Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsAnal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Perianal GlandsSublingual Gland Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the sublingual glands.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Chloroprene: Toxic, possibly carcinogenic, monomer of neoprene, a synthetic rubber; causes damage to skin, lungs, CNS, kidneys, liver, blood cells and fetuses. Synonym: 2-chlorobutadiene.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Adenolymphoma: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsSalivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsAdrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAddison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Salivary Gland DiseasesDehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Submandibular Gland DiseasesGlucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.

Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice. (1/1819)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene.  (+info)

The elevated serum alkaline phosphatase--the chase that led to two endocrinopathies and one possible unifying diagnosis. (2/1819)

A 39-year-old Chinese man with hypertension being evaluated for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) levels was found to have an incidental right adrenal mass. The radiological features were characteristic of a large adrenal myelolipoma. This mass was resected and the diagnosis confirmed pathologically. His blood pressure normalised after removal of the myelolipoma, suggesting that the frequently observed association between myelolipomas and hypertension may not be entirely coincidental. Persistent elevation of the SAP levels and the discovery of hypercalcaemia after surgery led to further investigations which confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. The patient's serum biochemistry normalised after removal of the adenoma. The association of adrenal myelolipoma with primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported in the literature only once previously. Although unconfirmed by genetic studies this association may possibly represent an unusual variation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.  (+info)

A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development. (3/1819)

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm.  (+info)

Neuroblastoma metastatic to the liver in infants. (4/1819)

Four infants are described who presented with rapid enlargement of the liver. This was found to be due to neuroblastoma which had metastasized to the liver; the condition was associated with high levels of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). In 3 infants the primary tumour was in the adrenal gland and in one it was not identified. One infant died after laparotomy and 2 infants survive disease free with normal VMA levels, one after adrenalectomy and hepatic irradiation and one after a short course of chemotherapy. The fourth patient responded initially to hepatic irradiation and chemotherapy, but relapsed 2 years later with recurrent disease; at the same time the VMA level which had been normal, again rose. The importance of screening for an abnormal VMA level in any infant with a rapidly enlarging liver in order to obtain an early diagnosis is stressed. Careful follow-up, with serial VMA estimations, is essential to detect recurrent disease. The prognosis for some infants with this distribution of neuroblastoma which has metastasized to the liver, but not to the bones or oribt, is good.  (+info)

Rat sarcoma model supports both "soil seed" and "mechanical" theories of metastatic spread. (5/1819)

Following injection into the portal venous or vena caval systems, tumour cells are held up almost exclusively in the liver or lung respectively, and subsequent outgrowth of tumour only occurs in these organs. Following systemic arterial injection, cells are distributed, and subsequently grow, in a variety of organs. However, the adrenal gland supports tumour growth from much fewer cells than the lung, and this is partly due to the fact the rate of tumour cell loss in the initial 48 h is very high in the latter compared to the former organ.  (+info)

Combined liver-spleen-kidney scintigraphy and subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph in the evaluation of displaced kidney. (6/1819)

The displacement of kidney was studied by using the combined liver-spleen-kidney scintigraphy and the subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph to leave the liver-spleen scintiphotograph alone. A suprarenal mass was shown as cold spot between the liver and right kidney on the combined study. When the liver scintiphotograph and kidney scintiphotograph were over-lapped and the differential diagnosis was difficult, the subsequent subtraction of the kidney scintiphotograph was useful in the diagnosis of the enlarged liver.  (+info)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A with the identical somatic mutation in medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma without germline mutation at the corresponding site in the RET proto-oncogene. (7/1819)

A germline mutation either in exon 10 or 11 of the RET proto-oncogene is found in the majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A). A 41-year-old female patient was referred for further evaluation of incidentally discovered right adrenal tumor. She had bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas detected by endocrinological and radiological examination, and diagnosed as MEN 2A. Molecular genetic testing of the RET exons 10 and 11 exhibited the identical somatic missense mutation at codon 634 in both tumors but did not confirm germline mutations in the corresponding sites. Possible mechanisms for tumorigenesis in this patient are discussed.  (+info)

Mercury intoxication presenting with hypertension and tachycardia. (8/1819)

An 11 year old girl presented with hypertension and tachycardia. Excess urinary catecholamine excretion suggested phaeochromocytoma but imaging studies failed to demonstrate a tumour. Other symptoms included insomnia and weight loss, and she was found to have a raised concentration of mercury in blood and urine. Mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension with tachycardia even in patients presenting without the skin lesions typical of mercury intoxication and without a history of exposure.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The possible role of apoptosis-suppressing genes, bcl-2 and mcl-1/EAT in human adrenal tumors. AU - Ando, Takashi. AU - Shibata, Hirotaka. AU - Suzuki, Toshihiko. AU - Kurihara, Isao. AU - Hayashi, Kouichi. AU - Hayashi, Matsuhiko. AU - Saito, Ikuo. AU - Kawabe, Hiroshi. AU - Tsujioka, Minako. AU - Saruta, Takao. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. N2 - The expression levels of bcl-2, mcl-1/EAT, and bax were examined by Northern blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR method in 25 adrenal tumors, including seven adrenal pheochromocytomas (PHE), seven aldosterone- producing adenomas (APA), four adrenal cortisol-producing adenomas (CS), one deoxycorticosterone-producing adenoma (DOC) and six non-hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenomas (NF). Northern blot analysis revealed both bcl-2 and mcl-1/EAT mRNAs in all of the adrenal tumors. The expression levels differed greatly among the tumor samples. Mcl-1/EAT mRNA levels were enhanced in APA and CS compared with those in NF. In ...
Adrenal masses and adrenal tumors occur commonly with some being quite dangerous. Learn the basics of adrenal tumors from the worlds top adrenal surgeon.
Adrenal incidentalomas are quite common. About 4 % of the population have adrenal tumors that they are unknown of. Some percentage of this patients produce a little to much cortisol, but not enough to give overt Cushings syndrome. It is shown that slightly elevated cortisol production will give higher blood pressure, higher blood sugar and maybe higher BMI. For another hormone produced in the adrenal glands , aldosterone, we know that even if you have an adrenal tumor on one adrenal, you could have bilateral overproduction of the hormone.In that situations it is no need of an operation of the adrenal with the tumor. When the overproduction is unilateral it is of great value to the patient to operate the adrenal gland, and the symptoms from the hormone excess will disappear. For aldosterone Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been used for several years to try to determine if the hormone overproduction is one-sided or to sided. We are in this study using the same principle for cortisol ...
Case Reports in Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports related to the endocrine system and its associated diseases.
Zeynep G zde zkan, C neyt T rkmen, Yasemin anl , Mustafa Nuri Yenerel, I k Adalet. Unusual presentation of adrenal lymphoma observed with PET-CT. Turk J Hematol. 2011; 28(4): 337- ...
Axial CT image revealing a left adrenal mass measuring 2.8cm in diameter. Areas of decreased density equivalent to the attenuation of adipose tissue within a w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilateral and unilateral adrenal incidentalomas. T2 - biochemical and clinical characteristics.. AU - Morelli, V.. AU - Palmieri, S.. AU - Salcuni, A. S.. AU - Eller-Vainicher, C.. AU - Cairoli, E.. AU - Zhukouskaya, V.. AU - Scillitani, A.. AU - Beck-Peccoz, P.. AU - Chiodini, I.. PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - The possible different prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidaemia (DL) and vertebral fractures (FX) between patients with bilateral and unilateral adrenal incidentalomas (BAI and UAI, respectively) with and without subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) is unknown. In this study we compared the prevalence of AH, T2DM, DL and FX in BAI and UAI patients in relation to SH. Prospective study. In 175 UAI and 38 BAI patients, we evaluated BMI, spinal and femoral bone mineral density (LS and FN BMD, respectively) and the presence of AH, T2DM, DL and FX. SH was diagnosed in the presence of 2 of the following: urinary free cortisol levels ...
Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis develops in 15% of cases. The symptomatology of both conditions is nonspecific, especially in the elderly, and a high suspicion index is necessary for appropriate diagnosis. A 78-year-old female presented to the emergency department with confusion, nausea and vomiting. She had recently been to the emergency department with urinary tract infection, vomiting and acute hypochloremic hyponatremia. Upon re-evaluation, the leukocyturia persisted and because of TSH 0.01 µU/mL and free-T4 68 (10-18) pmol/L, she was admitted to the Endocrinology ward. Further evaluation supported amiodarone-induced thyroiditis type 2. Sepsis ensued, in the setting of nosocomial pneumonia. Hemodynamic instability, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and vomiting raised the suspicion of adrenocortical insufficiency. Fluid resuscitation ...
Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare malignancy. It frequently presents bilaterally and with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Amiodarone may induce secondary organ dysfunction, and thyrotoxicosis develops in 15% of cases. The symptomatology of both conditions is nonspecific, especially in the elderly, and a high suspicion index is necessary for appropriate diagnosis. A 78-year-old female presented to the emergency department with confusion, nausea and vomiting. She had recently been to the emergency department with urinary tract infection, vomiting and acute hypochloremic hyponatremia. Upon re-evaluation, the leukocyturia persisted and because of TSH 0.01 µU/mL and free-T4 68 (10-18) pmol/L, she was admitted to the Endocrinology ward. Further evaluation supported amiodarone-induced thyroiditis type 2. Sepsis ensued, in the setting of nosocomial pneumonia. Hemodynamic instability, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and vomiting raised the suspicion of adrenocortical insufficiency. Fluid resuscitation ...
Introduction: Adrenal surgical series are scarce in the literature. We aim to present a single institution consecutive case series and to establish a radiologic-pathological correlation.. Material and methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study was conducted by searching the Pathology database for surgically removed adrenal lesions. Cases were matched with the Imagiology database. Ultrasound, CT and MRI images were then reviewed by the same experienced radiologist in order to determine any possible correlation with the pathological findings.. Results: A total of 35 patients, 18 males (51.4%) and 17 females (48.6%) were evaluated. Benign lesions: 18 (51.4%); malignant lesions: 17 (48,6%). Primary adrenal lesions: 22 (62.9%); benign: 18 (81.8%); malignant: 4 (18.2%); pheochromocytomas: 6 (27.3%). Secondary adrenal lesions: 13 (37.1%), pulmonary neoplasia metastasis: 8 (61.5%); metastasis from other origins: 5 (38.5%). Malignant adrenal lesions: primary adrenal: 4 (23.5%); ...
During the past decade, ultrasound has become a routine diagnostic tool for the evaluation of soft tissue structures in the abdominal cavity. One consequence of abdominal ultrasound is the unexpected finding of a seemingly incidental adrenal mass. There are many factors that determine how aggressive the diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be toward an adrenal mass, including the severity of concurrent problems, the original reason for performing abdominal ultrasound, the age of the dog or cat, the likelihood that the mass is hormonally active, the likelihood that the mass is a malignant or benign tumor, the size and invasiveness of the mass, and the owners desires and willingness to pursue the problem. The first consideration is to be certain an adrenal mass exists. Abdominal ultrasound should always be repeated to confirm the mass is a repeatable finding. An adrenal mass is suspected when the maximum width of the adrenal gland exceeds 1.5 cm, there is loss of the typical kidney bean ...
Excess secretion of any of the adrenal cortical or medullary hormones contributes to a number of well-known clinical syndromes.. They may result from benign or malignant adrenal tumours, adrenal hyperplasia or, least frequently, from extra-adrenal disease. Differentiation among these possibilities is often impossible on clinical or biochemical grounds alone. Location of the site(s) of excess hormone production in the past depended on relatively insensitive or invasive radiological methods. The non-invasive evaluation began with X-ray computed tomography but the functional significance of anatomical abnormalities cannot be determined from CT scan. Incorporation of specific radiopharmaceuticals into the abnormal tissues allows scintigraphic localization of functional abnormalities with a high degree of efficacy. The combination of adrenal scintigraphy and kompjuterizovanom tomografijom CT or magnetskom rezonancijom MRI should in most cases obviatc the need for more invasive procedures. Phaeochromocytoma
Learn about benign adrenal tumors and adrenal cancer treatment, such as an adrenalectomy, by endocrine surgeons at Brigham and Womens Hospital.
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The Endocrine Society recently issued a Clinical Practice Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of two types of rare adrenal tumors: pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
Case Reports in Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports related to the endocrine system and its associated diseases.
The incidental adrenal lesion is the product of the expanding clinical indications of cross-sectional imaging as well as the increasing spatial resolution of...
adrenal cancer: the adrenal glans its just small gland located on each of your kidneys the most common tumer of the adrenal gland is actually a benign tumor calles an adrenal adenoma,these tumor never cause a patient to have any symptoms and do not need to treat,adrenal adenoma actually come from cancer cells that have…
The NCI-H510A cell line was derived by D. Carney, A.F. Gazdar and associates in 1982 from an adrenal metastasis in an adult male patient.
Chest Pain, CT Scan showing Adrenal Mass, Prolonged PR Interval Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cardiomyopathy, Electrolyte Imbalance, Lyme Carditis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Presented by Andreas Kiriakopoulos, MD, Dimitrios Linos, MD; HYGEIA HOSPITAL at the SAGES 2014 Meeting; Panel - Concurrent Session SS1 MIS/Solid Organ background-26 sec patients & methods-41 sec retroperitoneal searies-1:11 lap series-1:39 patient positioning-2:58 trocar position-3:20 results-3:30 complications-4:22 right retroperito Keyword(s): admission, armamentarium, background, bilateral adrenalectomies, carcinoma, case-controlled setting, common adrenal tumor, complications, CT scan, […] ...
Home gardeners often dream of an orchard in the back yard; how nice to walk outside and pick a few apples or cherries of your own. But USDA Zone 6 gardeners may mistakenly think the hot, humid summers arent suitable for fruit tree growing. Dont cheat yourself out of an orchard--many varieties grow well in ...
1. The major issue to resolve with the various imaging techniques is the differentiation of benign adrenal adenomas from adrenal cortical carcinoma, since biochemical tests can distinguish an adrenal adenoma from a pheochromocytoma. As Dr. Copeland has noted, approximately half of the adrenal masses in patients with known cancer represent metastasis (1). It is in that group of patients that fine-needle aspiration of the adrenal mass is most useful in excluding metastatic disease if the findings on imaging are equivocal. In the study Dr. Copeland cites to advocate the routine use of delayed enhanced CT (2), 39 of the 40 malignant adrenal incidentalomas were metastatic lesions, while the remaining lesion was a malignant pheochromocytoma. None were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Until we have sufficient data that this procedure regularly distinguishes between primary adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, "additional research is needed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma. AU - Rappa, Francesca. AU - Manassero, Francesca. AU - Crisci, Alfonso. AU - Pomara, Giorgio. AU - Cuttano, Maria Giuseppa. AU - Selli, Cesare. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non-functioning adenoma is very rare. Herein,we report on such a case in an asymptomatic 64-year-old woman. To the best of our knowledge,there is only one other case of non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma associated with myelolipomain the same gland. Furthermore, only two other adenomas (mineral corticoids and corticosteroidproducing tumors) associated with myelolipomas have been reported, and both myelolipomas wereless than 1 cm in size. In conclusion, the 8.5 cm myelolipoma in our case is the largest comparedwith the three previously reported ones.. AB - The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non-functioning adenoma is very rare. Herein,we report on such a case in an asymptomatic 64-year-old woman. To the ...
A 32-year-old woman, primigravida, who was 12 weeks pregnant, initially consulted a practitioner with awareness of right abdominal discomfort. She was pointed out bilateral adrenal tumor by abdominal ultrasonography. She was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma by blood examination and consulted our hospital. There were no signs of preeclampsia. Her other past history were unremarkable. A physical examination showed a temperature of 35.7°C and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min. Her blood pressure was 129/90 mmHg and pulse rate was 86 beats/min. Her heart and breath sounds were normal. The size of her uterus was consistent with 12 weeks of gestation and fetal heart rate was 148 beats/min. There were no palpable masses in the thyroid, no uterine contractions, and no edema was detected. Major laboratory findings included a hematocrit of 38.8% and white blood cell count of 8,100/mm3, with 72.0% neutrophils and the platelet count was 391,000/mm3. The blood sugar level in the fasting was 87mg/dl. ...
The authors report a case of the safe performance of radiofrequency (RF) ablations and biopsies in a patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma. The patient had previously undergone RF ablation at another institution for a tumor in her liver; that procedure was complicated by a hypertensive crisis and cardiac arrest. Our experience emphasizes that, despite a prior life-threatening complication, careful pre-, intra-, and postprocedural care to avoid a hypertensive crisis allowed safe RF ablations and biopsies in a patient with pheochromocytoma.
Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. It mainly consists of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid tissue. Adrenal myelolipoma are the second most common cause of adrenal incidentillomas and make up almost 10% of it. Rarely, myelolipomas are encountered outside the adrenal glands and are termed as extra adrenal myelolipomoas. ...
von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is an inherited, autosomal dominant syndrome manifested by a variety of benign and malignant tumors. More than 300 germline VHL mutations have been identified that are
In the adrenal tumor cell system ganglioside Gm1 inhibited cholera enterotoxin (CT)-induced steroidogenesis if it was preincubated with the toxin or added to adrenal cells 10 min before CT. In the preincubation studies a molar ratio of Gm1 to toxin of 3:1 was necessary for half-maximal inhibition of steroidogenesis. On the other hand, horse serum anticholeragenoid neutralized the steroidogenic response to cell-bound CT by 50% if it was added to adrenal monolayer cultures 15 min after the toxin. Specific antiserum was able to neutralized 20% of the toxin-induced activity even if it was added to adrenal cultures 2 h after CT. Phase contrast microscopy demonstrated that partial neutralization of the biochemical effect of CT by horse serum anticholeragenoid was accompanied by partial prevention of toxin-induced rounding of adrenal cells. Further studies showed that pretreatment of cultured adrenal cells with a maximal dose of CT increased cyclic adenosine 3-5-monophosphate formation in response to ...
In an autopsy series involving 464 patients with adrenal metastases, Lam and Lo found that the most common primary tumor site was the lung at 35% 1. In a deteriorating patient with known metastatic cancer, acute adrenal insufficiency should be ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Gupta on causes of adrenal cancer: At this time, there are no known direct causes for prostate cancer. Three factors are known. As men age, the risk for prostate cancer increases. Race also plays a role in risk (aa | whites | asians). Men with a primary relative(father, brother) are at the most increased risk for developing the disease. At 40, a rectal exam and psa blood test are the best way to start screening. for topic: Causes Of Adrenal Cancer
Treatment of Adrenal Incidentaloma:Management of an incidentally found adrenal mass in a patient without a known primary malignancy will depend upon the size of the mass, its characteristics on the CT or MRI scan, and whether hormonal tests indicate that the tumor is producing excessive adrenal hormones.The two options for treating adrenal incidentaloma are:Monitoring its appearance with a series of CT or MRI scans, orRemoving the adrenal mass with minimally invasive surgery, usually laparoscopically. It typically involves removal of the mass and the adrenal gland (adrenalectomy). In select cases, removal of only the tumor may be recommended (partial adrenalectomy). This surgery may be done through a single small incision in the abdomen (Single Site laparoscopic surgery) or through 3-4 small keyhole incisions. Robotic surgery may also be recommended by your surgeon. If the lesion is large and/or looks suspicious on the CT or MR imaging, the mass is secreting excessive adrenal hormones. Surgery recovery
We had a great Ambulatory Report today with the help of our own Christian Ngo and Endocrinologist Dr. Abramowitz, teaching us how to workup/manage adrenal incidentalomas: Basics: All patients: cortisol (1mg dex suppression test: am cortisol |1.8 rules out and |5 rules in). 24 hour urine cortisol is only used in patients where suspicion for…
Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of an adrenal gland. The most common indicator for adrenalectomy is the presence of hormone-producing adrenal tumors. Prognosis is dependent upon individual medical history.
Phaeochromocytoma are a rare clinical entity in children. Contrary to traditional teaching which suggested that 10% of phaeochromocytomas are familial, advances in molecular genetics have revealed an identifiable germ line mutation in up to 59% (27/48) of apparently sporadic phaeochromocytomas presenting at 18 years or younger and in 70% of those presenting before 10 years of age. The inherited predisposition may be attributable to a germ line mutation in the Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene; the genes encoding for the subunits B and D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB and SDHD); the RET proto-oncogene predisposing to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) or the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) gene.1 Of these, the Von Hipplel Lindau gene is the most commonly mutated gene in children presenting with a phaeochromocytoma. Referral to Clinical Genetics is recommended for genetic counselling prior to gene testing and investigation of the wider family. This review provides guidance on the aetiology, ...
Cushing Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Pathology Tanda dan gejala pheochromocytoma dapat disebabkan oleh sejumlah kondisi yang berbeda. oleh karena itu, sangat penting untuk mendapatkan diagnosis segera. meskipun tekanan darah tinggi adalah tanda utama dari pheochromocytoma, kebanyakan orang dengan tekanan darah tinggi tidak memiliki tumor adrenal. Westphal sa; diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma. am j med sci. 2005 jan329(1):18 21. widimsky j jr; recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma. kidney blood press res. 200629(5):321 6. epub 2006 nov 21. zapanti e, ilias i; pheochromocytoma: physiopathologic implications and diagnostic evaluation. ann n y acad sci. 2006. A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor. it grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. your body has two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. each layer of these glands makes different hormones. the middle part of the adrenal glands makes epinephrine and norepinephrine. these hormones help. ...
The majority of people with adrenal adenomas will have no symptoms and the growths will only be discovered during a MRI or CT completed for other reasons. These non-functioning adrenal adenomas do not require follow up treatment.. Functional adrenal adenomas will increase hormones made in the adrenal gland.. ...
Malignant pheochromocytomas are divided into categories based on the extent of the tumour. Localized refers to apparently benign tumours that are confined to the adrenal gland. Regional refers to tumours that have extended into nearby tissues, lymph nodes or organs. Metastatic refers to tumours that
Malignant pheochromocytomas are divided into categories based on the extent of the tumour. Localized refers to apparently benign tumours that are confined to the adrenal gland. Regional refers to tumours that have extended into nearby tissues, lymph nodes or organs. Metastatic refers to tumours that
Adrenal Cancer is cancer that begins in the small glands that sit above each of the kidneys, which are located inside the upper part of the abdomen. These glands are important to the bodys endocrine, or hormonal, system. Each adrenal gland has two main parts that function separately: Adrenal cortex: The cortex is the
Catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as pheochromocytomas and catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas (extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas), respectively. Becaus
This Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy consultation is part of a series of consultations with surgical specialists at the University of California, San Diego.
Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery for treatment of adrenal metastases. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 23 patients with adrenal metastases who had been treated with CK between October 2006 and December 2015. Fifteen patients received chemotherapy prior to radiosurgery, all patients underwent computer tomography (CT) fluoroscopically guided percutaneous placement of one to three gold fiducials into the adrenal gland. Nineteen patients were selected for single-fraction radiosurgery with a median dose of 22 Gy, four patients were treated in three fractions with a median dose of 13.5 Gy. Results Median follow-up time was 23.6 months. Four patients (17%) experienced local relapse during the evaluation period with a mean time of 19 months to tumor progression. The actuarial local tumor control rate was 95% after one year and 81% after two years. Three of the four patients with local
Pheochromocytomas are neoplasms of chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines. Pheochromocytoma is a rare disorder that presents challenges for the anesthesiologist. By some estimates, 25 to 50 percent of hospital deaths of patients with unmana
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Our clinicians may perform a variety of procedures to diagnose and stage adrenal cancer, including X-ray, CT scan, MRI, laparoscopy, ultrasound and biopsy.
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Cortisol is a separate steroid hormone produced within the adrenal cortex. If a tumor produces excess cortisol, Cushings syndrome (also known as hypercortisolism) can develop. This syndrome is seen not only with adrenal tumors, but can also be the result of excessive levels of adrenal cortical stimulating hormone (also known as ACTH, a hormone that is responsible for stimulating the adrenal glands to produce cortisol) produced by the pituitary gland or another tumor in the body. Cushings syndrome may also develop in patients who are taking steroids as medication for other disorders. The symptoms of Cushings syndrome can vary greatly from patient to patient and involve a number of different parts of the body. Symptoms include weight gain and water retention resulting in a round face and collection of fat on the back of the shoulders and neck (so-called "buffalo hump"). Red or purple stretch marks, known as striae can appear on the skin. Excessive hair growth (called hirsutism) can also be ...
... adrenal gland, pancreas).. Encapsulated hematomas, encapsulated necrotic tissue (from an insect bite, foreign body, or other ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... Neoplastic tumor of the cheek skin, here a benign neoplasm of the sweat glands called hidradenoma, which is not solid but is ... The term 'neoplasm' is a synonym of "tumor". 'Neoplasia' denotes the process of the formation of neoplasms/tumors, the process ...
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... "Adrenal Cortical Neoplasms: Perspectives in Pediatric Patients" in "Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence" ... The adrenal medulla is located anatomically at the center of each adrenal gland, and is composed of neuroendocrine (chromaffin ... Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells similar to the chromaffin cells of the mature adrenal medulla. ...
An endocrine gland neoplasm is a neoplasm affecting one or more glands of the endocrine system. Examples include: Adrenal tumor ...
... adrenal gland, pancreas). Encapsulated hematomas, encapsulated necrotic tissue (from an insect bite, foreign body, or other ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The term 'neoplasm' is a synonym of "tumor". 'Neoplasia' denotes the process of the formation of neoplasms/tumors, the process ... p. Neoplasm. ISBN 0781733901. "II Neoplasms". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 June 2014. Abrams, Gerald. "Neoplasia I ...
Malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland (C74) Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland (C74.0) Cortex of adrenal gland (C74.1) Medulla ... Benign neoplasm of thyroid gland (D35) Benign neoplasm of other and unspecified endocrine glands (D35.0) Adrenal gland (D35.1) ... Neoplasm of uncertain or unknown behaviour of endocrine glands (D44.0) Thyroid gland (D44.1) Adrenal gland (D44.2) Parathyroid ... Parotid gland (D11.7) Other major salivary glands Sublingual gland Submandibular gland (D11.9) Major salivary gland, ...
Cancer (including neoplasms in the mammalian lung, oral/nasal cavities, thyroid and adrenal glands, and liver, squamous cell ...
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Comparison of Neoplasms in Six Sources of Rats *^ Diamond JM (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed ... adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ...
Cancer of the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma) occurs in 50% of cases. A variety of eponyms have been proposed for MEN 2B, ... Benign tumors (neoplasms) develop in the mouth, eyes, and submucosa of almost all organs in the first decade of life. Medullary ... Pheochromocytoma - a hormone secreting tumor of the adrenal glands - is also present in 50% of cases. Affected individuals are ... multiple endocrine neoplasm 2B or not 2B?" J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998 Jan;83(1) 17-20. PMID 9435410 R. L. Miller; N. J. ...
... familial Adrenal cancer Adrenal disorder Adrenal gland hyperfunction Adrenal gland hypofunction Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital ... X-linked Adrenal hypoplasia Adrenal incidentaloma Adrenal insufficiency Adrenal macropolyadenomatosis Adrenal medulla neoplasm ... Adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal hypertension Adrenal hypoplasia congenital, ... Adenocarcinoid tumor Adenocarcinoma of lung Adenocarcinoma of esophagus Adenoid cystic carcinoma Adenoma of the adrenal gland ...
Mutations in this gene were first recognized in human cancer cell lines derived from adrenal gland and lung. In cancer, ... several more subunits of the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have been found mutated in a wide range of neoplasms. ...
It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland ... As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. Neoplasms ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. ... Blood Supply to the Suprarenal Glands" Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 15.292 - "Adrenal Gland". ...
Coppola, Christopher P.; Merrell, Ronald C. (2001). "Neoplasms of the Adrenal and Endocrine Pancreas in the Elderly". In ... "Adrenal Gland". ... ACTH partially regulates adrenal androgen secretion, also CRH. ... Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease) at eMedicine Ibáñez L, Potau N, Marcos MV, de Zegher F (September 1999). " ... The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the ...
The MEN1 phenotype is inherited via an autosomal-dominant pattern and is associated with neoplasms of the pituitary gland, the ... In rare cases, adrenal cortex tumours are also seen. Most germline or somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene predict truncation or ... The MEN-1 syndrome often exhibits tumors of parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary, endocrine pancreas, and endocrine duodenum ... and ependymomas are observed neoplasms. In a study of 12 sporadic carcinoid tumors of the lung, five cases involved ...
... peritoneal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.078 --- adrenal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.078.265 --- adrenal cortex neoplasms ... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.805.776 --- sweat gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.839.500 --- muscle neoplasms MeSH C04.588 ... anal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.445 --- duodenal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.501 --- ileal neoplasms MeSH ... lip neoplasms MeSH C04.588.443.591.692 --- palatal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.443.591.824 --- salivary gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588 ...
These glands, along with additional minor salivary glands, secrete a rich mixture of biological chemicals, electrolytes, ... The following conditions are among those that can be detected through saliva testing (list not comprehensive): adrenal ... benign and metastatic neoplasms (such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and oral cancer), infectious conditions (such as HIV ... Nitrate extracted from blood by the salivary gland, accumulates in saliva, which is then reduced to nitric oxide to have a ...
In either case, treatment may rely on removal of the tumor or of the adrenal glands. Without the adrenal glands, the human body ... Low, G., & Sahi, K. (2012). Clinical and imaging overview of functional adrenal neoplasms. International Journal of Urology, 19 ... or it can also be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal gland. ... Shier, D., Butler, J., Lewis, R. "Adrenal Glands." Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. 504 ...
IgG4-related disease Parasitic infections Addison's disease and stress-induced suppression of adrenal gland function Some forms ... Of solid tumor neoplasms, ovarian cancer is most likely to provoke eosinophilia, though any other cancer can cause the ... Reiter A, Gotlib J (2017). "Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia". Blood. 129 (6): 704-714. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-695973. ...
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. They ... often of the adrenal gland, which is detected when diagnostic imaging is used for the analysis of unrelated symptoms. With the ...
Ong, ES Neoplasms of the Endocrine Pancreas Workup - Imaging Studies National Cancer Institute. Pancreatic Neuroendocrine ... McKenna, L. R.; Edil, B. H. (2014). "Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors". Gland surgery. 3 (4): 258-275. doi:10.3978/j. ... Pancreatic, neuroendocrine GI, and adrenal cancers. Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach 13th edition 2010. ISBN 978 ... Only 1 or 2% of clinically significant pancreas neoplasms are PanNETs. PanNETs are sometimes abbreviated as PETs or PNETs: such ...
... is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue, that occurs most commonly in children ... Craniopharyngioma is a rare, usually suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from nests of epithelium derived ... Excessive thirst Excessive urination Adrenal insufficiency. This occurs because of a reduction in ACTH production, a reduction ... The tumor, being in the pituitary gland, can cause secondary health problems. The immune system, thyroid levels, growth hormone ...
Acral dry gangrene Acromegaly Addison's disease Adrenal adenoma Adrenal carcinoma Adrenal hyperplasia Alopecia-nail dystrophy- ... In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying ... neoplasms, and cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin. Aberrant basal cell carcinoma ... Within the latter type, the hairs occur in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and ...
... s may form in a number of places, including the pancreas, abdomen, adrenal gland, and eye. Pseudocysts are often ... The CT scan's weakness is its lack of differentiation between pseudocysts and cystic neoplasm. Also, the intravenous contrast ... Types of adrenal cysts include parasitic cysts, epithelial cysts, endothelial cysts, and pseudocysts. 56% of all adrenal cysts ... The cause of adrenal pseudocysts is unknown. A few theories exist, but it is believed that repeated episodes of trauma, ...
Pituitary gland: Neuroendocrine tumor of the anterior pituitary Thyroid gland: Neuroendocrine thyroid tumors, particularly ... G1 and G2 neuroendocrine neoplasms are called neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) - formerly called carcinoid tumours. G3 neoplasms ... Pancreatic, neuroendocrine GI, and adrenal cancers. Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach 13th edition 2010; ISBN 978 ... Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common ...
For example, insufficient adrenocorticotropic hormone means that the adrenal glands will not produce sufficient cortisol, ... Pituitary adenomas represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general ... The pituitary gland is divided into two lobes, the anterior lobe (which accounts for two thirds of the volume of the gland), ... The pituitary gland or hypophysis is often referred to as the "master gland" of the human body. Part of the hypothalamic- ...
... is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal ... The other component neoplasms of that syndrome include parathyroid adenomas, and medullary thyroid cancer. Mutations in the ... Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (often described as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas) are closely related, though less common, ... causing it to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nerves controlling the adrenal medulla. A healthy adrenal medulla will ...
Androgens include testosterone, which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone, made in the adrenal glands; and ... "Male Genitals - Prostate Neoplasms". Pathology study images. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the ... Adams J (1853). "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the ... the cells of these prostate glands mutate into cancer cells. The prostate glands require male hormones, known as androgens, to ...
Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic elements ... Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland: sonographic and CT features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Nov. 151(5):961-4. [Medline]. ... Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic elements ... Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland. Angiographic findings and review of the literature. Am J Surg. 1975 Sep. 130(3):354-8. [ ...
Isolated Adrenal Myelolipoma *Myelolipomas occurring in an otherwise normal adrenal gland. *Most common pattern of presentation ... If chronically present these stimulants lead to the development of neoplasms.. *This hypothesis is supported by the increased ... Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. It mainly consists of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid ... Extra-adrenal Myelolipoma *Myelolipomas occurring outside the adrenal gland *Retroperitoneum (presacral or perirenal) ...
Study of Adrenal Gland Tumors. *Adrenal Gland Neoplasm. Observational. *Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ... Combined FDG-PET and 123I-Iodometomidate Imaging for Adrenal Neoplasia. *Adrenal Gland Neoplasms ... Towards an Easy-to-use Adrenal Cancer/Tumor Identity Card. *Adrenal Gland Neoplasms ... An Image-guided SBRT for Adrenal Gland Metastasis in Oligometastatic Patients. *Adrenal Gland Metastases ...
ICD-10 code C79.72 for Secondary malignant neoplasm of left adrenal gland is a medical classification as listed by WHO under ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms R96 Predesigned 96-well panel for use with SYBR® Green ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms R384 Predesigned 384-well panel for use with SYBR® Green ... Adrenal gland neoplasms M96 Predesigned 96-well panel for use with SYBR® Green ... Adrenal gland neoplasms M384 Predesigned 384-well panel for use with SYBR® Green ...
A non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the adrenal gland.. *A non-metastasizing neoplasm arising from the adrenal gland. ( ... Benign neoplasm of adrenal gland. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code *D35.0 should not be used for reimbursement ... Benign neoplasm of other and unspecified endocrine glands. 2016 2017 2018 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Type 1 Excludes*benign ... Tumor - see also Neoplasm, unspecified behavior, by site* adrenal* cortical (benign) D35.0- ...
This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for neoplasms. ... ICD-10 C74.10 is malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified ... Neoplasms (C00-D48) *Malignant neoplasms of thyroid and other endocrine glands (C73-C75) *Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland ( ... C74.10 MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OF MEDULLA OF UNSPECIFIED ADRENAL GLAND Home > ICD-10 List > Neoplasms > Malignant neoplasms of ... Malignant neoplasm of unspecified part of right adrenal gland. 12. C74.92. Malignant neoplasm of unspecified part of left ...
The ICD-10 Code D35.01 is the code used for Benign neoplasm of right adrenal gland .An alternative description for this code is ...
The ICD-10 Code D35.02 is the code used for Benign neoplasm of left adrenal gland .An alternative description for this code is ...
C74 Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland* C74.0 Malignant neoplasm of cortex of adrenal gland* C74.00 Malignant neoplasm of ... Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland C74 Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland C74- Clinical Information *A number of disorders ... C74.1 Malignant neoplasm of medulla of adrenal gland* C74.10 Malignant neoplasm of medulla of unspecified adrenal gland ... Cancer that forms in the tissues of the adrenal glands (two glands located just above the kidneys). The adrenal glands make ...
Secondary malignant neoplasm of left adrenal gland BILLABLE Billable Code Billable codes are sufficient justification for ... C79.72 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of secondary malignant neoplasm of left adrenal gland. A billable ... Secondary malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland (approximate match) This is the official approximate match mapping between ICD9 ...
Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of right adrenal gland Long Description: Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of right adrenal gland ... Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you cant ... With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushings syndrome, theres too much ... A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary, which helps to regulate the adrenal gland ...
Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. Types of tumors include Neuroblastoma and Pheochromocytoma. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Gland Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from ... Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. They usually do not cause symptoms and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland ... Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you cant live ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... The adrenal glands appeared normal on computed tomographic scanning. Bilateral surgical adrenalectomy revealed PPNAD. ... Adrenal function was assessed by using the high-dose cosyntropin stimulation test.A total of 48 patients were assessed, with a ... Adrenal reserve was assessed with a 1 mcg cosyntropin stimulation test and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was diagnosed by ...
Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral ... Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue ... Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Adrenal Gland Diseases. ... Pancreatic Neoplasms. Digestive System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Digestive System Diseases. Pancreatic Diseases. Endocrine ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... The adrenal glands appeared normal on computed tomographic scanning. Bilateral surgical adrenalectomy revealed PPNAD. ... Adrenal function was assessed by using the high-dose cosyntropin stimulation test.A total of 48 patients were assessed, with a ... Adrenal Axis Insufficiency After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Adenomas WORLD NEUROSURGERY Ajlan, A., ...
Since this peptide is abundant in normal adrenal medulla as well as in pheochromocytoma tissue arising from adrenal medulla, it ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry* * Adrenomedullin * Amino Acid Sequence * Animals * Antihypertensive Agents / chemistry ... Since this peptide is abundant in normal adrenal medulla as well as in pheochromocytoma tissue arising from adrenal medulla, it ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics* * Animals * Blotting, Northern * Cell Line * Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The adrenal glands are one of the most common organs involved in metastatic disease. Metastases are the ... the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms ... Adrenal Glands. A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two ... Adrenal gland size in growth restricted fetuses.. To compare the adrenal gland size of fetal growth restricted (FGR) and normal ...
Benign neoplasm of adrenal gland. I10. Hypertension [malignant only]. I11.9. Hypertensive heart disease without heart failure. ... suggests episodic hypertension secondary to an adrenal tumor (e.g., pheochromocytoma), and office blood pressure measurements ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery*. Adrenalectomy / instrumentation*. Aged. Female. Humans. Laparoscopes*. Male. Middle Aged. ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism, ultrasonography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism, ... Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism, ultrasonography. Ovary / metabolism, ultrasonography. Placenta / enzymology. Pregnancy. ...
Hyperplasia or neoplasia of the adrenal cortexproduces aldosterone excess (aldosteronism), hypercortisolism (Cushings syndrome ... Bennett AH, Harrison JH, Thorn GW: Neoplasms of the adrenal gland. J Urol 106: 607, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Egdahl RH: Surgery of the adrenal gland. N Engl J Med 278: 939, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Moses DC, Schteingart DE, Sherman MF, et al: Efficacy of radiocholesterol imaging of the adrenal glands in Cushings syndrome. ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Development and Implentation of Novel Medical Education Curriculum. *Medical Education ... This includes thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, adrenal tumors, pituitary tumors, and others. I am also very passionate about ...
Conditions: Adrenal Gland Neoplasm; Hypertension; Bone Diseases, Metabolic; Cardiovascular Disease; Hyperinsulinemia. ... Conditions: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Interventions: Procedure: Hepatic ... Condition: Neoplasms. Interventions: Drug: Bevacizumab; Drug: BAY 43-9006. Sponsor: National Cancer Institute (NCI). Completed ... Adrenal Suppression and Absorption Study of Halobetasol Propionate Foam in Subjects 12-17 With Plaque Psoriasis Condition: ...
  • The hypothesis of the study is, that surgery of the adrenal adenoma responsible for the increased secretion of cortisol, will in part cure or ameliorate the metabolic syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • F. M. Frankul ,A. A. Al Rashid ,G. M. Othman , Virilising adrenal adenoma in a 3-year-old boy, Kuwait Med. (who.int)
  • If atrophy is seen in both adrenal glands, the modifier "bilateral" should be added to the diagnosis (lesions are assumed to be unilateral unless otherwise indicated). (nih.gov)
  • The CT-scan guided biopsy of both adrenal glands allowed the diagnosis of primary bilateral adrenal NHL. (hindawi.com)
  • The presence of bilateral adrenal masses associated with a rapid increase of volume should raise the diagnosis of primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (hindawi.com)
  • The adrenal mass has a significant etiological diagnosis problem. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there is consensus on the need of a multidisciplinary expert team evaluation and surgical approach in patients with significant hormonal excess and/or radiological findings suspicious of malignancy demonstrated at the diagnosis or during follow-up, the inconsistency between official guidelines and the consequent diffuse uncertainty on management of small adrenal incidentalomas still represents a considerable problem in terms of clinical choices in real practice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adrenal crisis represents an endocrine emergency, and thus the rapid recognition and prompt therapy for adrenal crisis are critical for survival even before the diagnosis is made. (factbites.com)
  • To confirm a final diagnosis, your veterinarian will need to take a biopsy of the adrenal gland for laboratory analysis. (petmd.com)