficiency". Lancet. 361 (9372): 1881-93. doi:10.1016/S0140- ... for adrenal insufficiency, levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, testosterone for male hypogonadism, and estradiol for female ...
ISBN 978-0-32-309164-0. Chovel-Sella, Alum; Halper, Alyssa (2020). "Adrenal Insufficiency". Endocrine Conditions in Pediatrics ...
primary adrenal insufficiency). Subsequently, there is clinically relevant dysfunction of the HPA axis as well as adrenaline ... Adrenal insufficiency The Lancet 2014 Lazar, M., Seideman D., Schuster G., Diamandis, C. (2022). Endocrinology: Patients ... Disorders of adrenal and other endocrine organ function due to oxidative-related inflammatory processes with functional or ... synthesis in the adrenal medulla with erratic adrenaline excesses. Due to the variety of symptoms, the syndrome is usually ...
Winqvist, O., Rorsman, F., & Kampe, O. (2000). Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. BioDrugs, 13(2), 107-114. Cole, J.T., Mitala, ... In either case, treatment may rely on removal of the tumor or of the adrenal glands. Without the adrenal glands, the human body ... In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ...
Adrenal Insufficiency: Following a bilateral adrenalectomy (left and right), the patient is no longer capable of secreting the ... The typical regimen when post-operative adrenal insufficiency is thought to be likely: 50 milligram (mg) intravenous ... Pazderska A, Pearce SH (June 2017). "Adrenal insufficiency - recognition and management". Clinical Medicine. 17 (3): 258-262. ... Jacob M, Macwana S, Vivekanand D (March 2015). "Anaesthetic management of a case of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma ...
Bulchandani D, Nachnani J, Amin A, May J (August 2008). "Megestrol acetate-associated adrenal insufficiency". The American ... and adrenal insufficiency, have been reported with the use of MGA in the literature, albeit sporadically. MGA is frequently ... and adrenal insufficiency at high dosages. Case reports of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, jaundice, intrahepatic ... Stockheim JA, Daaboul JJ, Yogev R, Scully SP, Binns HJ, Chadwick EG (March 1999). "Adrenal suppression in children with the ...
"Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 7 August 2021. "Splenomegaly". ...
Grinspoon, S.K.; B.M.K Biller (1994). "Laboratory assessment of adrenal insufficiency". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... to the adrenal glands. Lastly, cortisol (non-tropic) is secreted from the adrenal glands and goes into the bloodstream where it ... The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a perfect example of this chain reaction. The reaction begins in the hypothalamus ... CRH and ACTH are tropic hormones because they act on the anterior pituitary gland and adrenal glands, respectively, both of ...
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency is the more common form of hypoadrenocorticism. All layers of the adrenal gland stop ... "Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease". National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service. Archived from the ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ... for primary adrenal insufficiency, characteristic electrolyte abnormalities. Clinical pathology - Abnormalities may be ...
Hemodynamic changes in acute adrenal insufficiency. Intensive Care Medicine (1994) 20:138-141 Sattar, Hussain A. Pathoma: ... Kidney disease Hypervolemia Adrenal crisis - especially after fluid replacement Anemia Anxiety Aortic Regurgitation AV fistulae ...
Primary adrenal insufficiency are: Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (including enzyme deficiencies ... "Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in adrenal insufficiency". UpToDate. Retrieved 6 October 2017. F Young, William; H Sterns, ...
Long-term use may cause adrenal insufficiency. Stopping the medication suddenly following long-term use may be dangerous. The ... Euphoria Depression Adrenal suppression Hypertension Groupings of fine blood vessels becoming prominent under the skin, ... by causing a decrease in the production of natural hormones by the adrenal glands. Betamethasone is also used prior to delivery ... and along with fludrocortisone for adrenocortical insufficiency, among others. It can be taken by mouth, injected into a muscle ...
Viruses may also be implicated in adrenal problems: Cytomegalovirus can cause adrenal insufficiency, especially in the ... Diagnostic criteria are based on clinical features of adrenal insufficiency as well as identifying the causal agent. If the ... Hydrocortisone can sometimes reverse the adrenal insufficiency. Amputations, reconstructive surgery, and tissue grafting are ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly ...
Abrupt discontinuation can result in adrenal insufficiency; and/or steroid withdrawal syndrome (a rebound effect in which ... This permits the adrenal glands to resume the body's natural production of cortisol. ...
... adrenal insufficiency of primary type), and alacrima (insufficiency of tears). Alacrima is usually the earliest manifestation. ... Early diagnosis may prevent morbidity and improve growth in children due to early treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Achalasia ... Individuals affected by AAA have adrenal insufficiency/Addison's disease due to ACTH resistance, alacrima (absence of tear ... Wallace IR, Hunter SJ (August 2012). "AAA syndrome--adrenal insufficiency, alacrima and achalasia". QJM. 105 (8): 803-804. doi: ...
... hyperthyroidism mild adrenal insufficiency, Basedow's disease); Spa with CO2, mofettes, galvanic baths, massage; Paraffin, ...
Adrenal insufficiency, if found, is treated with corticosteroids. Clinical criteria for cure includes the absence or healing of ...
Hormone replacement is standard for ALD patients demonstrating adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency does not resolve ... Onset of adrenal insufficiency is often the first symptom, appearing as early as two years of age. ALD is caused by mutations ... Adrenal insufficiency in ALD patients can be successfully treated. ALD is the most common peroxisomal inborn error of ... The other forms of ALD vary in timing of onset and in clinical severity, ranging from adrenal insufficiency alone to ...
... myocarditis and cardiac insufficiency, acute adrenal insufficiency, and nephritis. The most common kidney related changes are ...
September 2005). "Adrenal insufficiency in meningococcal sepsis: bioavailable cortisol levels and impact of interleukin-6 ... Mullins ME, Theodoro DL (August 2008). "Lack of evidence for adrenal insufficiency after single-dose etomidate". Archives of ... Daniell H (November 2008). "Opioid and benzodiazepine contributions to etomidate-associated adrenal insufficiency". Intensive ... "Increased risk of adrenal insufficiency following etomidate exposure in critically injured patients". Archives of Surgery. 143 ...
"Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency". Endocrinology and ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ... Abruptly stopping the medication can thus result in acute and potentially life-threatening adrenal insufficiency and the dose ... Broersen LH, Pereira AM, Jørgensen JO, Dekkers OM (June 2015). "Adrenal Insufficiency in Corticosteroids Use: Systematic Review ...
Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is likely to contribute in haemodynamic compromise. There is ... Harry R, Auzinger G, Wendon J (2002). "The clinical importance of adrenal insufficiency in acute hepatic dysfunction". ...
Adrenal insufficiency (if used for long time and stopped suddenly without a taper) Muscle and tendon breakdown (proteolysis), ... Glucocorticoids may be used in low doses in adrenal insufficiency. In much higher doses, oral or inhaled glucocorticoids are ... During this recovery time, the patient is vulnerable to adrenal insufficiency during times of stress, such as illness. While ... or reduced to physiologic replacement if patients are adrenal-deficient). Full adrenal recovery can be assumed to occur by a ...
... , sold under the brand name Metopirone, is a medication which is used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and ... Metyrapone can be used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. Metyrapone 30 mg/kg, maximum dose 3,000 mg, is administered ... then it is highly suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. If neither 11-deoxycortisol nor ACTH rise, it is highly suggestive of an ... In patients with intact Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, CRH and ACTH levels rise as a response to the falling cortisol ...
Elfström P, Montgomery SM, Kämpe O, Ekbom A, Ludvigsson JF (2007). "Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with ... primary adrenal insufficiency) relative to the normal population. GSE can result in high risk pregnancies and infertility. Some ...
... and adrenal insufficiency. In adrenal insufficiency, it is generally taken together with hydrocortisone. Fludrocortisone is ... It is used primarily to replace the missing hormone aldosterone in various forms of adrenal insufficiency such as Addison's ... 2000). "Glucocorticoid Therapy and Adrenal Suppression". In Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, Boyce A, Chrousos G, Corpas E ... Fludrocortisone is also a confirmation test for diagnosing Conn's syndrome (aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma), the ...
... adrenal insufficiency, and red hair due to POMC deficiency; 609734; POMC Obesity, autosomal dominant; 601665; MC4R Obesity, ... CYP11B1 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency; 201750; POR Adrenal hypoplasia, ... ADIPOQ Adrenal cortical carcinoma; 202300; TP53 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency; 202010 ... LMNB2 Lipoid adrenal hyperplasia; 201710; STAR Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia; 201710; CYP11A Lipoid proteinosis; 247100 ...
All types of adrenal insufficiency will require glucocorticoid repletion. Many cases (typically, primary adrenal insufficiency ... "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:adrenal insufficiency". "Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency - Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders". ... predominantly in primary adrenal insufficiency). Depending on the cause and type of adrenal insufficiency, the mechanism of the ... adrenal dysgenesis), or enzyme deficiency (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia). Adrenal insufficiency can also occur when the ...
Adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands dont make enough hormones. Read more. ... Adrenal Insufficiency (Endocrine Society) * Adrenal Insufficiency and Addisons Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and ... Article: Major immunophenotypic abnormalities in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency of different... ... Your adrenal glands are just above your kidneys. The outside layer of these glands makes hormones that help your body respond ...
... which occurs when the adrenal gland itself is dysfunctional, or secondary, also called central adrenal insufficiency, which ... Adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) can be classified as primary, ... Management of adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease). Patients with adrenal insufficiency are generally hypovolemic and may be ... Iatrogenic central adrenal insufficiency. Most cases of adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) are iatrogenic, caused by long- ...
Hi all, my doctor did a blood test 10 days ago which showed low cortisol and adrenal insufficiency, suspected Addisons. The ... Hi all, my doctor did a blood test 10 days ago which showed low cortisol and adrenal insufficiency, suspected Addisons. The ... You are reading content posted in the Adrenal Insufficiency Community Ask a question ...
There are two types of adrenal insufficiency - primary and central:. *In primary adrenal insufficiency, the adrenal glands ... Adrenal insufficiency is a condition that happens when the adrenal glands do not work properly. These glands, located above the ... In central adrenal insufficiency, the pituitary, a small gland beneath the brain, does not make enough of the hormone that ... A temporary type of adrenal insufficiency also can occur in people who have been treated with high doses of cortisol-like ...
Deficiency in the production of glucocorticoids due to a disorder of the adrenal gland primary adrenal insufficiency, ... inadequate adrenocorticotrophin hormone ACTH; secondary adrenal insufficiency or ACTH suppression ... confirms adrenal insufficiency *Concurrent high ACTH → primary adrenal insufficiency; low ACTH → secondary or tertiary adrenal ... Autoimmune primary adrenal insufficiency: most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in the western world *Congenital ...
... prevalence due to the complexities and controversies that surround both assessment and management of adrenal insufficiency (AI ... Dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common but underrecognized occurrence in cirrhosis. There are ... Endocrine Society > Adrenal Disorders Controversies in Assessment and Management of Adrenal Insufficiency in Cirrhosis. - Study ... These include dyslipidemia, deficient intrinsic adrenal enzymatic activity, altered vascular tone leading to chronic adrenal ...
For example, NK cell deficiency and adrenal insufficiency have been documented in patients bearing mutations in MCM4 but not in ... At the age of 8 years, he was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency and underwent bone marrow transplantation due to a gradual ... At the age of 5 years and 6 months, he developed clinical and biochemical features of adrenal insufficiency, leading to the ... Adrenal insufficiency requiring corticosteroid replacement therapy developed in 3 patients, P1.2, P1.4, and P1.5, whereas P1.1 ...
Management to prevent an adrenal crisis Children with known adrenal insufficiency will have an individualised sick day ... Adrenal crisis may also be the first presentation of underlying adrenal insufficiency or there may be a history suggestive of ... An adrenal crisis is a physiological event caused by an acute relative insufficiency of adrenal hormones. It may be ... Adrenal crisis most commonly presents in children with known adrenal insufficiency who develop an intercurrent illness or ...
AddisonS Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency) Is Referenced In 2 Forum Posts. View Addisons disease (1 comment). ... Forum Posts Associated With AddisonS Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency). Theory Intro Forum Posts (2) Search ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
The choice of glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uniform. Patient and healthcare professional ...
Long Term Adrenal Insufficiency Induces Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Increases the Serum Levels of Active Form Myostatin in Rat ... Tohru Hosoyama, Chikashi Tachi, Keitaro Yamanouchi, and Masugi Nishihara "Long Term Adrenal Insufficiency Induces Skeletal ... Skeletal muscle wasting is a common symptom in the adrenal insufficiency such as Addisons disease. Although it has been ... Tohru Hosoyama, Chikashi Tachi, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara "Long Term Adrenal Insufficiency Induces Skeletal Muscle ...
Understanding the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can ensure that you seek the help you need and get right treatment to ... The Symptoms of Adrenal Insufficiency. The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency are varied and can range in severity from mild to ... What Is Adrenal Insufficiency?. In a way, adrenal insufficiency suffers from its own name; "insufficient" sounds like a minor ... The Causes of Adrenal Insufficiency In common reading, Addisons Disease and adrenal insufficiency are essentially ...
Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency as a side-effect of combined treatment of itraconazole and budesonide. M. Skov, K.M. Main, I.B ... suppression of pituitary ACTH production leading to adrenal insufficiency. In addition, steroidogenesis in the adrenals may be ... Adrenal insufficiency was found in 11 of 25 CF patients with ABPA treated with a combination of itraconazole and budesonide. ... In case of adrenal insufficiency, substitution with hydrocortisone needs additional careful monitoring as metabolism of ...
Adrenal Insufficiency Health Research Digital Download: Researched and scanned health information on Addisons disease, adrenal ... The Addisons Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency) Library Research Packet is provided as a service and consists of approximately ... Home / Health Library Research Packets / Addisons Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency) - Info Packet (Download). ...
This resource is for informational purposes only, intended as a quick-reference tool based on the cited source guideline(s), and should not be used as a substitute for the independent professional judgment of healthcare providers. Practice guidelines are unable to account for every individual variation among patients or take the place of clinician judgment, and the ultimate decision concerning the propriety of any course of conduct must be made by healthcare providers after consideration of each individual patient situation. Guideline Central does not endorse any specific guideline(s) or guideline recommendations and has not independently verified the accuracy hereof. Any use of this resource or any other Guideline Central resources is strictly voluntary.. ...
Furthermore, unlike current Cs treatments that are associated with substantial adrenal insufficiency risk, under full and ... Controlling intracellular cortisol: Can HSD-1 inhibition reduce Cushing s syndrome morbidity and minimize adrenal insufficiency ... Controlling intracellular cortisol: Can HSD-1 inhibition reduce Cushings syndrome morbidity and minimize adrenal insufficiency ... Controlling intracellular cortisol: Can HSD-1 inhibition reduce Cushings syndrome morbidity and minimize adrenal insufficiency ...
Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Secondary adrenal insufficiency is adrenal hypofunction due to a lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Symptoms are the ... See also Overview of Adrenal Function Overview of Adrenal Function The adrenal glands, located on the cephalad portion of each ... Coma may supervene when symptomatic secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs. Adrenal crisis is especially likely if a patient is ...
Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare condition where the adrenal glands dont produce enough cortisol, which regulates ... What is Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addisons Disease)?. Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare condition where the adrenal ... How is Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Treated?. Primary adrenal insufficiency is treated with lifelong hormone replacement ... What is the Connection Between Celiac Disease and Primary Adrenal Insufficiency?. People with primary adrenal insufficiency ...
... test for adrenal insufficiency and steroid interaction using a real patient case. ... There is no adrenal insufficiency. If there is minimal or no change from baseline, the test is positive for adrenal ... Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency will have elevated levels of ACTH. However, patients with secondary adrenal ... Suspected Adrenal Insufficiency, ACTH (Cosyntropin) Test and Steroid Interaction Category: Pharmacotherapy by Karine Wong, ...
If you have signs of adrenal insufficiency you should take a test and find treatment in Maple Grove - Osseo MN ... Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: The more common type of AI, secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by the impairment of the ... Adrenal Insufficiency Treatment. The length of treatment of adrenal insufficiency is often dependent on whether you have ... Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Commonly known as Addisons disease, primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder often ...
... basic adrenal insufficiency panel includes cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA as a starting point. Depending on lab test results from ... What is Adrenal Insufficiency and What are the Symptoms?. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a condition in which the adrenal glands ... and congenital adrenal hyperplasia can manifest as adrenal insufficiency. If not treated, adrenal insufficiency may result in ... What Lab Tests are Used to Initiate Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency?. Discounted Labs basic adrenal insufficiency panel ...
Adrenal Insufficiency. Lancet. 2014; 383: 2152-67.. Bastin, M, et al. Effects of Etomidate on Adrenal Suppression: A Review of ... Primary adrenal insufficiency is more commonly associated with adrenal crisis, in contrast with central (secondary and tertiary ... Then move through the three levels of adrenal insufficiency: 1. Primary - adrenal, 2. Secondary - pituitary and 3. Tertiary - ... Then proceed to a discussion on adrenal insufficiency. Start by asking the learners how AI is diagnosed (when to order and how ...
"Adrenal insufficiency with a focus on Addisons disease". The "Adrenal insufficiency with a focus on Addisons disease" eModule ... Research Opportunity: Adrenal Crisis Drug Survey. Do you have Addisons or adrenal insufficiency? Please consider completing ... Coronavirus Vaccines and Adrenal Insufficiency. Everyone with a steroid-dependent adrenal condition should get the coronavirus ... Educating GPs - free RCGP Adrenal Insufficiency course. Working with the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP), we ...
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"Acute adrenal insufficiency/crisis or Addisons disease." You may be unfamiliar with acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisons ... 2 This is referred to as primary adrenal insufficiency. If the adrenal glands are undamaged but still unable to produce ... this condition is called secondary adrenal insufficiency. Other causes of Addisons disease include when the adrenal glands are ... "The complaint of acute adrenal insufficiency, adrenal crisis, Addisonian crisis, or Addisons disease, should be handled on ...
... which occurs when the adrenal gland itself is dysfunctional, or secondary, also called central adrenal insufficiency, which ... Adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) can be classified as primary, ... encoded search term (Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease)) and Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease) ... Antiphospholipid syndrome occasionally results in acute adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) secondary to bilateral adrenal ...
... quality of life in adrenal insufficiency is impaired in many patients and that patients with adrenal insufficiency are also ... Primary adrenal insufficiency is treated with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. Recent data revealed ... What is the Best Long-term Management Strategy for Patients With Primary Adrenal Insufficiency?. ... This may be caused by inadequate glucocortiocid therapy and adrenal crisis. Therefore, the optimization of hormone replacement ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Primary adrenal insufficiency. ... Primary adrenal insufficiency Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Primary adrenal insufficiency, is a rare endocrine disorder that happens when the adrenal gland isnt able to produce enough of ... Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addisons disease, is a chronic condition in which the adrenal glands fail to ...
  • Addison's disease), failure of development (e.g. adrenal dysgenesis), or enzyme deficiency (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Addison's disease (also called autoimmune adrenalitis), which has been identified to be the cause of 80-90% of primary adrenal insufficiency cases since 1950. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hi all, my doctor did a blood test 10 days ago which showed low cortisol and adrenal insufficiency, suspected Addison's. (medhelp.org)
  • Skeletal muscle wasting is a common symptom in the adrenal insufficiency such as Addison's disease. (bioone.org)
  • In common reading, Addison's Disease and adrenal insufficiency are essentially interchangeable. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Addison's Disease is an inadequate release of hormones (especially, though not exclusively, cortisol) by the adrenal cortex. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • The Addison's Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency) Library Research Packet is provided as a service and consists of approximately 257 pages of scanned material located within the WRF Health Library on the topic. (wrf.org)
  • What is Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)? (beyondceliac.org)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency is also known as Addison's disease and hypocortisolism. (beyondceliac.org)
  • Commonly known as Addison's disease , primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder often triggered by an autoimmune disease and is an impairment of the adrenal glands in which they fail to produce enough cortisol. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • Addison's disease, , the auto-immune type of primary adrenal insufficiency, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia can manifest as adrenal insufficiency. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Working with the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP), we recently launched a GP education module titled "Adrenal insufficiency with a focus on Addison's disease" providing a free eLearning module for GPs across the UK. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • This collaborative initiative between the Addison's Disease Self-Help Group (ADSHG) and RCGP provides vital information regarding Addison's disease and adrenal insufficiency directly to GPs at their desks, free of charge. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • GPs are often the gateway to diagnosis and the first point of contact for people with Addison's and adrenal insufficiency. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • Additionally, it's likely your GP will only see a few people with an established diagnosis of Addison's and adrenal insufficiency in their career, so their understanding of adrenal issues and replacement steroids may be limited. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • We have worked with the RCGP to develop a free online eModule to educate GPs on the signs and symptoms of Addison's and adrenal insufficiency to improve early diagnosis and enhance treatment and understanding of these conditions. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • For the month of April, "Adrenal insufficiency with a focus on Addison's disease" is the RCGP's eModule of the month! (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • The "Adrenal insufficiency with a focus on Addison's disease" eModule discusses the causes of adrenal insufficiency, how to recognise and diagnose the condition in primary care, and management. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • This eModule was developed in collaboration between the RCGP and the ADSHG and was informed by the latest scientific evidence on Addison's disease and adrenal insufficiency. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • This eModule will improve GPs' understanding of Addison's disease and adrenal insufficiency, ultimately benefiting people living with these conditions. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • I'm raising money for the Addison's Disease Self Help Group so that they can continue to support people with Addison's and adrenal insufficiency. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • now include this answer choice: "Acute adrenal insufficiency/crisis or Addison's disease. (iaedjournal.org)
  • You may be unfamiliar with acute adrenal insufficiency or Addison's disease and unsure when you would select that answer choice. (iaedjournal.org)
  • That's why we are going to help you understand more about Addison's disease and how you can help callers experiencing acute adrenal insufficiency or an Addisonian crisis. (iaedjournal.org)
  • 1 Addison's disease is a rare disorder of the adrenal glands in which damaged glands do not produce enough aldosterone or cortisol. (iaedjournal.org)
  • About 75% of cases of Addison's disease occur when the body's immune system attacks the adrenal glands, causing continual damage to the adrenal cortex-the outermost layers of the glands that secrete cortisol and aldosterone. (iaedjournal.org)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency , also known as Addison's disease, is a chronic condition in which the adrenal glands fail to produce enough cortisol and mineralocorticoid hormones. (osmosis.org)
  • Patients with AI include patients with primary adrenal insufficiency such as Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and hypothalamo-pituitary damage from tumours or surgery. (rcpjournals.org)
  • These include Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, and adrenal cancer, as well as high blood pressure due to the overproduction of aldosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rarer causes of adrenal insufficiency are Addison's disease (primary adrenal insufficiency), which results in absence of all endogenous steroid production, as well as pituitary and hypothalamic tumors or lesions (secondary adrenal insufficiency). (ai-online.info)
  • It should be noted that patients with Addison's disease are at higher risk for developing acute adrenal insufficiency due to a lack of both glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid production. (ai-online.info)
  • This is called secondary adrenal insufficiency (when caused by lack of production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the pituitary gland) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (when caused by lack of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the adrenal glands are not directly affected, the effect on mineralocorticoid production is minimal, as ACTH primarily affects glucocorticoid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sheehan's syndrome: Loss of blood flow to the pituitary gland following childbirth Pituitary apoplexy: Bleeding or impaired blood supply to the pituitary gland Tertiary adrenal insufficiency is caused by impairment of the hypothalamus, resulting in a lack of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production, causing downstream reduction in ACTH production and subsequently decreasing adrenal stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) can be classified as primary, which occurs when the adrenal gland itself is dysfunctional, or secondary, also called central adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when a lack of secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus or of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary leads to hypofunction of the adrenal cortex. (medscape.com)
  • A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency is confirmed if the serum cortisol level is less than 18 mcg/dL in the presence of a markedly elevated serum ACTH concentration and plasma renin activity. (medscape.com)
  • Based on normative data of children of various ages, adrenal insufficiency is likely if the serum cortisol concentration is less than 18 mcg/dL 30-60 minutes after administration of 250 mcg of cosyntropin (synthetic ACTH 1-24). (medscape.com)
  • When a patient's serum cortisol response to cosyntropin is subnormal but his or her serum ACTH level is not elevated, the possibility of central adrenal insufficiency should be considered. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases , "Anything that affects the pituitary's ability to make ACTH can cause secondary adrenal insufficiency. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Only one patient with an initial pathological ACTH-test subsequently normalised, the other 10 patients improved but had not achieved normalised adrenal function 2-10 months after itraconazole treatment had been discontinued. (ersjournals.com)
  • Furthermore, unlike current Cs treatments that are associated with substantial adrenal insufficiency risk, under full and sustained HSD-1 inhibition autonomously produced or ACTH-stimulated cortisol remains elevated in the circulatory pool, available to enter cells and act at GC, MC or non-genomic receptors at concentrations likely sufficient to prevent adrenal insufficiency. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Until further direct experience in these conditions is gathered, we still advise caution in patients with modest autonomous cortisol secretion, who may have suppressed ACTH and atrophied normal adrenal tissue, particularly in situations where stress-dose, non-precursor GC steroids should be considered (e.g., use hydrocortisone not cortisone acetate, or prednisolone not prednisone). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency is adrenal hypofunction due to a lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Inadequate ACTH can also result from failure of the hypothalamus to stimulate pituitary ACTH production, which is sometimes called tertiary adrenal insufficiency. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 4 weeks may have insufficient ACTH secretion during metabolic stress to stimulate the adrenals to produce adequate quantities of corticosteroids, or they may have atrophic adrenals that are unresponsive to ACTH. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cosyntropin is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), used to test for adrenal insufficiency. (rxeconsult.com)
  • If a baseline ACTH level is drawn, then it can be used to differentiate between primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency. (rxeconsult.com)
  • Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency will have elevated levels of ACTH. (rxeconsult.com)
  • The more common type of AI, secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by the impairment of the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) in which it fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • ACTH is responsible for stimulating the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • Discounted Labs' basic adrenal insufficiency panel includes cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA as a starting point. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Depending on lab test results, physicians may choose to do an ACTH stimulation test, renin test, aldosterone test, potassium, sodium, and a CT scan of the adrenal glands. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Other conditions that should be considered include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor defect, adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy syndromes, infectious adrenalitis (eg, in association with human immunodeficiency [HIV] infection or tuberculosis [TB]), adrenal hemorrhage, lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, and Wolman disease. (medscape.com)
  • Without ACTH, the adrenals do not receive a signal to make cortisol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most common cause is exogenous steroid administration (tertiary adrenal insufficiency) resulting in atrophy of the adrenal cortex due to insufficient ACTH release from the pituitary gland, and the subsequent inability to produce endogenous glucocorticoids. (ai-online.info)
  • A disorder characterized by decreased secretion of corticotropin (ACTH) by the pituitary gland leading to adrenal insufficiency (e.g., low levels of cortisol). (medbullets.com)
  • Multivariable Model to Predict an ACTH Stimulation Test to Diagnose Adrenal Insufficiency Using Previous Test Results. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Siri and co-authors now recommend that all children with SLSMDs should undergo adrenal and mineralocorticoid assessment including ACTH and basal cortisol level measurements at 6-12-month intervals with ACTH stimulation tests where indicated. (medwirenews.com)
  • This is called an adrenal crisis and requires immediate medical treatment, which usually includes additional hormone treatment and fluids given through a vein. (childrensmn.org)
  • An adrenal crisis is a physiological event caused by an acute relative insufficiency of adrenal hormones. (rch.org.au)
  • It causes various symptoms, including hypotension and hyperpigmentation, and can lead to adrenal crisis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adrenal crisis is especially likely if a patient is treated for a single endocrine gland problem, particularly with thyroxine, without hydrocortisone replacement. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes symptoms can appear suddenly, in a life-threatening complication called acute adrenal failure (also known as an addisonian crisis). (beyondceliac.org)
  • An adrenal crisis occurs when there is a sudden, extreme worsening of these symptoms. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • In most cases the symptoms will cause a patient to seek treatment before a crisis is reached, but occasionally adrenal insufficiency symptoms are not diagnosed until an adrenal crisis occurs. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • If not treated immediately, adrenal crisis can be fatal. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • In cases of adrenal crisis, doctors may give IV doses of these replacement hormones. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency is more commonly associated with adrenal crisis, in contrast with central (secondary and tertiary), because of the mineralocorticoid deficiency which results in hypovolemia. (teachim.org)
  • Adrenal crisis is a syndrome of hypotension/shock with possible fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and fatigue. (teachim.org)
  • It also covers adrenal crisis, how to recognise this condition, and the emergency treatment which should be delivered before hospital transfer. (addisonsdisease.org.uk)
  • 7 As mentioned previously, symptoms can occur suddenly-a condition called acute adrenal failure or an Addisonian crisis. (iaedjournal.org)
  • This may be caused by inadequate glucocortiocid therapy and adrenal crisis. (medscape.com)
  • This article provides answers to the important daily clinical questions, such as correct dose finding, dose adaptation in special situations, e g, pregnancy, improvement of quality of life and measures for protection from adrenal crisis. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is an often-unrecognised endocrine disorder, which can lead to adrenal crisis and death if not identified and treated. (rcpjournals.org)
  • Omission of steroids in patients with AI, particularly during physiological stress such as an intercurrent illness or surgery, can also lead to an adrenal crisis. (rcpjournals.org)
  • This guidance will go through causes of adrenal insufficiency, groups at risk of an adrenal crisis, emergency management and management for surgical procedures. (rcpjournals.org)
  • A new NHS Steroid Emergency Card has been developed to be carried by patients at risk of adrenal crisis. (rcpjournals.org)
  • We hope the new emergency card and this guidance will increase awareness of the need to start steroids promptly in patients at risk of an adrenal crisis, particularly those presenting in the emergency department or to acute medicine teams and those undergoing surgery or invasive procedures. (rcpjournals.org)
  • All patients with AI or steroid dependence are at risk of an adrenal crisis during intercurrent illness or an invasive procedure/surgery. (rcpjournals.org)
  • All healthcare professionals should be aware of the patient groups at risk of an adrenal crisis. (rcpjournals.org)
  • All doctors should be aware of the need to start steroids promptly in patients at risk of an adrenal crisis, either at replacement or stress doses, particularly when presenting in the emergency department or to acute medicine teams, undergoing surgery, or invasive procedures. (rcpjournals.org)
  • Without enough cortisol, a person may experience an adrenal crisis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person shows any signs of an adrenal crisis, they should seek immediate medical help. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Without treatment, an adrenal crisis can be fatal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency can also occur when the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus do not produce adequate amounts of the hormones that assist in regulating adrenal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the adrenal glands are undamaged but still unable to produce aldosterone or cortisol because of other reasons, such as pituitary gland abnormalities, this condition is called secondary adrenal insufficiency. (iaedjournal.org)
  • In cases of tertiary adrenal insufficiency, a history of exogenous steroid use within the past 3 months is a useful history to elicit. (ai-online.info)
  • Potassium is generally not needed in acute situations, especially in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, who are often hyperkalemic. (medscape.com)
  • While rare, symptoms can develop quickly, causing acute adrenal failure. (iaedjournal.org)
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome occasionally results in acute adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) secondary to bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
  • Acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare complication that can manifest in the perioperative period. (ai-online.info)
  • Glucocorticoid replacement is required in all forms of adrenal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • There are huge variations in reported prevalence due to the complexities and controversies that surround both assessment and management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in patients with liver cirrhosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. (teachim.org)
  • The adrenal glands, also referred to as adrenal cortex normally secretes glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), and androgens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the adrenal cortex. (medscape.com)
  • The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 major anatomic zones. (medscape.com)
  • Addison Disease Addison disease is an insidious, usually progressive hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Adrenal Function The adrenal glands, located on the cephalad portion of each kidney (see figure Adrenal glands), consist of a Cortex Medulla The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla each have separate endocrine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms and Signs Addison disease is an insidious, usually progressive hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Like other glucocorticosteroids, cortisol is synthesized from the common precursor cholesterol in the zona fasciculata of the cortex of the adrenal gland. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Synthesis and secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland are controlled by a negative feedback mechanism within the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex-axis. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Symptoms often do not develop until 90% of the adrenal cortex has been damaged. (iaedjournal.org)
  • Stewart, PM. The adrenal cortex. (medscape.com)
  • Lalli E, Sassone-Corsi P. DAX-1 and the adrenal cortex. (medscape.com)
  • Now, there are two adrenal glands , one above each kidney, and each one has an inner layer called the medulla and an outer layer called the cortex which is subdivided into three more layers, the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. (osmosis.org)
  • The adrenal glands have two parts: the cortex and the medulla. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most tumors that affect the adrenal cortex are adenomas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although rare, this cancer can affect the cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency can further be classified as congenital or acquired (see Etiology). (medscape.com)
  • Congenital adrenal hypoplasia: clinical spectrum, experience with hormonal diagnosis, and report on new point mutations of the DAX-1 gene. (medscape.com)
  • Works to improve the lives of the congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) community and to provide support, advocacy, education, and research. (pediatricadrenalinsufficiency.com)
  • It is a life-threatening disorder that can result from primary adrenal failure or secondary adrenal disease due to impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • However, some people with adrenal insufficiency will have no symptoms unless they're exposed to stress. (childrensmn.org)
  • Adrenal insufficiency is a serious medical condition with several possible causes and a host of debilitating and even deadly symptoms. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • By recognizing the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, you can ensure that you get the support you need to restore healthy function and start on the path to better health. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • That's why it is vital to recognize the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency as early as possible. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency are varied and can range in severity from mild to debilitating. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • And it's easy to understand why-many of the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can be brushed off as the logical outcome of a stressful lifestyle , attributed to the natural aging process, or seen as a manifestation of burnout syndrome . (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Because the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can present gradually, early diagnosis is uncommon. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • Diagnosis typically begins with a thorough physical exam, including a series of questions related to medical history and current symptoms, but the results of an adrenal insufficiency test are central to any diagnosis. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • What is Adrenal Insufficiency and What are the Symptoms? (discountedlabs.com)
  • The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can be difficult to spot. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since the adrenal glands are directly affected, mineralocorticoid production is also reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mineralocorticoid replacement is required only in primary adrenal insufficiency, because aldosterone secretion is reduced in primary adrenal insufficiency but not in central adrenal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Mineralocorticoid and gonadal insufficiency was not observed in any of the patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency is treated with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] Therefore, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in premature infants remains problematic. (medscape.com)
  • What Lab Tests are Used to Initiate Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency? (discountedlabs.com)
  • Emergency treatment should not be delayed while waiting to confirm a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. (rcpjournals.org)
  • Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in children: a survey among pediatric endocrinologists in North America. (bvsalud.org)
  • A temporary type of adrenal insufficiency also can occur in people who have been treated with high doses of cortisol-like medications (such as prednisone) when the medicine is decreased or stopped. (childrensmn.org)
  • This is, of course, a type of adrenal insufficiency. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • There are three major types of adrenal insufficiency, depending on the affected organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 d) central adrenal insufficiency (eg, a patient who recently underwent surgery of the hypothalamus or pituitary regions). (medscape.com)
  • In central adrenal insufficiency, the pituitary, a small gland beneath the brain, does not make enough of the hormone that triggers cortisol production. (childrensmn.org)
  • Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make enough of these hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In other words, adrenal insufficiency is defined by a lack or dysfunction of critical hormones. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • The adrenal glands, located atop each of the kidneys, produce steroid hormones vital to the body's metabolism and other bodily functions, especially its stress response. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • When the adrenal glands are unable to produce enough of these hormones, your body can suffer serious reactions which can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI). (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • These tests stimulate the release of the adrenal hormones. (endocrinology-centers.com)
  • Sitting on top of the kidneys are two small adrenal glands that produce two essential hormones: cortisol and aldosterone. (iaedjournal.org)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency , is a rare endocrine disorder that happens when the adrenal gland isn't able to produce enough of the hormones that the body needs, particularly aldosterone and cortisol . (osmosis.org)
  • Sometimes, the adrenal glands produce too much or not enough of their hormones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, and the zonae fasciculata and reticularis together produce cortisol and adrenal androgens. (medscape.com)
  • The adrenal glands may also not produce enough aldosterone, which regulates sodium absorption. (beyondceliac.org)
  • 500 mcg/day are at risk of adrenal insufficiency due to hypothalamo-pituitary axis suppression and should be issued with an NHS Steroid Emergency Card. (rcpjournals.org)
  • This stimulates the synthesis and secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland. (discountedlabs.com)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency is due to impairment of the adrenal glands, resulting in a lack of glucocorticoid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with primary adrenal insufficiency often have autoimmune conditions too, including celiac disease. (beyondceliac.org)
  • This can be caused by an autoimmune disorder, infection, or causes of damage to the adrenal glands. (osmosis.org)
  • Clinical suspicion is important because the presentation of patients with adrenal insufficiency may be insidious and subtle. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with adrenal insufficiency are generally hypovolemic and may be hypoglycemic, hyponatremic, or hyperkalemic. (medscape.com)
  • Not only is low cortisol associated with impaired quality of life, patients with adrenal insufficiency also have higher mortality rates than those with healthy adrenal function. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • A recent case of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and complete suppression of the pituitary-adrenal-axis in a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated with itraconazole as an antifungal agent, and budesonide as an anti-inflammatory agent led to a systematic assessment of this axis and gonadal function in all patients treated with itraconazole in the authors' CF centre. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate adrenal and gonadal function in patients treated with itraconazole with or without budesonide. (ersjournals.com)
  • Eleven of the 25 patients treated with both itraconazole and budesonide had adrenal insufficiency. (ersjournals.com)
  • Suppression of the adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis was observed in 11 of 25 cystic fibrosis patients treated with both itraconazole and budesonide. (ersjournals.com)
  • In patients treated with this combination, screening for adrenal insufficiency at regular intervals is suggested. (ersjournals.com)
  • The frequency of suppression of the pituitary-adrenal-axis and gonadal steroidogenesis due to pharmacological interaction of itraconazole and budesonide was prospectively studied in a group of 31 patients with CF and six patients with chronic granulomateous disease (CGD) and compared to a control group of 30 CF patients who had been tested as part of a pretransplantation programme. (ersjournals.com)
  • Multiple studies show an increased risk of celiac disease among patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. (beyondceliac.org)
  • One study also showed that patients with celiac disease were at an increased risk of developing primary adrenal insufficiency. (beyondceliac.org)
  • Effects of Etomidate on Adrenal Suppression: A Review of Intubated Septic Patients. (teachim.org)
  • Megestrol acetate in pediatric oncology patients may lead to severe, symptomatic adrenal suppression. (medscape.com)
  • Duration of adrenal inhibition following a single dose of etomidate in critically ill patients. (medscape.com)
  • What is the Best Long-term Management Strategy for Patients With Primary Adrenal Insufficiency? (medscape.com)
  • Recent data revealed that health-related quality of life in adrenal insufficiency is impaired in many patients and that patients with adrenal insufficiency are also threatened by an increased mortality and morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • CONTEXT: The adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation test (AST) is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency, and is often repeated in patients when monitoring recovery of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Large, searchable clinical databases allow us to track outcomes in greater numbers of patients with adrenal insufficiency, but not without a few glitches, notes Dr Plotzker. (medscape.com)
  • Hyponatremia in COVID-19 Patients With Adrenal Insufficiency and Its Relation to Mortality and Survival Scores. (who.int)
  • This case highlights the Brugada phenocopy in the setting of moderate hyperkalemia and severe hyponatremia from adrenal insufficiency that resolves with treatment of the underlying metabolic disturbance. (uic.edu)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scanning is the imaging study of choice in the evaluation of adrenal insufficiency and helps to identify adrenal hemorrhage, calcifications, and infiltrative disease. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with transient antiphospholipid antibody in a child. (medscape.com)
  • These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased serum levels of active form of myostatin protein, induced yet unknown post-translational control mechanisms may be responsible, at least in part, for the muscle wasting associated with the adrenal insufficiency syndromes. (bioone.org)
  • See also Addison Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency). (medscape.com)
  • CT scan-guided fine-needle aspiration sometimes helps in diagnosing the etiology of infiltrative adrenal disease. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by dysfunction of the adrenal gland itself, whether by destruction (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common but underrecognized occurrence in cirrhosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Grant DB, Barnes ND, Dumic M, Ginalska-Malinowska M, Milla PJ, von Petrykowski W. Neurological and adrenal dysfunction in the adrenal insufficiency/alacrima/achalasia (3A) syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency is the clinical manifestation of deficient production or action of glucocorticoids, with or without deficiency also in mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a common clinical feature in children and young adults with single large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions (SLSMDs), especially in those with Pearson syndrome (PS), Italian researchers have found. (medwirenews.com)
  • No surgical management is needed in most cases of adrenal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The determination of testosterone in women is helpful in the diagnosis of androgenic syndrome (AGS), polycystic ovaries (Stein-Leventhal syndrome) and when an ovarian tumor, adrenal tumor, adrenal hyperplasia or ovarian insufficiency is suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare condition where the adrenal glands (located just above the kidneys) don't produce enough cortisol, which is a hormone that regulates stress and stress reactions. (beyondceliac.org)
  • If there is minimal or no change from baseline, the test is positive for adrenal insufficiency which means that the patient is not producing enough cortisol. (rxeconsult.com)
  • When the adrenal glands do not make enough cortisol, it is known as adrenal insufficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This condition develops when the adrenal gland itself does not function well and cannot make enough cortisol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This means that the adrenals cannot make enough cortisol. (medicalnewstoday.com)