Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenal Cortex HormonesCircadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests: Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Salivary Gland DiseasesMineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Submandibular Gland DiseasesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mitotane: A derivative of the insecticide DICHLORODIPHENYLDICHLOROETHANE that specifically inhibits cells of the adrenal cortex and their production of hormones. It is used to treat adrenocortical tumors and causes CNS damage, but no bone marrow depression.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Perianal GlandsAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Interrenal Gland: Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
This overproduction causes the adrenal glands to make excess aldosterone, which leads to the signs and symptoms of familial ... This enzyme helps produce hormones called cortisol and corticosterone. The CYP11B2 gene provides instructions for making ... Familial hyperaldosteronism is a group of inherited conditions in which the adrenal glands, which are small glands located on ... These genes provide instructions for making two enzymes that are found in the adrenal glands. The CYP11B1 gene provides ...
In the recall phase the adrenal glands increase production of cortisol which shuts down eicosanoid production and inflammation ... Ultimately a scar made of collagen, containing a small number of fibroblasts is left. After inflammation has damaged tissue ( ... Oxford English Dictionary "Building the Science of Healing" (PDF). McElligott, D (2010). "Healing: The journey from concept to ... Alongside most cells there is either a basement membrane or a collagenous network made by fibroblasts that will guide the cells ...
The initial reaction is followed by activation of the pituitary gland and secretion of the hormone ACTH. The adrenal gland is ... The initial response and subsequent reactions are triggered in an effort to create a boost of energy. This boost of energy is ... "Adrenaline, Cortisol, Norepinephrine: The Three Major Stress Hormones, Explained". Hufflington Post. April 19, 2014. Retrieved ... More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially ...
... with congenital adrenal hyperplasia lack an enzyme needed by the adrenal gland to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. ... A school of clownfish is always built into a hierarchy with a female fish at the top. When she dies, the most dominant male ... U.S. National Library of Medicine, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Bostwick, J. M.; Martin, K. A. (2007). "A Man's Brain in an ... This transition is limited to making the bird phenotypically male. The condition could also be caused by mycotoxins that can ...
... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ... The prolonged survival made Minnie's case unique at the time. The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an ... excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion led to the production of large amounts of cortisol by the adrenal glands. ... Another diagnostic test used is the urinary free cortisol (UFC) test, which measures the excess cortisol excreted by the ...
This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol. The HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well ... secretion of the epinephrine and cortisol from the adrenal medulla, and relaxation of the bladder wall. The parasympathetic ... Also high cortisol levels can be tied to the deterioration of the hippocampus and decline of memory that many older adults ...
... stimulating the adrenal gland to make more cortisol. In addition to cortisol, the adrenal gland also releases androgen, leading ... citation needed] The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis relies on blood levels of cortisol to act as negative feedback. Low ... Reduced cortisol in circulation activates the H-P-A Axis to produce and release more cortisol, and therefore androgen. [ ... Cortisol inhibition, and as a result, excess androgen release can lead to a variety of symptoms. Other symptoms come about as a ...
Tetracosactide stimulates the release of corticosteroids such as cortisol from the adrenal glands, and is used for the ACTH ... Synthetic forms were created as a replacement for the animal-derived products. In the US, available forms of tetracosactide/ ... It acts on the adrenal glands to stimulate the production of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids). If the adrenal glands are ... Tetracosactide stimulates the release of corticosteroids such as cortisol from the adrenal glands, and is used for the ACTH ...
... a lack of production of glucocorticoids such as cortisol by the adrenal gland. If the problem is chronic, symptoms consist of ... The first description of the condition was made in 1914 by the German physician Dr Morris Simmonds. The hormones of the ... which is cortisol deficiency as the result of direct damage to the adrenal glands; the latter form, however, often leads to ... acts directly on the breast gland. Once the effector glands produce sufficient hormones (thyroxine, cortisol, estradiol or ...
Cortisol is released from the adrenal glands following activation by ACTH release from the pituitary. The ACTH release creating ... In the cortisol awakening response, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is controlled by the hippocampus. For example, ... PMID 18854200 Hucklebridge F, Hussain T, Evans P, Clow A. (2005). The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and ... Normally, the highest cortisol secretion happens in the second half of the night with peak cortisol production occurring in the ...
Cortisol is a stress hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, which makes up part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) ... Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body. Cortisol ... Recent technology has allowed researchers to measure cortisol levels in human hair (showing cumulative cortisol exposure over ... They found heightened cortisol levels in both alcoholics and non-alcoholics while actively drinking. Cortisol was overall ...
Glucocorticoids Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by ... The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Adrenal gland at the Human Protein Atlas MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 002219 Adrenal gland histology Virtual Slidebox at Univ. Iowa ...
Psychological stress induces the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ... This area of study has been a focus for education boards that make decisions on whether physical education should be ... it does not result in long-term increases in cortisol production since this exercise-induced effect on cortisol is a response ... A case can be made for a causal interpretation. Future research should use objective measures of physical activity, adjust for ...
One end-product of this pathway is cortisol. For cortisol to be released from the adrenal gland, a cascade of signaling occurs ... In 1963, Jean-Luc Godard named it one of the ten best American sound films ever made. John F. Kennedy needed to regularly use ... It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress. In chemical structure, it is a ... which then proceeds through a series of modifications in the adrenal gland (suprarenal) to become any one of many steroid ...
Cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex will negatively feedback to inhibit both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. This ... Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands ( ...
ACTH then travels to the adrenal glands and induces the release of cortisol into the bloodstream. In Cushing's syndrome, this ... Chronic inflammation makes an individual more susceptible to diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Another ... In either case, treatment may rely on removal of the tumor or of the adrenal glands. Without the adrenal glands, the human body ... or it can also be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal gland. ...
... can also occur when the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland does not make adequate amounts of the ... To form cortisol, the adrenal gland requires cholesterol, which is then converted biochemically into steroid hormones. ... A CT of the adrenal glands can be used to check for structural abnormalities of the adrenal glands. An MRI of the pituitary can ... Other cases are due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or an adenoma (tumor) of the adrenal gland. Secondary adrenal ...
While running at night, House hypothesizes that a corticosteroid production imbalance in Richard's adrenal gland is the cause ... He notices engorged neck veins and plunges the needle into her chest to learn that blood is building up around her heart. House ... Although forbidding House to treat Richard, Cuddy gives Richard the cortisol injection after House is discharged from the ... Cuddy and Wilson are convinced House is creating a mystery out of Richard's case to cure his own boredom. House decides Caren ...
Similar to the adrenal gland, cholesterol accumulation damages the Leydig cells of the testes. In the ovary, the damage begins ... Because the adrenal zona glomerulosa is undifferentiated and inactive before delivery, it is undamaged at birth and can make ... The deficiency results in impaired synthesis of all three categories of adrenal steroids (cortisol, mineralocorticoids, sex ... Also of note, enlargement of the adrenal gland is not always found in the patient, especially in cases where a mutation in the ...
The adrenal glands produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. It controls ... The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary and creates two hormones that it exports to the ... thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine ... Addison's disease is an endocrine disease that results from hypocortisolism caused by adrenal gland insufficiency. Adrenal ...
ACTH directs the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids, such as cortisol. Glucocorticoids not only perform their respective ... Nyquist and Bode built on Black's work to develop a theory of amplifier stability. Early researchers in the area of cybernetics ... For hormone secretion regulated by the negative feedback loop: when gland X releases hormone X, this stimulates target cells to ... One use of feedback is to make a system (say T) self-regulating to minimize the effect of a disturbance (say D). Using a ...
The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in ... After the high-dose dexamethasone, it may be possible to make further interpretations. †ACTH as measured prior to dosing of ... Results indicative of Cushing's disease involve no change in cortisol on low-dose dexamethasone, but inhibition of cortisol on ... A low dose of dexamethasone suppresses cortisol in individuals with no pathology in endogenous cortisol production. A high dose ...
The initial reaction is followed by activation of the pituitary gland and secretion of the hormone ACTH. The adrenal gland is ... Horses making a chewing motion with no food in the mouth do so as a soothing mechanism, possibly linked to a release of tension ... The release of chemical messengers results in the production of the hormone cortisol, which increases blood pressure and blood ... They may also make sighing, grunting or groaning noises at times. Ear position is often one of the most obvious behaviors that ...
... as well as changes in behavior related reduced levels of stress hormones and delayed maturation of the adrenal glands. The self ... a precursor to NAD that makes de novo synthesis of NAD from tryptophan unnecessary. This change creates the illusion that NAD ... Lower BDNF expression is associated with increased IL-6 expression, and increased cortisol levels. The more pro-inflammatory ... This hypothesis builds upon Crespi and Badcock's imprinted brain theory of autism and psychosis by suggesting that the ...
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by corticosterone ... Main article: Adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Main article: Adrenal gland disorder. The normal function of the adrenal gland may be impaired by conditions such as infections ...
... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ... Diagnosis is made first by diagnosing Cushing's syndrome, which can be difficult to do clinically since the most characteristic ... excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion led to the production of large amounts of cortisol by the adrenal glands. ... Another diagnostic test used is the urinary free cortisol (UFC) test, which measures the excess cortisol excreted by the ...
In some cases, the adrenal glands also dont produce enough of two other hormones. Heres what you can do at home to care for ... Addison disease occurs when your adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. ... Your adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. In some cases, the adrenal glands also dont make enough of the ... This disease is also called adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism. A flare-up is called an Addisonian crisis or an adrenal ...
Blood tests and urine tests to measure the amount of cortisol * ACTH stimulation test-should make the adrenal glands release ... Addison disease is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. ... The pituitary gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland is damaged it will affect the adrenal ... With Addison disease, the adrenal glands do not make enough of certain hormones. The hormone cortisol is always affected but ...
Corticosteroids are produced in the adrenal gland located above the kidney. These hormones include aldosterone, which helps ... But scratching can tear open your skin, making way for infection-causing germs. It may also make sores appear where there ... Urinary free cortisol test. Narrator: Aroma therapy is the use of essential oils that come from plants, trees and herbs. The ... Adrenal depression in these patients was transient, and rapidly returned to normal upon cessation of treatment. Koscielny J, ...
The adrenal gland is the most common site but myelolipomas also occur rarely in extraadrenal locations such as presacral soft ... A diagnosis of adrenal lipoma was considered. Serum catecholamines, cortisol and urinary VMA were within normal limits. The ... 2). A diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma was made. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on ... USG revealed an adrenal mass along with multiple stones in the gall bladder. The pain was related to adrenal myelolipoma, ...
Defective cortisol production results in negative feedback at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, leading to excessive ... hybridization with custom made probe library (Nimblegen, Roche) to capture the genes of interested. The sequencing was carried ... MurakamiCIshibashiMKondoMOhshiroSFujitaMSatoSKakoMFurueHMizuguchiKYamajiT. Adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital ... MurakamiCIshibashiMKondoMOhshiroSFujitaMSatoSKakoMFurueHMizuguchiKYamajiT. Adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital ...
... occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal ... and the right and left glands appear to be involved with equal frequency. Bilateral adrenocortical tumors resulting in ... Make a Deposit. * Submit your work * How to submit My Account. * Login ... or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). Primary adrenocortical neoplasia has been diagnosed in 10 to ...
Symptoms of adrenal gland cancer depend on whether the tumour is producing hormones and the type of hormones. Learn about ... Symptoms caused by too much cortisol. Adrenal gland tumours that make too much cortisol in the body cause Cushing syndrome ( ... Symptoms of adrenal gland cancer. Adrenal gland cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages. Signs and ... Non-functional adrenal gland tumours usually dont make any hormones and dont cause any symptoms. Non-functional tumours have ...
Overworking adrenal glands and producing too much cortisol can bring major illnesses, food cravings, destruction of brain cells ... Make decisions instead of worrying!!!!. More about cortisol, adrenaline glands and symptoms of adrenal gland problems related ... your adrenal glands or as some people call it the (adrenaline glands) will release cortisol into the body. When cortisol floods ... Stressed Adrenals Creating Cortisol = Illness!. Mental Health / December 9, 2019. by admin / Leave a Comment ...
Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a high level of the hormone cortisol. ... This hormone is made in the adrenal glands. Causes of too much cortisol are:. *Cushing disease, which occurs when the pituitary ... ACTH then signals the adrenal glands to produce too much cortisol. A pituitary gland tumor can cause this condition. ... Medicines to prevent the body from making too much cortisol With Cushing syndrome due to a pituitary tumor, adrenal tumor, or ...
In 21-OH CAH, when the adrenal glands try to make cortisol and aldosterone, they instead make more of other hormones: androgens ... that the adrenal glands need to work right. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system. The adrenal glands make ... The adrenal glands make enough aldosterone, but not enough cortisol. They make too much androgen, but often less than in SWCAH ... When the adrenal glands make too little cortisol and aldosterone, it can endanger the childs life. But by replacing hormones ...
Glucocorticoids Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in humans. In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by ... The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Adrenal gland at the Human Protein Atlas MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 002219 Adrenal gland histology Virtual Slidebox at Univ. Iowa ...
It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. ... Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor is a form of Cushing syndrome. ... Adrenal adenomas, a common tumor that rarely makes excess cortisol. *Macronodular hyperplasia, which causes the adrenal glands ... This hormone is made in the adrenal glands. Too much cortisol can be due to various problems. One such problem is a tumor on ...
Cortisol is a steroid hormone made by your adrenal glands. It helps your body respond to stress, regulate blood sugar, and ... Blood cortisol; plasma cortisol; cortisol, plasma. What is this test?. A serum cortisol test may help in the diagnosis of two ... affect your pituitary and adrenal glands. It does so by measuring your blood level of a stress hormone called cortisol. ... also called primary adrenal insufficiency. It could also be a sign of another problem with your adrenal glands. This may cause ...
Cortisol is made by the adrenal gland. It can also be produced in the lab. ... We do our best to make sure that the information we provide is accurate and reliable but cannot guarantee that it is error-free ... The information is for your general use, so be sure to talk to a qualified healthcare professional before making medical ... Cushing syndrome is a group of symptoms caused by too much of the hormone cortisol in the body. ...
The adrenal glands cannot make cortisol without progesterone. Often referred to as the progesterone steal, your body will ... The problem is that in order to make cortisol, your adrenal glands need progesterone. This causes your progesterone to be used ... But if we strengthen our adrenal glands and manage our stress, we allow the adrenal glands to function the way they are ... When you are constantly in that "fight or flight" mode because of stress, your adrenal glands will produce additional cortisol ...
Doc said to his surprise my cortisol was low. He gave the small dose of prednisone to try and replace the cortisol. He does not ... Yuchhh). Told me Id be fine and make a follow up appt for two months. I left his office frustrated but in a few days the ... Your cortisol is really off. Are you having symptoms? Are you getting acid reflex at all? Can you consider having a few more ... Its good you are getting the additional testing on the cortisol. I am still learning so much on the FSH and LS panels. I ...
These lab-made steroids work like the hormone cortisol, which your adrenal glands make. Cortisol keeps your immune system from ... Theyre man-made versions of testosterone, a male sex hormone that helps build bigger muscles. You take them by mouth or get a ... You need a healthy balance of them to grow and even to make babies. "Steroids" can also refer to man-made medicines. The two ... These drugs can also raise your LDL "bad" cholesterol, which can make you more likely to have heart attacks and strokes at any ...
Well cover tests that a healthcare provider may order to diagnose adrenal fatigue, but which also test for valid adrenal, ... Some healthcare providers subscribe to the theory of a condition known as adrenal fatigue, but science doesnt recognize the ... Cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone that is made by your adrenal glands. When you face a stressful situation, ... Your adrenal glands produce hormones to help your body function. Learn how to recognize adrenal gland disorders. ...
Cortisol is a hormone made by the adrenal glands in the kidney. Cortisol levels are highest in the morning. Through ... eventually leading to the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland in the kidney. ... Stress and Cortisol. When we are confronted with stress our bodys initial response is fight or flight. When we go into ... Because her own health is the foundation of her expertise, you can trust that Lisa will make it truly possible for you to see ...
They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. Cortisol helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates ... You have two adrenal glands. They are located just above the kidneys. ... Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. ... Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. You have two adrenal glands. ...
Im not sure if they tested cortisol and adrenal glands, but they did everything else you can imagine. Apple123: Ive been on ... adrenal glands, thyroid. another thing you got to realize is that Cabergoline is a dopamine antagonist. which can make you very ... I can count 4 times this year when I Went out of my way to make sure a friend felt good on their birthday, especially if they ... I guess thats why its discouraging to find that Cabergoline made me feel worse right away. At any rate, Im very glad to hear ...
Ok so Ive decided to make a post informing people about the effects of stress on the body. Your Luteal phase can last between ... Stress is due to the release of the hormone Cortisol that is produced by the Adrenal glands. The Adrenal glands MAKE cortisol ... Stress CAN NOT make you late HOWEVER stress CAN make you early. Stress can bring on AF sooner than when you were expecting her ... Ok so Ive decided to make a post informing people about the effects of stress on the body. Your Luteal phase can last between ...
... help make your muscles tense, and put your brain on high alert. The adrenal cortex secretes cortisol and other hormones. ... The adrenal gland has two parts. The adrenal medula secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). These ... To help turn off the adrenal glands and calm the mind, practice restorative yoga postures daily in a warm, dark, quiet ... If you activate the adrenal glands over and over again without sufficient recovery in between, your body becomes depleted and ...
The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. The inner layer of the adrenal gland ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. ... Help control the breakdown of fats and proteins to make sugars ... The outer layer of the adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol that:. *Help the body deal with stress. ... Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly ...
Cortisol is made by your adrenal glands, which are located at the top of your kidneys. Cortisol helps break down protein, sugar ... Cortisol is also one of the hormones that helps you deal with stress. Cortisol levels should peak in the morning and be at ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test to determine why your adrenal glands arent working properly ... This is a blood test that measures the amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) the pituitary gland produces. This gland is ...
  • The most plausible explanation may be that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells within the adrenal cortex are stimulated to differentiate into myeloid and lipoid lines by some stress in the form of chronic illness, necrosis or neoplasia 4 . (ijpsr.com)
  • Naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. (cornell.edu)
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