Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
"Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or health of the salivary glands, leading to symptoms such as dry mouth, swelling, pain, and abnormal secretions."
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).
Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
Eyelid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or appearance of the eyelids, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, congenital, and traumatic disorders, which can impact vision, comfort, and overall ocular health.
Submandibular Gland Diseases refer to a group of medical conditions affecting the structure and function of the submandibular glands, leading to symptoms such as swelling, pain, difficulty swallowing, and reduced saliva production.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, a crucial step in the synthesis of catecholamines within the adrenal glands and central nervous system.
A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.

In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man. (1/202)

Dopamine receptors type 2 (D2)-like receptor blockers cause an increase in the norepinephrine response to intense physical exercise. However, during intense physical exercise, D2-like antagonists also cause an increase in the epinephrine response, which itself might cause an increase in plasma norepinephrine through the activation of beta2 presynaptic receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of domperidone, a D2-like antagonist, on the norepinephrine response to physical exercise in 6 Addison patients (3 were adrenalectomized and 3 had adrenal tuberculosis). In these patients, the norepinephrine increase observed during exercise was significantly higher after the administration of domperidone than a placebo (F=4,328; P<0.001). Because peripheral plasma norepinephrine does not reflect the sympathetic tone to the heart accurately, we evaluated the effect of domperidone administration (20 mg orally) on the sympathovagal balance, which was measured by the ratio between the high- and low-frequency components of heart rate variability, in 9 normal volunteers in the supine and sitting positions. When compared with placebo, domperidone caused a significant increase in the low/high frequency ratio (P<0.05) in the sitting position without modifying basal and stimulated norepinephrine plasma levels or blood pressure. These data support a role for endogenous dopamine in modulating norepinephrine release by human sympathetic nerves in vivo.  (+info)

Traumatic adrenal injury in children. (2/202)

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past. OBJECTIVES: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident. METHODS: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury. RESULTS: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma.  (+info)

A case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. (3/202)

A low plasma ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and an exaggerated and delayed plasma ACTH response to CRH stimulation have been considered as an indicator of hypothalamic hypopituitarism. We report a case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency which manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. This case provides important information to categorize hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency caused by abnormal regulation of CRH release.  (+info)

Apparently normal ovarian differentiation in a prepubertal girl with transcriptionally inactive steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) and adrenocortical insufficiency. (4/202)

Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) plays an essential role in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, controlling expression of their many important genes. The recent description of a 46,XY patient bearing a mutation in the NR5A1 gene, causing male pseudohermaphroditism and adrenal failure, demonstrated the crucial role of SF-1 in male gonadal differentiation. The role of SF-1 in human ovarian development was, until now, unknown. We describe a phenotypically and genotypically normal girl, with signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and no apparent defect in ovarian maturation, bearing a heterozygote G-->T transversion in exon 4 of the NR5A1 gene that leads to the missense R255L in the SF-1 protein. The exchange does not interfere with protein translation and stability. Consistent with the clinical picture, R255L is transcriptionally inactive and has no dominant-negative activity. The inability of the mutant (MUT) NR5A1/SF-1 to bind canonical DNA sequences might offer a possible explanation for the failure of the mutant protein to transactivate target genes. This is the first report of a mutation in the NR5A1 gene in a genotypically female patient, and it suggests that NR5A1/SF-1 is not necessary for female gonadal development, confirming the crucial role of NR5A1/SF-1 in adrenal gland formation in both sexes.  (+info)

Endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 111 consecutive cases. (5/202)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (ERA). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice for benign adrenal pathology. Although the adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum, most surgeons prefer the transperitoneal laparoscopic approach to adrenal tumors. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 111 ERAs from January 1994 to December 1999 were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients underwent 111 ERAs (79 unilateral, 16 bilateral). Indications were Cushing syndrome (n = 22), Cushing disease (n = 8), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (n = 6), Conn's adenoma (n = 25), pheochromocytoma (n = 19), incidentaloma (n = 11), and other (n = 4). Tumor size varied from 0.1 to 8 cm. Median age was 50 years. Unilateral ERA required 114 minutes, with median blood loss of 65 mL. Bilateral ERA lasted 214 minutes, with median blood loss of 121 mL. The conversion rate to open surgery was 4.5%. The complication rate was 11%. Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days for unilateral ERA and 5 days for bilateral ERA. The death rate was 0.9%. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the recurrence rate of disease was 0.9%. CONCLUSION: For benign adrenal tumors less than 6 cm, ERA is recommended.  (+info)

Evaluation of incidental renal and adrenal masses. (6/202)

Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and cost-efficient means of evaluating renal lesions combines ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning, with close communication between the family physician and the radiologist. Asymptomatic patients with simple renal cysts require no further evaluation. Patients with minimally complicated renal cysts can be followed radiographically. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in patients with indeterminate renal masses, and referral is required in patients with symptoms or solid masses. The need for referral of patients with adrenal masses is determined by careful assessment of clinical signs and symptoms, as well as the results of screening laboratory studies and appropriate radiologic studies. Referral is indicated for patients with incidental adrenal masses more than 6 cm in greatest diameter. Appropriate laboratory screening tests include the following: a 24-hour urinary free cortisol measurement for patients with evidence of Cushing's syndrome; a 24-hour urinary metanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid or catecholamine measurement for patients with evidence of pheochromocytoma; and a serum potassium level for patients with evidence of hyperaldosteronism.  (+info)

Adrenal gland: structure, function, and mechanisms of toxicity. (7/202)

The adrenal gland is one of the most common endocrine organs affected by chemically induced lesions. In the adrenal cortex, lesions are more frequent in the zona fasciculata and reticularis than in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones with a 17-carbon nucleus following a series of hydroxylation reactions that occur in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Toxic agents for the adrenal cortex include short-chain aliphatic compounds, lipidosis inducers, amphiphilic compounds, natural and synthetic steroids, and chemicals that affect hydroxylation. Morphologic evaluation of cortical lesions provides insight into the sites of inhibition of steroidogenesis. The adrenal cortex response to injury is varied. Degeneration (vacuolar and granular), necrosis, and hemorrhage are common findings of acute injury. In contrast, chronic reparative processes are typically atrophy, fibrosis, and nodular hyperplasia. Chemically induced proliferative lesions are uncommon in the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells (that produce epinephrine, norepinephrine, chromogranin, and neuropeptides) and ganglion cells. Proliferative lesions of the medulla are common in the rat and include diffuse or nodular hyperplasia and benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Mechanisms of chromaffin cell proliferation in rats include excess growth hormone or prolactin, stimulation of cholinergic nerves, and diet-induced hypercalcemia. There often are species specificity and age dependence in the development of chemically induced adrenal lesions that should be considered when interpreting toxicity data.  (+info)

New adrenal-scanning agent. (8/202)

A new adrenal-specific compound, 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(NCL-3-I), which is derived from 19-iodocholesterol (CL-19-I), has been found. Tissue distribution studies have revealed that the rat adrenal gland accumulates ten times more NCL-6-131-I than CL-19-131-I. The advantage of NCL-6-131-I as a possible adrenal-scanning agent is discussed.  (+info)

Adrenal gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function or structure of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are various types of adrenal gland diseases, some of which include:

1. Adrenal Insufficiency: A condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and skin hyperpigmentation.
2. Cushing's Syndrome: A condition characterized by an excess of cortisol in the body. It can be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, or it can result from long-term use of steroid medications.
3. Adrenal Cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and high blood pressure.
4. Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that develops in the adrenal glands and causes an overproduction of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Symptoms may include high blood pressure, headaches, sweating, and anxiety.
5. Adrenal Hemorrhage: A condition where bleeding occurs in the adrenal glands, often as a result of severe trauma or infection. This can lead to adrenal insufficiency and other complications.
6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: An inherited disorder that affects the production of cortisol and other hormones in the adrenal glands. Symptoms may include ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, and short stature.

Treatment for adrenal gland diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the mouth and throat. The major salivary glands include the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

There are several types of salivary gland diseases, including:

1. Salivary Gland Infections: These are usually caused by bacteria or viruses that infect the gland, ducts, or surrounding tissues. The most common infection is called sialadenitis, which can cause pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing.

2. Salivary Gland Stones (Sialolithiasis): These are small, hard deposits that form in the ducts of the salivary glands, causing blockages and leading to swelling, pain, and infection.

3. Salivary Gland Tumors: Both benign and malignant tumors can develop in the salivary glands. Benign tumors are usually slow-growing and cause localized swelling, while malignant tumors may be more aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

4. Salivary Gland Dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the production or flow of saliva, such as Sjogren's syndrome, radiation therapy, dehydration, or certain medications.

5. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions like Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis can affect the salivary glands and cause inflammation, dry mouth, and other symptoms.

6. Salivary Gland Trauma: Injuries to the face or neck can damage the salivary glands and lead to swelling, bleeding, or decreased function.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging studies, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or changes in medication or lifestyle.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Sebaceous gland diseases refer to conditions that affect the sebaceous glands, which are small glands in the skin that produce an oily substance called sebum. Sebum helps keep the skin and hair moisturized. Sebaceous gland diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including skin inflammation, redness, pain, and the formation of bumps or cysts.

Some common types of sebaceous gland diseases include:

1. Acne: A common skin condition that occurs when the hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells, leading to whiteheads, blackheads, or pimples.
2. Seborrheic dermatitis: A skin condition that causes red, itchy, and flaky skin, often on the scalp, face, or chest.
3. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, pimples, and visible blood vessels on the face.
4. Sebaceous hyperplasia: A benign growth of the sebaceous glands that appears as a small, yellowish bump on the skin.
5. Sebaceous adenitis: A rare inflammatory disease that affects the sebaceous glands, causing hair loss and scaly skin.
6. Sebaceous carcinoma: A rare and aggressive form of skin cancer that develops in the sebaceous glands.

Treatment for sebaceous gland diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatments may include topical or oral medications, light therapy, or surgical removal of affected tissue. It is important to consult a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Sweat gland diseases are medical conditions that affect the functioning or structure of sweat glands, leading to excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), lack of sweating (anhydrosis), or abnormal sweating (e.g., foul-smelling sweat). There are two main types of sweat glands in humans: eccrine glands, which produce a watery sweat that helps regulate body temperature, and apocrine glands, which are located in the armpits and groin and produce a thicker, milky sweat that can mix with bacteria on the skin and cause body odor.

Some examples of sweat gland diseases include:

1. Hidradenitis suppurativa: A chronic skin condition characterized by inflammation and infection of the apocrine glands, leading to the formation of abscesses, nodules, and sinus tracts.
2. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: A condition that causes excessive sweating in specific areas of the body, such as the armpits, hands, feet, or face, without any underlying medical cause.
3. Secondary generalized hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating that affects the entire body and is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or obesity.
4. Cystic adenoma of the axilla: A benign tumor that arises from the apocrine glands in the armpit.
5. Eccrine nevus: A rare congenital condition characterized by an increased number of eccrine glands in a localized area of the skin, leading to excessive sweating.
6. Fox-Fordyce disease: A chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the apocrine glands, causing itchy papules and pustules in the armpits and groin.
7. Pachyonychia congenita: A rare genetic disorder characterized by thickened nails, palmoplantar keratoderma, and abnormalities of the eccrine glands, leading to excessive sweating and odor production.

Dacryocystitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the lacrimal sac, which is a small sac-like structure located in the inner corner of the eye near the nose. The lacrimal sac is responsible for draining tears from the eye into the nasal cavity.

Dacryocystitis can occur as a result of an infection or obstruction in the tear drainage system, leading to the accumulation of tears and other debris in the lacrimal sac. This can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, pain, and tenderness in the affected area, as well as discharge from the eye or nose.

In some cases, dacryocystitis may be treated with antibiotics to clear up any infection. In more severe cases, surgery may be required to remove any blockages and improve tear drainage. If left untreated, dacryocystitis can lead to complications such as the formation of an abscess or damage to the eye.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The lacrimal apparatus is a complex system in the eye that produces, stores, and drains tears. It consists of several components including:

1. Lacrimal glands: These are located in the upper outer part of the eyelid and produce tears to keep the eye surface moist and protected from external agents.
2. Tear ducts (lacrimal canaliculi): These are small tubes that drain tears from the surface of the eye into the lacrimal sac.
3. Lacrimal sac: This is a small pouch-like structure located in the inner part of the eyelid, which collects tears from the tear ducts and drains them into the nasolacrimal duct.
4. Nasolacrimal duct: This is a tube that runs from the lacrimal sac to the nose and drains tears into the nasal cavity.

The lacrimal apparatus helps maintain the health and comfort of the eye by keeping it lubricated, protecting it from infection, and removing any foreign particles or debris.

Sialadenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the salivary gland. It can occur in any of the major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The inflammation may result from bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Acute sialadenitis is often caused by bacterial infections and can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. Chronic sialadenitis, on the other hand, may be caused by recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders like Sjogren's syndrome, or stones in the salivary ducts. Symptoms of chronic sialadenitis can include intermittent swelling, pain, and dry mouth.

Treatment for sialadenitis depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, hydration, and massage of the salivary glands. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove obstructions or damaged tissue in the salivary gland.

Eyelid diseases refer to a variety of medical conditions that affect the function and/or appearance of the eyelids. These can include structural abnormalities, such as entropion (inward turning of the eyelid) or ectropion (outward turning of the eyelid), as well as functional issues like ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid). Other common eyelid diseases include blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margin), chalazion (a blocked oil gland in the eyelid), and cancerous or benign growths on the eyelid. Symptoms of eyelid diseases can vary widely, but often include redness, swelling, pain, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific diagnosis and may range from self-care measures and medications to surgical intervention.

Submandibular gland diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the function or structure of the submandibular glands, which are salivary glands located beneath the jaw and produce saliva. These diseases can be categorized into inflammatory, infectious, obstructive, neoplastic (benign or malignant), and autoimmune disorders.

Some common submandibular gland diseases include:

1. Submandibular sialadenitis: Inflammation of the submandibular gland due to bacterial or viral infections, stones, or autoimmune conditions.
2. Salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis): Calcified deposits that obstruct the ducts leading from the submandibular gland, causing swelling and pain, especially during meals.
3. Submandibular gland tumors: Abnormal growths in the submandibular gland, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors may invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
4. Sjögren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to dry mouth and eyes.
5. IgG4-related disease: A systemic inflammatory condition characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into various organs, including the submandibular gland, causing swelling and damage.
6. Mikulicz's disease: A rare benign lymphoepithelial lesion that affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to enlargement and dryness of the affected glands.
7. Salivary gland dysfunction: Reduced or impaired saliva production due to aging, medications, radiation therapy, or systemic diseases, which can affect the submandibular gland.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of submandibular gland diseases require a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy or surgical intervention.

Meibomian glands are sebaceous glands located in the eyelids, specifically at the rim of the eyelid near the lashes. They produce an oily substance called meibum that forms the outermost layer of the tear film, helping to prevent evaporation and keep the eye surface lubricated. The Meibomian glands play a crucial role in maintaining the health and comfort of the eyes by providing stability to the tear film and protecting the eye from irritants and dryness.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It is responsible for producing and releasing hormones such as epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). These hormones play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, preparing the body for immediate action in response to stress.

Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while also increasing blood flow to muscles and decreasing blood flow to the skin and digestive system. Norepinephrine has similar effects but is generally less potent than epinephrine. Together, these hormones help to prepare the body for physical activity and increase alertness and focus.

Disorders of the adrenal medulla can lead to a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, anxiety, and tremors. Some conditions that affect the adrenal medulla include pheochromocytoma, a tumor that causes excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and neuroblastoma, a cancerous tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the adrenal gland.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Exocrine glands are a type of gland in the human body that produce and release substances through ducts onto an external or internal surface. These glands are responsible for secreting various substances such as enzymes, hormones, and lubricants that help in digestion, protection, and other bodily functions.

Exocrine glands can be further classified into three types based on their mode of secretion:

1. Merocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by exocytosis, where the secretory product is enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents outside the cell. Examples include sweat glands and mucous glands.
2. Apocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by pinching off a portion of the cytoplasm along with the secretory product. An example is the apocrine sweat gland found in the armpits and genital area.
3. Holocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by disintegrating and releasing the entire cell, including its organelles and secretory products. An example is the sebaceous gland found in the skin, which releases an oily substance called sebum.

The submandibular glands are one of the major salivary glands in the human body. They are located beneath the mandible (jawbone) and produce saliva that helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the oral cavity. The saliva produced by the submandibular glands contains enzymes like amylase and mucin, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates and provide moisture to the mouth and throat. Any medical condition or disease that affects the submandibular gland may impact its function and could lead to problems such as dry mouth (xerostomia), swelling, pain, or infection.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

The splanchnic nerves are a set of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and innervate various internal organs. They are responsible for carrying both sensory information, such as pain and temperature, from the organs to the brain, and motor signals, which control the function of the organs, from the brain to the organs.

There are several splanchnic nerves, including the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves, as well as the lumbar splanchnic nerves. These nerves primarily innervate the autonomic nervous system, which controls the involuntary functions of the body, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

The greater splanchnic nerve arises from the fifth to the ninth thoracic ganglia and passes through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. It innervates the stomach, esophagus, liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands.

The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the tenth and eleventh thoracic ganglia and innervates the upper part of the small intestine, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands.

The least splanchnic nerve arises from the twelfth thoracic ganglion and innervates the lower part of the small intestine and the colon.

The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the first three or four lumbar ganglia and innervate the lower parts of the colon, the rectum, and the reproductive organs.

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

The Zona Fasciculata is a region within the adrenal gland, which is a small gland located on top of the kidneys. It plays an essential role in endocrine function. The adrenal gland is divided into two main parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex itself is further divided into three zones: the Zona Glomerulosa, the Zona Fasciculata, and the Zona Reticularis.

The Zona Fasciculata is the middle layer of the adrenal cortex. It is primarily responsible for producing and releasing steroid hormones, particularly glucocorticoids such as cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, among other functions. The Zona Fasciculata contains large, column-shaped cells called fasciculated cells that contain lipid droplets filled with cholesterol esters. These cells convert cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is then converted into cortisol through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, the Zona Fasciculata is a crucial region within the adrenal gland that produces and releases cortisol, a vital glucocorticoid hormone involved in various physiological processes.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor that develops in the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney. These tumors produce excessive amounts of hormones called catecholamines, including adrenaline and noradrenaline. This can lead to a variety of symptoms such as high blood pressure, sweating, headaches, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.

Pheochromocytomas are typically slow-growing and can be benign or malignant (cancerous). While the exact cause of these tumors is not always known, some genetic factors have been identified that may increase a person's risk. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with medications to manage symptoms and control blood pressure before and after surgery.

Adrenal cortex diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the adrenal glands, which are small glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens that regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and sexual development.

Diseases of the adrenal cortex can result from an overproduction or underproduction of these hormones. Some common adrenal cortex diseases include:

1. Addison's disease: a condition characterized by insufficient production of hormones by the adrenal glands, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin.
2. Cushing's syndrome: a condition caused by an excess of cortisol in the body, which can result from taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or from a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands. Symptoms include weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, muscle weakness, and mood changes.
3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a group of inherited disorders that affect the production of hormones by the adrenal glands. Depending on the specific type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, symptoms can range from ambiguous genitalia in newborns to precocious puberty, short stature, and infertility in older children and adults.
4. Adrenal tumors: benign or cancerous growths that develop in the adrenal glands and can cause hormonal imbalances. Symptoms depend on the type of tumor and the hormones it produces.

Treatment for adrenal cortex diseases depends on the specific condition and its underlying cause. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

The zona reticularis is a layer of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal gland. These glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing several important hormones. The adrenal cortex itself has three distinct layers: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis.

The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for producing and releasing certain steroid hormones, particularly androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). These androgens are precursor hormones that can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in other parts of the body. The zona reticularis plays a crucial role in sexual development and function, as well as maintaining overall health and well-being.

Disorders related to the zona reticularis may result in abnormal hormone production, leading to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing's syndrome, or Addison's disease. Proper diagnosis and treatment of these disorders typically involve endocrinologists, healthcare professionals specializing in hormonal and metabolic disorders.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

Adrenocortical hyperfunction, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a condition characterized by the overproduction of cortisol hormone from the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress.

In Adrenocortical hyperfunction, the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol, leading to a range of symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, muscle weakness, mood changes, and high blood pressure. The condition can be caused by several factors, including tumors in the pituitary gland or adrenal glands, long-term use of corticosteroid medications, or genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands.

Treatment for Adrenocortical hyperfunction depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include surgery to remove tumors, medication to reduce cortisol production, or radiation therapy. It is essential to diagnose and treat this condition promptly, as long-term exposure to high levels of cortisol can lead to serious health complications such as diabetes, osteoporosis, and heart disease.

Sebaceous glands are microscopic, exocrine glands that are found in the dermis of mammalian skin. They are attached to hair follicles and produce an oily substance called sebum, which is composed of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells (fatty acids, cholesterol). Sebum is released through a duct onto the surface of the skin, where it forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent water loss, keeps the skin and hair moisturized, and has antibacterial properties.

Sebaceous glands are distributed throughout the body, but they are most numerous on the face, scalp, and upper trunk. They can also be found in other areas of the body such as the eyelids (where they are known as meibomian glands), the external ear canal, and the genital area.

Abnormalities in sebaceous gland function can lead to various skin conditions, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and certain types of skin cancer.

Chromaffin cells are specialized neuroendocrine cells that are responsible for the synthesis and release of catecholamines, which are hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These cells are located in the medulla of the adrenal gland and in some autonomic ganglia outside the central nervous system. Chromaffin cells contain secretory granules that stain brown with chromium salts, hence their name. They play a crucial role in the body's response to stress by releasing catecholamines into the bloodstream, which helps prepare the body for the "fight or flight" response.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The Harderian gland is a specialized exocrine gland located in many vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. In humans, it is rudimentary and not fully developed. However, in other animals like rodents, lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), and some reptiles, this gland plays a significant role.

The Harderian gland is primarily responsible for producing and secreting lipids, which help to lubricate the eye's surface and the nictitating membrane (third eyelid). This lubrication ensures that the eyes remain moist and protected from dryness and external irritants. Additionally, the secretions of the Harderian gland contain immunoglobulins, which contribute to the animal's immune defense system by providing protection against pathogens.

In some animals, the Harderian gland also has a role in pheromone production and communication. The study and understanding of this gland are particularly important in toxicological research, as it is often used as an indicator of environmental pollutant exposure and their effects on wildlife.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Adosterol" is not a recognized term in medical or scientific literature. It's possible that there may be a spelling mistake or it could be a term used only within a specific context, such as a code name in a research study. If you have more information about where this term was used, I might be able to provide a more accurate response. However, without additional context, I can't provide a medical definition for "Adosterol".

The chromaffin system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that consists of specialized cells called chromaffin cells. These cells are found in two main locations: the adrenal medulla, which is the inner portion of the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys; and scattered throughout various nerve ganglia along the sympathetic trunk, a chain of ganglia that runs parallel to the spinal cord.

Chromaffin cells are responsible for synthesizing, storing, and releasing catecholamines, which are hormones and neurotransmitters that help regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. The most well-known catecholamines are adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which are released in response to stress or excitement.

The term "chromaffin" refers to the ability of these cells to take up chromium salts and produce a brown coloration, which is why they are called chromaffin cells. The chromaffin system plays an important role in the body's fight-or-flight response, helping to prepare the body for immediate action in response to perceived threats or stressors.

Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also known as CYP21A2, is a crucial enzyme involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland. Specifically, it catalyzes the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol and progesterone to deoxycorticosterone in the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid pathways, respectively.

Deficiency or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a group of genetic disorders called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is characterized by impaired cortisol production and disrupted hormonal balance. Depending on the severity of the deficiency, CAH can result in various symptoms such as ambiguous genitalia, precocious puberty, sexual infantilism, infertility, and increased risk of adrenal crisis.

Cosyntropin is a synthetic form of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is used in medical testing to assess the function of the adrenal glands. ACTH is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands.

Cosyntropin is typically administered as an injection, and its effects on cortisol production are measured through blood tests taken at various time points after administration. This test, known as a cosyntropin stimulation test or ACTH stimulation test, can help diagnose conditions that affect the adrenal glands, such as Addison's disease or adrenal insufficiency.

It is important to note that while cosyntropin is a synthetic form of ACTH, it is not identical to the natural hormone and may have slightly different effects on the body. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Zona glomerulosa is a region of the adrenal gland, specifically the outer portion of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for producing mineralocorticoids, with the principal one being aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body by increasing the reabsorption of sodium ions and water in the distal nephron of the kidney while promoting the excretion of potassium ions. This process assists in maintaining blood pressure and volume within normal ranges. The zona glomerulosa's function is primarily under the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

Adrenal cortex function tests are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate the proper functioning of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing several essential hormones. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

There are several types of adrenal cortex function tests, including:

1. Cortisol testing: This test measures the levels of cortisol in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response.
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulation test: This test measures the adrenal gland's response to ACTH, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. The test involves administering synthetic ACTH and measuring cortisol levels before and after administration.
3. Aldosterone testing: This test measures the levels of aldosterone in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing adequate amounts of this hormone. Aldosterone helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
4. Dexamethasone suppression test: This test involves administering dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, to suppress cortisol production. The test measures cortisol levels before and after administration to determine if the adrenal glands are overproducing cortisol.
5. Androgen testing: This test measures the levels of androgens, such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), in the blood or urine to determine if the adrenal glands are producing excessive amounts of these hormones.

Abnormal results from adrenal cortex function tests may indicate conditions such as Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytoma.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the dysfunction and underproduction of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response, and immune system function.

The primary cause of Addison disease is the destruction of more than 90% of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands responsible for hormone production. This damage can be due to an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the adrenal gland tissue, infections such as tuberculosis or HIV, cancer, genetic disorders, or certain medications.

The symptoms of Addison disease often develop gradually and may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, low blood pressure, darkening of the skin, and mood changes. In some cases, an acute crisis known as acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis can occur, which is a medical emergency characterized by sudden and severe symptoms such as extreme weakness, confusion, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and coma.

Diagnosis of Addison disease typically involves blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs to assess the adrenal glands' size and structure, and stimulation tests to evaluate the adrenal glands' function. Treatment usually involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and sometimes mineralocorticoids. With proper treatment and management, individuals with Addison disease can lead normal and productive lives.

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that develops in the outer layer of the adrenal gland, known as the adrenal cortex. The adrenal glands are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. They produce important hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex steroids.

ACC is a malignant tumor that can invade surrounding tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Symptoms of ACC depend on the size and location of the tumor and whether it produces excess hormones. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, a mass in the abdomen, weight loss, and weakness. Excessive production of hormones can lead to additional symptoms such as high blood pressure, Cushing's syndrome, virilization (excessive masculinization), or feminization.

The exact cause of ACC is not known, but genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals, and radiation therapy may increase the risk of developing this cancer. Treatment options for ACC include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy. The prognosis for ACC varies depending on the stage and extent of the disease at diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health.

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of catecholamines, which are important neurotransmitters and hormones in the human body. Specifically, DBH converts dopamine into norepinephrine, another essential catecholamine.

DBH is primarily located in the adrenal glands and nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system. It requires molecular oxygen, copper ions, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) as cofactors to perform its enzymatic function. Deficiency or dysfunction of DBH can lead to various medical conditions, such as orthostatic hypotension and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Myelolipoma is a type of benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland, which is located on top of each kidney. This tumor is composed of both fatty tissue (lipoma) and cells that are similar to those found in the bone marrow (myeloid). Myelolipomas are usually small and asymptomatic, but they can grow larger and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, depending on their size and location.

Myelolipomas are rare tumors that typically affect middle-aged to older adults, with a slight female predominance. They are usually discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical conditions. In most cases, myelolipomas do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or grow large enough to pose a risk of bleeding or rupture. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for symptomatic or complicated myelolipomas.

Endocrine tuberculosis (TB) is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves the endocrine glands, such as the thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands. The infection can cause inflammation, granulomatous lesions, and tissue damage in these glands, leading to hormonal imbalances and various clinical manifestations.

Tuberculosis bacilli (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) reach the endocrine glands through hematogenous spread from a primary or secondary focus, usually in the lungs. The most common form of endocrine TB is adrenal TB, which can lead to adrenal insufficiency due to destruction of the adrenal cortex. Thyroid TB is rare and typically presents as a cold abscess or a thyroid mass. Pituitary TB is also uncommon but can cause hypopituitarism and visual impairment due to compression of the optic chiasm.

Diagnosis of endocrine TB often involves imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, hormonal assessments, and microbiological or histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy. Treatment typically consists of a standard anti-tuberculous chemotherapy regimen, which may need to be adjusted based on the patient's hormonal status and clinical response.

Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase is a crucial enzyme involved in the steroidogenesis pathway, specifically in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone, which are vital hormones produced by the adrenal glands. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP11B1 gene in humans.

The enzyme's primary function is to catalyze the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone through the process of hydroxylation at the 11-beta position of the steroid molecule. Cortisol is a critical glucocorticoid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, while aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone responsible for maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in the CYP11B1 gene can lead to various disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which may result in impaired cortisol and aldosterone production, causing hormonal imbalances and associated symptoms.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Chromaffin granules are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells, which are a type of neuroendocrine cell. These cells are located in the adrenal medulla and some sympathetic ganglia and play a crucial role in the body's stress response.

Chromaffin granules contain a variety of substances, including catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), as well as proteins and other molecules. When the chromaffin cell is stimulated, the granules fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space, where they can bind to receptors on nearby cells and trigger a variety of physiological responses.

The name "chromaffin" comes from the fact that these granules contain enzymes that can react with chromium salts to produce a brown color, which is why they are also sometimes referred to as "black-brown granules."

Fung, M. M.; Viveros, O. H.; O'Connor, D. T. (16 November 2007). "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2 ... Absent adrenal gland is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ... Pakravan, P; Kenny, FM; Depp, R; Allen, AC (January 1974). "Familial congenital absence of adrenal glands; evaluation of ...
A number of endocrine diseases involve dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing's ... The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Adrenal gland at the Human Protein Atlas MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: 002219 Adrenal gland histology Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic ...
It constitutes 5.4 to 6.0% of adrenal gland diseases. There are five major types of adrenal cysts: simple or endothelial cysts ... Enteric duplication cyst Choroid plexus cyst Colloid cyst Pineal gland cyst (in the pineal gland in the brain) Glial cyst ... Andersen DH (1938). "Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas and its relation to celiac disease". American Journal of Diseases of ... glands located above the kidneys) - It is a rare disease, affecting 0.06 to 0.18% of autopsy studies. ...
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... has been investigated in the recent years for the potential as a less-invasive biomarker for adrenal diseases. Nine studies ... Metastasis to one or both adrenal glands is the most common form of malignant adrenal lesion, and the second most common ... The adrenal medulla is located anatomically at the center of each adrenal gland, and is composed of neuroendocrine (chromaffin ...
Addison's disease Adrenal gland Hyperaldosteronism Pseudohypoaldosteronism Becker, Kenneth L. (2001). Principles and practice ... There are several causes for this condition, including adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and some ... Primary aldosterone deficiency Primary adrenal insufficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21 but not 11β and 17) Aldosterone ... It can also cause urinary sodium wasting, leading to volume depletion and hypotension.[citation needed] When adrenal ...
... s (or diseases) are conditions that interfere with the normal functioning of the adrenal glands. Adrenal ... for a reason directly related to the adrenal gland itself, such as auto-immune damage to the adrenal gland or adrenal gland ... "Overview of the Adrenal Glands: Adrenal Gland Disorders: Merck Manual Home Health Handbook". Retrieved 2009-03-28. Adrenal ... There are two parts of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces ...
Diseases of the adrenal glands. Die Gallensteine, in: Deutsche Klnik, Bd. 5, 105 - Gallstones. Ausgewählte Kapitel der ... He specialized in disorders of the blood, circulatory system, liver and adrenal glands, and was considered an excellent ...
The molecular basis of the disease has yet to be elucidated. Adrenal adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal gland. In most ... The disease involves the formation of cancerous cells within the cortex of one or both of the adrenal glands. Although these ... "Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center(GARD) - an NCATS Program. U.S National Library of ... Other causes include adrenal hyperplasia, insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing's disease, certain types of cancers, ...
Addison's disease is an endocrine disease that results from hypocortisolism caused by adrenal gland insufficiency. Adrenal ... thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands are neuroendocrine ... Cushing's disease and Addison's disease are pathologies involving the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. Dysfunction in the ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys in humans and in front of the kidneys in other animals. The adrenal glands ...
... arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that not enough of the steroid hormone cortisol and possibly ... celiac disease, or vitiligo. Addison's disease may be the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease. Both diseases share ... Causes can include certain medications, sepsis, and bleeding into both adrenal glands. Addison's disease is generally diagnosed ... Patnaik MM, Deshpande AK (May 2008). "Diagnosis--Addison's disease secondary to tuberculosis of the adrenal glands". Clinical ...
Adrenal gland disorders, Adrenal gland, Endocrine diseases, Medical conditions related to obesity, Syndromes affecting the ... The R1α loss caused the adult adrenal gland became hyperactive and hyperplastic on both sides, as seemingly the foetal adrenal ... PPNAD arises due to the enlargement of the cortex of the adrenal glands, resulting in Cushing's syndrome that is independent of ... The most common treatment for PPNAD is bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; the process by which both adrenal glands are ...
... failure of the adrenal glands and eventually death. Alport syndrome; glomerulonephritis, endstage kidney disease, and hearing ... Fabry disease; A lysosomal storage disease causing anhidrosis, fatigue, angiokeratomas, burning extremity pain and ocular ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX2-3); disorder of nerves (neuropathy) that is characterized by loss of muscle tissue and touch ... "Diseases Treated at St. Jude". stjude.org. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2018. "Favism - Doctor ...
Adenomas of adrenal glands occurs occasionally in MEN 1 patients. Hormone secretion is rarely altered as a result, and the ... Peptic ulcer disease may be intractable and complicated. Among patients presenting with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, 20 to 60% ... About 3% of tumors secrete ACTH, producing Cushing's disease. Most of the remainder are nonfunctional. Local tumor expansion ... parathyroid gland and pancreas. Individuals suffering from this disorder are prone to developing multiple endocrine and ...
... adrenal gland, ovary, uterus, ureter, bladder, urachus, and synovium. Approximately 1/3 of cases exhibit increases in blood ... IgG4-related disease, Immune system disorders, Autoimmune diseases, Pancreas disorders, Salivary gland pathology, Hepatology, ... related disease: an orphan disease with many faces". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 9: 110. doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0110-z. ... C. Costa; C. Saraiva; S. Freitas (25 September 2013). "Adrenal lesion as first manifestation of IgG4-related sclerosing disease ...
A Kennedy physician, Janet Travell, falsely asserted that the senator's adrenal glands functioned normally. It was also denied ... Connally claimed that Kennedy suffered from Addison's disease. JFK's press secretary Pierre Salinger denied the story. ...
... adrenal glands, thymus, gallbladder, and thyroid; Hirschsprung's disease; gastric reflux, imperforate anus, retention testis, ... Because of the rarity of the disease in addition to the variations in the disease, the specific genes that cause this disease ... 13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disease caused by the deletion of some or all of the large arm of human chromosome 13. ... This disease is also known as: 13q- Syndrome, Partial, Deletion 13q Syndrome, Partial Monosomy 13q, Partial Partial Monosomy of ...
Corticosteroids are steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal glands. These hormones regulate stress ... Office of Rare Diseases, National Institutes of Health (25 January 2005). "Annual Report on the Rare Diseases and Conditions ... National Institutes of Health and its Office of Rare Diseases Research branch classifies GKD as a rare disease, known to affect ... Due to the multitude of varying symptoms of this disease, there is no specific treatment that will cure this disease altogether ...
Highest expression occurs within the prostate, trachea, uterus, small intestine, placenta, thyroid, salivary gland, and adrenal ... TMCO4 interacts with other proteins known to play a role in cancer development, hinting at a possible role in the disease of ... TMCO4 is not currently directly linked to any disease or phenotype. However, interacting with a VEGF receptor may be indicative ... gland. Expression of TMCO4 is predicted to be controlled by many transcription factors. ...
These include renal artery stenosis and tumors (generally nonmalignant) of the adrenal glands, e.g., Conn's syndrome (primary ... As opposed to disease states of primary excesses of aldosterone, blood pressure is either normal or low in Bartter's or ... Disease states that lead to abnormally high aldosterone levels can cause hypertension and excessive urinary losses of potassium ...
Surgery of the kidney, ureter and the adrenal glands); Enke, Stuttgart 1896-1902, 2.Bd. Geschichte der neueren deutschen ... He is credited for developing the foundation of modern radical mastoidectomy for treatment of chronic ear disease. Küster's ...
In either case, treatment may rely on removal of the tumor or of the adrenal glands. Without the adrenal glands, the human body ... Addison's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the adrenal cortex such that it is unable to efficiently secrete ... or it can also be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland or adrenal gland. ... The immune system specifically targets the cells of the adrenal cortex and destroys them, but Addison's disease can also be ...
... is highly expressed in the brain and to a lesser extent in the adrenal glands. Alzheimer's disease seems to cause an ... It is expressed to a lesser extent in the cerebellum, pituitary gland, adrenal gland and testis. It has 3 different splice ... It has been found to be part of protein plaques formed in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. FAM222A has an ... Aggregatin's cellular function is not well understood, however it has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. FAM222A is also ...
"Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands". In Biller, José; Ferro, José M. (eds.). Handbook of Clinical ... "Canavan Disease, DNA Analysis - Tests - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-31. "Canavan Disease Information ... "Aspartoacylase Deficiency (Canavan Disease) , The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease , OMMBID , McGraw- ... Lienhard U, Sass J (2011-01-01). "Canavan Disease: A Neurometabolic Disease Caused By Aspartoacylase Deficiency". Journal of ...
... which is secreted by the adrenal gland. The high concentrations of aldosterone may be due directly to a disorder of the adrenal ... Persistently increased blood pressure may also be due to kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. When a cause is not readily ... Diagnostic imaging, usually beginning with abdominal ultrasound, may identify that one or both adrenal glands are enlarged. ... gland (primary hyperaldosteronism), or due to something outside of the adrenal gland causing it to secrete excessive ...
Mutations in the PRKACA gene that promote abnormal enzyme activity have been linked to disease of the adrenal gland. Several ... Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ... It has been speculated that abnormally high levels of PKA phosphorylation contributes to heart disease. This affects excitation ... Defective regulation of PKA holoenzyme activity has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease, certain endocrine ...
During this same time, biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall has isolated several steroids from the adrenal gland cortex. After ... Hench started his career at Mayo Clinic in 1923, working in the Department of Rheumatic Diseases. In 1926, he became the head ... While at Mayo Clinic, Hench focused his work on arthritic diseases, where his observations led him to hypothesize that steroids ... The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their ...
Addison's legacy includes the description of conditions such as Addison's disease (a degenerative disease of the adrenal glands ... appearance of the adrenal glands. What is now called Addison's disease, sometimes called bronze skin disease, is the ... He was there for eight years and developed a special interest in skin diseases, and a reputation in the area. He bought a house ... Pernicious anemia as described in 1849 by Addison is now also known as Addison-Biermer disease. It is a type of megaloblastic ...
It is most highly expressed in the gonadal tissue, adrenal gland, brain and placenta. It has raised expression rates in adrenal ... Reduction of GRAMD1B and GRAMD1C suppresses the onset of a form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic ... Loss of GRAMD1b results in reduced cholesterol storage in the adrenal gland and serum corticosterone levels in mice. ...
... can be caused by dysfunction of the adrenal gland itself, whether by destruction (e.g. Addison's disease ... and tertiary for adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, respectively. In adrenal insufficiency, there is a ... adrenal glands, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus) and therefore the type of adrenal insufficiency (primary, secondary, or ... These are adrenal destruction (disease processes leading to glandular damage), impaired steroidogenesis (the gland is present ...
McDaid is the only known person to suffer from both multiple sclerosis and the rare adrenal gland disorder, Addison's disease ...
Adrenal and thyroid gland problems could also be a cause. Gastroparesis has also been associated with connective tissue ... General malnutrition due to the symptoms of the disease (which frequently include vomiting and reduced appetite) as well as the ... In children, the duration tends to be shorter and the disease course milder than in adolescent and adults. Diabetic gastropathy ... It may occur as part of a mitochondrial disease. Opioids and anticholinergic medications can cause medication-induced ...
It is most significantly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and adrenal gland and cortex tissue. Michael S. Brown and ... Disruption of LDL-R can lead to higher LDL-cholesterol as well as increasing the risk of related diseases. Individuals with ... July 2014). "Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... Disruptive mutations were 13 times more common in individuals with early-onset myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease ...
... such as Cushings Syndrome and Addisons Disease, happen when your glands make too much or not enough hormones. ... What are adrenal glands?. Your adrenal glands are two small organs that sit on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands make ... There are many types of adrenal gland disorders, including:. *Addisons Disease - a condition in which the adrenal glands dont ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Gland Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Adrenal Hyperplasia, ...
Adrenal insufficiency, for example, was associated with a 35-45% maternal mortality rat... ... Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperaldosteronism-can reduce female fertility or severely ... Adrenal disease-including disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), ... encoded search term (Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy) and Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy What to Read Next on Medscape ...
... adrenal and pituitary gland disease, parathyroid disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, osteoporosis, etc. He chose ... Adrenal Gland Diseases. Carlos Peñaherrera, MD. November 2, 2021. Carlos Peñaherrera, MD, is an endocrinologist at Hamilton ... Archives for Adrenal Gland Diseases. ...
The adrenal glands produce several important hormones. This article looks at their function and related disorders. ... Adrenal insufficiency and Addisons disease. When the adrenal glands do not make enough cortisol, it is known as adrenal ... Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addisons disease. This condition develops when the adrenal gland itself does not function ... A range of medical conditions can affect the adrenal glands. These include Addisons disease, Cushings syndrome, and adrenal ...
Fung, M. M.; Viveros, O. H.; OConnor, D. T. (16 November 2007). "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2 ... Absent adrenal gland is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ... Pakravan, P; Kenny, FM; Depp, R; Allen, AC (January 1974). "Familial congenital absence of adrenal glands; evaluation of ...
What Causes Adrenal Gland Disease in Ferrets?. Adrenal gland disease is, unfortunately, a common disease of pet ferrets in the ... How Are Ferrets Treated for Adrenal Gland Disease?. Several options are available for the treatment of adrenal gland disease. ... While leuprolide controls the signs of adrenal gland disease, it does not modify a diseased adrenal gland or prevent tumor ... The left adrenal gland can typically be removed without complication. The right adrenal gland lies very close to a major blood ...
Adrenal disease of adrenal glands is prevalent in those with and without adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency is ... The Adrenal Gland / Adrenal Gland / Adrenal Blood & Adrenal Glucose / Adrenal Glucose / Adrenal Secretory Glucose / Adrenal ... What is adrenal gland disease? The adrenal gland is a group of glands that are found in the adrenal cortex. The adrenal gland ... What is adrenal gland disease? Adrenal disease of adrenal glands is prevalent in those with and without adrenal insufficiency. ...
Your adrenal glands are endocrine glands located on top of your kidneys. They produce many important hormones, including ... Adrenal gland conditions include:. *Addisons disease (primary adrenal insufficiency): This is a rare autoimmune disease that ... Adrenal glands have two main parts: Adrenal medulla (inside) and adrenal cortex (outside).. What are adrenal glands?. Your ... Adrenal Gland. Your adrenal glands are endocrine glands located on top of your kidneys. They produce many important hormones, ...
Adrenal insufficiency, for example, was associated with a 35-45% maternal mortality rat... ... Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperaldosteronism-can reduce female fertility or severely ... Adrenal disease-including disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), ... encoded search term (Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy) and Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Adrenal gland. 18.92. 3.87 × 106. Proventriculus. 23.82. 1.13 × 105. 5473. Leadbetters cockatoo. 17 y/M. Control. 1034-1322 ... PPD, poventricular dilatation disease; Ct, cycle threshold.. †All birds were captive animals from California, USA.. ‡Copy ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to ... invade and occupy the adrenal, but in thes … ... fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland. As a model ... Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland Cell Transplant. 2010;19(5):565-72. doi: 10.3727/ ... Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin ...
Adrenal Gland Diseases. *Allergic Disorders. *Anxiety. *Arthritis. *Back Disorders. *Bronchitis. *Bursitis. *Carpal Tunnel ...
... although successful treatment of hypertension reduces the global burden of disease and mortality. The aetiology of hypertension ... such as CVD and kidney disease). Lifestyle changes, including dietary modifications and increased physical activity, are ... risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide and the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is ... risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease ...
PROPEDYTICS OF CHILDRENS DISEASES CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX AND THYROID GLAND IN THE ... 2023). PROPEDYTICS OF CHILDRENS DISEASES CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX AND THYROID GLAND ... In this article, you will learn about the impact of Covid-19 infection on childrens adrenals and thyroid. You will learn about ... Influence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid gland function: The current knowledge. Adv Clin Exp Med 2021; 30: 747-755. [PubMed ...
Diseases/Specialties/Treatments: Adrenal Gland Cancer; Adrenal Incidentaloma; Adrenal Mass; Adrenal tumor; Advanced Prostate ... Diseases/Specialties/Treatments: Urology; Urologic Oncology; Adrenal Gland Cancer; Adrenal Incidentaloma; Adrenal Mass; Adrenal ... Diseases/Specialties/Treatments: Urology. Education: American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Research Interests: ... Diseases/Specialties/Treatments: Urology; Urologic Oncology; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer. ...
Peyronies Disease; Adrenal Gland Cancer; Adrenal Incidentaloma; Adrenal Mass; Adrenal tumor; Advanced Prostate Cancer; …. ... Peyronies Disease; Urology; Adrenal Gland Cancer; Adrenal Mass; Adrenal tumor; Advanced Prostate Cancer; …. ... Peyronies Disease. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Peyronies Disease; Urology; Bladder Cancer; Bladder Infection; Congenital Genitourinary Tract Abnormalities; Enlarged Prostate ...
gland disease. Before removing the adrenal gland, your vet will examine the entire abdomen. If both adrenal glands are abnormal ... Adrenal disease is a common problem in the ferret. An adrenal gland, found at the tip of each kidney, normally produces ... adrenal gland and will biopsy part of the other adrenal gland. Recovery from surgery is normally uncomplicated. Many times, ... of adrenal gland disease. Alopecia commonly affects the tail, rump, belly and back. The hair is easily pulled out, and the skin ...
Addisons disease (adrenal gland problem) or. *Alcohol abuse, history of or. *Brain tumor or ... Kidney disease, severe or. *Liver disease, severe-Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of ... This medicine may cause adrenal insufficiency. Check with your doctor right away if you have darkening of the skin, diarrhea, ... Thyroid disease-Use with caution. May increase risk for more serious side effects. ...
Adrenal gland problems, such as Addisons disease. If your adrenal glands dont produce enough hormones, buprenorphine may not ... Low levels of adrenal hormones. Buprenorphine can lower your levels of adrenal hormones. This condition is called adrenal ... If you have any problems with your adrenal glands, talk with your doctor. They can tell you whether buprenorphine is right for ... And they may give you a steroid medication to help your adrenal glands recover. ...
Adrenal Gland Diseases ... diseaseUnderstanding and treating Crohns diseaseYou are more ... Alzheimers diseaseAnemiaArthritisAsthmaAutismBipolar disorderBreast cancerCancerConstipationCOPDCoronavirusCrohns disease ... Alzheimers diseaseMental healthAsthmaMigrainesBreast cancerMultiple sclerosisCancerParkinsons diseaseCoronavirusPsoriasis ... Alzheimers diseaseMental healthAsthmaMigrainesBreast cancerMultiple sclerosisCancerParkinsons diseaseCoronavirusPsoriasis ...
Elizabeth Onyeaso, MD is a infectious disease specialist in Fayetteville, NC. Dr. Onyeaso completed a residency at Jersey Shore ... Adrenal Gland Cancer ... diseaseUnderstanding and treating Crohns diseaseYou are more ... Alzheimers diseaseAnemiaArthritisAsthmaAutismBipolar disorderBreast cancerCancerConstipationCOPDCoronavirusCrohns disease ... Alzheimers diseaseMental healthAsthmaMigrainesBreast cancerMultiple sclerosisCancerParkinsons diseaseCoronavirusPsoriasis ...
We present a case of primary adrenal insufficiency with bilateral adrenal masses and liver invasion in a 43-year-old man with ... Adrenal cryptococcosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with bilateral adrenal masses with ... This is the first report describing adrenal cryptococcosis with adrenal insufficiency and liver invasion without central ... After the unilateral adrenalectomy, the size of the remaining right adrenal mass was reduced and the serum cryptococcal antigen ...
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Grants-other; Neurological-diseases; Endocrine-system; Amides; Amines; Adrenal-gland-disorders ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Treatment Plans for Cushings Syndrome and Cushings Disease. If tumors are discovered in the adrenal glands, surgery is the ... Dogs with Cushings Disease have one underlying causes, usually the tumor of the pituitary gland. ... Symptoms of Cushings Syndrome and Cushings Disease. Symptoms for the disease and syndrome are similar. Most pet owners find ... Understanding the Difference Between Cushings Syndrome and Cushings Disease. Symptoms for Cushings Disease and Syndrome are ...
Animals-13 clinically normal ferrets and 8 ferrets with signs of adrenocortical disease. Procedures-Blood and preputial lavage ... The percentage of cornified preputial epithelial cells was higher in ferrets with clinical signs of adrenocortical disease ( ... correlated with an increase in serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration as well as clinical signs of adrenocortical disease ... cells correspond to results of a serum endocrine hormone assay and clinical signs associated with adrenocortical disease in ...
Adrenal Hormones Already Within Healthy Limits. AdrenoBoost™ Supports Adrenal Gland Functioning. ... This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The information on this Web site or in emails is ... Sustained Support Through Adrenal Aid. The adrenal glands are two walnut-sized structures in the body, situated above each ... The adrenal gland function is related to the wide variety of hormones released by these structures and is mostly directed by ...
Overview of the Adrenal Glands - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Not making enough adrenal hormones (Addison disease Addison Disease Glands make and release hormones. Hormones are chemicals ... What are the adrenal glands (adrenals)? You have two adrenal glands, one above each kidney. The adrenals release several ... Problems may be caused by a disorder of the adrenal glands themselves, such as an adrenal tumor. Adrenal hormone problems may ...
Lipid storage diseases (also known as lipidoses) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which harmful amounts of fatty ... Children may also have calcium deposits in the adrenal glands and may develop jaundice late in the disorder. ... and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. The LDN is a member of the NIH Rare Diseases Clinical ... Niemann-Pick disease Niemann-Pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by an accumulation of fat and ...
Categories: Adrenal Gland Diseases Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
... of the Renal Transplant ServiceUrologyExpertiseAdrenal Gland Diseases; Cancer of the Bladder; Kidney; Penis; Prostate; Testicle ... Diabetic Kidney Disease; Chronic Kidney Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Dialysis; End-Stage Kidney Disease; Glomerular Disease; ... Disease CenterPediatric Infectious DiseasesExpertiseTick-Borne Illness; Infectious Disease; Hepatitis; Lyme Disease; Pediatric ... ExpertiseAlzheimers Disease; Behcets Disease; Bells Palsy; Brain Disease; Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; CNS Demyelination; Devics ...
  • The outer zone, the neocortex, develops into the mature adrenal cortex, which is only 15% of the total volume. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to its role in providing precursors for placental estrogen formation, the fetal adrenal cortex may participate in the events that lead to the initiation of labor and to maturation of the fetal lungs. (medscape.com)
  • The adrenal glands have two parts: the cortex and the medulla. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The cortex is the outer part of the gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most tumors that affect the adrenal cortex are adenomas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although rare, this cancer can affect the cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Due to the absence of adrenal cortex, the condition causes extreme symptoms of adrenal insufficiency at birth due to very low levels of aldosterone and cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal gland is a group of glands that are found in the adrenal cortex. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Your adrenal glands are composed of two parts: the cortex (outer region) and the medulla (inner part). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The adrenal cortex, the outer region of your adrenal glands, produce and release glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens, which are all types of steroid hormones. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions. (nih.gov)
  • They consist of two separate regions: an inner adrenal medulla, surrounded by an outer adrenal cortex. (nativeremedies.com)
  • The utmost common of these conditions is a noncancerous tumour of the adrenal cortex, called an adrenal adenoma. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Cancerous tumors of the adrenal cortex (adrenocortical carcinomas) are sporadic, but they can cause Cushing syndrome as well. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Each suprarenal gland is composed of 2 distinct tissues: the suprarenal cortex and the suprarenal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • The suprarenal cortex serves as the outer layer of the suprarenal gland, and the suprarenal medulla serves as the inner layer. (medscape.com)
  • The suprarenal cortex is the largest part of the gland and is composed of 3 zones: the zona glomerulosa (outer zone), the zona fasciculata (middle zone), and the zona reticularis (inner zone). (medscape.com)
  • Addison disease results from damage to the suprarenal cortex, usually as a result of an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the gland. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, there is some evidence that deslorelin can shrink adrenal tumors or slow their development. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • All ferret owners should be familiar with pancreatic beta cell tumors, also called insulinoma disease, which are common in ferrets. (angelfire.com)
  • Dogs with Cushing's Syndrome may have been given too many corticosteroids or have one or more tumors in their adrenal or pituitary glands. (vetinfo.com)
  • If tumors are discovered in the adrenal glands, surgery is the best treatment. (vetinfo.com)
  • Adrenal tumors may or may not put out hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Endocrine tumors include thyroid, adrenal, pituitary and parathyroid glands. (mdanderson.org)
  • These tumors, which can be benign or malignant, are usually found in the lungs, pancreas, and thyroid or thymus gland. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Seldom, people inherit a propensity to develop tumors on one or more of their endocrine glands, distressing the cortisol levels and leading to Cushing syndrome. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Tumors that grow from the pituitary gland can affect the whole body by interfering with normal hormone levels. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • These tumors may compress the normal pituitary gland decrease hormone production (hypopituitarism). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency, for example, was associated with a 35-45% maternal mortality rate prior to the introduction of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, while pheochromocytoma was once associated with maternal and fetal mortality rates of 48% and nearly 55%, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • When the adrenal glands do not make enough cortisol, it is known as adrenal insufficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tertiary adrenal insufficiency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can be difficult to spot. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency requires treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It should not be confused with adrenal insufficiency or congenital adrenal hyperplasia, where the gland is present but may not be functioning adequately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenal disease of adrenal glands is prevalent in those with and without adrenal insufficiency. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency is defined as the absence of a biological or biochemical component that leads to a disease. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency most commonly occurs in the elderly. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • What is adrenal insufficiency? (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be a complication of adrenocorticotrophic adrenal insufficiency (ACAI) and the condition may also affect other systems that may produce or affect the condition. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Most commonly, despite the widespread use of thyroid medications and non-steroidal therapy, the effects of adrenal insufficiency on thyroid hormones are unknown. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Problems with adrenal insufficiency of any kind If an adrenal disease of any kind is suspected, or if a patient has a high risk for TSH disease, then it is possible a patient may have a chronic adrenocorticotrophic state that does not normalize, resulting in a permanent normal adrenal function. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Adrenal gland disease is one of the reasons that one body in the body can have chronic unexplained adrenal insufficiency. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Addison disease is known as primary suprarenal (adrenal) insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • While leuprolide controls the signs of adrenal gland disease, it does not modify a diseased adrenal gland or prevent tumor development. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • Even with regular Lupron injections, an enlarged adrenal gland may continue to grow or become a tumor. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • Dogs with Cushing's Disease have one underlying causes, usually the tumor of the pituitary gland. (vetinfo.com)
  • Problems may be caused by a disorder of the adrenal glands themselves, such as an adrenal tumor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • And an adrenal tumor may or may not be cancerous. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A tumor that grows from the pituitary gland is called an adenoma. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The adrenal glands are small glands that sit above the kidneys. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The adrenal gland helps to move chemicals, nutrients and your body's energy into the adrenal glands and into the blood vessels in the brain and tissues, such as the liver, kidneys, and intestines. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Your adrenal glands are endocrine glands located on top of your kidneys. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Your adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangle-shaped glands that are located on top of each of your two kidneys . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Your kidneys put out substances that control the adrenal hormone aldosterone. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Adrenal hormone problems may also be caused by disorders of the pituitary gland or the kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The adrenals are a pair of glands that sit on the kidneys and produce several hormones, including the stress hormones epinephrine and norepiniephrine that are associated with the "fight or flight" response. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Adrenals: A pair of glands, one on each side of the abdomen, located on the top of your kidneys. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Adrenal glands are two nickel-sized glands, just above the kidneys. (concilio.com)
  • Your adrenal glands are two small organs that sit on top of each kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A triangle-shaped gland on top of a kidney. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The evaluation of patients with hypertension includes accurate standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement, assessment of the patients' predicted risk of atherosclerotic CVD and evidence of target-organ damage, and detection of secondary causes of hypertension and presence of comorbidities (such as CVD and kidney disease). (nature.com)
  • An adrenal gland, found at the tip of each kidney, normally produces hormones that keep the body in homeostatic balance. (angelfire.com)
  • The adrenal glands are two walnut-sized structures in the body, situated above each kidney. (nativeremedies.com)
  • You have two adrenal glands, one above each kidney. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are often no symptoms of hyperkalemia, but it can be a sign of kidney disease, dehydration, diabetes complications, and many other health conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In people with congestive heart failure , lower kidney function combined with the medication to treat the disease can cause hyperkalemia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The adrenal gland, sitting on top of the kidney, presumably taking a nap because it's tired. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The left adrenal gland lives to the left of the aorta and medial to the cranial pole of the left kidney. (vin.com)
  • In cats, the right adrenal gland is often located fairly cranial in respect to the cranial pole of the right kidney. (vin.com)
  • Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. (epnet.com)
  • Endocrine glands release hormones directly into your bloodstream. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Known as the master gland, the pituitary controls the other endocrine glands in the body. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas related to insufficient amounts of insulin production. (petplace.com)
  • Pancreas: A gland located in your abdomen that makes insulin and glucagon . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • These include Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, and adrenal cancer, as well as high blood pressure due to the overproduction of aldosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with Addison's disease will often have a deficiency in aldosterone as well as cortisol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A rare disease resulting from a gene mutation that can also cause lower levels of aldosterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is a disease in which the suprarenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and often the hormone aldosterone. (medscape.com)
  • The medulla, meanwhile, is the inner part of the gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This cancer occurs in childhood and may begin in the medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The adrenal medulla can be normally present, poorly formed, or absent, however even so the effects of circulatory catecholamine deficiency are generally mild (due to sympathetic nervous system compensation), except in episodes of hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adrenal medulla, the inner part of your adrenal glands, produces and releases the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Each gland is divided into two superposed parts: the cortico-adrenal glands (exterior) and the medulla-adrenal glands (center). (concilio.com)
  • Medulla-adrenal glands can be affected by pheochromocytoma, a tumour that synthesises an excessive quantity of catecholamines (noradrenalin and adrenalin). (concilio.com)
  • In some individuals, the cause of Cushing syndrome is surplus cortisol secretion that does not depend on stimulation from ACTH and is associated with disorders of the adrenal glands. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - a group of inherited disorders in which the adrenal glands don't make enough cortisol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adrenal disease-including disorders such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), Addison disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma , and primary hyperaldosteronism-can reduce female fertility or severely impact maternal and fetal health during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Addison's disease due to familial, congenital adrenal gland hypoplasia]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bergthorsdottir R, Leonsson-Zachrisson M, Oden A, Johannsson G. Premature mortality in patients with Addison's disease: a population-based study. (internationaljournals.co.in)
  • Addison's disease is a condition that affects your body's adrenal glands. (familydoctor.org)
  • Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease) - is a deficiency of steroid production. (petplace.com)
  • Addison's disease and acute adrenal gland failure correspond to a decrease of hormone secretion in the cortico-adrenal glands. (concilio.com)
  • An adrenal lesion is an abnormal organ that looks like it's not coming from a you could try here that doesn't make its way to the thymus. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • Thymus: A gland in the upper part of your chest that helps in the development of the body's immune system during the early stages of your life. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • However, proper treatment of adrenal dysfunction, including steroid therapy and, in the case of Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma, surgical intervention, can result in successful gestation and delivery. (medscape.com)
  • When this form of the syndrome progresses, it's called Cushing disease. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Seldom, benign, nodular enlargement of both adrenal glands can lead to Cushing syndrome. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Cushing syndrome is a disorder in which the suprarenal glands produce too much of the hormone cortisol. (medscape.com)
  • This disorder can be caused by Cushing disease, in which the pituitary gland makes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which signals the suprarenal glands to produce cortisol. (medscape.com)
  • Influence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid gland function: The current knowledge. (internationaljournals.co.in)
  • AdrenoBoost™ is also a great supplemental formula to herbal Thyroid Assist™ which helps to maintain normal thyroid gland functioning and thyroid hormone levels. (nativeremedies.com)
  • Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid gland does not function adequately. (petplace.com)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone: causes the thyroid gland to make other hormones that control growth, temperature, and heart rate. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The left adrenal gland can typically be removed without complication. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • The left phrenicoabdominal vein crosses the left adrenal gland ventrally and is usually visualized with ultrasound. (vin.com)
  • The left phrenicoabdominal artery crosses the left adrenal gland dorsally and is often too small to visualize with ultrasound. (vin.com)
  • The left adrenal gland in dogs is bilobed in shape (peanut or dumbbell shape) and more ovoid in cats. (vin.com)
  • The right adrenal gland is more dorsal and cranial than the left adrenal gland, making visualization more difficult. (vin.com)
  • Similar to the left adrenal gland, the right phrenicoabdominal vein crosses the right adrenal gland ventrally and is usually well visualized and the right phrenicoabdominal artery crosses the adrenal gland dorsally and not usually visualized. (vin.com)
  • In cats, the right adrenal gland is oval in shape, similar to the feline left adrenal gland. (vin.com)
  • The right adrenal gland lies very close to a major blood vessel called the caudal vena cava, making removal more difficult. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • Additionally, obesity, bowel gas and deep-chested conformation can hinder identification of the right adrenal gland. (vin.com)
  • The medial surface of the right adrenal gland is in close proximity to the lateral wall of the caudal vena cava. (vin.com)
  • The right adrenal gland is cranial to the right renal artery and vein and it is the same cranial-caudal level as the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. (vin.com)
  • In dogs, the shape of the right adrenal gland is variable (elongated, arrowhead or boomerang shaped). (vin.com)
  • When you have an adrenal gland disorder, your body makes too much or too little of one or more hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cause of adrenal gland disorders depends on the type of disorder you have. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When this happens, it is known as an adrenal gland disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hyperadrenocorticism is a disorder affecting the adrenal glands. (petplace.com)
  • Intervertebral Disk Disease is a disorder that affects the spinal disks resulting in pain, difficulty walking and possibly paralysis. (petplace.com)
  • In general, transplantation yields the best results when performed early in the course of the disease (ie, in an asymptomatic affected sibling of a child with a lysosomal storage disorder), in centers with experience in performing transplantations to treat inherited metabolic disorders, and in patients healthy enough to tolerate the conditioning and transplantation regimen. (medscape.com)
  • Up to 80% of adults have already experienced an episode of adrenal fatigue syndrome, yet, this disorder remains frequently undiagnosed. (concilio.com)
  • Treatment of adrenal gland disorders is decided according to which disorder is diagnosed. (concilio.com)
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established. (nih.gov)
  • Focal adrenal nodules and masses (unilateral or bilateral): hyperplasia, adenoma. (vin.com)
  • Conn's adenoma, a benign tumour of the cortico-adrenal gland, leading to hyperproduction of mineralocorticoids. (concilio.com)
  • Different types of adrenal gland disorders have different treatments. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your endocrine system is a network of several glands that create and secrete (release) hormones. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Glands make and release hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The glands and organs of the endocrine system release hormones that regulate important functions in the body. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The suprarenal glands require a large supply of blood and release hormones directly into the bloodstream. (medscape.com)
  • It has a large anterior lobe (gland cells that produce hormones) and a smaller posterior lobe (nerve cells that release hormones). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that causes you to lose small, round patches of hair on your head. (familydoctor.org)
  • The pituitary controls most of the adrenal gland hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If the hormone levels are elevated above normal, adrenal gland disease is present. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • In a study that evaluated adrenal size in populations of dogs under 10 kg with and without hyperadrenocorticism, a cut off of 0.6 cm thickness of the caudal pole of the adrenal gland was 75% sensitive and 94% specific for differentiating normal adrenal glands from adrenal hyperplasia. (vin.com)
  • The adrenal gland regulates cortisol levels which in turn stimulates conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, supports blood sugar levels and promotes glycogen storage in the liver by the adrenal glands - thereby providing the body with the energy it needs to function well. (nativeremedies.com)
  • It allows the veterinarian to determine which adrenal gland may be affected as well as whether there are obvious abnormalities in other abdominal organs. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • Surgery allows direct inspection of both adrenal glands as well as the other internal organs. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • What other organs and glands interact with the adrenal glands? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The suprarenal glands are among the most extensively vascularized organs in the body. (medscape.com)
  • Parathyroids: Four small glands in your neck that control the level of calcium in your blood. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Your adrenal glands are controlled in part by your hypothalamus and pituitary gland. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The gland is connected to the hypothalamus in the brain by the pituitary stalk. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • A benign tumour of the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, secretes an excess amount of ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to create more cortisol. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Corticosuprarenaloma, a tumour of the cortico-adrenal gland, presenting potential malignancy. (concilio.com)
  • The suprarenal glands, also known as adrenal glands, belong to the endocrine system. (medscape.com)
  • Three sources of arteries maintain blood supply to the suprarenal glands. (medscape.com)
  • After the suprarenal glands have been supplied with blood from these arteries, the blood drains through the suprarenal vein to the left renal vein or directly to the inferior vena cava on the right side. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal cancer is rare, affecting as few as 200 people in the United States each year, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS) . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One form of DDD has been used to treat cancer of the adrenal gland. (cdc.gov)
  • The adrenal hormones help regulate several bodily functions including metabolism, blood pressure and your body's response to stress. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The adrenal gland function is related to the wide variety of hormones released by these structures and is mostly directed by the body's response to stressors and the chemicals released when certain environments are presented. (nativeremedies.com)
  • This occurs when the pituitary gland does not make enough of a hormone called adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Without CRH, the pituitary gland cannot make ACTH. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This may occur from excess production by one or both adrenal glands, or increased production of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which generally regulates cortisol production. (apollohospitals.com)
  • This zone secretes cortisol both at a basal level and as a response to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. (medscape.com)
  • AdrenoBoost™ contains a selection of herbs known for their supportive function in maintaining hormonal balance and providing adrenal support, thereby helping to maintain balanced metabolism, energy levels, sleep patterns and routine, healthy performance of the immune system. (nativeremedies.com)
  • Thyroid: A butterfly-shaped gland in your neck that controls your metabolism, energy, and brain development. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • we examine and treat patients with diseases of hormone secretion and metabolism. (tyks.fi)
  • Type 2 (acute infantile neuropathic Gaucher disease) typically begins within three months of birth. (nih.gov)
  • Niemann-Pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by an accumulation of fat and cholesterol in cells of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, lungs, and, in some instances, brain. (nih.gov)
  • [ 3 ] . An increasing number of orthotopic and living-donor liver transplantations are being performed to salvage patients with otherwise incurable end-stage liver disease (ESLD). (medscape.com)
  • In the absence of these influences, the adrenal glands may overproduce several sex hormones, causing a variety of clinical signs. (lovingcareanimalhospital.net)
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland. (nih.gov)
  • In the absence of any scientific evidence, chiropractor and naturopath James Wilson coined the term "adrenal fatigue" in his 1998 book of the same name. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • It can be divided into 2 broad categories: primary (occurring in the absence of pelvic pathology) and secondary (resulting from identifiable organic diseases). (medscape.com)
  • Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as menstrual pain that is not associated with macroscopic pelvic pathology (ie, occurs in the absence of pelvic disease). (medscape.com)
  • Gaucher disease is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. (nih.gov)
  • Niemann-Pick disease type C is not caused by a deficiency of sphlingomyelinase but by a lack of the NPC1 or NPC2 proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Branch within CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • You should avoid any exposure to infectious diseases. (who.int)
  • Before removing the adrenal gland, your vet will examine the entire abdomen. (angelfire.com)
  • Abdominal ultrasound has the advantage over radiography in its ability to see small structures like adrenal glands and evaluate the abdomen in the presence of peritoneal effusion. (vin.com)
  • Interstitial Lung Disease refers to a large group of lung disorders that cause inflammation or scarring in the lung tissue. (stanford.edu)
  • Daily exposure for over a year led to small intestine and adrenal gland problems, and lung and intestinal cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • Atherosclerosis, an adrenal inflammation that results in symptoms such as swelling of the adrenal gland, hyperplasia of one or both of the glands, the orifice, and orifice-ringing, are both cause and effect of the syndrome. (medicalexaminationhelp.com)
  • The major precursor for estrogen production is dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, which is synthesized in the fetal adrenal glands . (medscape.com)
  • The capacity of the fetal adrenals for steroidogenesis is enormous, and, near term, the fetal adrenals secrete 100-200mg of the estrogen precursor daily. (medscape.com)
  • The main androgen produced by this layer is dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is the most abundant hormone in the body and serves as the starting material for many other important hormones produced by the suprarenal gland, such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol. (medscape.com)
  • Lysosomal storage diseases describe a heterogeneous group of dozens of rare inherited disorders characterized by the accumulation of undigested or partially digested macromolecules, which ultimately results in cellular dysfunction and clinical abnormalities. (medscape.com)