Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Salivary Gland DiseasesOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Submandibular Gland DiseasesIncidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Perianal GlandsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
(1/3055) Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene.  (+info)

(2/3055) An alternative transcript of the rat renin gene can result in a truncated prorenin that is transported into adrenal mitochondria.

Characterization of the local renin-angiotensin system in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa indicated a dual targeting of renin both to the secretory pathway and mitochondria. To investigate the transport of renin into mitochondria, we constructed a series of amino-terminal deletion variants of preprorenin. One of these variants, lacking the complete signal sequence for the endoplasmic reticulum and 10 amino acids of the profragment, was transported efficiently into isolated mitochondria. The transport was further shown to be dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis. Analysis of adrenal RNA revealed the existence of 2 renin transcripts. While one of the transcripts corresponds to the known full-length transcript, the other one lacks exon 1; instead, exon 2 is preceded by a domain of 80 nucleotides originating from intron 1. This domain, as well as the following region of intron 1 being excised, shows all essential sequence elements defining an additional, so-far-unknown exon. The second mRNA possibly derives from an additional transcription start in intron 1 and an alternative splicing process. Translation of this mRNA could result in a truncated prorenin representing a cytosolic form of renin, which is required for transport into mitochondria. This truncated prorenin corresponds exactly to the deletion variant being imported into mitochondria in vitro.  (+info)

(3/3055) Cortisol in fetal fluids and the fetal adrenal at parturition in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

Glucocorticoid hormones may play a critical role in initiating parturition in tammar wallabies. In this study, we investigated the concentration of cortisol in fetal fluids and cortisol production by fetal adrenals over the last 3 days of the 26-day pregnancy and within 24 h postpartum. The fetal adrenals almost doubled in size between Days 24 and 26 of pregnancy, and their cortisol content increased over 10-fold during this period, from 10 pg to over 100 pg per adrenal pair. After birth, neonatal adrenals continued to grow, but cortisol content fell dramatically to 20 pg. The prepartum increase in adrenal cortisol was reflected by a substantial rise in cortisol concentrations in yolk sac fluid, allantoic fluid, and fetal blood, which were below 10 ng/ml on Day 24 and rose to over 40 ng/ml by Day 26. Cortisol concentrations in neonatal blood decreased postpartum, mirroring decreased cortisol content in neonatal adrenals. Cortisol production by the fetal adrenal was stimulated in vitro by ACTH and prostaglandin E2, suggesting that the in vivo increase may be stimulated by release of ACTH from the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis and prostaglandin E2 from the placenta. These results indicate that increasing cortisol production by the fetal adrenal is a characteristic of late pregnancy in the tammar wallaby and support the suggestion that fetal cortisol may trigger the initiation of parturition in this marsupial species.  (+info)

(4/3055) Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol.

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

(5/3055) The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

(6/3055) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

(7/3055) A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development.

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm.  (+info)

(8/3055) Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats.

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is highly activated by stress and modulates neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Dopaminergic inputs to mPFC facilitate coping ability and demonstrate considerable hemispheric functional lateralization. The present study investigated the potentially lateralized regulation of stress responses at the level of mPFC output neurons, using ibotenic acid lesions. Neuroendocrine function was assessed by plasma corticosterone increases in response to acute or repeated 20 min restraint stress. The primary index of autonomic activation was gastric ulcer development during a separate cold restraint stress. Restraint-induced defecation was also monitored. Plasma corticosterone levels were markedly lower in response to repeated versus acute restraint stress. In acutely restrained animals, right or bilateral, but not left mPFC lesions, decreased prestress corticosterone levels, whereas in repeatedly restrained rats, the same lesions significantly reduced the peak stress-induced corticosterone response. Stress ulcer development (after a single cold restraint stress) was greatly reduced by either right or bilateral mPFC lesions but was unaffected by left lesions. Restraint-induced defecation was elevated in animals with left mPFC lesions. Finally, a left-biased asymmetry in adrenal gland weights was observed across animals, which was unaffected by mPFC lesions. The results suggest that mPFC output neurons demonstrate an intrinsic right brain specialization in both neuroendocrine and autonomic activation. Such findings may be particularly relevant to clinical depression which is associated with both disturbances in stress regulatory systems and hemispheric imbalances in prefrontal function.  (+info)

*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Adrenal glands of female fetuses with CAH begin producing excess testosterone by the 9th week of gestation. The most important ... 2007). "Testicular adrenal rest tumors and Leydig and Sertoli cell function in boys with classical congenital adrenal ... Infertility observed in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been associated with testicular adrenal rest ... Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal insufficiency Disorders of sexual development ...
*  Development of the endocrine system
At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of ... At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing ... The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of ... The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper ...
*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency
... recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. All of ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which ... Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal insufficiency Disorders of sexual development ... See congenital adrenal hyperplasia for a more detailed discussion of androgen suppression and fertility potential in adolescent ...
*  Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), in which the hypothalamus and pituitary gland control adrenal secretions, ... In acute states of severe stress, cortisol secretion by the adrenal gland increases up to sixfold, parallel to the severity of ... Moreover, in patients whose adrenal glands are already maximally stimulated, a stimulation test would not be informative. ... Adrenal insufficiency Addison's Disease Cortisol Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Glucocorticoids Marik PE, Pastores SM, ...
*  Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs
All layers of the adrenal gland stop functioning; the problem is with the adrenal gland. This causes a deficiency of both ... the problem is not in the adrenal gland but in the pituitary gland. Usually, the anterior portion of the pituitary gland ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ... the dormant adrenal glands may not able to reactivate, and the body will need to have its adrenal glucocorticoid hormones ...
*  Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Similar to the adrenal gland, cholesterol accumulation damages the Leydig cells of the testes. In the ovary, the damage begins ... Also of note, enlargement of the adrenal gland is not always found in the patient, especially in cases where a mutation in the ... Prenatal production of DHEA by the fetal adrenal glands is impaired, resulting in abnormally low maternal estriol levels by the ... They come to medical attention when they develop a salt-wasting adrenal crisis or other signs of progressive adrenal ...
*  Adrenal gland
The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Adrenal gland at the Human Protein Atlas MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 002219 Adrenal gland histology Virtual Slidebox at Univ. Iowa ... adult adrenal glands. Only some 250 genes are more specifically expressed in the adrenal glands compared to other organs and ...
*  Absent adrenal gland
... is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ... Pakravan, P; Kenny, FM; Depp, R; Allen, AC (January 1974). "Familial congenital absence of adrenal glands; evaluation of ... absent adrenal gland [MP:0005313] on Mammalian Phenotype Browser. ...
*  Adrenal gland disorder
... for a reason directly related to the adrenal gland itself, such as auto-immune damage to the adrenal gland or adrenal gland ... Adrenal gland disorders (or diseases) are conditions that interfere with the normal functioning of the adrenal glands. Adrenal ... There are two parts of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces ... "Overview of the Adrenal Glands: Adrenal Gland Disorders: Merck Manual Home Health Handbook". Retrieved 2009-03-28. Adrenal ...
*  Endocrine gland
... thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys in humans and in front of the kidneys in other animals. The adrenal glands ... Addison's disease is an endocrine disease that results from hypocortisolism caused by adrenal gland insufficiency. Adrenal ... The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, ...
*  Mitotane
179-. ISBN 978-1-61705-019-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. ... In addition, mitotane has direct and selective cytotoxic effects on the adrenal cortex, via an unknown mechanism, and thereby ... The medication is used in the controlled destruction of adrenal tissue, leading to a decrease in cortisol production. ... 216-. ISBN 978-1-84184-951-5. Schteinberg DE, Motazedi A, NoonanRA, Thompson NW (1982). "Treatment of Adrenal Carcinomas". Arch ...
*  Cortisol
It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland. It is released in response to ... The synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland is stimulated by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland with ACTH; ACTH ... the second of three layers comprising the adrenal cortex. The cortex forms the outer "bark" of each adrenal gland, situated ... However, in cattle, corticosterone levels may approach or exceed cortisol levels.). The medulla of the adrenal gland lies under ...
*  Amphenone B
In contrast to p,p'-DDD, which has direct cytotoxic effects on the adrenal glands via an unknown mechanism, amphenone B does ... 215-. ISBN 978-1-4832-2351-3. C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 161-. ... which additionally has selective and direct cytotoxic effects on the adrenal glands similarly to p,p'-DDD, and was introduced ... and instead causes adrenal and thyroid gland hypertrophy due to respective inhibition of corticosteroid and thyroxine ...
*  Renin
Angiotensin II also acts on the adrenal glands and releases aldosterone, which stimulates the epithelial cells in the distal ... Boulpaep EL, Boron WF (2005). "Integration of Salt and Water Balance; The Adrenal Gland". Medical physiology: a cellular and ... by reducing urinary loss through the secretion of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland. The normal concentration of ...
*  Corticosteroid
Nussey, Stephen; Whitehead, Saffron (2001-01-01). The adrenal gland. BIOS Scientific Publishers. Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; ... Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is typically used for replacement therapy, e.g. for adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal ... Adrenal insufficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Gastroenterology Ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease Autoimmune hepatitis ... The cortico- part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex, which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a " ...
*  Non-tropic hormone
... to the adrenal glands. Lastly, cortisol (non-tropic) is secreted from the adrenal glands and goes into the bloodstream where it ... Most endocrine glands, such as the gonads, pancreas, and adrenal glands, produce non-tropic hormones. Those released from the ... CRH an ACTH are tropic hormones because they act on the anterior pituitary gland and adrenal glands, respectively, both of ... Some examples of non-tropic hormones are: Glucocorticoids: secreted from the adrenal glands and released directly into the ...
*  Prostate cancer
Androgens include testosterone, which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone, made in the adrenal glands; and ... In prostate cancer, the cells of these prostate glands mutate into cancer cells. The prostate glands require male hormones, ... "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the lumbar region and in ... that begins when normal semen-secreting prostate gland cells mutate into cancer cells. The region of prostate gland where the ...
*  PC12 cell line
"Adrenal Gland and Paraganglia - Embryology". Westerink RH, Ewing AG (2008). "The PC12 cell as model for neurosecretion". Acta ... PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ... It was developed in parallel to the adrenal chromaffin cell model because of its extreme versatility for pharmacological ... Medium: RPMI 1640; 10% HS; 5% FBS; Antibiotic & Antimycotic Cell culture Adrenal medulla Cellular differentiation ...
*  Renin-angiotensin system
In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion, in the heart and vasculature ... 866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160- ... adrenal glands, the heart, vasculature and nervous system, and have a variety of functions, including local cardiovascular ... In the adrenal cortex, angiotensin II acts to cause the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the tubules (e.g., the ...
*  Adrenal tumor
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... The adrenal medulla is located anatomically at the center of each adrenal gland, and is composed of neuroendocrine (chromaffin ... "Adrenal Cortical Neoplasms: Perspectives in Pediatric Patients" in "Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence" ... Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence. New York, NY: Nova Science. 2015. ISBN 978-1-63483-570-1. Ramzi ...
*  Dehydroepiandrosterone
As almost all DHEA is derived from the adrenal glands, blood measurements of DHEA-S/DHEA are useful to detect excess adrenal ... It is one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans, in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and ... ISBN 978-1-57954-942-8. DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is a common hormone produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the ... 243-. ISBN 978-3-540-33713-3. Dimitrios A. Linos; Jon A. van Heerden (5 December 2005). Adrenal Glands: Diagnostic Aspects and ...
*  Glossary of diabetes
Adrenal gland An endocrine gland located on top of the human kidney. Secretes adrenaline, one of the primary 'fight or flight' ... Pituitary gland an endocrine gland at the base of the brain. It is usually called the master gland, for its signals control the ... Produced in the adrenal glands, among others. Etiology the origin and development of a condition. The etiology of Type 1 ... Gland a tissue which produces a product used elsewhere. The pancreas is a large gland, and a complex one. It produces ...
*  Steroidogenesis inhibitor
ISBN 978-3-319-12108-6. Dimitrios A. Linos; Jon A. van Heerden (5 December 2005). Adrenal Glands: Diagnostic Aspects and ... 341-. ISBN 978-0-12-397228-6. Fleseriu M, Castinetti F (2016). "Updates on the role of adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors in ...
*  Darnell Wilson
My adrenal glands were being worn down. I would go flat after a few rounds of sparring because of a bad effect from energy ...
*  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
850-. ISBN 0-323-06986-X. Dimitrios A. Linos; Jon A. van Heerden (5 December 2005). Adrenal Glands: Diagnostic Aspects and ... above 1890 µM/L or 700-800 µg/dL are highly suggestive of adrenal dysfunction because DHEA-S is made by the adrenal glands and ... The etiology can be due to ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome), or adrenal dysfunction (congenital adrenal ... originating from the adrenal cortex in women. Approximately 10 to 15 mg of DHEA-S is secreted by the adrenal cortex per day in ...
*  Sex steroid
Natural sex steroids are made by the gonads (ovaries or testes), by adrenal glands, or by conversion from other sex steroids in ...
*  T. Bhaskara Menon
A haemangeioblastoma of the adrenal gland. T. Bhaskara Menon, D. R. Annamalai, Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, Volume 39 ... Menon, T. Bhaskara (1934). "A hæmangeioblastoma of the adrenal gland". The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 39: 591-594. ...
Best 25+ Secondary adrenal insufficiency ideas on Pinterest | Adrenal insufficiency symptoms, Adrenal glands and Addison crisis  Best 25+ Secondary adrenal insufficiency ideas on Pinterest | Adrenal insufficiency symptoms, Adrenal glands and Addison crisis
See more ideas about Adrenal insufficiency symptoms, Adrenal glands and Addison crisis. ... Find and save ideas about Secondary adrenal insufficiency on Pinterest. , ... Adrenal GlandsAdrenal FatigueReality Of LifeAddison's DiseaseAdrenal SupportBrain TumorHealth FactsSecondary Adrenal ... Adrenal HealthAdrenal Fatigue SymptomsAdrenal GlandsAddison's Disease SymptomsAdrenal Insufficiency SymptomsChronic Fatigue ...
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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Symptoms & Causes | Boston Childrens Hospital  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Symptoms & Causes | Boston Children's Hospital
Learn about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) symptoms and causes from experts at Boston Children's, ranked best Children's ... The adrenal glands and hormones:. * Adrenal glands, which are located on the top of each kidney, are responsible for releasing ... CAH is a genetic disorder of the adrenal glands. If your child has this condition, it means that her adrenal glands don't ... What causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? In normal pattern of sexual development, the adrenal gland and hormones ...
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Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex -- Hornsby 2004 (35): re6 -- <i>Science</i...  Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex -- Hornsby 2004 (35): re6 -- <i>Science</i...
Key Words: adrenal gland steroid DHEA(S) ischemia replicative senescence cell death. Abstract: The most striking age-related ... Citation: P. J. Hornsby, Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. 2004 (35), re6 (2004). ... Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex Peter J. Hornsby The author is in the Department of Physiology and Sam and Ann Barshop Center ... change in the human adrenal cortex is the decline in secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, steroids synthesized ...
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Effect of corticosterone on noradrenergic nuclei in the pons-medulla and [3H]NA release from terminals in hippocampal slices  Effect of corticosterone on noradrenergic nuclei in the pons-medulla and [3H]NA release from terminals in hippocampal slices
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study: 1. Describes the localization of CYP11B1 in the Cape baboon adrenal gland using Western blot ... CYP11B1 was localized to the adrenal cortex and medulla. 2. Describes the catalytic ... ... was to investigate whether the hippocampus exerts a modulatory effect on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ( ...
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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Males : Symptoms & Causes - Parenting Nation India  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Males : Symptoms & Causes - Parenting Nation India
... causes and treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, parents should always get themselves treated in all manner of ... Lack of Enzymes needed by adrenal gland: When the adrenal gland lacks the required enzymes to produce aldosterone and cortisol ... Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Males. When the adrenal gland in the male system begins to experience lots of inherited ... The inherited genetic defect usually limits the production of the enzymes needed by adrenal gland to produce cortisol. This ...
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Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions
Second, the adrenal glands themselves increase in size due to hyperplasia of the steroid-producing adrenal cortex. This results ... Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Dec.22, 2009 in Adrenal Function Tests Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), also known as the ... Adrenal Bacterial Infectious Diseases Basic Hematologic Biliary Tract Tests Blood Coagulation Blood Pressure Blood Product ... In CAH variants IV, V, and VI there is some degree of interruption of the adrenal androgen pathway, so that the external ...
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AdrenalGland - Schema Index  AdrenalGland - Schema Index
Adrenal cortical carcinoma is identified as C74.0 (adrenal cortex) with histology 8010, 8140, or 8370 OR C74.9 (adrenal gland, ... all cases with primary site adrenal gland (C74._) are coded with this schema. However, only adrenal cortical carcinomas will ...
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Adrenal Glands  Adrenal Glands
The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. The inner layer of the adrenal gland ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. ... Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are located above the ... The hormones produced by the adrenal glands affect nearly every organ in the body. ...
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adrenal gland | Infoplease  adrenal gland | Infoplease
The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the ... or suprarenal gland so͞oprərēn´əl [key], endocrine gland (see endocrine system ) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each ... adrenal gland ədrēn´əl [key] or suprarenal gland so͞oprərēn´əl [key], endocrine gland (see endocrine system ) about 2 in. (5.1 ... The inner reddish portion (medulla) of the adrenal gland, which is not functionally related to the adrenal cortex, secretes ...
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Adrenal Gland |  Adrenal Gland |
There are two adrenal glands, one sitting on top of each of the kidneys [1]. They are pyramidal in shape and weigh about 4 g ... Adrenal Gland Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Adrenal Gland. The adrenal glands are located on the upper pole of ... Outer layer of the adrenal gland that produces steroid hormones.. Adrenal medulla- Inner layer of the adrenal gland that ... adrenal gland (ədrēn´əl) or suprarenal gland (sōōprərēn´əl), endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long ...
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adrenal gland -  adrenal gland -
Histology of the adrenal gland The adrenals have of 4 basic areas. Listed from most superficial to deepest, these are: *zona ... adrenal gland: an endocrine gland located immediately above the kidney. It consists of two portions: a cortex and a medulla. ...
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Adrenal Gland Cancer |  Adrenal Gland Cancer |
They are characterized by overproduction of adrenal gland hormones. Source for information on Adrenal Gland Cancer: Gale ... Adrenal Gland Cancer Definition Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. ... Adrenal Gland Cancer. Definition. Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. They ... Cancers of the adrenal gland are very rare. The adrenal gland is a hormone producing endocrine gland with two main parts, the ...
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adrenal gland mass  adrenal gland mass
I was told 2 years ago that I have a mass on my left adrenal gland. CT a year later showed no growth or changes. A couple of ...
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Adrenal gland - Factbites  Adrenal gland - Factbites
The Adrenal Gland. The adrenal medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland, the adrenal medulla, is innervated by ... Promote Adrenal Gland Health Naturally. Adrenal Gland Cancer - Adrenal gland cancer is rare and occurs in the endocrine tissue ... The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla. Adrenal venography: A procedure to look at the adrenal veins and the ... Adrenal gland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or ...
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Adrenal gland - Wikipedia  Adrenal gland - Wikipedia
Main article: Adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Main article: Adrenal gland disorder. The normal function of the adrenal gland may be impaired by conditions such as infections ... adult adrenal glands.[35][36] Only some 250 genes are more specifically expressed in the adrenal glands compared to other ...
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Adrenal Gland | LIVESTRONG.COM  Adrenal Gland | LIVESTRONG.COM
... nutrition with Adrenal Gland news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about Adrenal Gland & help... ... What Are the Causes of an Enlarged Adrenal Gland?. The adrenal glands, also known as the suprarenal glands, are small hormone- ... Adrenal Glands and Diabetes. The adrenal glands are endocrine, or hormone releasing, and are located on top of the kidneys. ... Blood Tests for Adrenal Gland Function. The adrenal gland makes many different hormones and is divided into two distinct zones ...
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Adrenal gland - New World Encyclopedia  Adrenal gland - New World Encyclopedia
The adrenal gland is separated into two distinct structures, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. Both structures ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the ... The adrenal medulla is at the center of the adrenal gland and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex, which forms the remaining ... They are paired glands, with one on the top of each kidney. In humans, the adrenal glands are found at the level of the 12th ...
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Adrenal Gland Tumor in Dogs  Adrenal Gland Tumor in Dogs
Treating Adrenal Gland Tumors. There are two primary ways of treating and managing adrenal gland tumors. If the tumor is large ... Conditions Which May Be Caused by Adrenal Gland Tumors. There are two primary conditions of the adrenal system and the ... An adrenal gland tumor in dogs can be the cause of a variety of different problems to your pet. Among these problems are ... An adrenal gland tumor is likely to be a relatively small tumor, but its accessibility and the dramatic effect that it has over ...
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Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland  Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland
... Boudewijn van Etten,1 Marc G. A. van Ijken,1 Wolter J. Mooi,3 Matthijs Oudkerk,2 ... We report a rare case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland. A 73-year-old woman presented with an inferior vena ... MR imaging was suggestive of a large tumour originating from the right adrenal gland. Angiography revealed a tumour ... vascularised by the right adrenal artery. At explorative laparotomy a tumour of 27 cm in diameter was found which was ...
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Angiomyolipoma of the Right Adrenal Gland  Angiomyolipoma of the Right Adrenal Gland
... Oktay Yener and Alp Özçelik Department of Surgery, Göztepe Training and Research ... R. Godara, M. G. Vashist, S. L. Singla et al., "Adrenal angiomyolipoma: a rare entity," Indian Journal of Urology, vol. 23, no ... M. M. Grumbach, B. M. K. Biller, G. D. Braunstein et al., "Management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass," Annals of ... R. Sutter, A. Boehler, and J. K. Willmann, "Adrenal angiomyolipoma in lymphangioleiomyomatosis," European Radiology, vol. 17, ...
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What are the Adrenal Glands? (with pictures)  What are the Adrenal Glands? (with pictures)
The adrenal glands are the part of the endocrine system that secretes hormones to control metabolism, physical development, ... So, could you explain to me how adrenal glands could get fatigued, and what the symptoms of this adrenal gland disorder would ... Also known as the suprarenal glands, adrenal glands can be affected by hormonal imbalances. For example, underactive glands ... As you can read from the above article, your adrenal glands are basically your "fight or flight" glands. When your body goes ...
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Adrenal Gland Crisis  Adrenal Gland Crisis
The human adrenal gland has many important roles in body regulation, and when it does not function sufficiently, a life- ... Compromise of the adrenal gland may occur in several ways. One of those is loss of its function, and this is primary adrenal ... Secondary adrenal insufficiency stems from a problem with the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is in the brain and releases ... The adrenal gland regulates these and other substances via certain layers of tissue all of which operate according to the type ...
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Adrenal gland | Define Adrenal gland at  Adrenal gland | Define Adrenal gland at
... one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a ... adrenal gland. in Science. adrenal gland. [ə-drē′nəl]. *Either of two small endocrine glands, one located above each kidney. ... adrenal gland. adrenal gland. noun. *an endocrine gland at the anterior end of each kidney. Its medulla secretes adrenaline and ... adrenal gland. in Medicine. adrenal gland. n.. *Either of two small, dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above ...
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Adrenal glands | University of Maryland Medical Center  Adrenal glands | University of Maryland Medical Center
Adrenal glands. Definition. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the top part of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is called the cortex. It ... Adrenal gland. In: Benjamin IJ, Griggs RC, Wing EJ, Fitz JG, eds. Andreoli and Carpenter's Cecil Essentials of Medicine. 9th ed ... Standring S. Suprarenal (adrenal) gland. In: Standring S, ed. Gray's Anatomy. 41st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 71 ...
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Caffeine, Adrenal Glands and Stress - Diet & Exercise | HealthCentral  Caffeine, Adrenal Glands and Stress - Diet & Exercise | HealthCentral
Unfortunately, most don't realize the impact coffee and caffeinated sodas can have on their adrenal glands, which ultimatel ... The adrenals are two small glands located above each kidney. In addition to secreting hormones that regulate the body'�s use of ... When the adrenal glands become exhausted, their ability to resist further stress greatly decreases. Although excessive stress ... In relation to stimulants, the adrenal glands are forced to work harder to produce more adrenaline, putting the body into a ' ...
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  • Knowing how to find the appropriate Adrenal Fatigue treatment is just as important as understanding what causes adrenal fatigue, how to spot it, and what you can do to prevent it. (
  • The first sign noticed by the owner of a spayed female with an adrenal gland tumor is often the sudden appearance of a swollen vulva, as if she were in heat. (
  • An adrenal gland tumor in dogs can be the cause of a variety of different problems to your pet. (
  • An adrenal gland tumor is likely to be a relatively small tumor, but its accessibility and the dramatic effect that it has over many different parts of your dog's health will mean that it's one of the most likely tumors that vets will recommend to have surgically removed. (
  • There are a variety of potential causes for Cushing's Disease , but one of the most common of these is a tumor on one or both of the adrenal glands. (
  • Ivanhoe Newswire) "" Variations of a gene are associated with a type of tumor that forms within the adrenal gland, and were found in an age group uncommon for these types of tumors. (
  • The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years. (
  • It is a benign tumor of the gland that requires surgical removal. (
  • Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. (
  • With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. (
  • DHEA and other adrenal androgens such as androstenedione, although relatively weak androgens, are responsible for the androgenic effects of adrenarche, such as early pubic and axillary hair growth, adult-type body odor, increased oiliness of hair and skin, and mild acne. (
  • Adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex which are extremely common (present in 1-10% of persons at autopsy). (
  • These benign adenomas are typically affect only one or two of the parathyroid glands, known respectively as a single adenoma or double adenoma. (
  • A cancer that arises in the adrenal cortex is called an adrenocortical carcinoma and can produce high blood pressure , weight gain, excess body hair, weakening of the bones and diabetes. (
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly aggressive cancer of adrenal cortical cells, which may occur in children or adults. (
  • The outermost zone of the adrenal cortex is the zona glomerulosa . (
  • The adrenal cortex itself is divided into three zones: zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis. (
  • It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland. (
  • Angiotensin II is the major bioactive product of the renin-angiotensin system, binding to receptors on intraglomerular mesangial cells, causing these cells to contract along with the blood vessels surrounding them and causing the release of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa in the adrenal cortex. (
  • within the normal adrenal, this neuroendocrine differentiation seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical function. (
  • Note 2: Except for histologies that have strictly histology-based CS schemas (for example lymphoma), all cases with primary site adrenal gland (C74. (
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is identified as C74.0 (adrenal cortex) with histology 8010, 8140, or 8370 OR C74.9 (adrenal gland, NOS) with histology 8370. (
  • The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, in front of the thyroid cartilage, and is shaped like a butterfly, with two wings connected by a central isthmus. (
  • Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland in response to rising blood calcium levels, depresses blood calcium levels by inhibiting bone matrix resorption and enhancing calcium deposit in bone. (
  • In addition, amphenone B inhibits the production of thyroxine by a thiouracil-like mechanism, specifically via inhibition of organic binding of iodine and uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland. (
  • Most individuals display four parathyroid glands adjacent to the thyroid gland anterior in the neck. (
  • The thyroid gland and parathyroid gland are closely tied together in the calcium pathway. (
  • Parathyroid chief cells (also called parathyroid principal cells or simply parathyroid cells) are one of the two cell types of the parathyroid glands, along with oxyphil cells. (
  • The chief cells are much more prevalent in the parathyroid gland than the oxyphil cells. (
  • The parathyroid gland is part of the endocrine system. (
  • The overactivity of a parathyroid gland is known as hyperparathyroidism. (
  • It is called a "sympathetic" gland because it responds to external stimuli, such as anxiety with the so-called "fight or flight" instinct. (
  • Both tumors may also arise from extra-adrenal sites, specifically, in the paraganglia of the sympathetic chain. (