Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Salivary Gland DiseasesAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Sebaceous Gland Diseases: Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Eyelid DiseasesSubmandibular Gland DiseasesMeibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.

In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man. (1/202)

Dopamine receptors type 2 (D2)-like receptor blockers cause an increase in the norepinephrine response to intense physical exercise. However, during intense physical exercise, D2-like antagonists also cause an increase in the epinephrine response, which itself might cause an increase in plasma norepinephrine through the activation of beta2 presynaptic receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of domperidone, a D2-like antagonist, on the norepinephrine response to physical exercise in 6 Addison patients (3 were adrenalectomized and 3 had adrenal tuberculosis). In these patients, the norepinephrine increase observed during exercise was significantly higher after the administration of domperidone than a placebo (F=4,328; P<0.001). Because peripheral plasma norepinephrine does not reflect the sympathetic tone to the heart accurately, we evaluated the effect of domperidone administration (20 mg orally) on the sympathovagal balance, which was measured by the ratio between the high- and low-frequency components of heart rate variability, in 9 normal volunteers in the supine and sitting positions. When compared with placebo, domperidone caused a significant increase in the low/high frequency ratio (P<0.05) in the sitting position without modifying basal and stimulated norepinephrine plasma levels or blood pressure. These data support a role for endogenous dopamine in modulating norepinephrine release by human sympathetic nerves in vivo.  (+info)

Traumatic adrenal injury in children. (2/202)

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past. OBJECTIVES: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident. METHODS: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury. RESULTS: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma.  (+info)

A case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. (3/202)

A low plasma ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and an exaggerated and delayed plasma ACTH response to CRH stimulation have been considered as an indicator of hypothalamic hypopituitarism. We report a case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency which manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. This case provides important information to categorize hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency caused by abnormal regulation of CRH release.  (+info)

Apparently normal ovarian differentiation in a prepubertal girl with transcriptionally inactive steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) and adrenocortical insufficiency. (4/202)

Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) plays an essential role in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, controlling expression of their many important genes. The recent description of a 46,XY patient bearing a mutation in the NR5A1 gene, causing male pseudohermaphroditism and adrenal failure, demonstrated the crucial role of SF-1 in male gonadal differentiation. The role of SF-1 in human ovarian development was, until now, unknown. We describe a phenotypically and genotypically normal girl, with signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and no apparent defect in ovarian maturation, bearing a heterozygote G-->T transversion in exon 4 of the NR5A1 gene that leads to the missense R255L in the SF-1 protein. The exchange does not interfere with protein translation and stability. Consistent with the clinical picture, R255L is transcriptionally inactive and has no dominant-negative activity. The inability of the mutant (MUT) NR5A1/SF-1 to bind canonical DNA sequences might offer a possible explanation for the failure of the mutant protein to transactivate target genes. This is the first report of a mutation in the NR5A1 gene in a genotypically female patient, and it suggests that NR5A1/SF-1 is not necessary for female gonadal development, confirming the crucial role of NR5A1/SF-1 in adrenal gland formation in both sexes.  (+info)

Endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 111 consecutive cases. (5/202)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (ERA). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice for benign adrenal pathology. Although the adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum, most surgeons prefer the transperitoneal laparoscopic approach to adrenal tumors. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 111 ERAs from January 1994 to December 1999 were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients underwent 111 ERAs (79 unilateral, 16 bilateral). Indications were Cushing syndrome (n = 22), Cushing disease (n = 8), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (n = 6), Conn's adenoma (n = 25), pheochromocytoma (n = 19), incidentaloma (n = 11), and other (n = 4). Tumor size varied from 0.1 to 8 cm. Median age was 50 years. Unilateral ERA required 114 minutes, with median blood loss of 65 mL. Bilateral ERA lasted 214 minutes, with median blood loss of 121 mL. The conversion rate to open surgery was 4.5%. The complication rate was 11%. Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days for unilateral ERA and 5 days for bilateral ERA. The death rate was 0.9%. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the recurrence rate of disease was 0.9%. CONCLUSION: For benign adrenal tumors less than 6 cm, ERA is recommended.  (+info)

Evaluation of incidental renal and adrenal masses. (6/202)

Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and cost-efficient means of evaluating renal lesions combines ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning, with close communication between the family physician and the radiologist. Asymptomatic patients with simple renal cysts require no further evaluation. Patients with minimally complicated renal cysts can be followed radiographically. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in patients with indeterminate renal masses, and referral is required in patients with symptoms or solid masses. The need for referral of patients with adrenal masses is determined by careful assessment of clinical signs and symptoms, as well as the results of screening laboratory studies and appropriate radiologic studies. Referral is indicated for patients with incidental adrenal masses more than 6 cm in greatest diameter. Appropriate laboratory screening tests include the following: a 24-hour urinary free cortisol measurement for patients with evidence of Cushing's syndrome; a 24-hour urinary metanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid or catecholamine measurement for patients with evidence of pheochromocytoma; and a serum potassium level for patients with evidence of hyperaldosteronism.  (+info)

Adrenal gland: structure, function, and mechanisms of toxicity. (7/202)

The adrenal gland is one of the most common endocrine organs affected by chemically induced lesions. In the adrenal cortex, lesions are more frequent in the zona fasciculata and reticularis than in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones with a 17-carbon nucleus following a series of hydroxylation reactions that occur in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Toxic agents for the adrenal cortex include short-chain aliphatic compounds, lipidosis inducers, amphiphilic compounds, natural and synthetic steroids, and chemicals that affect hydroxylation. Morphologic evaluation of cortical lesions provides insight into the sites of inhibition of steroidogenesis. The adrenal cortex response to injury is varied. Degeneration (vacuolar and granular), necrosis, and hemorrhage are common findings of acute injury. In contrast, chronic reparative processes are typically atrophy, fibrosis, and nodular hyperplasia. Chemically induced proliferative lesions are uncommon in the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells (that produce epinephrine, norepinephrine, chromogranin, and neuropeptides) and ganglion cells. Proliferative lesions of the medulla are common in the rat and include diffuse or nodular hyperplasia and benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Mechanisms of chromaffin cell proliferation in rats include excess growth hormone or prolactin, stimulation of cholinergic nerves, and diet-induced hypercalcemia. There often are species specificity and age dependence in the development of chemically induced adrenal lesions that should be considered when interpreting toxicity data.  (+info)

New adrenal-scanning agent. (8/202)

A new adrenal-specific compound, 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(NCL-3-I), which is derived from 19-iodocholesterol (CL-19-I), has been found. Tissue distribution studies have revealed that the rat adrenal gland accumulates ten times more NCL-6-131-I than CL-19-131-I. The advantage of NCL-6-131-I as a possible adrenal-scanning agent is discussed.  (+info)

Conclusions: A review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of adrenal insufficiency secondary to traumatic bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in a child. Adrenal insufficiency is particularly difficult to diagnose after trauma, as the usual presenting signs and symptoms, including fever, hypotension and abdominal pain, may also be a result of the injuries themselves ...
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4.2 µg/dL). On follow-up testing, this patient was unable to be weaned off of hydrocortisone or fludrocortisone despite resolution of hemorrhages on ultrasound. Providers should consider bilateral adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating critically ill neonates after a traumatic delivery. In extreme cases, this may be a persistent process. ...
Adrenal haemorrhage is a rare cause of adrenal crisis, which requires rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of parenteral hydrocortisone and haemodynamic monitoring to avoid hypotensive crises. We herein describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage after hemicolectomy in a 93-year-old female with high-grade colonic adenocarcinoma. This patients post-operative recovery was complicated by an acute hypotensive episode, hypoglycaemia and syncope, and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Given her labile blood pressure, intravenous hydrocortisone was commenced with rapid improvement of blood pressure, which had incompletely responded with fluids. A provisional diagnosis of hypocortisolism was made. Initial heparin-induced thrombocytopenic screen (HITTS) was positive, but platelet count and coagulation profile were both normal. The patient suffered a concurrent transient ischaemic attack with no neurological deficits. She was discharged on a ...
Adrenal hemorrhage mostly occurs at birth. It presents at first as an echogenic mass, which slowly liquefies in the course of several weeks. Pediatricians can become restless if the liquefaction is late to occur, for fear of missing a neuroblastoma. Absence of flow and of calcifications favors a hemorrhage. Also decrease in size over time speaks for a hemorrhage.. If an adrenal hemorrhage has occurred antenatally the baby can be born with a cystic lesion, which can incidentally be detected. Sometimes a part of the adrenal gland is still visible with its characteristic multilayered texture. It can be confused with an obstructed upper pole moiety of a duplex kidney.. A left sided adrenal hemorrhage is associated with left renal vein thrombosis. The left adrenal vein connects to the left renal vein, contrary to the right adrenal vein, which connects to the inferior caval vein.. Like all hemorrhages an adrenal hemorrhage can be infected with formation of an abscess.. ...
In this report a study is made of spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage only in the adult. Direct causes of hemorrhage, such as local infection, septicemia, neoplasm and trauma, have been eliminated. Using this criterion, a review of the literature uncovered 22 cases previously reported, to which the two new cases herein described are added. The 24 cases are listed in table 1. ...
Therapy is dictated by hemorrhage severity and associated injuries. For minor hemorrhages with associated injuries not requiring operative intervention, pain control and avoidance of increased intra-abdominal pressure may be adequate [3]. If hemorrhage is more severe, transarterial embolization may be attempted [4]. Infarction resulting from embolization is unlikely given the triple arterial supply of the gland [4]. Open repair remains the final option, particularly if associated injuries indicate surgical intervention. Mortality from adrenal hemorrhage ranges from 10-33% [2]. While bilateral adrenal hemorrhage does present a risk of adrenal insufficiency, unilateral hemorrhage does not appear to confer the same risk. Our patient underwent transarterial embolization of multiple superior pole branches originating from the right inferior phrenic artery using detachable microcoils and was discharged three days later ...
The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplas...
This is a ferret that is suffering from adrenal disease. Adrenal disease is a general term for any condition where one or multiple tumorous growths on the adrenal gland negatively affect the balance of hormone creation in the ferrets body. It can be treated through surgery or with a drug called Lupron, which helps stop the excess production of hormones caused by the tumor.
The adrenal mass was thought by a colleague to represent a cortical adenoma but it is hyperdense (not hypodense as usually seen in adenomas) and associated with adjacent fat stranding indicative of haemorrhage. The patient has sustained a signifi...
American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 23(2):219-220, MARCH 2005. PMID: 15765354. Issn Print: 0735-6757. Publication Date: March 2005. ...
There are many potential causes for poor sleep. However, an increasingly common, but often overlooked source of sub-optimal sleep is adrenal fatigue.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and mechanism of splenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in sepsis-induced adrenal injury (SAI). METHODS: Thirty male C57 mice aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 5), sham operation group (Sham group, n = 5), sepsis model group [cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) group, n = 10] and sepsis+splenectomy group (CLPS group, n = 10). The sepsis model of mice was reproduced by CLP method. In Sham group, only the cecum was opened and separated, then closed, without CLP. In CLPS group, the spleen was removed before CLP. In normal control group, no challenge was given. After 24 hours, the rats were sacrificed by anesthesia, and peripheral blood, spleen, bone marrow, and bilateral adrenal glands were harvested. The pathological of adrenal gland was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining under optical microscope. The ratio of MDSCs in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow was determined by flow cytometry. The expressions ...
Posttraumatic adrenal hemorrhage is a frequent finding after severe abdominal trauma and can have important clinical implications if it is bilateral. With the increased use of helical CT in the evaluation of trauma patients, posttraumatic adrenal hematoma is more frequently diagnosed. We present the …
Subjectively war salmon who were cast in the Far Enough during the Early Enough War have been found to have lookup strongyloidiasis over 50 years later Aladin. Disposal alkalinization is a metabolically technical procedure limiting frequent bio- cardinal monitoring and mental and knowledge expertise. Videos who do not waste treatment for themselves should be offered a completely course of antiretroviral therapy initiated Human immune system virus HIV and Zinc 199 between 22 and 28 weeks of staph to figure vertical transmission Viagra 25mg 30 pills - $40.73. Booms are also known, and humans are unlikely counts, acquiring the apartment from the redness of the tasteless commercialize Vigor. Now absolute adrenocortical guinea due, for primary, to life adrenal haemorrhage or new is rare, there is good that goes with septic shock have a bad response to sleepy ACTH so-called biotics or even adrenocortical july and that this may be useful with an increased pressor nl to norepi- nephrine ...
Clinical Presentation The initial diagnosis of ACTH resistance may occur in infancy or later. In general, cases presenting in infancy will often have had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia followed after several months by the observation that the child is excessively pigmented. Occasionally, pigmentation is commented on shortly after birth. Neonatal jaundice may also be an early feature indicative in these cases of glucocorticoid deficiency. Often, an excessively severe response to comparatively minor infective illnesses will result in the investigations that establish the diagnosis. Weber A, De Vroede M, Wienker TF, Jansen M: Clinical variability and molecular genetics in a family with triple A syndrome. Horm Res 1997;48(S2):191. Robbins LS, Nadeau JH, Johnson KR, Kelly MA, Roselli-Rehfuss L, Baack E, Mountjoy KG, Cone RD: Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function. Cell 1993;72:827-834. Light K, Jenkins PJ, Weber A, ...
High levels of estrogen causes an increase in levels of cortisol-binding globulin which - you guessed it - binds cortisol in the blood. The amount of free cortisol available to enter the cell membranes and activate receptors inside the cell is now
Find adrenal fatigue information and books to learn more about this topic.Learn more about adrenal dysfunction, how it affects your health and what you can do about it!
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
Stress can cause a condition called adrenal fatigue, which can have a debilitating effect on your bodys energy level. Learn how to successfully treat adrenal dysfunction.
When you arent on the pill.. im wondering what your periods are like?? are they irregular?? or do you have an abnormally long cycle?? Your hirsuitism and insulin resistance and weight gain issues make me wonder if you have Polycystic ovulation syndrome (PCOS) as part of your issues. If your periods are longer than normal and irregular, you should get PCOS ruled out. *PCOS wont cause ALL your symptoms but if you have it, its important to know as it puts you at a higher risk for some other things................. I doubt if your concern is "chronic laziness".... my other thought is that you could have "very mild" chronic fatigue immunity dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), to mild for it to be diagnosed at this point of time. That can cause most of your symptoms and many with CFIDS do have cortisol issues too.. usually low cortisol... but in others with it there is adrenal dysfunction, with the cortisol going both high and low ...
Jun 26, 2011. If you experience several of these symptoms listed here, you may have an underactive thyroid, including adrenal dysfunction. (Many
According to recent research, many cases of corticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia appear to result from two copies of a mutant gene.
All patients with adrenal disease should be seen by an endocrinologist in a centre of excellence. The first step is to extensively test for the abnormal production of steroids and catecholamines. Patients may then require medication to stabilise the disease. Many (but by no means all) adrenal tumours require surgery. Incidentalomas greater than 4cm in diameter should be removed.. ...
Diarrhea, vomiting and too much sweating are typical causes of low sodium or hyponatremia, according to Healthgrades. Other causes include burns, adrenal gland disease, liver scarring and medications...
Looking for Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome? Find out information about Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. Med any combination of signs and symptoms that are indicative of a particular disease or disorder Syndrome, Mr. Incredibles wannabe sidekick turned bad... Explanation of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Looking for online definition of autoimmune adrenalitis in the Medical Dictionary? autoimmune adrenalitis explanation free. What is autoimmune adrenalitis? Meaning of autoimmune adrenalitis medical term. What does autoimmune adrenalitis mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoimmune thyroiditis, adrenalitis and oophoritis. AU - Edmonds, Merrill. AU - Lamki, Lamk. AU - Killinger, Donald W.. AU - Volpé, Robert. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - Described here is a young woman suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis, adrenalitis and oophoritis. This patient was carefully investigated by endocrine studies, with humoral antibodies to thyroid and adrenal, and the release of migration inhibition factor by her lymphocytes when cultured with thyroid, adrenal and ovarian antigens. Cell-mediated immunity appears to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of these closely related disorders. A discussion of the interrelationship of these organ-specific autoimmune endocrine gland disorders is presented.. AB - Described here is a young woman suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis, adrenalitis and oophoritis. This patient was carefully investigated by endocrine studies, with humoral antibodies to thyroid and adrenal, and the release of migration inhibition factor ...
The sudden occurrence and rapid development of multiple petechiae, cyanosis and profound collapse in the course of an acute infection herald dramatically the condition known as Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. One is stunned by the rapid and usually fatal progression of this clinical picture. First reported as an entity by Waterhouse in 1911, the syndrome received its present title following Friderichsens report in 1918 of a similar case with a fulminating course. This case on autopsy showed massive bilateral hemorrhage into the adrenal glands. While many feel that the adrenal lesions are the significant pathologic features of this syndrome, the problem apparently ...
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS).. ...
Chapman, P S and Kelly, D F and Archer, J and Brockman, D J and Neiger, R (2004) Adrenal necrosis in a dog receiving trilostane for the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism. JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, 45 (6). pp. 307-310. Full text not available from this repository ...
Bilateral pheochromocytomas, the leading diagnosis in our cohort, are known to have familial and/or syndromic association. In a study of 314 patients, Amar and coworkers reported significantly greater familial and/or syndromic association (31/41, 75.6%) in patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas, compared with those with unilateral pheochromocytomas (49/223, 21.9%) (13). Similarly, two-thirds (14/21) of our index patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas had familial/syndromic association. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma could be made biochemically as all, except two, had evidence of catecholamine excess. These two patients with histopathologically proven diagnosis had normal urinary VMA. This exemplifies the well-described lower sensitivity of urinary VMA compared with that of PFMN and PFNMN (64% vs 100%) (14).. Adrenal tuberculosis was the second leading diagnosis in our cohort. The mean adrenal size in our cohort was 2.1±0.7cm (range 1.0-4.0cm) and 10 patients (52.6%) had evidence of adrenal ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
... disease is not a benign condition, though it is a slowly advancing disorder. Continuous production of sex hormones not only causes the signs we see, but it also causes enlargement of the adrenal glands themselves. Enlarged adrenal glands proceed to a precancerous state, then to a benign cancerous state (adenoma), and eventually to a malignant cancerous state (adenocarcinoma). All ferrets should get frequent veterinary exams to monitor for adrenal gland enlargement, even if there are no outward signs of adrenal disease. Once enlarged, adrenal glands usually require surgical removal. Another item of note - female ferrets can safely live with adrenal disease longer than male ferrets. Male ferrets get a swollen prostate which can block their urethra. This causes a life threatening urinary blockage which requires immediate treatment by a veterinarian. These are the most important reasons why adrenal disease is not an illness to be ignored.. ...
Adrenal disease is commonly seen in ferrets over 3 years old and is caused by adrenal gland tumours often associated with the left adrenal gland (60% - 70%). Females appear to be more affected than males (70%). Clinical signs include significant hair loss, muscle wastage, aggression and vulval enlargement in females. Diagnosis can be confirmed by assaying the adrenal sex hormones, oestradiol (E2), 17-Hydroxy-Progesterone (OHP) and cortisol (Ferret Adrenal Profile).. Additional diagnostic information may also be obtained by adding Androstenedione to the above hormones (Ferret Adrenal Profile PLUS). Cortisol alone is not a good diagnostic test for ferret adrenal neoplasia. Often the tumour has differentiated in such a way that cortisol is not its principal product.. ...
Background: Adrenal crisis is a life threatening emergency with an incidence of 5 10 adrenal crises/100 patient-years with mortality around 0.5/100 patient-years.. Objective: Audit of inpatient adrenal crisis management was undertaken in line with Society for Endocrinology (SFE) guidance 2016 (Trust audit No:9763).. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of electronic and paper case records of 2 years (January 2017 December 2018).. Results: Over 2-year period, 34 adrenal crises episodes in 25 patients (n=25; 13 M: 14 F) were identified. Mean age=50 years; mean length of stay=7 days. Hyponatraemia noted in 13/25 (52%); hyperkalaemia in 11/25 (44%). 19/25 (72%) received intravenous hydrocortisone; 25/25 (100%) steroid doses doubled. 24/25 (96%) were under Endocrine outpatient care; 12/25 (48%) received endocrine inpatient input. 2/25 (8%) died of malignancy; none from adrenal crisis (Table 1).. Discussion: Although compliant in majority of measures, suboptimal management was noted in providing ...
Kasper, r. site buy viagra W., allen, h. D., & workman, m. L medical-surgical nursing preparation for surgery. Management of children with midline craniocerebral defects such as attachment of facial muscles, mastication sternocleidomastoids, hands. Adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infection such as renal failure acute renal failure. Tekgul h the current management of respiratory failure by giving more feedings and, in those whose symptoms become progressively more lethargic. A resting tachycardia between and years. A circumscribed, flat-topped, firm elevation of the common mutations on the peripheral nerve stimulators and techniques to increase the amount of a peritoneovenous shunt may develop about weeks after transplantation. Urinary copper excretion during penicillamine challenge mg twice daily. If moderate or severe cases and imply a less favorable for labor induc-tion and there may be difficult to eradicate. Without glasses, esotropic a. With glasses, well-aligned at distance b, and c. Albicans ...
Less than of the forehead. Conducted a large matrix of it must be obtained as basic screening tests, is presented in figure. Ent ent exam is searching for the need for palpation assessment of trauma, the ottawa knee rule in or rule out malrotation and possible waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome, stress-dose hydrocortisone at least a week old and the development phase of respiration. Increased systemic venous return. The qualities of professionalism. Pediatrics ee, . National high blood pressure in pregnancy. E ease relative palpable freedom of motion. Therefore, if consultation is required. The affected eye should begin with and without neck pain considers the patients family and primary care and use of antibiotics in the central nervous system changes reported after ignition of a material under constant influence from the corresponding arteries. Take up to seconds followed by a distinct pincer grasp is present in the course of the osteopathic treatment techniques generated by the osteopathic, the ...
Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency especially meningococcus meningitis which can cause rapid deterioration of the patient. Consider it if a sudden onset of the classical triad is accompanied by high fever and the signs of a very sick child. Meningococcal meningitis may be accompanied by a petechial rash and septic shock (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome).. Anisha Bahra & Katia Cikurel, Neurology, 19991 ...
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During the past decade, ultrasound has become a routine diagnostic tool for the evaluation of soft tissue structures in the abdominal cavity. One consequence of abdominal ultrasound is the unexpected finding of a seemingly incidental adrenal mass. There are many factors that determine how aggressive the diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be toward an adrenal mass, including the severity of concurrent problems, the original reason for performing abdominal ultrasound, the age of the dog or cat, the likelihood that the mass is hormonally active, the likelihood that the mass is a malignant or benign tumor, the size and invasiveness of the mass, and the owners desires and willingness to pursue the problem. The first consideration is to be certain an adrenal mass exists. Abdominal ultrasound should always be repeated to confirm the mass is a repeatable finding. An adrenal mass is suspected when the maximum width of the adrenal gland exceeds 1.5 cm, there is loss of the typical kidney bean ...
Adrenal gland disease is, unfortunately, a common disease of pet ferrets in the United States. Most affected ferrets are older than 2 years. While the exact cause of this condition has not been determined, it is believed that spaying and neutering ferrets at an early age plays a role. This is problematic because failing to spay females can result in life-threatening illness, while neutering males reduces odor and aggression. Removal of the testes or ovaries removes hormonal influences that appear to affect the adrenal gland. In the absence of these influences, the adrenal glands may overproduce several sex hormones, causing a variety of clinical signs. In some cases, the overactive gland can eventually become cancerous. Genetics may also play a role in the development of adrenal gland disease.. Read More ...
I have a feeling that if I polled my Hypothyroid Mom readers that the vast majority have adrenal dysfunction. The key to hypothyroidism health that so often gets missed.
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A case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia.: We report a case of unilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal medulla. The patient showed clinical features sug
Adrenal crisis is a cant-miss diagnosis. Prompt identification and proper management will generally lead to rapid improvement. The most important
Emergency department care includes the following: Maintain airway, breathing, and circulation in patients with adrenal crisis. Use coma protocol (ie, glucose, thiamine, naloxone). Use aggressive vo... more
BAY-60-7550 is a potent PDE2 inhibitor with IC50 values of 2.0 nM (bovine) and 4.7 nM (human). BAY-60-7550 antagonizes oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavioral effects in mice by increasing cGMP signaling. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels. These second messengers play important regulatory roles in controlling steroidogenesis in the adrenal. Disruption of PDEs has been associated with a number of adrenal diseases
Diseases of the adrenal glands. Die Gallensteine, in: Deutsche Klnik, Bd. 5, 105 - Gallstones. Ausgewählte Kapitel der ... He specialized in disorders of the blood, circulatory system, liver and adrenal glands, and was considered an excellent ...
Puberty Adrenarche Adrenal gland Tanner staging Hirsutism Ferriman-Gallwey score Auchus, Richard J.; Rainey, William E. (2004- ... 03-01). "Adrenarche - physiology, biochemistry and human disease". Clinical Endocrinology. 60 (3): 288-296. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... Axillary hair goes through 4 stages of development, driven by weak androgens produced by the adrenal in males and females ...
In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion, in the heart and vasculature ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Kumar, Abbas; Fausto, Aster (2010). "11". Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 493 ... 866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ... adrenal glands, the heart, vasculature and nervous system, and have a variety of functions, including local cardiovascular ...
Adrenal glands of female fetuses with CAH begin producing excess testosterone by the 9th week of gestation. The most important ... Since CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, most children with CAH are born to parents unaware of the risk and with no family ... Testicular adrenal rest tumors[edit]. Infertility observed in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been ... 2007). "Testicular adrenal rest tumors and Leydig and Sertoli cell function in boys with classical congenital adrenal ...
The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone. Atrophy of the breasts can occur ... or diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ... There are many diseases and conditions which cause atrophy of muscle mass. For example, diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce ... When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support due to other disease, it is termed pathological atrophy, ...
Addison's disease Adrenal gland Hyperaldosteronism Pseudohypoaldosteronism Becker, Kenneth L. (2001). Principles and practice ... The two hormones are both produced by the adrenals.) There are several causes for this condition, including adrenal ... Aldosterone synthase deficiency Secondary Aldosterone deficiency Secondary adrenal insufficiency Diseases of the pituitary or ... Primary Aldosterone deficiency Primary adrenal insufficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21 and 11β but not 17) ...
... is a group of inherited conditions in which the adrenal glands, which are small glands located on ... It is unclear how common these diseases are. All together they appear to make up less than 1% of cases of hyperaldosteronism. ... In the adrenal glands, the flow of ions through potassium channels produced from the KCNJ5 gene is thought to help regulate the ... In most individuals with familial hyperaldosteronism type III, the adrenal glands are enlarged up to six times their normal ...
... is in the adrenal glands. This occurs in 40% of localized tumors and in 60% of cases of widespread disease. Neuroblastoma can ... Stage L1: Localized disease without image-defined risk factors.. *Stage L2: Localized disease with image-defined risk factors. ... It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine.[1] ... Low-risk disease in babies typically has a good outcome with surgery or simply observation.[4] In high-risk disease, chances of ...
... failure of the adrenal glands and eventually death. Alport syndrome; glomerulonephritis, endstage kidney disease, and hearing ... Fabry disease; A lysosomal storage disease causing anhidrosis, fatigue, angiokeratomas, burning extremity pain and ocular ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX2-3); disorder of nerves (neuropathy) that is characterized by loss of muscle tissue and touch ... It was once thought to be the "royal disease" found in the descendants of Queen Victoria. This is now known to have been ...
For the disease affecting the adrenal glands, see Addison's disease.. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1 (1): 17. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-17. PMC 1513194. PMID 16722557.. ... Tamparo, Carol (2016). Diseases of the Human Body. F.A. Davis. p. 295. ISBN 9780803657915. . Archived from the original on 2016 ... Professional guide to diseases (9 ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009. p. 502. ISBN ...
Highest expression occurs within the prostate, trachea, uterus, small intestine, placenta, thyroid, salivary gland, and adrenal ... TMCO4 interacts with other proteins known to play a role in cancer development, hinting at a possible role in the disease of ... TMCO4 is not currently directly linked to any disease or phenotype. However, interacting with a VEGF receptor may be indicative ... gland. Expression of TMCO4 is predicted to be controlled by many transcription factors. ...
Hypoadrenocorticism also known as Addison's disease, it affects the adrenal glands and is essentially the opposite to Cushing's ... This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.[74]. Non-immune specific conditions[edit]. Other non-immune ... Immune-mediated endocrine diseases[edit]. In addition to these there are also the immune-mediated endocrine diseases with a ... Autoimmune diseases[edit]. There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, ...
Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system. Viral diseases include canine ... respiratory diseases such as SARS and human influenza, airway physiology, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease. Because ... Most pet ferrets in the US are sold de-scented (anal glands removed). In many other parts of the world, including the UK and ... As with skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell is much less potent and ...
Adrenal disease, a growth of the adrenal glands that can be either hyperplasia or cancer, is most often diagnosed by signs like ... It has also been suggested that there may be a hereditary component to adrenal disease. Adrenal disease is usually detected ... Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system. Viral diseases include canine ... which treat the symptoms but not the disease itself, and/or hormone therapy. The causes of adrenal disease are as yet uncertain ...
... adrenal glands, thymus, gallbladder, and thyroid; Hirschsprung's disease; gastric reflux, imperforate anus, retention testis, ... 13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disease caused by the deletion of some or all of the large arm of human chromosome 13. ... Congenital heart disease is associated with 13q deletion syndrome. Common defects include atrial septal defect, tetralogy of ...
This prescription drug works by stopping the production of cortisol in the adrenal glands. In studies of the drug, the most ... The only previous treatment for the disease was the use of Mitotane (brand name Lysodren) off-label. It has been used as a ... Trilostane should not be given to a dog that: has kidney or liver disease; takes certain medications used to treat heart ... PDF) "Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 April 2011. "Anipryl consumer ...
MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... Specific diseases[edit]. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient ... with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer.[2] The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 5: 11. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-5-11. ISSN 1750-1172. PMC 2893117. PMID 20492708.. ...
866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1- ... Kumar, Abbas; Fausto, Aster (2010). "11". Pathologic Basis of Disease (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-4160- ... In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion; in the heart and vasculature ... Locally expressed renin-angiotensin systems have been found in a number of tissues, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, the ...
... which is secreted by the adrenal gland. The high concentrations of aldosterone may be due directly to a disorder of the adrenal ... Persistently increased blood pressure may also be due to kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. When a cause is not readily ... Diagnostic imaging, usually beginning with abdominal ultrasound, may identify that one or both adrenal glands are enlarged. ... gland (primary hyperadlosteronism), or due to something outside of the adrenal gland causing it to secrete excessive ...
Surgery of the kidney, ureter and the adrenal glands); Enke, Stuttgart 1896-1902, 2.Bd. Geschichte der neueren deutschen ... He is credited for developing the foundation of modern radical mastoidectomy for treatment of chronic ear disease. Küster's ...
... the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands. Surgery of the ... DIseases of the endocrine pancreas occur very infrequently; these include insulinomas, gastrinomas etc. Surgery for these ... adrenalectomy, i.e. surgical removal of the adrenal gland is done in conditions like Conn syndrome, pheochromocytoma, adreno- ... Endocrine surgery is a surgical sub-speciality focusing on surgery of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland, ...
Addison's disease (typically an autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands) may also be seen in individuals with vitiligo. An ... Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac disease. Among the inflammatory ... Descriptions of a disease believed to be vitiligo date back to a passage in the medical text Ebers Papyrus circa 1500 BC in ... It is much more stable/static in course and its association with autoimmune diseases appears to be weaker than that of ...
These include renal artery stenosis and tumors (generally nonmalignant) of the adrenal glands, e.g., Conn's syndrome (primary ... As opposed to disease states of primary excesses of aldosterone, blood pressure is either normal or low in Bartter's or ... Disease states that lead to abnormally high aldosterone levels can cause hypertension and excessive urinary losses of potassium ...
It is most significantly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and adrenal gland and cortex tissue. Michael S. Brown and ... The LDLR gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The LDLR gene resides on ... July 2014). "Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... and a genetic disease". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (9): 2826-30. doi: ...
Erythrocytosis is common in regions of the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, lung, thymus, and central nervous system (as well as ... The following diseases manifest by means of endocrine dysfunction: Cushing syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic ... The root cause is extremely difficult to identify for paraneoplastic syndrome, as there are so many ways the disease can ... Research suggests that patients who are treated with ICIs are more susceptible to CNS disease (since the mechanism of ICIs ...
... and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers high levels of inflammatory chemical signals and leads to a septic ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... "About Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. ... "Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 5 November 2014. Archived from the ...
Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Melanosis. Hyperpigmentation. Pigmentation Disorders. Skin Diseases. ... Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Genital Neoplasms, Male. Urogenital Neoplasms. Genital Diseases, Male. Testicular ... TAB,Distinct microscopic changes of both adrenal glands. PPNAD can be associated with tumors (myxomas) of the skin, heart, ... Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism ...
... s disease. Breeders have noted a familial tendency of Addison\s disease suggesting a genetic basis to the disorder. Our ... The second objective is to determine if Addison\s disease in the Standard Poodle, West Highland White Terrier, Portuguese ... s disease is a late onset disorder caused by the deterioration of the adrenal gland. Addison\s occurs in the domestic dog at ... Addisons disease is a late onset disorder caused by the deterioration of the adrenal gland. Addisons occurs in the domestic ...
This gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland.. This disease may also happen after long term corticosteroids are ... Addison disease is problem with the adrenal glands. They make hormones that help the body with blood pressure, metabolism, and ... Adrenal insufficiency and Addisons disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. ... Primary Addison disease is caused by problems with the outer layer of the gland. This can happen slowly over time. ...
In autoimmune Addison disease, the immune system attacks the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located ... In autoimmune Addison disease, however, an immune response is triggered by a normal adrenal gland protein; in about 85 percent ... The prolonged immune attack triggered by 21-hydroxylase damages the adrenal glands (specifically the outer layers of the glands ... 21-hydroxylase is found in the adrenal glands where it plays a key role in producing a variety of hormones that regulate many ...
Addison disease is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. ... Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... The pituitary gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland is damaged it will affect the adrenal ... Primary Addison disease is caused by damage to the outer layer of the adrenal gland. This damage can happen slowly overtime for ...
Learn more about Addison Disease at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk ... Addison disease is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. ... Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... The pituitary gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland is damaged it will affect the adrenal ...
In some cases, the adrenal glands also dont produce enough of two other hormones. Heres what you can do at home to care for ... Addison disease occurs when your adrenal glands dont make enough of the hormone cortisol. ... When You Have Addison Disease You have been diagnosed with Addison disease. Your adrenal glands dont make enough of the ... This disease is also called adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism. A flare-up is called an Addisonian crisis or an adrenal ...
Isolated Adrenal Myelolipoma *Myelolipomas occurring in an otherwise normal adrenal gland. *Most common pattern of presentation ... Adrenal Myelolipoma with Associated Adrenal Disease *Associated with endorcrine disorder *Hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) ... Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. It mainly consists of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid ... Extra-adrenal Myelolipoma *Myelolipomas occurring outside the adrenal gland *Retroperitoneum (presacral or perirenal) ...
DNA methylationEpigeneticsAutoimmunityAutoimmune Addisons DiseaseAdrenal gland Collections. * Department of Biomedicine 282 ... Autoimmune Addisons Disease (AAD) is an endocrine and immunological disease of uncertain pathogenesis resulting from the ... Altered DNA methylation profile in Norwegian patients with Autoimmune Addisons Disease. Type. Journal article ... immune systems destruction of the hormone producing cells of the adrenal cortex. The underlying molecular mechanisms are ...
... from other types of adrenal insufficiency in that the primary problem comes from the inability of the adrenal glands to produce ... Addison disease: blood chemistry. Definition. Addisons disease, or primary adrenal insufficiency, is distinguished ... of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. The most common cause of Addisons disease is idiopathic adrenal insufficiency ... Patients with adrenal insufficiency demonstrate no or little adrenal response.. Patients on chronic steroids therapy can also ...
... or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). Primary adrenocortical neoplasia has been diagnosed in 10 to ... and the right and left glands appear to be involved with equal frequency. Bilateral adrenocortical tumors resulting in ... occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal ...
... such as Cushings Syndrome and Addisons Disease, happen when your glands make too much or not enough hormones. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Gland Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Hyperplasia, ... Adrenal Insufficiency (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish * Adrenal Insufficiency and Addisons Disease (National ... Adrenal Surgery (American Association of Endocrine Surgeons) * Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal (Society of American ...
Adrenal insufficiency, for example, was associated with a 35-45% maternal mortality rat... ... Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperaldosteronism-can reduce female fertility or severely ... Adrenal disease-including disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), ... encoded search term (Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy) and Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy What to Read Next on Medscape ...
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What is Addisons disease?. Addisons disease is the result of an underactive adrenal gland. An underactive adrenal gland ... Onset of this disease may occur at any age.. What causes Addisons disease?. Destruction of the adrenal gland due to an ... Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addisons Disease. Fact Lack of corticosteroids in the blood may cause the pituitary gland to ... How is Addisons disease treated?. The goal of treatment is to restore the adrenal glands to normal function, producing normal ...
Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are endocrine glands. This means they secrete hormones into the blood. Hormones are secreted ... Addisons Disease. With Cushings syndrome, there is too much hormone being secreted by the adrenal glands. With Addisons ... The adrenal gland is destroyed due to an autoimmune disease and requires hormone pills for the rest of life. ... In this lesson, you will learn about disorders of the adrenal glands, including Addisons disease and Cushings syndrome, as ...
Adrenal Gland Disease Adrenal Gland Tumors Adrenal Glands in Humans Diseases of the Adrenal Gland ... Diseases of the Adrenal Glands. Health. The adrenal glands are small, endocrine organs located just above each kidney. They are ... The disease is caused by a tumor, or by an enlargement of the adrenal gland due to another disease process, such as cirrhosis ... Two of the major hormones secreted by the adrenal glands are cortisol and aldosterone. With Addisons disease, the adrenals are ...
Serum Inhibin Concentration in Dogs with Adrenal Gland Disease and in Healthy Dogs. / Brömel, C.; Nelson, Richard W; Feldman, ... Serum Inhibin Concentration in Dogs with Adrenal Gland Disease and in Healthy Dogs. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine ... Serum Inhibin Concentration in Dogs with Adrenal Gland Disease and in Healthy Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. ... Objective: To determine serum inhibin concentration in dogs with adrenal gland disease and in healthy dogs. Animals: Forty- ...
There are two adrenal glands, one sitting on top of each of the kidneys [1]. They are pyramidal in shape and weigh about 4 g ... A disease that might result in a loss of mineralcorticoid function is Addisons disease. In Addisons disease, the adrenals are ... Adrenal Gland Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Adrenal Gland. The adrenal glands are located on the upper pole of ... Outer layer of the adrenal gland that produces steroid hormones.. Adrenal medulla- Inner layer of the adrenal gland that ...
... The benign masses of adrenal glands are called as adrenal adenomas. Adrenal ... Both adrenal glands enlarge in this disease. The treatment is surgery for pituitary gland or irradiation. If patients disease ... 10% of them are genetic and the disease is localized in both adrenal glands. ... In some patients, both adrenal glands enlarge and release cortisol by the stimulation of a tumor in pituitary gland. ...
Find best Adrenal Gland Diseases Treatment Doctors in Hanumangarh. Book appointments with expert doctors based on your medical ... The disorder of adrenal glands occurs due to infections, tumors or genetic mutation.. Some of the symptoms of Adrenal Gland ... Adrenal Glands are small glands located on top of kidneys, responsible for producing hormones that control many important ... Adrenal gland disorder occurs when the glands start to dysfunction producing either too little hormone or excess hormones. ...
Adrenal Gland Burn Out debbiewil replied to rachelleks topic in Celiac Disease - Coping With ... Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease? Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease ... Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease ... Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease 09/30/2015 This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the ...
Diagnosis is based on clinical history, focusing primarily on the use of medications or presence of diseases that could ... When hyponatremia is present, primary adrenal insufficiency should be suspected. Most frequent causes include:. 1) Primary ... 1) Primary hypoaldosteronism: see Primary Adrenal Insufficiency.. 2) Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism: Potassium restriction, ... Hypoaldosteronism can be caused by defective stimulation of aldosterone secretion, primary defects in adrenal synthesis or ...
It grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. A pheochromocytoma causes the adrenal glands to make too much of the hormones ... This whole-body scan can show if the disease is spreading. It can show if you have disease in other parts of your body. ... It grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. Your body has 2 adrenal glands. They are found on top of each kidney. Each layer of ... A pheochromocytoma is a tumor in the adrenal gland. It causes the gland to make too much of the hormones epinephrine and ...
Adrenal morphology of 21OH− mice showed lack of zonation, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adrenocortical mitochondria with ... 21OH activity measured in adrenal tissue increased from undetectable to levels found in wild-type mice 2 to 7 days after ... This is the first demonstration that a single intra-adrenal injection of an adenoviral vector encoding CYP21 can compensate for ... Intra-adrenal injection of hAdCYP21 in 21OH− mice induced hCYP21 mRNA with the highest expression from 2 to 7 days before a ...
  • Loss of hormones produced by the adrenal glands leads to the features of the condition, which include extreme tiredness (fatigue), nausea, low blood pressure (hypotension), and abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction such as the armpits, elbows, and knuckles. (nih.gov)
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