Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Salivary Gland DiseasesOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Submandibular Gland DiseasesIncidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Perianal GlandsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.

Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice. (1/3055)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene.  (+info)

An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria. (2/3055)

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). (3/3055)

Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled in size between Days 24 and 26 of pregnancy, and their cortisol content increased over 10-fold during this period, from 10 pg to over 100 pg per adrenal pair. After birth, neonatal adrenals continued to grow, but cortisol content fell dramatically to 20 pg. The prepartum increase in adrenal cortisol was reflected by a substantial rise in cortisol concentrations in yolk sac fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal blood, which were below 10 ng/ml on Day 24 and rose to over 40 ng/ml by Day 26. Cortisol concentrations in neonatal blood decreased postpartum, mirroring decreased cortisol content in neonatal adrenals. Cortisol production by the fetal adrenal was stimulated in vitro by ACTH and prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the in vivo increase may be stimulated by release of ACTH from the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis and prostaglandin E2 from the placenta. These results indicate that increasing cortisol production by the fetal adrenal is a characteristic of late pregnancy in the tammar wallaby and support the suggestion that fetal cortisol may trigger the initiation of parturition in this marsupial species.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (4/3055)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (5/3055)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo. (6/3055)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development. (7/3055)

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm.  (+info)

Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats. (8/3055)

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is highly activated by stress and modulates neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Dopaminergic inputs to mPFC facilitate coping ability and demonstrate considerable hemispheric functional lateralization. The present study investigated the potentially lateralized regulation of stress responses at the level of mPFC output neurons, using ibotenic acid lesions. Neuroendocrine function was assessed by plasma corticosterone increases in response to acute or repeated 20 min restraint stress. The primary index of autonomic activation was gastric ulcer development during a separate cold restraint stress. Restraint-induced defecation was also monitored. Plasma corticosterone levels were markedly lower in response to repeated versus acute restraint stress. In acutely restrained animals, right or bilateral, but not left mPFC lesions, decreased prestress corticosterone levels, whereas in repeatedly restrained rats, the same lesions significantly reduced the peak stress-induced corticosterone response. Stress ulcer development (after a single cold restraint stress) was greatly reduced by either right or bilateral mPFC lesions but was unaffected by left lesions. Restraint-induced defecation was elevated in animals with left mPFC lesions. Finally, a left-biased asymmetry in adrenal gland weights was observed across animals, which was unaffected by mPFC lesions. The results suggest that mPFC output neurons demonstrate an intrinsic right brain specialization in both neuroendocrine and autonomic activation. Such findings may be particularly relevant to clinical depression which is associated with both disturbances in stress regulatory systems and hemispheric imbalances in prefrontal function.  (+info)

Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for neonate salt retention through secretion of aldosterone, while adequate glucocorticoids are required to prevent adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to carry out the first comprehensive analysis of adrenal steroid levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression in normal second trimester human fetuses. This was an observational study of steroids, messenger RNA transcripts and proteins in adrenals from up to 109 second trimester fetuses (11 weeks to 21 weeks) at the Universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow. The study design was balanced to show effects of maternal smoking. Concentrations of 19 intra-adrenal steroids were quantified using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pregnenolone was the most abundant steroid while levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and
1. Actions of CRH on the Fetal Adrenal Gland As discussed in Chapter 3 (see Fetal Adrenal Glands), the human fetal adrenal glands are morphologically, functionally, and physiologically remarkable organs. At term, the fetal adrenal glands weigh the same as those in the adult and are similar in size to the adjacent fetal kidney. The…
h4. What are the adrenal glands? The adrenal glands are the part of the body responsible for releasing three different classes of hormones. These hormones control many important functions in the body, such as: * Maintaining metabolic processes, such as managing blood sugar levels and regulating inflammation * Regulating the balance of salt and water * Controlling the fight or flight response to stress * Maintaining pregnancy * Initiating and controlling sexual maturation during childhood and puberty The adrenal glands are also an important source of sex steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. h4. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland ...
It is difficult to diagnose adrenal gland fatigue due to the large number of seemingly unrelated symptoms. Sometimes those symptoms are actually a result of something a lot more serious than apparent adrenal gland fatigue. The established medical profession does not recognize adrenal fatigue as a medical condition, even though physicians described it as a clinical condition in the Twentieth century.. The Theory Behind Adrenal Gland Fatigue. Adrenal gland fatigue is something that many, many people could be potentially suffering from. The reason for this is simple: stress is the underlying cause of adrenal exhaustion. Almost everyone is subjected to varying amounts of stress on a daily basis. Severe stress forces the adrenal glands to secrete hormones into the body that change our responsiveness to "fight or flight" mode.. While this response was intended to give humans a better chance of survival in the wild, it hampers us now that we live in modern society. There are many possible sources of ...
Adrenal glands are ductless glands that belong to the endocrine system of the body (related to kidneys). They are triangular in shape and are found on top of the kidneys. They are 1-2 inches in length and weigh less than one ounce. They control more than 35 hormones in our body-these glands are very powerful. They are the anti-stress glands that help the body fight stress and regulate salt balance, water and blood pressure. Proper functioning is very important for the energy, resilience and endurance of the body. Keep reading to learn more about adrenal gland problems in women.. ,img class="alignright size-full wp-image-4329″ style="float: right; margin-left: 5px;" title="Symptoms Of Adrenal Gland Problems In Women" src="http://womenalt.ygoy.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/How-to-Avoid-Insecurities-in-a-Relationship_.jpg" alt="Symptoms Of Adrenal Gland Problems In Women" width="300″ height="205″ /,. Adrenal Gland Problems in Women. There are many problems women experience caused by a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of prostaglandins on steroid secretion by human fetal adrenal tissue. AU - Carr, Bruce R.. AU - Mason, J. Ian. AU - Parker, C. Richard. AU - Simpson, Evan R.. PY - 1983/5. Y1 - 1983/5. N2 - In the present investigation we evaluated the effect of prostaglandins on the rate of steroid secretion by human fetal adrenal (HFA) tissue. Prostaglandins F2α and E2 (10μg/ml) were added to the culture medium in the presence or absence of ACTH (1 μg/ml). The medium was assayed for content of cortisol (F), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) by radioimmunoassay. When HFA tissue fragments were maintained in the absence of ACTH, F secretion was low; PGF but not PGE2 suppressed F secretion by 60-65%. When ACTH was added to the culture medium, the secretion rate of F increased 15-fold, whereas DS and PS secretion was maintained at or near initial rates of secretion. The addition of PGF2α to the culture medium containing ACTH resulted in a 80% decrease in F ...
Background Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of aging on adrenal function in the human. T2 - Responsiveness and sensitivity of adrenal androgens and cortisol to adrenocorticotropin in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. AU - Parker, C. Richard. AU - Slayden, Scott M.. AU - Azziz, Ricardo. AU - Crabbe, S. Lolita. AU - Hines, Gene A.. AU - Boots, Larry R.. AU - Bae, Sejong. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - We sought to determine the effects of aging on several aspects of adrenal steroidogenesis in the hopes of characterizing the possible causes of adrenal androgen deficiency in elderly women. To this end, we quantified basal morning concentrations of cortisol (F), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS), and androstenedione (A4) and then evaluated the effects of overnight dexamethasone (DEX) suppression followed by adrenal responses to graded hourly infusions of ACTH, ranging from 20 -1280 ng/1.5 m2·h. Finally, we performed a standard 0.25-mg ACTH bolus stimulation test, with ...
An horseshoe adrenal gland is very rare anomaly. It is also sometimes called a butterfly adrenal gland, fused adrenal gland or midline adrenal gland. It is the solitary adrenal gland that is present in the midline with the fused portion either p...
CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.. DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.. RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P , 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed ...
There are two primary conditions of the adrenal system and the endocrine system in your pets body that are oftentimes brought about by adrenal gland tumors. The first of these, Cushings Disease, is the result of the overproduction of the hormone known as cortisol. There are a variety of potential causes for Cushings Disease, but one of the most common of these is a tumor on one or both of the adrenal glands. Cushings disease is characterised by a wide array of different symptoms and can affect your pets metabolism, his coat and shedding patterns, his digestion and more. The second condition which is typically linked to adrenal gland tumors is known as Addisons Disease. Addisons Disease is the opposite problem of Cushings Disease; in the case of this condition, your pets adrenal glands produce a quantity of hormone that is too low for your pets system. This disease is oftentimes considered to be more immediately problematic and dangerous to your dogs health than Cushings Disease is, ...
I had an interesting question today from a reader of my book, about the role of the adrenal glands in hypoglycemia.. Here is the question and then my answer following:. "Hi Chris,. "I just finished reading your excellent book. One factor which you allude to in the book is the fatigued adrenal glands. I feel this may be the missing link for my full recovery. What is your position on this? I note that you include coffee and tea in your own diet. "All the websites I have looked at say that it is difficult if not impossible for a vegetarian to cure fatigued adrenals and say that one requires a host of vitamins including magnesium, calcium, b5, siberian ginseng etc etc. I also note that you do not advocate dietary supplements. "Was adrenal fatigue a factor in your own case and if so how did you combat this?". Here is my answer:. Regarding fatigued adrenal glands, yes it is a risk if you are vegetarian. The main foods that help to build up the adrenals are meat, poultry, fish, eggs, butter and salt. ...
The fetal endocrine system is one of the first systems to develop during prenatal development. The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of the intermediate mesoderm. At five to six weeks of gestation, the mesonephros differentiates into a tissue known as the gonadal ridge. The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper portion of the mesonephros. At seven weeks of gestation, the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing kidneys. At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are ...
Your adrenal glands are two tiny pyramid-shaped pieces of tissue situated right above each kidney. Their job is to produce and release, when appropriate, certain regulatory hormones and chemical messengers.. Adrenaline is manufactured in the interior of the adrenal gland, called the adrenal medulla. Cortisol, the other chemical from the adrenal gland, is made in the exterior portion of the gland, called the adrenal cortex. The cortex also secretes androgens, estrogens, and progestins. Cortisol, commonly called hydrocortisone, is the most abundant - and one of the most important - of many adrenal cortex hormones. Cortisol helps you handle longer-term stress situations.. In addition to helping you handle stress, these two primary adrenal hormones, adrenaline and cortisol, along with others similarly produced, help control body fluid balance, blood pressure, blood sugar, and other central metabolic functions.. In the heightened nervous state of adrenal burnout, the body overproduces adrenaline, ...
The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. The inner layer of the adrenal gland releases substances (hormones) such as adrenaline that:Help control blood pressure.Help the body react to stress by increasing heart rate, opening the airways, and shifting blood flow to the large muscles.The outer layer of the ..
Overactive Adrenal Glands / Cushings Syndrome What are overactive adrenal glands? When adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones, they are called overactive. Symptoms and treatment depend on which hormones are being overproduced: androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) - an overproduction of androgenic steroids (such as testosterone) can lead to exaggerated male characteristics in both men and women, such as hairiness of the face and body, baldness, acne, deeper voice, and more mus...
Overactive Adrenal Glands / Cushings Syndrome What are overactive adrenal glands? When adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones, they are called overactive. Symptoms and treatment depend on which hormones are being overproduced: androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) - an overproduction of androgenic steroids (such as testosterone) can lead to exaggerated male characteristics in both men and women, such as hairiness of the face and body, baldness, acne, deeper voice, and more mus...
Lets talk about adrenals! I know a lot of people who are suffering from adrenal issues, usually referred to as adrenal fatigue or adrenal burnout. When you have adrenal fatigue, you always feel tired and run down, no matter how much rest you get. Frustrating right?. So, where are these adrenal glands and what do they do? Your adrenal glands are about 3 inches wide, pyramid-shaped, and sit right above your kidneys. These glands produce hormones that help us deal with stress. The center of the adrenal gland is called the medulla. It produces the hormone adrenaline which results in epinephrine and norepinephrine. The outer part of the gland, known as the cortex, makes the hormones aldosterone, DHEAs, cortisol, and trace amounts of the hormones testosterone and estrogen. These are busy little glands!. Theyre also very important glands. They help you respond to stress, play a part in how strong your immune system is, regulate your body temperature, and help keep your blood sugar levels stable. If ...
The term "amyloid" classically denotes various insoluble, fibrillar proteins that share a similar configuration (β-pleated sheets). These abnormally folded proteins form and accumulate intra- and extracellularly in many tissues due to many causes, such as genetic predisposition and local and systemic inflammation of various etiologies. In rats, focal or generalized amyloid deposition rarely occurs in any tissue, including the adrenal gland. In mice, amyloid deposition in the adrenal gland and other tissues is overall far more common. There are genetically related differences in incidence, with very low incidences in some strains, such as the B6C3F1/N mouse, and much higher incidences in other strains, such as (Swiss) CD-1 and Swiss Webster mice. In mice, amyloidosis is usually a spontaneous, age-related systemic disease, with the adrenal gland one of the more commonly affected tissues. Severity (amount of amyloid/tissue) also tends to increase with age in all tissues, including the adrenal ...
The present study demonstrates three major findings. First, inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME in rats increased both AT1A-R and AT1B-R mRNA expression and the AT1-R number in the adrenal gland, but it did not increase AT2-R mRNA expression or AT2-R number. Second, inhibition of NO synthesis increased PAC without significant increases of PRA, serum ACE activity, SCC, or serum potassium concentration. Third, normalization of blood pressure in L-NAME-treated rats did not affect the expression levels of AT1A-R and AT1B-R mRNA, the AT1-R number of the adrenal gland, or PAC. This study is the first to show that inhibition of NO synthesis upregulates the AT1 receptors in vivo.. As shown previously,34 SBP in the L group was increased after 1 week of treatment (204±9 mm Hg) compared with that in the C group (140±5 mm Hg). The mRNA levels of AT1A-R and AT1B-R in the L group were increased 1.7-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively. Although bunazosin reduced blood pressure to a level comparable to that in ...
Treatment of Adrenal Incidentaloma:Management of an incidentally found adrenal mass in a patient without a known primary malignancy will depend upon the size of the mass, its characteristics on the CT or MRI scan, and whether hormonal tests indicate that the tumor is producing excessive adrenal hormones.The two options for treating adrenal incidentaloma are:Monitoring its appearance with a series of CT or MRI scans, orRemoving the adrenal mass with minimally invasive surgery, usually laparoscopically. It typically involves removal of the mass and the adrenal gland (adrenalectomy). In select cases, removal of only the tumor may be recommended (partial adrenalectomy). This surgery may be done through a single small incision in the abdomen (Single Site laparoscopic surgery) or through 3-4 small keyhole incisions. Robotic surgery may also be recommended by your surgeon. If the lesion is large and/or looks suspicious on the CT or MR imaging, the mass is secreting excessive adrenal hormones. Surgery recovery
104 RECOOP for Common Mechanisms of Diseases Croat Med J. 2015;56:104-13 doi: 10.3325/cmj.2015.56.104 Sex-specific chronic stress response at the level of adrenal gland modified sexual hormone and leptin receptors Marta Balog1*, Milan Miljanović1*, Senka Blažetić2, Irena Labak2, Vedrana Ivić1, Barbara Viljetić1, Attila Borbely3, Zoltán Papp3, Robert Blažeković4, Sandor G. Vari5, Miklós Fagyas3, Marija Heffer1 J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Medicine, Osijek, Croatia 1 Aim To compare cardiometabolic risk-related biochemical markers and sexual hormone and leptin receptors in the adrenal gland of rat males, non-ovariectomized females (NON-OVX), and ovariectomized females (OVX) under chronic stress. Methods Forty six 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into male, NON-OVX, and OVX group and exposed to chronic stress or kept as controls. Weight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), serum concentration of glucose, and cholesterol were measured. Adrenal glands were ...
Changes in protein kinase activities in lamb adrenals at late gestation and early postnatal stages.: Cytosols prepared from adrenal glands of ovine fetuses (110
Medications treat adrenal gland disorders by replacing the cortisol and other hormones normally produced by the adrenal glands with synthetic hormones
Almost everyone has trouble with their adrenal glands at some point. If you are feeling stressed out and dont have enough energy, then you may need a supplement that supports the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands help us handle stress and they are make several important hormones that run many significant functions in our bodies.…
The adrenal cortex produces two main groups of hormones; the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The release of glucocorticoids is triggered by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Mineralocorticoids are mediated by signals triggered by the kidney.. When the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), it stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenal corticotrophin hormone (ACTH). These hormones, in turn, alert the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones.. There is a third class of hormone released by the adrenal cortex, known as sex steroids or sex hormones. The adrenal cortex releases small amounts of male and female sex hormones. However, their impact is usually surpassed by the greater amounts of other hormones (such as estrogen and testosterone) released by the ovaries or testes.. ...
Adrenal Gland Disorders - The adrenal glands are two small, triangular-shaped endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys. They are orange in color and covered in a connective tissue capsule that is hidden in a layer of fat. These glands are made
Diseases of the adrenal gland are relatively rare. The most common reason that a patient may need to have the adrenal gland removed is excess hormone production by a tumour located within the adrenal. Most of these tumours are small and not cancers. They are known as benign growths that can usually be removed with laparoscopic techniques. Removal of the adrenal gland may also be required for certain tumours even if they arent producing excess hormones, such as very large tumours or if there is a suspicion that the tumour could be a cancer, or sometimes referred to as malignant. Fortunately, malignant adrenal tumours are rare. An adrenal mass or tumour is sometimes found by chance when a patient gets an X-ray study to evaluate another problem.. ...
In this video, Ms. Jishu Baiju explained about Adrenal gland which is an endocrine gland and is of two types, Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla. Hormones Adrenalin and Nor-Adrenalin come under Adrenal Medulla where as Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, and Sex hormones come under Adrenal Cortex.. .embed-container { position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; height: 0; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; } .embed-container iframe, .embed-container object, .embed-container embed { position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; }. ...
Certain adrenal gland disorders are characterized by an inability of the adrenal glands to produce cortisol (also known as hydrocortisone hormone) and aldosterone, often due to certain missing enzymes (proteins that speed up or cause chemical reactions). The result is enlarged adrenal glands due to overstimulation from the hypothalamus which detects the low levels of hormones. The hypothalamus, in turn, stimulates the pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal glands. Overstimulation of the adrenal glands can lead to overproduction of androgens, which can lead to masculinization.. For more information or to schedule an appointment, call 314.454.5437 or 800.678.5437 or email us.. ...
With the stressful pace of modern living in the West, the adrenal glands can struggle to keep up! With constant stress, your adrenals are continuously being stimulated until they crash. This is when you can experience adrenal fatigue. Learn about nutrition for supporting the adrenal glands.
Adrenal glands are thumb-sized glands that sit on top of your kidney and produce over fifty hormones that drive almost every bodily function. These functions are essential to life. The function of the adrenal glands is to release specific hormones into the bloodstream, which then helps regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, as well as respond to stress.
Everything from allergies and asthma to arthritis and low blood sugar are either caused by, or are seriously aggravated by adrenal glands which have lost their ability to produce adequate amounts of hormones. Too Much Stress:. The cause of this loss of adrenal function is an over abundance of all forms of stress in our daily lives.. Every form of stress results in a rapid production of adrenal hormones and a depletion of the raw materials from which they are made. Continual stress eventually depletes body reserves of these nutrients. The adrenal hormones, which normally control body tissues, can no longer be produced, and many health problems result.. Location & Structure of the Adrenals:. The kidneys are located about waist high, one on each side of the spine, at the back of the abdominal cavity. They are called the renal glands. Added onto the top of each renal gland is a small endocrine gland called, appropriately enough, the adrenal gland. They produce a wide variety of hormones which, one ...
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Kidney with Adrenal Gland (2-Part)-This high quality human kidney model shows: Kidney with adrenal gland Renal and adrenal vessels of the kidney Upper portion of ureter for the human kidneyThe front half of the kidney is removable to enable demonstra
Adrenal gland disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not work properly. Adrenals may produce too much hormones or too little hormones.
Dr Robert Morses Adrenal Gland herbal formula has been created to aid in the detoxification and regeneration of the adrenal glands to relieve adrenal fatigue based issues.
Dr Robert Morses Adrenal Gland herbal formula has been created to aid in the detoxification and regeneration of the adrenal glands to relieve adrenal fatigue based issues.
There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands work interactively with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The adrenal gland is made of layers. Each layer makes different hormones. The outer layer (the adrenal cortex) makes cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and androgen hormones. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Corticosterone, along with cortisol, suppresses inflammatory responses and affects the immune system. Aldosterone regulates body levels of potassium and sodium as well as blood volume and blood pressure. Androgen hormones are converted to female and male hormones (estrogens and androgens) elsewhere in the body. Most of these hormones are produced in the ovaries and testes. The center of the gland (the adrenal medulla) makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow among other effects. Norepinephrine also increases ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
As its name suggests, the adrenal medulla is the central core of the adrenal gland, surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of the medulla are the bodys main source of the catecholamine hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These water-soluble hormones, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, are part of the fight-or-flight response initiated by the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla can be considered specialized ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, lacking distinct synapses, instead releasing secretions directly into the blood. It is also the main source of dopamine, a catecholamine closely related to adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Adrenal Fatigue Treatments. You will find helpful, informative articles about Adrenal Fatigue Treatments, including Is Your Adrenal Gland As Fatigued As You Are?. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Easley, SC that will answer all of your questions about Adrenal Fatigue Treatments.
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Adrenal Fatigue Treatments. You will find helpful, informative articles about Adrenal Fatigue Treatments, including Is Your Adrenal Gland As Fatigued As You Are?. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Long Branch, NJ that will answer all of your questions about Adrenal Fatigue Treatments.
They include all the adrenal cell contents, such as nucleic acids (adrenal cell RNA and DNA) and concentrated nutrients in the form and proportion used by the adrenals to properly function and recover, but contain only tiny amounts of the actual hormones in the adrenal gland ...
What is the difference between Adrenal Gland and Pituitary Gland? Adrenal gland is situated on top of the kidney; Pituitary gland is situated at the base..
There is a world of difference between the opinions of conventional physicians and integrative physicians when it comes to the subject of our adrenal glands. In medical school I received excellent instruction on the anatomy and physiology (A&P) and healthy functioning of the adrenal glands. In case you skipped that lecture, they are small glands that sit atop our kidneys and are divided into two hormone-producing regions.
Glucoprivation activates neurons in the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which results in release of adrenaline. The current study aimed to establish (i) whether neuroglucoprivation in the PeH or in the RVLM elicits adrenaline release in vivo; and (ii) whether direct activation by glucoprivation or orexin release in the RVLM modulates the adrenaline release. Neuroglucoprivation in the PeH or RVLM was elicited by microinjections of 2-deoxy-D-glucose or 5-thio-D-glucose in anesthetized, euglycemic, rats. We found that inhibition of neurons in the PeH abolished the increase in adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) to systemic glucoprivation. Secondly, glucoprivation of neurons in the PeH increased ASNA. Thirdly, in vivo or in vitro glucoprivation did not affect the activity of RVLM adrenal premotor neurons. Finally, blockade of orexin receptors in the RVLM abolished the increase in ASNA to neuroglucoprivation in the PeH. The evoked changes in ASNA ...
The adrenal glands are small, paired structures located just above each kidney. The outer zone of the adrenal gland (the cortex) is composed of glandular cells that manufacture and release corticosteroids. There are two types of corticosteroids: mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids regulate electrolyte concentrations. Glucocorticoids reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Glucocorticoids are the type of corticosteroids used in nearly all steroid medications. The output of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands is controlled by the pituitary gland through the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).. Cushings syndrome is a disease caused by long-term exposure to high levels of glucocorticosteroids, either manufactured by the body or given as medications.. Tumors of the pituitary gland that secrete ACTH stimulate the adrenal glands to produce large amounts of adrenal hormones. This sustained overproduction in response to pituitary stimulation accounts ...
An adrenal gland adenoma is a tumor on your adrenal gland that isnt cancer, but can still cause problems. Learn what causes them, how to know if you might have one, and how theyre treated.
The adrenal glands dont really get tired in the way that you might expect. What happens is that, after a period of chronic stress, your body starts to run out of the hormone precursor material that it uses to make certain hormones.
Today on the Wellness Architect Show with Kevin Thornton on Lyve TV powered by Status Network, we will be the talking about Your Every Day Superheroes: the #Adrenal Glands. The many hormones they produce and why they are so much more than "fight or flight". Well also talk about #Adaptogen herbs, other foods, and small lifestyle changes that support your Adrenal glands ...
Improve your health, lifestyle, diet & nutrition with Adrenal Gland news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about Adrenal Gland & help...
Read Adrenal Gland reviews from a range of authenticated and trusted reviews from eVitamins. Learn about Adrenal Gland quality, side effects, benefits and more.
The Adrenal Stress Index The adrenals are two small glands, each weighing 3 to 5 grams, that are located above the kidneys. The adrenals have one of the highest rates of blood flow per gram of tissue, and the highest content of Vitamin C per gram of any tissue in the body.. Each adrenal gland is composed of two separate functional entities. The outer zone, or cortex, accounts for 80% to 90% of the gland, and secretes adrenal steroids (Cortisol, DHEA(S) and Aldosterone). The inner zone, or medulla, comprises 10% to 20% of the gland, and secretes the catecholamines adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. Cortisol, DHEA and adrenaline are the three main adrenal stress hormones.. The Adrenal Rhythm & Its Importance ...
Adrenal Glands are the bodies main protection against acute and chronic stress. The glands are yellow, pyramid-shaped and sit on the superior surface of the kidneys in the thoracic abdomen (Griffen & Ojeda, 2000). Part of the endocrine system the adrenal glands release hormones as a response to stressors. Adrenal glands are covered by a connective tissue, which is then covered by a layer of fat for protection and insulation. In general they weigh approximately 5 grams, measure 30 mm wide, 50 mm long and about 10 mm thick. These sizes change as secretory demands increase or decrease.The glands are comprised of two parts; the adrenal cortex, which releases steroid hormones, protects against immediate stress or injury and the adrenal medulla, which releases catecholamines which instigate the mobilization of glucose and fatty acids and prepare body organs for action during acute stress. Thus the relationship of the glands with the nervous system is that of a responsive nature to stimulants (in this ...
The high stress of daily life in modern America has resulted in prolonged pressure upon the adrenal glands to produce tremendous quantities of hormones to deal with this stress. For many Americans this constant stress seems to have produced a form of adrenal insufficiency. The adrenal glands have become so overworked they may no longer produce sufficient quantities of hormones for some individuals to adequately cope with the stress of life.. Adrenal Cortex Hormones:. The outer portion of the adrenal glands are known as the cortex which produces a very different class of hormones than that of the inner or medulla portion. A lack of sufficient hormones from the adrenal cortex may be manifest as a wide variety of health problems. One of the most notorious is a sense of chronic fatigue and exhaustion, of being tired all the time, even when a physician can find no medical cause for the problem. Hormones from the adrenal cortex known as glucocorticoids, regulate blood sugar. When not produced in a ...
If youre feeling stressed, worn down, and fatigued, start taking some of these steps. In part one of his adrenal series, Dr. Keller Wortham, MD, gave us an overview of what the adrenal glands are, what they do, and went over some health problems that can occur as a result of issues with these important glands. In to
The adrenal glands are positoned slightly above the kidneys and produce a number of important hormones such as adrenalin, mineral corticoids, cortison and sexual hormones. Operations on these organs can be necessary if these hormons are produced in excess or if metastases from tumors of other organs have settled in the adrenals. If excess adrenalin is produced the patient should be treated a few days with alpha and betablockers to avoid stress reactions during the surgery by excess adrenalin release by the tumor. Sometimes these tumors are also silent and do not produce any hormones which are know today ...
An adrenal fatigue diet is a nutritional plan that has been specifically formulated to combatadrenal fatigue. In alternative medicine, adrenal fatigue is a condition where the adrenal gland is thought suffer a decreased ability to synthesize sufficient levels of cortisol and other hormones. It is thought that the condition may be brought on by excess stress, and that it can be treated with supplements or dietary changes. Some of the changes involved in an adrenal fatigue diet typically include eating a variety of high-quality protein sources and vegetables, while staying away from certain fruits and avoiding white flour and sugar altogether.. The purpose of an adrenal fatigue diet is to naturally support the adrenals with a regular intake of natural, healthy food. This usually involves eating four to five times a day, with the first meal ideally coming soon after waking. It is thought that adrenal fatigue is compounded by, or associated with, low blood sugar, so it is important to boost the ...
An adrenal fatigue diet is a nutritional plan that has been specifically formulated to combatadrenal fatigue. In alternative medicine, adrenal fatigue is a condition where the adrenal gland is thought suffer a decreased ability to synthesize sufficient levels of cortisol and other hormones. It is thought that the condition may be brought on by excess stress, and that it can be treated with supplements or dietary changes. Some of the changes involved in an adrenal fatigue diet typically include eating a variety of high-quality protein sources and vegetables, while staying away from certain fruits and avoiding white flour and sugar altogether.. The purpose of an adrenal fatigue diet is to naturally support the adrenals with a regular intake of natural, healthy food. This usually involves eating four to five times a day, with the first meal ideally coming soon after waking. It is thought that adrenal fatigue is compounded by, or associated with, low blood sugar, so it is important to boost the ...
Adrenal glands are found just above your kidneys, and in combination with your thyroid, work to generate energy for your body. Together, these organs secrete critical hormones for health including something called aldosterone. This hormone is secreted by your adrenals and regulates the concentration of minerals and water levels in the body - such as sodium and other minerals - to keep you hydrated.. Another important job your adrenal glands have is to regulate the bodys response to stress. In modern life, stress is frequent and acute, thus creating a constant state of adrenal fatigue. This issue is so rampant, in fact, most people suffer from it - especially women. The more stress you have, the more hormones like aldosterone and salt circulate in the body. As stress levels begin to fall, aldosterone tapers off and sodium must exit the bloodstream. Your kidneys process salt, and as it leaves your body in the form of urine, water goes with it.. So, the more stress you experience, the weaker your ...
Adrenal glands are found just above your kidneys, and in combination with your thyroid, work to generate energy for your body. Together, these organs secrete critical hormones for health including something called aldosterone. This hormone is secreted by your adrenals and regulates the concentration of minerals and water levels in the body - such as sodium and other minerals - to keep you hydrated.. Another important job your adrenal glands have is to regulate the bodys response to stress. In modern life, stress is frequent and acute, thus creating a constant state of adrenal fatigue. This issue is so rampant, in fact, most people suffer from it - especially women. The more stress you have, the more hormones like aldosterone and salt circulate in the body. As stress levels begin to fall, aldosterone tapers off and sodium must exit the bloodstream. Your kidneys process salt, and as it leaves your body in the form of urine, water goes with it.. So, the more stress you experience, the weaker your ...
It has been determined that cortisol and a few other steroids are transported outward from certain mammalian cells growing in vitro. The extrusion process is temperature dependent, glucose dependent, saturable, and operates for only a few selected steroids. Many, but not all, steroids are able to block the extrusion process but are not themselves transported. The outward transport process for steroids has been found in mouse fibroblasts, mouse lymphoma cells, and functional mouse adrenal gland tumor cells growing in vitro. The transport process is not present in two varieties of cells cultured from human sources-HeLa or diploid fibroblasts, WI-38.. ...
Scientists know that pressure is a critical dilemma. When a tumour develops in the adrenal glands, it frequently causes as well a lot of a specific hormone to be developed. The sort of hormone that is overproduced depends on the component of the adrenal gland affected by the tumour. Sweet spices: Cinnamon helps to balance blood sugar and insulin levels. Studies show that cinnamon improves the bodys capability to use the insulin it currently produces by enhancing muscle and liver cells response to insulin.Stephenson claims that 1 in 3 of her sufferers suffers from the situation. Its incredibly typical nowadays, as our residual tension levels have reached new heights. You need to clarify that adrenal fatigue is not a medical situation. In truth, there is not scientific evidence supporting the concept of hypoadrenia and is not recognised by the healthcare community as a pathology.Earlier accounts have said that Kennedy was first identified to have adrenal insufficiency in 1947, but there are ...
Dating back to our ancestors, our bodies were designed to protect ourselves from perceived danger from predators and other threats. When faced with an emergency, our bodies kick into gear what is known as the "fight or flight" mode. During the "fight or flight" response the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. This ultimately leads to a cascade of events that secretes adrenaline, cortisol and other stress hormones to release energy to prepare for battle or to run away. Unfortunately, because so many people have abused their system and have sluggish liver and thyroid function, the adrenals are called upon try to provide energy for daily use. However, that is not what the adrenals were designed for and after prolonged overuse and abuse the adrenals will giveout/adrenal exhaustion but adrenals are never the primary problem, just the final failure of long term stress and dysfunction of the liver, thyroid, digestion, nutrient deficiencies, ...
Dating back to our ancestors, our bodies were designed to protect ourselves from perceived danger from predators and other threats. When faced with an emergency, our bodies kick into gear what is known as the "fight or flight" mode. During the "fight or flight" response the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. This ultimately leads to a cascade of events that secretes adrenaline, cortisol and other stress hormones to release energy to prepare for battle or to run away. Unfortunately, because so many people have abused their system and have sluggish liver and thyroid function, the adrenals are called upon try to provide energy for daily use. However, that is not what the adrenals were designed for and after prolonged overuse and abuse the adrenals will giveout/adrenal exhaustion but adrenals are never the primary problem, just the final failure of long term stress and dysfunction of the liver, thyroid, digestion, nutrient deficiencies, ...
The adrenal gland produces and secretes various hormones including aldosterone and corticosterone from the zona glomerulosa and zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex, respectively. Corticosterone is important in the regulation of blood glucose, the ability to handle stress, and maintaining normal immune function. Aldosterone results in the retention of sodium and excretion of potassium causing water retention, a greater blood volume, and an increase in blood pressure (hypertension). Aldosterones role in hypertension has previously been studied using receptor blocking agents or via complete adrenalectomy (removal of both adrenal glands). Complete adrenalectomy removes all hormones produced by the adrenal gland, and often results in death. This study compares two methods for producing a surgically induced low aldosterone model for the study of hypertension that preserves the function of the lower adrenal layers. Methods: Male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) 10-19 weeks of age were randomly subjected
Answers from doctors on adrenal glands fatigue. First: Should there be loss of adrenocortical function, steroid replacement is advocated to rebuild the normal stamina.
In situ hybridisation showing localisation of Mrap, Mrap2 and Mc2r in foetal and adult Wistar rat adrenal glands. (A-G) Foetal Wistar rat adrenal glands (embr
The Adrenal Stress Index tests for Adrenal hormone imbalances.Adrenal Fatigue and Adrenal Burnout can be detected by the Adrenal Stress Test. Saliva test measures DHEA and DHEA-S, Coritsol x 4, Total Secretory IgA, Gluten Ab, Insulin x 2, and 17-OH Progesterone. Adrenal Stress Index tests cortisol levels at four different times during the day.
By weakening the adrenal glands, a persons resolve also is weakened. The adrenal glands are called the fight-or-flight glands. Our ability to secrete adrenal hormones, in large, determines our ability to handle stress. Adrenal glands weakened by sugar consumption or constant anger may reduce a persons ability to resist the temptations of other drugs. In other words, our ability to cope with our reality depends in part upon a balanced body chemistry. The use of any item or habit that weakens or unbalances the chemistry reduces the ability to handle reality. The temptation to go into denial then increases and with it the temptation to utilize drugs or other habits to deny reality ...
Fatigued to Fantastic! Adrenal Stress End Supplement supplies the necessary nutrients to support adrenal gland function. The adrenal glands secrete several important hormones that help maintain the balance of many body functions during stress.
The adrenal glands are a pair of triangular-shaped organs that rest on top of the kidneys. Each gland is made up of 2 parts: the cortex, which is responsible for the production of cortisone and the medulla which secretes adrenaline. The adrenal cortex helps to maintain the salt and water balance in the body. It is also involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of blood sugar. It also produces a sex hormone similar to that secreted by the testes. The adrenal medulla produces the hormone adrenaline when the body is under stress. This hormone speeds up the rate of metabolism and produces other physiological changes designed to help the body cope with danger.
by Dr. Jennifer Landa, M.D.. Has getting dressed every morning become the chore of the century lately? Everything is a smidge too tight, some tops or pants will not even button closed or zip up? You, like many over-worked Americans, may be suffering from the effects of adrenal fatigue, a condition related to the impairment of the adrenal system. The pounds wont budge if you are suffering from this stress-induced condition.. What is adrenal fatigue?. Adrenal fatigue describes the chronic fatigue commonly affecting millions of men and women worldwide. The adrenal glands rest on top of each kidney, secreting hormones and neurotransmitters, such as estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, adrenaline (epinephrine), norepinephrine and dopamine. These chemical messengers are vital to stress management, immune function and many functions of daily living. The adrenal glands secrete these hormones as a "fight or flight" response to deal with stress. When you have endured too much stress, your adrenal glands may ...
The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system, which regulates hormone levels in the body. They are small, pyramid-shaped glands that rest on th...
Teaching Files with CT Medical Imaging and case studies on Anatomical Regions including Adrenal, Colon, Cardiac, Stomach, Pediatric, Spleen, Vascular, Kidney, Small Bowel, Liver, Chest | CTisus
Adrenal CT Image shows a tumor on the left adrenal gland of 202 × 127 × 202 mm (white arrow) that displaces ipsilateral kidney and renal cysts.
The adrenal glands produce several hormones responsible for everything from your height and weight to your blood pressure. Learn more about these important glands and how to support them for your health.
Adrenal Response is a meticulously researched adaptogenic formula using clinically proven nutrients, herbs and whole foods to assist the adrenal glands natural response. This botanical formula is targeted at helping to support biochemical imbalances, cortisol levels in particular, related to alterations in adrenal function.
Adrenal Glands - Functions, Location, Tumors, Disorders, Symptoms. Suprarenal gland is a part of the endocrine system responsible for secreting hormones
Normal Adrenal Stress Response When you are under increased demands of any type (emotional stress, injury, illness, physical demands, exercise, etc.), your body must increase energy production. To do this, your adrenal glands send signals to your liver to break down more calories and release them for immediate use. This energy production process creates added wear and tear on your body and this stress on the body needs to be managed. This is where the hormone cortisol is needed. It acts like oil in a car engine, provides anti-inflammatory lubrication and reduces wear and tear on your body. When stress increases, a healthy adrenal system releases cortisol to help protect your body. When the specific stress ends, the added demand on the body is reduced and your cortisol level returns to its normal baseline level within an hour.Feeling Stressed, Fatigued, Irritable? If you are under ongoing pressure and stress, your adrenals work overtime to produce cortisol and protect your body from this stress. If your
ICD-10 C74.10 is malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified adrenal gland (C7410). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for neoplasms.
The adrenal glands help the body fight against stress and fatigue, and are responsible for controlling stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline.
Adrenal fatigue is also known as HPA Axis Dysfunction and is caused by chronic stress. In ideal conditions, our bodies would exist in homeostasis or proper physiological balance. This balance includes our hormones and neurotransmitters. A healthy persons body is constantly trying to maintain homeostasis. However, chronic stress can regularly trigger our fight-or-flight responses, producing a flood of hormones and neurotransmitters that throw our body systems out of balance. Our HPA axis is a complex set of feedback mechanisms that deals with our physical and mental health and helps us respond to stress. When faced with stressful situations, our HPA axis becomes stimulated, resulting in a temporary loss of homeostasis.. Your adrenal glands play an important role in regulating the hormones in your body. They produce cortisol in response to stress. Healthy, functioning adrenal glands produce normal amounts of cortisol as well as other hormones such as adrenaline and norepinephrine. To avoid ...
Jim Gordon was diagnosed with stage 4 throat cancer back in 2009 and was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. Doctors pronounced him to be free of cancer following the treatments, but just three years later a CT scan revealed that he had a peach-sized tumor growing on his kidney.. Jim had surgery to remove the tumor, but a follow up scan revealed that they hadnt removed it all and that it had spread to one adrenal gland and to a small spot on his lung. Doctors then wanted to remove the entire kidney and follow that with chemotherapy but Jim said that he needed some time to think this over.. Jim went home and says that he Googled everything he could find about natural cures for cancer and came across information on using herbal remedies. He says that using something natural like herbs appealed to him the most out of all of the information that he had researched. He read the book The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs: A Guide to Understanding and Using Herbal Medicinals, by Leslie Taylor, ND ...
Endocrine surgeons at Brigham and Womens Hospital (BWH) specialize in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of conditions of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
After facing an adrenal gland tumor five times and taking steroids to help treat the recurrence, Charlotte Strecker gained 100 pounds. Since then, she's lost the extra weight, gotten her confidence back and stayed cancer-free.
Tuyến trên thận (Adrenal glands) gồm hai tuyến nhỏ, nằm úp trên đầu hai quả thận. Trong mỗi tuyến nhỏ lại có hai phần riêng biệt là phần vỏ và phần tủy. Hai phần này khác nhau cả về nguồn gốc phôi thai và chức năng. Phần vỏ tuyến trên thận Vỏ tuyến trên thận có nguồn gốc phôi thai từ lá trung phôi bì (mesoderme), có tổ chức tuyến điển hình, tiết ra nhiều hormon quan trọng, được gọi chung là các corticoid. ... ...
The massive meltdown that clobbered the housing market and crushed the U.S. economy can be traced, in part, to a little-understood part of the human body: our adrenal glands.
List of 127 causes for Adrenal gland symptoms and Hyperglycemia and Inadequate healing, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
If you suffer from hypoglycemia, crash with stress, or if you have recurrent infections that take a long time to resolve, you may have underactive adrenal glands.
Tuberculosis of adrenal glands, unspecified examination information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Ba-Omar, T. and Downie, J. (2006) Microscopic study of cell death in the adrenal glands of mouse and chick embryos. Tissue and Cell, 38, pp. 243-250. (doi:10.1016/j.tice.2006.05.001) ...
Adrenal Gland Scan answers are found in the Daviss Lab & Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Buy, download and read Adrenal Glands ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Dimitrios A. Linos; Jon A. van Heerden. ISBN: 9783540268611. Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. - Over 200 exquisite illustrations, ranging from intraoperative photographs, line drawings, diagnostic images, pathology slides, tables and graphs are available to make each case discussed comprehensi
by Annette Young You may not hear them, but your adrenal glands could be shouting out a serious health warning to you. They have an important function after
Posts Tagged With Adrenal Gland Growth ficult if you are planning to do everything you can try out these broken a hrefhttpwwwmedhel
Due to non-stop working adrenal gland, that keeping body whole time at homeostasis, we can receive an unbalanced adrenal gland. Adrenal fatigue can lead to hormonal disbalance, depression etc
"Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 41 ... Adrenal gland[edit]. The neuropeptide kisspeptin plays an important role in reproduction, but also stimulates aldosterone ... The exact nature of the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands unfortunately has not been fully clarified yet and ... The Kiss1 gene is located on chromosome 1. It is transcribed in the brain, adrenal gland, and pancreas. ...
During embryonic development, the thyroid gland is being formed, beginning at the base of the tongue and moving towards the ... as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the formation of the thyroid gland ...
Adrenal gland. *Adrenalectomy. *Tests *Dexamethasone suppression test. *ACTH stimulation test. *Captopril suppression test ...
Adrenal gland. *Adrenalectomy. *Tests *Dexamethasone suppression test. *ACTH stimulation test. *Captopril suppression test ... The gland's response is assessed by measuring the rise in cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in response to the hypoglycaemia ...
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 15.292 - "Adrenal Gland" *^ a b c d Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Hilbers U (1998). " ... The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals. Its ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ...
MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... a disorder of the thyroid gland). People with PKU do not have an enzyme needed to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which ... Parathyroid adenomas (benign [noncancerous] tumors) or hyperplasia (increased size) of the parathyroid gland; MEN2B (which ...
... chronically elevated ACTH levels occur in primary adrenal insufficiency (e.g. Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production ... ACTH receptors outside the adrenal gland[edit]. As indicated above, ACTH is a cleavage product of the pro-hormone, ... Nelson's syndrome, the rapid enlargement of the ACTH producing pituitary after the removal of both adrenal glands ... Its principal effects are increased production and release of cortisol by the cortex of the adrenal gland. ACTH is also related ...
7. Adrenal gland. Vessels: 8. Renal artery and vein, 9. Inferior vena cava, 10. Abdominal aorta, 11. Common iliac artery and ...
It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.[1] It is released in response ... The synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland is stimulated by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland with ACTH; ACTH ... the second of three layers comprising the adrenal cortex. The cortex forms the outer "bark" of each adrenal gland, situated ... However, in cattle, corticosterone levels may approach[94] or exceed[4] cortisol levels.). The medulla of the adrenal gland ...
Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Pituitary gland disorders[edit]. Posterior pituitary[edit]. *Diabetes insipidus. Anterior pituitary[edit]. *Hypopituitarism (or ... "Diagnosing Hyperthyroidism: Overactivity of the Thyroid Gland". endocrineweb.. *^ Savage, M W; P Mah; A Weetman; J Newell-Price ... Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere[edit]. *Multiple endocrine neoplasia *MEN type 1 ...
In the event that the blood supply to any one of the parathyroid glands is endangered through surgery, the parathyroid gland(s ... Adrenal insufficiency. (Addison's, WF). *aldosterone: Hypoaldosteronism *21α CAH. *11β CAH ... Irregular uptake can reflect an abnormally shaped or abnormally located gland, or it can indicate that a portion of the gland ... If the thyroid gland must be removed surgically, care must be taken to avoid damage to adjacent structures, the parathyroid ...
7. Adrenal gland. Vessels: 8. Renal artery and vein, 9. Inferior vena cava, 10. Abdominal aorta, 11. Common iliac artery and ... In men, the prostate gland lies outside the opening for the urethra. The middle lobe of the prostate causes an elevation in the ... and is supported by fibres of the levator ani and of the prostate gland. In women, it lies in front of the uterus, separated by ... In males the neck of the urinary bladder is adjacent to the prostate gland. ...
Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Adrenal glands[change , change source]. *Adrenal glands *Adrenal cortex produces *Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona ... Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes ... Endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete[change , change source]. Central nervous system[change , change source]. ...
866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1- ... In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion; in the heart and vasculature ... Locally expressed renin-angiotensin systems have been found in a number of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, the ... In the adrenal cortex, angiotensin II acts to cause the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the tubules (e.g., the ...
Adrenal glandsEdit. Total cortisol increases to three times of non-pregnant levels by the third trimester.[2] The increased ... The adrenal gland also produces more aldosterone, leading to an eight-fold increase in aldosterone.[2] Women do not show signs ... The adrenal gland also produces more androgens, such as testosterone, but this is buffered by estrogen's increase in sex- ... Pituitary glandEdit. The pituitary gland grows by about one-third as a result of hyperplasia of the lactrotrophs in response to ...
... is produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads. The production of adrenal androstenedione is governed by ... In premenopausal women, the adrenal glands and ovaries each produce about half of the total androstenedione (about 3 mg/day). ...
... selection had also caused the morphology of adrenal glands to change. Levels of the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone ... Moreover, serotonin plays a role in the central regulation of the hypothalmic-hypophyseal-adrenal-sexual system. Thus, ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Inherited disorder of gland (adrenal).[19]. *Endometrial hyperplasia - Hyperproliferation of ... "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-30.. ... Cushing's disease - Physiopathology of hyperplasia of adrenal cortex due to increased circulating level of ACTH ( ...
On top of each kidney is an adrenal gland. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the 11th and 12th ribs. ... Each kidney, with its adrenal gland is surrounded by two layers of fat: the perirenal fat present between renal fascia and ... Note 1: The renal artery also provides a branch to the inferior suprarenal artery to supply the adrenal gland. ... to remove the kidneys and the adrenal gland covering the kidneys of the sheep, goat and cattle offerings, and to burn them on ...
179-. ISBN 978-1-61705-019-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. ... In addition, mitotane has direct and selective cytotoxic effects on the adrenal cortex, via an unknown mechanism, and thereby ... The medication is used in the controlled destruction of adrenal tissue, leading to a decrease in cortisol production. ... 216-. ISBN 978-1-84184-951-5. Schteinberg DE, Motazedi A, NoonanRA, Thompson NW (1982). "Treatment of Adrenal Carcinomas". Arch ...
In contrast to p,p'-DDD, which has direct cytotoxic effects on the adrenal glands via an unknown mechanism, amphenone B does ... 215-. ISBN 978-1-4832-2351-3. C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 161-. ... which additionally has selective and direct cytotoxic effects on the adrenal glands similarly to p,p'-DDD, and was introduced ... and instead causes adrenal and thyroid gland hypertrophy due to respective inhibition of corticosteroid and thyroxine ...
Angiotensin II also acts on the adrenal glands and releases aldosterone, which stimulates the epithelial cells in the distal ... Boulpaep EL, Boron WF (2005). "Integration of Salt and Water Balance; The Adrenal Gland". Medical physiology: a cellular and ... by reducing urinary loss through the secretion of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland. The normal concentration of ...
Nussey, Stephen; Whitehead, Saffron (2001-01-01). The adrenal gland. BIOS Scientific Publishers. Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; ... Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is typically used for replacement therapy, e.g. for adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal ... Adrenal insufficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Gastroenterology Ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease Autoimmune hepatitis ... The cortico- part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex, which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a " ...
Coagulative necrosis occurs primarily in tissues such as the kidney, heart and adrenal glands.[4] Severe ischemia most commonly ...
Epinephrine which is also synthesized from tyrosine takes part in controlling the adrenal glands. It plays a role in sleep, ... or gland cell.[1] Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are ...
... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ... In such cases, the next step is adrenal imaging with CT. If plasma corticotropin concentrations are consistently above 3.3 pmol ... excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion led to the production of large amounts of cortisol by the adrenal glands. ... A more accurate but invasive test used to differentiate pituitary from ectopic or adrenal Cushing's syndrome is inferior ...
2005) Expression of the noradrenaline transporter and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in normal human adrenal gland and ... Expression of the noradrenaline transporter and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in normal human adrenal gland and ... Unlike the expression seen in normal human adrenal medullary tissue, NAT expression was not consistently co-localized with PNMT ... Expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) was examined in normal human adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytoma by using ...
These results indicate the regulatory role of testosterone in the regulation of PBR in Cowpers glands and adrenal. ... was observed in Cowpers glands (71%; P less than 0.005) and the adrenal (31%; P less than 0.01), but not in the heart. ... Testosterone prevents castration-induced reduction in peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in Cowpers gland and adrenal.. *. ... These results indicate the regulatory role of testosterone in the regulation of PBR in Cowpers glands and adrenal. ...
Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Melanosis. Hyperpigmentation. Pigmentation Disorders. Skin Diseases. ... TAB,Distinct microscopic changes of both adrenal glands. PPNAD can be associated with tumors (myxomas) of the skin, heart, ... histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of ... producing tumors of the pituitary gland, and tumors of the testicles, ovaries, and thyroid gland. In the presence of these ...
Adrenal cortical carcinoma is identified as C74.0 (adrenal cortex) with histology 8010, 8140, or 8370 OR C74.9 (adrenal gland, ... all cases with primary site adrenal gland (C74._) are coded with this schema. However, only adrenal cortical carcinomas will ...
One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... The adrenal glands are two small triangle-shaped glands. ... The adrenal glands are two small triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the top part of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is called the cortex. It ... Conditions related to adrenal gland problems include:. *Addison disease (also called adrenal insufficiency) -- disorder that ...
The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. The inner layer of the adrenal gland ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. ... Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are located above the ... The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. ...
Pheochromocytomas often cause the adrenal gland to make too many hormones. This can lead to high blood pressure. ... Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal (Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons) * Treatment Option Overview ( ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that usually starts in the cells of one of your adrenal glands. Although they are usually ... pheochromocytomas often cause the adrenal gland to make too many hormones. This can lead to high blood pressure and cause ...
Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce steroid hormones such as aldosterone, cortisol, and ... Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce steroid hormones such as aldosterone, cortisol, and ...
The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the ... or suprarenal gland so͞oprərēn´əl [key], endocrine gland (see endocrine system ) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each ... adrenal gland ədrēn´əl [key] or suprarenal gland so͞oprərēn´əl [key], endocrine gland (see endocrine system ) about 2 in. (5.1 ... The inner reddish portion (medulla) of the adrenal gland, which is not functionally related to the adrenal cortex, secretes ...
There are two adrenal glands, one sitting on top of each of the kidneys [1]. They are pyramidal in shape and weigh about 4 g ... Adrenal Gland Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Adrenal Gland. The adrenal glands are located on the upper pole of ... Outer layer of the adrenal gland that produces steroid hormones.. Adrenal medulla- Inner layer of the adrenal gland that ... adrenal gland (ədrēn´əl) or suprarenal gland (sōōprərēn´əl), endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long ...
The adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys, are actually two different glands in one. The center of the gland makes ... I have found that most people with hypoglycemia have underactive adrenal glands. This makes sense because the adrenal glands ... Vitamin C is critical for adrenal function. Your bodys highest levels of vitamin C are found in the adrenal glands and brain ... Supplementing with adrenal glandulars can supply the raw materials that your adrenal glands need to heal. ...
They are characterized by overproduction of adrenal gland hormones. Source for information on Adrenal Gland Cancer: Gale ... Adrenal Gland Cancer Definition Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. ... Adrenal Gland Cancer. Definition. Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. They ... Cancers of the adrenal gland are very rare. The adrenal gland is a hormone producing endocrine gland with two main parts, the ...
An adrenal gland adenoma is a tumor on your adrenal gland that isnt cancer, but can still cause problems. Learn what causes ... If you have an adrenal gland adenoma, you have a tumor on your adrenal gland, but its not cancer. Your two adrenal glands, one ... Most adrenal gland adenomas dont cause any problems -- they just take up space. But some of them are functioning tumors -- ... If you do have symptoms, its because you have a functioning tumor that could be in either part of the adrenal gland: the outer ...
The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system and are located just above the kidneys. ... Adrenal gland removal is an operation in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. ... Adrenal gland removal is an operation in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are part of the ... Acute adrenal crisis in which there is not enough cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands ...
Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. Types of tumors include Neuroblastoma and Pheochromocytoma. ... Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. They usually do not cause symptoms and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland ... Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you cant live ... Adrenal Gland Tumor (American Society of Clinical Oncology) * General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma (National ...
... happen when your glands make too much or not enough hormones. ... Adrenal gland disorders, such as Cushings Syndrome and ... Adrenal Surgery (American Association of Endocrine Surgeons) * Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal (Society of American ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Gland Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Hyperplasia, ... The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you cant live without, including ...
Histology of the adrenal gland The adrenals have of 4 basic areas. Listed from most superficial to deepest, these are: *zona ... adrenal gland: an endocrine gland located immediately above the kidney. It consists of two portions: a cortex and a medulla. ...
The adrenal glands were long regarded as emergency glands -- pouring out their internal secretions only when a person was ... ADRENAL STRESS. A craving for salt is one sign of adrenal stress. When craving salt, feed the glands with juices and foods that ... The adrenal glands were long regarded as emergency glands -- pouring out their internal secretions only when a person was ... The adrenal glands lie against the upper poles of the kidneys, perched on them like caps. FATIGUE FAST FOR EXHAUSTION. We run ...
In the March 3 SN: Redefining dinosaurs, minibrain recipes, how flu spreads, lions vs. zebras, Venus prospects, a whale speaks and more. ...
Unfortunately, most dont realize the impact coffee and caffeinated sodas can have on their adrenal glands, which ultimatel ... The adrenals are two small glands located above each kidney. In addition to secreting hormones that regulate the body�s use of ... When the adrenal glands become exhausted, their ability to resist further stress greatly decreases. Although excessive stress ... In relation to stimulants, the adrenal glands are forced to work harder to produce more adrenaline, putting the body into a ...
During an adrenal biopsy, a small sample of tissue is removed and sent to the pathologist for testing. The biopsy ... The adrenal glands are endocrine glands which are located immediately on top of the kidneys. ... The adrenal glands are endocrine glands which are located immediately on top of the kidneys. During an adrenal biopsy, a small ... The biopsy can be performed when a suspicious mass or tumor is found on one or both of the adrenal glands. ...
I was told 2 years ago that I have a mass on my left adrenal gland. CT a year later showed no growth or changes. A couple of ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) "" Variations of a gene are associated with a type of tumor that forms within the adrenal gland, and were ... Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal gland causing it to make too much adrenaline. ... Mutations were detected only in patients with tumors of adrenal localization (pheochromocytomas) but not with paragangliomas. ... The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years. Malignancy was seen in ...
It also makes precursors that can be converted to sex steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland ... The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. ... A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more or less hormones than ... The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ...
... one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a ... adrenal gland. in Science. adrenal gland. [ə-drē′nəl]. *Either of two small endocrine glands, one located above each kidney. ... adrenal gland. adrenal gland. noun. *an endocrine gland at the anterior end of each kidney. Its medulla secretes adrenaline and ... adrenal gland. in Medicine. adrenal gland. n.. *Either of two small, dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above ...
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Epinephrine is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, most don't realize the impact coffee and caffeinated sodas can have on their adrenal glands, which ultimately manage the body's ability to stay balanced when stress arises. (healthcentral.com)
  • In describing the function of these glands, physiologist Mr. Walter Cannon, in 1915, discussed it in relation to the body's reaction to stressful situations as a "fight-or flight" mechanism. (vitalitymagazine.com)
  • Now that you're up to speed about your adrenals, it's time to start paying attention to them, as with all the body's other vital organs and glands. (evitamins.com)
  • Another was mitotane (o,p'-DDD, or 1,1-(dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane), an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and to a lesser extent of other steroidogenic enzymes, which additionally has selective and direct cytotoxic effects on the adrenal glands similarly to p,p'-DDD, and was introduced in 1960 for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an adrenal biopsy, a small sample of tissue is removed and sent to the pathologist for testing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After dissecting the adrebak gland completely it will be placed in a tissue bag and is brought out of the body via one of the small incisions. (hirslanden.ch)
  • The adrenal glands of 101 dogs and 159 cats were dissected free from adjacent tissue, weighed, lamellated perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and were embedded in paraffin and plastic for histologic inspection. (scirp.org)
  • Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. (nih.gov)
  • How this specialization is achieved and how the adrenal tissue is maintained throughout life remains mysterious. (cshlpress.com)
  • Taken together our manuscript identifies the adrenal capsule, that is often still considered as a simple 'bag to hold the tissue', as a key signalling centre for adrenal homeostasis. (cshlpress.com)
  • The adrenal gland regulates these and other substances via certain layers of tissue all of which operate according to the type of cells that handle those chemicals. (wizzley.com)
  • In rats, focal or generalized amyloid deposition rarely occurs in any tissue, including the adrenal gland. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenal EMH must be distinguished from inflammation (mature leukocytes, often associated with tissue necrosis or degeneration) and from systemic lymphoid or hematopoietic neoplastic infiltrates (poorly differentiated, often anaplastic cells usually in extensive accumulations that distort or obliterate normal architecture). (nih.gov)
  • It is most highly expressed in the gonadal tissue, adrenal gland, brain and placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is most significantly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and adrenal gland and cortex tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well established that EPO-receptors are widespread in cells throughout the body, including endothelial cells, myocardiocytes, macrophages, retinal cells, and cells of the adrenal cortex [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. (hindawi.com)