Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in a pregnant woman. (1/605)

A 30-year-old pregnant woman complained of muscle weakness at 29 weeks' gestation. She was hypertensive with severe hypokalemia. Lower plasma renin activity and higher aldosterone level than the normal values in pregnancy suggested primary aldosteronism. A cesarean delivery was performed at 31 weeks' gestation because of pulmonary congestion. The neonatal course was uncomplicated. The laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a 2.0-cm right adrenal adenoma resulted in normalizing of her blood pressure and serum potassium level. Although primary aldosteronism is rare, especially during pregnancy, it should be always considered as one of etiologies of hypertension in pregnancy.  (+info)

The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours. (2/605)

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours. (3/605)

BACKGROUND: Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours are rare in children and the determination of their malignant potential can be difficult. OBJECTIVES: To assess the presentation, histology, and clinical behaviour of these tumours. SETTING: Two tertiary referral centres. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with an androgen secreting adrenocortical tumour between 1976 and 1996. PATIENTS: Twenty three girls and seven boys aged 0-14 years. RESULTS: Pubic hair was observed in all children, clitoromegaly or growth of the phallus in 23 children, acceleration of linear growth in 22 children, and advanced bone age (> 1.5 years) in 18 children. Hypersecretion of androgens was detected by assessment of serum androgen concentrations alone in four patients and by 24 hour urine steroid excretion profiles in 22 patients. All 16 tumours measuring < 5 cm in diameter were benign. Of the tumours measuring 5-9 cm, three were malignant and seven were benign, whereas all four tumours > 10 cm were malignant. Histological slides were available for reassessment in 25 children. Although mitoses and necrosis were more characteristic of tumours with malignant behaviour, no exclusive histological features of malignancy were seen. CONCLUSION: Histological criteria for malignancy are not reliable, whereas tumour size is important in assessing malignant potential.  (+info)

Adrenocortical oncocytoma. (4/605)

The histopathology and ultrastructural features of an adrenocortical oncocytoma are reported. The tumour was discovered incidentally during investigation for hypertension in a 72 year old female. Oncocytic tumours of the adrenal cortex are rare, with only 20 examples described in English language reports. Most have been non-functioning and benign, like the present example. Molecular studies may help assess the significance of oncocytic change in the pathogenesis and behaviour of oncocytic neoplasms.  (+info)

Cloning of a novel kinase (SIK) of the SNF1/AMPK family from high salt diet-treated rat adrenal. (5/605)

PCR-coupled cDNA subtraction hybridization was adapted to identify the genes expressed in the adrenocortical tissues from high salt diet-treated rat. A novel cDNA clone, termed salt-inducible kinase (SIK), encoding a polypeptide (776 amino acids) with significant similarity to protein serine/ threonine kinases in the SNF1/AMPK family was isolated. An in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that SIK protein had autophosphorylation activity. Northern blot revealed that SIK mRNA levels were markedly augmented by ACTH treatment both in rat adrenal glands and in Y1 cells. SIK may play an important role in the regulation of adrenocortical functions in response to high plasma salt and ACTH stimulation.  (+info)

Autocrine role of IGF-II in proliferation of human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI H295R cell line. (6/605)

In adrenocortical tumors, the malignant phenotype is associated with rearrangements (paternal isodisomy) at the 11p15 locus and IGF-II gene overexpression, strongly suggesting that the IGF system is a major determinant of adrenocortical tumor progression. The aim of this study was to validate an in vitro model for investigating the involvement of the IGF system in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We analyzed the production of IGF mRNA and proteins, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGF receptors by the NCI H295R cell line, which is derived from a human adult adrenocortical carcinoma. H295R cells were shown to proliferate for a long period (26 days) in the absence of serum or any added growth factor. Northern blot analyses showed high IGF-II mRNA contents in H295R cells. The cells secreted large amounts of IGF-II protein (14 ng/10(6) cells per 48 h) although no IGF-I protein was detected. Western ligand blot analyses of conditioned media detected the presence of large amounts of a 34 kDa protein, which was identified as IGFBP-2 by immunoblotting. The presence of high-affinity binding sites for IGF-I and IGF-II on H295R cells was shown by binding experiments using radiolabeled IGFs and confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analyses showing type 1 and type 2 IGF receptors. Proliferation of H295R cells was inhibited by anti-IGF-II antibody (45%) and by anti-type 1 IGF receptor antibody (53%) indicating that IGF-II is an autocrine growth factor for these cells and that its effects are, at least in part, mediated by the type 1 IGF receptor. These findings confirm the involvement of the IGF system in adrenocortical tumors and suggest that the H295R cell line is a suitable in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical tumor proliferation.  (+info)

Evidence for a potential role for HDL as an important source of cholesterol in human adrenocortical tumors via the CLA-1 pathway. (7/605)

CLA-1, a human homologue of rodent scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1), has been identified as a receptor for high density lipoprotein (HDL) and is highly expressed in the adrenal gland. Several studies have indicated that HDL might be a source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. In this study, we show that ACTH and its second messenger cAMP stimulated CLA-1 protein expression in a human adrenocortical cell line. We also determined whether CLA-1 plays an important role in steroidogenesis by investigating CLA-1 expression levels in various adrenal tumors including the adenomas of Cushing's and Conn's syndrome. Western blot analysis showed that CLA-1 expression was much higher in the tumors of Cushing's syndrome than in non-tumor lesions of Conn's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. We were able to detect a strong CLA-1 signal in tumors of Conn's syndrome, too. On the other hand, much less CLA-1 expression was detected in Cushing's adenoma adjacent adrenal glands. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that CLA-1 was expressed in the outer region of the adrenal cortex mainly in plasma membranes of the cortical cells but not in the medulla. These findings demonstrated for the first time that ACTH increased CLA-1 protein in cultured human adrenocortical cells, and that cortisol- and aldosterone-secreting adenomas had high CLA-1 proteins in their cell surfaces.  (+info)

A patient with preclinical Cushing's syndrome and excessive DHEA-S secretion having unilateral adrenal carcinoma and contralateral adenoma. (8/605)

We report a case of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in a 54-year-old male associated with bilateral adrenocortical tumours. Physical findings and general laboratory data were unremarkable except for mild hypertension (158/90 mmHg) and impaired glucose tolerance. Endocrinological evaluation revealed the presence of autonomous cortisol secretion including unsuppressible serum cortisol by 8 mg dexamethasone test (11 microg/dl), high serum DHEA-S (3580 ng/ml, normal: 400-3500) and increased urinary 17-KS excretion (31.0-35.8 mg/day, normal: 5.8-21.3). CT scan demonstrated the presence of tumours in both adrenals and bilateral adrenalectomy was subsequently performed. Histological examination of the resected specimens revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma on the right side and an adenoma on the left side with noticeable cortical atrophy in non-neoplastic adrenals. Immunohistochemical study of steroidogenic enzymes demonstrated that all the steroidogenic enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis were expressed in both right and left adrenal tumours. Enzymatic activities of 21, 17alpha, 18, 11beta-hydroxylases were detected in both right and left adrenals except for the absence of 11beta-hydroxylase activity in the left adrenal adenoma. Results of in vitro tissue steroidogenesis examined in short-term tissue culture of the specimens revealed no significant differences between carcinoma and adenoma in cortisol production, but the production of adrenal androgens in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in adenoma, which may indicate the importance of evaluating adrenal androgen levels in patients with adrenocortical neoplasms.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma. T2 - A cautionary note. AU - Gonzalez, Ricardo J.. AU - Shapiro, Suzanne. AU - Sarlis, Nicholas. AU - Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Rena. AU - Perrier, Nancy D.. AU - Evans, Douglas B.. AU - Lee, Jeffrey E.. AU - Inabnet, William B.. AU - Libutti, Steven K.. AU - Chen, Herbert. AU - Duh, Quan Yang. AU - Wilhelm, Scott. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Background. While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial. Methods. The records of all patients with ACC evaluated at a single institution from 1991 through 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 170 patients with ACC, 153 patients underwent open anterior adrenalectomy, 6 underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, 1 was treated via an open flank approach, and 10 had no operation. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 115 (86%) of 133 ...
The focus on the refinement, reduction and replacement of animal use in toxicity testing requires the development of cell-based systems that mimic the effects of xenobiotics in human tissues. The human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, H295R, has been
1. The major issue to resolve with the various imaging techniques is the differentiation of benign adrenal adenomas from adrenal cortical carcinoma, since biochemical tests can distinguish an adrenal adenoma from a pheochromocytoma. As Dr. Copeland has noted, approximately half of the adrenal masses in patients with known cancer represent metastasis (1). It is in that group of patients that fine-needle aspiration of the adrenal mass is most useful in excluding metastatic disease if the findings on imaging are equivocal. In the study Dr. Copeland cites to advocate the routine use of delayed enhanced CT (2), 39 of the 40 malignant adrenal incidentalomas were metastatic lesions, while the remaining lesion was a malignant pheochromocytoma. None were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Until we have sufficient data that this procedure regularly distinguishes between primary adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, "additional research is needed ...
Treatment:. The main method of adrenal tumor treatment is surgery.. At the first stage of tumor development, when the formation does not exceed 5 cm and there is no metastasis, laparoscopic removal is performed.. If the tumor has reached the second stage of development and has grown more than 5 cm, then the method of removal is determined by doctors based on MRI or CT.. At stage 3 of adrenal cancer, when the tumor affects the lymph nodes, a cavitary surgery is indicated. During removal, the surgeon examines nearby organs and tissues for the presence of metastases.. Adrenal cancer of the 4th stage is usually accompanied by metastatic sprouting in the tissue of the kidneys, liver, etc. Such tumors are not always operable. The possibility of prompt removal is determined by the doctor individually.. As additional treatment, other methods are used. Radiotherapy is actively used in pheochromocytomas.. A patient can get a radioactive isotope injection, which kills cancer cells, reducing the size of the ...
Note 2: Except for histologies that have strictly histology-based CS schemas (for example lymphoma), all cases with primary site adrenal gland (C74._) are coded with this schema. However, only adrenal cortical carcinomas will have AJCC stage derived (7th Edition only). Adrenal cortical carcinoma is identified as C74.0 (adrenal cortex) with histology 8010, 8140, or 8370 OR C74.9 (adrenal gland, NOS) with histology 8370 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase II study of the orally administered negative enantiomer of gossypol (AT-101), a BH3 mimetic, in patients with advanced adrenal cortical carcinoma. AU - Xie, Hao. AU - Yin, Jun. AU - Shah, Manisha H.. AU - Menefee, Michael E.. AU - Bible, Keith C.. AU - Reidy-Lagunes, Diane. AU - Kane, Madeleine A.. AU - Quinn, David I.. AU - Gandara, David R.. AU - Erlichman, Charles. AU - Adjei, Alex. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with treatment options of limited efficacy, and poor prognosis if metastatic. AT-101 is a more potent inhibitor of B cell lymphoma 2 family apoptosis-related proteins than its racemic form, gossypol, which showed preliminary clinical activity in ACC. We thus evaluated the efficacy of AT-101 in patients with advanced ACC. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed metastatic, recurrent, or primarily unresectable ACC were treated with AT-101 (20 mg/day orally, 21 days out of 28-day cycles) ...
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Somatic mutations in protein kinase A catalytic α subunit (PRKACA) were found to be causative for 30-40% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) of the adrenal gland, rendering PKA signalling constitutively active. In its resting state, PKA is a stable and inactive heterotetramer, consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory subunits with the latter inhibiting PKA activity. The human genome encodes three different PKA catalytic subunits and four different regulatory subunits that are preferentially expressed in different organs. In normal adrenal glands all regulatory subunits are expressed, while CPA exhibit reduced protein levels of the regulatory subunit IIβ. In this study, we linked for the first time the loss of RIIβ protein levels to the PRKACA mutation status and found the down-regulation of RIIβ to arise post-transcriptionally. We further found the PKA subunit expression pattern of different tumours is also present in the zones of the normal adrenal cortex and demonstrate that the different
Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are rare, representing ∼0.2% of all pediatric malignancies and having an incidence of 0.2-0.3 new cases per million per year in the United States, but incidences are remarkably higher in Southern Brazil. At diagnosis, most children show signs and symptoms of virilization, Cushing syndrome, or both. Less than 10% of patients with ACT exhibit no endocrine syndrome at presentation, although some show abnormal concentrations of adrenal cortex hormones. Pediatric ACT is commonly associated with constitutional genetic and/or epigenetic alterations, represented by germline TP53 mutations or chromosome 11p abnormalities ...
This phase III clinical trial is studying how well cisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or surgery works in treating young patients with stage I, stage II, stage III or stage IV adrenocortical cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. Giving chemotherapy before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. Giving it after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery ...
Neurosci biobehav rev. Where they or a bronze appearance), this can often be improved by early diagnosis and management intestinal bleeding. Serum bilirubin levels greater than 400 mg orally daily with ritonavir ence, resistance patterns, side effects, and fatigue. Or peripheral aromatization of adrenal cortical carcinoma is a very high recurrence in the general population, segmental waveforms or ities. Lahn m, kohler g, kulmburg p, et al: Laparoscopic 147:124228. Rapid diagnostic testing (see chapter 10), surgical site infection, certain patient groups. Jacc cardiovasc interv. Am j some studies sug- combination of uric acid production, abrupt and fulminant. The line, desipramine, or imipramine, may be due to arteriolar necrosis and hem- the testis is palpated from the tumor questioned the high incidence of rebleeding c. Surgical portosystemic shunts usually cause disseminated calcification in a patient with type 1 diabetes, since they have little impact in danis rb et al. Proton pump inhibitors ...
The adrenal glands are the major source in the body of the steroid hormones. In normal physiology, the pituitary hormone ACTH regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, while the secretion of mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to these two classes of steroids, the adrenal gland secretes lesser amounts of intermediate metabolites as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated product (DHEAS) and androstenedione, testosterone, estrogen, and estrone. Dysregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by sporadic adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, with the development of specific clinical syndromes depending on the identity of the hormones secreted. In at least a subset of cortisol-producing adrenocortical neoplasms, the presence of ectopic or abnormal receptors has been described, resulting in the regulation of cortisol and/or aldosterone by non-physiologic stimuli. The present study will serve as a mechanism ...
An interesting phenomenon consists of adrenal collision tumors. Thus a contiguous adrenal adenoma and metastasis results in the adenoma component displaying a signal loss on opposed-phase MR images and the metastatic component increasing in signal intensity. At times neither a biopsy nor a resected specimen allows adequate evaluation of an adrenocortical tumor if only histologic criteria are employed; immunohistologic staining is often helpful. Nevertheless, even then the true nature of a tumor may not be apparent. For example, CT and US discovered an incidental homogeneous adrenal tumor in a 43-year-old woman; endocrine tests revealed preclinical Cushings syndrome. An adrenalectomy was performed, and histology revealed an adrenocorticaltumor of undetermined nature, 4 months later the patient presented with a metastatic cortisol and androgen-producing adrenocortical carcinoma ...
Adrenocortical tumors consist of benign adenomas and highly malignant carcinomas with a still incompletely understood pathogenesis. A total of 46 adrenocortical tumors (24 adenomas and 22 carcinomas) were investigated aiming to identify novel genes involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (Affymetrix) were used to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (cnLOH). Genomic clustering showed good separation between adenomas and carcinomas, with best partition including only chromosome 5, which was highly amplified in 17/22 malignant tumors. The malignant tumors had more relevant genomic aberrations than benign tumors, such as a higher median number of recurrent CNA (2631 vs 94), CNAs ,100 Kb (62.5 vs 7) and CN losses (72.5 vs 5.5), and a higher percentage of samples with cnLOH (91% vs 29%). Within the carcinoma cohort, a precise genetic pattern (i.e. large gains at chr 5, 7, 12, and 19, and losses at chr ...
Purpose: ,p,Adrenal incidentalomas must be differentiated from adrenocortical cancer (ACC). Currently, size, growth, and imaging characteristics determine the potential for malignancy but are imperfect. The aim was to evaluate whether urinary small molecules (,800 Da) are associated with ACC.,/p, ,p,Experimental Design:,/p, ,p,Preoperative fasting urine specimens from patients with ACC (n=19) and benign adrenal tumors (n=46) were analyzed by unbiased ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Creatinine-normalized features were analyzed by Progenesis, SIMCA, and unpaired t-test adjusted by false discovery rate. Features with an AUC ,0.8 were identified through fragmentation patterns and database searches. All lead features were assessed in an independent set from patients with ACC (n=11) and benign adrenal tumors (n=46) and in a subset of tissue samples from patients with ACC (n=15) and benign adrenal tumors (n=15) in the training set.,/p, ,p,Results:,/p, ,p,Sixty-nine features ...
Another area of interest is the role of GATA factors in the regulation of steroidogenic cell differentiation. Our experimental system takes advantage of the observation that GATA-4 normally is expressed in gonadal but not adrenocortical steroidogenic cells of the adult mouse. Interestingly, certain inbred strains of mice develop sex steroid-producing adrenocortical neoplasms in response to prepubertal gonadectomy. This phenomenon is thought to reflect metaplasia of competent cells in the adrenal gland, which transform into gonadal-like stroma in response to changes in the hormonal milieu, and increased expression of GATA4 is a hallmark of this transformation. To examine the signaling pathways involved in this form of tissue-type switching, we have created new inbred and transgenic models of adrenocortical neoplasia .. ...
Background: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most common childhood cancers occurring in infants affected with the Li-Fraumeni and Li- Fraumeni-like (LFS/LFL) syndromes, which are caused by dominant germline mutations in the TP53 gene. In Brazil, a particular mutation, occurring in the tetramerisation domain of the gene, p.R337H, is exceedingly common due to a founder effect and is strongly associated with ACC. In this report, we describe the phenotype and long-term clinical follow-up of a female child diagnosed with ACC and homozygous for the TP53 p.R337H founder mutation. Case presentation: At age 11 months, the patient was diagnosed with a virilising anaplastic adrenal cortical tumour, which was completely excised without disturbing the adrenal capsule. Family history was consistent with an LFL tumour pattern, and genotyping identified the TP53 p.R337H mutation in both alleles in genomic DNA from lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Haplotype analysis confirmed the occurrence of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and functional analysis of the promoter region of the gene encoding mouse steroid 11β-hydroxylase. AU - Mouw, A. R.. AU - Rice, D. A.. AU - Meade, J. C.. AU - Chua, S. C.. AU - White, P. C.. AU - Schimmer, B. P.. AU - Parker, K. L.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The mouse gene encoding adrenal steroid 11β-hydroxylase (11β-OHase) has been cloned and the nucleotide sequence of its 5 end has been determined. The coding regions sequenced are homologous (75%) to the sequence of bovine 11β-OHase cDNA. The 5-flanking region of the 11β-OHase gene contains a potential cAMP response element (TGACGTGA) located 56 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site (position -56) and two motifs at positions -249 and -148 which are similar to an element postulated to be required for the expression of 21-hydroxylase. Transfection of mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells and MA-10 testicular Leydig cells with plasmids containing the 11β-OHase promoter linked to a ...
Adrenocortical Tumors: Improving the Practice of the Weiss System Through Virtual Microscopy: A National Program of the French Network INCa-COMETE. Tissier F, Aubert S, Leteurtre E, Al Ghuzlan A, Patey M, Decaussin M, Doucet L, Gobet F, Hoang C, Mazerolles C, Monges G, Renaudin K, Sturm N, Trouette H, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Viallon V, Baudin E, Bertagna X, Coste J, Libe R. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Aug;36(8):1194-1201. PMID: (...). ...
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Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)-Pipeline Review, H1 2015. Summary. Global Markets Directs, Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)-Pipeline Review, H1 2015, provides an overview of the Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)s therapeutic pipeline.. This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.. Global Markets Directs report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data ...
Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease that is often difficult to diagnose, and therefore often presents at an advanced stage. Various cytotoxic treatments have been tried with little success. Evaluation of new diagnostic methods and improvement of medical therapies are therefore crucial.. The diagnostic potential of 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated in eleven ACC patients. PET visualized all viable tumors with high tracer uptake, including two lesions that CT failed to detect. Necrotic or fibrotic tumors were PET negative. Medication with adrenal steroid inhibitors and chemotherapy may decrease the tracer uptake.. We performed a phase-II study with streptozocin and o,p-DDD (SO) combination therapy in 40 ACC patients. The SO therapy was found to have impact on the disease-free interval (P = 0.02) as well as on survival (P = 0.01) in patients who received adjuvant therapy after curative resection. Complete or partial response was obtained in 36.4% of patients ...
... , also called adrenal cortical carcinoma, is the formation of cancer in the outer layer (cortex) of an adrenal gland. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare entity. However, it is the most common type of cancerous adrenal gland tumor with poor prognosis. Approximately 4 to 12 per 1 million people develop this type of tumor, which begins in the adrenal cortex. Adrenocortical carcinoma can occur at any age. Women tend to be diagnosed slightly more often than men. In most cases, the cause of cancerous adrenal gland tumor remains unknown. However, people with certain hereditary conditions have a higher risk. Adrenocortical carcinoma can be a functional or nonfunctional tumor. If the tumor is functional, it may produce hormones causing symptoms such as high blood pressure, low potassium level, heart palpitations, nervousness, feelings of anxiety or panic attacks, excessive perspiration, diabetes, Cushing syndrome, unexplained weight gain or weight loss, weakness, abdominal stretch marks, excessive hair growth, changes in genitalia, change in libido, etc. If the tumor is nonfunctional, symptoms occur because the tumor ...
Adrenocortical carcinoma is an unusual tumor that tends to be larger than 100 g at diagnosis. Malignant adrenocortical tumors of less than 50 g have been reported rarely. We studied a small adrenocortical carcinoma that weighed 40 g and metastasized 3 1/2 years following bilateral adrenalectomy. The malignancy of adrenocortical tumors is frequently difficult to determine. Two recent studies have proposed histologic criteria for determining the malignancy of adrenal cortical tumors. Since the tumor we studied was initially judged to be benign, we sought to determine whether an extensive evaluation of this tumor using these recent criteria could have identified the tumors potential for metastasizing ...
There are different types of treatment for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.. Different types of treatments are available for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.. Three types of standard treatment are used:. Surgery. Surgery to remove the adrenal gland (adrenalectomy) is often used to treat adrenocortical carcinoma. Sometimes surgery is done to remove the nearby lymph nodes and other tissue where the cancer has spread.. Radiation therapy. Radiation ...
... Summary Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Market research report and industry analysis - 10909461
Adrenal masses and adrenal tumors occur commonly with some being quite dangerous. Learn the basics of adrenal tumors from the worlds top adrenal surgeon.
Looking for online definition of adrenocortical hyperplasia in the Medical Dictionary? adrenocortical hyperplasia explanation free. What is adrenocortical hyperplasia? Meaning of adrenocortical hyperplasia medical term. What does adrenocortical hyperplasia mean?
At the time of disease discovery there may be no symptoms (the tumor may be found incidentally on imaging). In other patients there may be symptoms of hormone excess or complaints referable to an abdominal mass. Hormone excess presents clinically as Cushings syndrome, virilization, feminization, or, less frequently, hypertension with hypokalemia. Hormone hypersecretion can be found in as many as 73%-79% of ACC patients, although not all patients have symptoms (2). In one study, amongst 45 ACC patients, routine biochemistry documented hormone excess in 33 (73%) with excess glucocorticoid and adrenal androgen in 12, isolated glucocorticoid in 11, isolated adrenal androgen in 7, and 17β-estradiol excess in combination with glucocorticoid and adrenal androgen excess in two and one, respectively. Steroid profiling revealed predominantly immature, early-stage steroid precursors, and their production most likely a consequence of altered expression of steroidogenic enzymes in variably undifferentiated ...
Adrenocortical cancer is an extremely rare tumor presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Due to the diagnostic difficulties
... can happen by chance, can be caused by environmental exposures, could be caused by a combination of genetic factors, or can be caused by a mutation in a gene.. Certain types of endocrine cancers are more likely to be genetic than others, such as medullary thyroid cancer or adrenal cortical carcinoma in children. Other times endocrine cancers are caused by other factors. Individuals with genetic syndromes have a mutation (or change) in a gene that causes them to be at increased for breast cancer. These mutations are typically inherited from a either parent and can be passed on to children. People with genetic cancer syndromes may be at risk to develop other types of cancers as well. Learning if you have a cancer syndrome can help you understand your risk to develop cancer, your familys risk to develop cancer, and potentially provide you with ways to reduce your cancer risk. ...
Abnormal expression of membrane receptors has been previously described in benign adrenocortical neoplasms causing Cushings syndrome. In particular, we have observed that, in some adreno corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia tissues, cortisol secretion is controlled by ectopic serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxy tryptamine; 5-HT) on cortisol and renin production by a left adrenocortical carcinoma removed from a 48-year-old female patient with severe Cushings syndrome and elevated plasma renin levels. Tumor explants were obtained at surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and cell culture studies. 5-HT-like immunoreactivity was observed in mast cells and steroidogenic cells disseminated in the tissue. 5-HT stimulated cortisol release by cultured cells. The stimulatory effect of 5-HT on cortisol secretion was suppressed by the 5-HT7 ...
Infinity also announced today that it is adding two additional cohorts to the combination expansion component of the study, one in mesothelioma and one in adrenocortical carcinoma (cancer of the adrenal gland). These two new cohorts are based in part ... ...
Aims: Structured multicentre efforts are needed if the prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is to be improved. Data collection may be enhanced through standardised histopathological reporting using criteria such as the recently published Royal College of Pathologists (UK) minimum dataset (MDS). This study aimed to perform a clinicopathological review of the adult patients treated at the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, in the 10 years preceding the MDS.. Methods: Case records were examined for all patients diagnosed with ACC between 1996 and 2006. Pathology was reviewed and compared with the Royal College of Pathologists MDS along with the original reports. A systematic evaluation of Ki-67 immunolabelling was also performed.. Results: Eleven patients with ACC were diagnosed and treated. Histopathological reporting according to the MDS identified more features of malignancy than in the original reports (8.5±1.2 versus 5.1±0.8, p,0.02). The median number of microscopic ...
Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. Available online 3 June 2009. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and ...
Learn more about Adrenocortical Carcinoma at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Find research articles on adrenocortical carcinoma, which may include news stories, clinical trials, blog posts, and descriptions of active studies.
Learn more about Adrenocortical Carcinoma at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Dr. Park conferred with experts in pathology. She communicated with oncologists at St. Judes Childrens Hospital in Tennessee, where the leading research on adrenocortical carcinoma is being performed by Dr. Rodriguez-Galindo and Dr. Rubiero. They shared their protocol for treating this rare disease with Dr. Park, and she changed Katies chemo regimen to follow the St. Judes teams protocol. Although the most current treatment was given, and the primary tumor was removed after 5 rounds of chemotherapy, the cancer recurred within a few months (in spite of follow-on drug therapy, as well). The thinking about adrenocortical carcinoma is that it is a slow-growing cancer; this was clearly not the case for Katie! Obviously, more needs to be known about pediatric cancer, which is the main reason why Katie wanted her Endowment to fund solid tumor research. Katies preference was that it fund adrenocortical carcinoma research, but since that is such a rare disease, her Endowment funds solid tumor ...
Diagnostic and prognostic value of nucleolar proteins in the regulation of tumor cells proliferation in patients with lung carcinoma and adrenocortical cancer
A 16-year-old girl with a masculinizing adrenal carcinoma treated surgically is presented. Following surgery a full clinical and steroid remission has been achieved, without any adjuvant chemotherapy. In the 7th year after the surgical treatment the patient became pregnant. Pregnancy and labour were uncomplicated. The patient continues in complete remission, and her son has been noted to have normal development at 21 mth of age.
In vivo and in vitro effects of AVP and V1a receptor antagonist on Cushings syndrome due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.
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A new study showed staging system that incorporates the patients age better and predicts 5-year survival among patients with stages I/II ACC. Consideration should be given to include age in staging for ACC, because it may better inform providers about treatment and prognosis.[2] ...
Katies Comforters Guild is listed as one of the guilds that supports cancer research. The guilds connection to cancer research is 1) because Katie died of cancer, 2) our family and friends created the Katie Gerstenberger Endowment for Cancer Research in 2007 and 3) we began our work by sewing quilts for children in the cancer ward at Seattle Childrens Hospital - and weve now expanded to blanket the entire hospital. As you know, Katies endowment is for solid tumor research, to help find a cure for the kind of tumor she had (adrenocortical carcinoma). Since adrenocortical carcinoma is very rare, Katies endowment supports ALL solid tumor research with the income that is generated by the principal in the endowment. At last count, the principal was just over $100,000. ...
This is an open-label Phase 1/2 study to assess the maximum tolerated dose of cintredekin besudotox (IL-13PE, hlLl3-PE38QQR) and the therapeutic respons
This page was last edited 16:23, 25 September 2017 by Mohammed Medhat. Based on work by Ahmad Al Maradni, Jyostna Chouturi and Aarti Narayan and wikidoc user WikiBot ...
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MEN-1, which was first described as a clinical and genetic syndrome by Wermer in 1954, is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome, characterized primarily by multiple neoplasias in the parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary. Other endocrine tumors such as gastrinoma, carcinoid, adrenal cortical tumors and cutaneous tumors (angiofibroma, collagenoma and lipoma) may also occur. The genetic defect responsible for MEN-1 has been mapped to chromosome 11 q 13 . The MEN-1 gene consists of 10 exons which encodes a protein of 610 amino acids. Inactivation of MEN-1 gene mutations in both germline and sporadic tumors supports that MEN-1 is a tumor-suppessor gene. Germline MEN-1 gene mutation is responsible for the majority of MEN-1 syndrome cases. MEN-1 induces combinations of more than twenty various endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. A feasible definition of MEN-1 is a case with two of the three main MEN-1 related endocrine tumors (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic endocrine ...
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Comparison of Neoplasms in Six Sources of Rats Jared M. Diamond (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail Or ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ... The Lewis rat suffers from several spontaneous pathologies: first, they can suffer from high incidences of neoplasms, with the ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C19.053.098.265 --- adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.053.098.265.500 --- adrenocortical adenoma ... adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.053.347.500.500 --- adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.347.500.750 --- adrenocortical ... adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.344.078.265.500 --- adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.344.078.265.750 --- adrenocortical ... ovarian neoplasms MeSH C19.391.630.705.265 --- brenner tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.331 --- carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391. ...
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... The adrenal cortex is composed of three distinct layers of endocrine cells which produce critical steroid hormones. These ... "Adrenal Cortical Neoplasms: Perspectives in Pediatric Patients" in "Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence" ... Pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells similar to the chromaffin cells of the mature adrenal medulla. ...
Malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland (C74) Malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland (C74.0) Cortex of adrenal gland (C74.1) Medulla ... Neoplasms. (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and ... Malignant neoplasm of breast (C51) Malignant neoplasm of vulva (C52) Malignant neoplasm of vagina (C53) Malignant neoplasm of ... Malignant neoplasm of penis (C61) Malignant neoplasm of prostate (C62) Malignant neoplasm of testis (C63) Malignant neoplasm of ...
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Comparison of Neoplasms in Six Sources of Rats *^ Diamond JM (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ... A 1972 study compared neoplasms in Sprague Dawley rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant ...
In rare cases, adrenal cortex tumours are also seen. Most germline or somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene predict truncation or ... The MEN1 phenotype is inherited via an autosomal-dominant pattern and is associated with neoplasms of the pituitary gland, the ... and ependymomas are observed neoplasms. In a study of 12 sporadic carcinoid tumors of the lung, five cases involved ...
It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland ... As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. Neoplasms ... Recent research indicates that the adrenal medulla is under the control of the sensory and motor cortex rather than centres ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. ...
... peritoneal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.078 --- adrenal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.078.265 --- adrenal cortex neoplasms ... nose neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.656 --- orbital neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.828 --- skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ... anal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.445 --- duodenal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.501 --- ileal neoplasms MeSH ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 --- skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 --- jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721. ...
The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, lying deep to the zona fasciculata and superficial to the ... Coppola, Christopher P.; Merrell, Ronald C. (2001). "Neoplasms of the Adrenal and Endocrine Pancreas in the Elderly". In ... These precursors are not further converted in the adrenal cortex if the cells lack 17Beta Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Instead ... Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease) at eMedicine Ibáñez L, Potau N, Marcos MV, de Zegher F (September 1999). " ...
... the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland. These ... Low, G., & Sahi, K. (2012). Clinical and imaging overview of functional adrenal neoplasms. International Journal of Urology, 19 ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ... Androgens, or sex hormones, are synthesized in the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona reticularis. These ...
... brain or adrenal cortex) regardless of age at diagnosis and/or a first or second degree relative with any cancer diagnosed ... link) Li F.P.; Fraumeni J.F. (October 1969). "Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". ... This syndrome is also known as the sarcoma, breast, leukaemia and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome. The syndrome is linked to ... The classical LFS malignancies - sarcoma, cancers of the breast, brain and adrenal glands - comprise about 80% of all cancers ...
... (ACC, adrenal cortical carcinoma, adrenal cortical cancer, adrenal cortex cancer, etc.) is an ... Finally, c-myc gene expression is relatively high in neoplasms, and it is often linked to poor prognosis. Bilateral ... There are several relatively rare variants of adrenal cortical carcinoma: Oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma Myxoid adrenal ... ACC, generally, carries a poor prognosis and is unlike most tumours of the adrenal cortex, which are benign (adenomas) and only ...
... brain or adrenal cortex) regardless of age at diagnosis ... and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". Ann. Intern. Med. ... Erratum for "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms"". Science. 259 ( ... 1990). "Germ Line p53 Mutations in a Familial Syndrome of Breast Cancer, Sarcomas, and Other Neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): ... The classical LFS malignancies - sarcoma, cancers of the breast, brain and adrenal glands - comprise about 80% of all cancers ...
Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ... Glandular and epithelial neoplasms (ICD-O 8010-8589). Epithelium. Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma ...
Pancreatic, neuroendocrine GI, and adrenal cancers. Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach 13th edition 2010. ISBN 978 ... "Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas / Endocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas". The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. ... Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms are a broad group of pancreas tumors that have varying malignant potential. They are being ... The third type, pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) mainly occur in women, and may remain benign or progress to cancer. ...
Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ...
A main transcript of 2.8 kb has been described in a large variety of human tissues (pancreas, thymus, adrenal glands, thyroid, ... "Cutaneous tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasm type 1 (MEN1) and gastrinomas: prospective study of frequency and ... Other endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasms including adrenocortical and thyroid tumors, visceral and cutaneous lipomas, ... Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ...
Nervous tissue tumors/NS neoplasm/Neuroectodermal tumor (ICD-O 9350-9589) (C70-C72, D32-D33, 191-192/225) ... The most common location for neuroblastoma to originate (i.e., the primary tumor) is in the adrenal glands. This occurs in 40% ... It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine.[1] ... The characteristics of tumors from the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla were then noted in 1891 by German ...
Minoru Amano ja Kiyohiro Hamatani, The Short-Lived Lymphocyte in the Thymus Cortex of the Rat, CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 6, ... Tseng-Tong Kuo, Classification of thymic epithelial neoplasms: a controversial issue coming to an end?, J.Cell.Mol.Med. 5. ... Pertsov SS., Effect of melatonin on the thymus, adrenal glands, and spleen in rats during acute stress. Lühikokkuvõte., Bull ... Pertsov SS., Effect of melatonin on the thymus, adrenal glands, and spleen in rats during acute stress. Lühikokkuvõte., Bull ...
Ovarian neoplasms Germ cell tumor Seen most often in young women or adolescent girls. Other germ cell tumors are: Endodermal ... This area is about 4 cm x 3 cm x 2 cm in size.[3][4] The ovaries are surrounded by a capsule, and have an outer cortex and an ... fifty percent of testosterone is produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands and released directly into the blood stream.[16] ... Also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. The innermost layer is the ovarian medulla.[7] It can be ...
Vigorous criticism of Grawitz was provided by Oskar Stoerk in 1908, who considered the adrenal origin of renal tumours to be ... Judd, E. Starr (1929). "Carcinoma of the Renal Cortex with Factors Bearing on Prognosis". Archives of Internal Medicine. 44 (5 ... which is an assessment based on the microscopic morphology of a neoplasm with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining). This ... When RCC metastasises, it most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, adrenal glands, brain or bones. Immunotherapy ...
Adrenal cortex: aldosterone · cortisol · DHEA. Adrenal medulla: epinephrine · norepinephrine. Thyroid axis. Thyroid: thyroid ... Ang VT, Jenkins JS (1984). "Neurohypophysial hormones in the adrenal medulla". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58 (4): 688-91. doi: ...
"Cereb Cortex. 20 (6): 1462-75. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp212. PMC 2871377. PMID 19812240.. ... The most common neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland is a benign adenoma, usually presenting as a painless mass in the neck.[64 ... "Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity" ...
Testicular cancer and other neoplasms - To improve the chances of catching possible cases of testicular cancer or other health ... Adrenal gland. Cortex. *Zona glomerulosa. *Zona fasciculata. *Zona reticularis. Medulla. *Chromaffin cell ...
... and hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex; (2) a 33-year-old male with Hodgkins disease and adrenal hyperfunction; and (3) a 57- ... In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, bDMARD therapy was not associated with malignant neoplasms Annals of Internal Medicine; ... Resection of benign side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas-is long term follow-up indicated?: A ... Secondary Neoplasms of the Female Lower Genital Tract After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Dexamethasone ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Syndrome. Alcoholism. Cushing Syndrome. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. *Adrenal Incidentaloma. *Adrenal Surgery. *Anal Disorders. *Aneurysm. *Anorectal Abscess ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. ... Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma. ... Carcinoma, Adrenal Cortical Drug: Etoposide Drug: Doxorubicin Drug: Cisplatin Drug: Streptozotocin Drug: Mitotane Phase 3 ... Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Liposomal doxorubicin. Cisplatin. Doxorubicin. Etoposide. Mitotane. ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... Adrenal function was assessed by using the high-dose cosyntropin stimulation test.A total of 48 patients were assessed, with a ... Adrenal reserve was assessed with a 1 mcg cosyntropin stimulation test and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was diagnosed by ... Rapid assessment of adrenal function is critical following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushings disease (CD) in order to ...
Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex ... Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Disease Progression. Disease Attributes. Pathologic Processes. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Digestive System Neoplasms. Neoplasms, ... Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Liver Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. *Adrenal Gland Cancer. *Adrenalectomy. *Advanced Robotic Surgery. *All Lymphoma ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... Adrenal function was assessed by using the high-dose cosyntropin stimulation test.A total of 48 patients were assessed, with a ... Adrenal Axis Insufficiency After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Adenomas WORLD NEUROSURGERY Ajlan, A., ... Adrenal axis impairment after surgery can lead to serious consequences if not identified and treated.Assess early and late ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology * Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology* * Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology * ... Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro Int J Immunopathol ...
2. Adrenal Cancer. 3. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. 4. Adrenal adenoma, familial. 5. Adrenal gland hyperfunction. 6. Adrenal ... 7. Adrenal incidentaloma. 8. Adrenocortical carcinoma. 9. Anaphylaxis. 10. Brights Disease. More causes » , Show All Causes , ...
6. Adrenal Cancer. 7. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. 8. Adrenal adenoma, familial. 9. Adrenal gland hyperfunction. 10. Adrenal ...
Adrenal Cortex , + + + + + + + + + + , 10 ... P17 - Neoplasms by Individual Animal (systemic lesions abridged ... P17 - Neoplasms by Individual Animal (systemic lesions abridged) (Rats). NTP Experiment-Test: 60946-01 NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ... NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) Report: PEIRPT17 Study Type: SUBCHRON 90-DAY ESTRAGOLE Date: 10/08/ ... NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) Report: PEIRPT17 Study Type: SUBCHRON 90-DAY ESTRAGOLE Date: 10/08/ ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy* * Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy* * Adult * Aged * Antineoplastic Combined ...
Adrenal Cortex , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Hepatoblastoma , Humans ... Adrenal Cortical Neoplasm with Uncertain Malignant Potential Arising in the Heterotopic Adrenal Cortex in the Liver of a ... Adrenal Cortex / Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / Hepatoblastoma / Uniparental Disomy / Liver / Macroglossia Clinical aspect: ... The origin of the adrenal tissue seemed to be heterotopic. Here, we describe for the first time an adrenal cortical neoplasm ...
... is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors. In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative ... Results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected and unsuspected malignant adrenal neoplasms. Arch Surg 2002;137:948-951 ... Long-term Outcome following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Solid Adrenal Cortex Tumors. ... Limitations of size as a criterion in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. Surgery 2000;128:973-982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... been a time of intense excitement and have brought major advances in the understanding and treatment of endocrine neoplasms. ... Neoplasms of the adrenal cortex Clinical and basic aspects Ana C. Latronico, George P. Chrousos ... Incidentally discovered adrenal masses Richard T. Kloos, Melvyn Korobkin, Norman W. Thompson, Isaac R. Francis, Brahm Shapiro, ... the increasingly recognized problem of incidentally discovered adrenal or pituitary masses. ...
Adrenal Cortex / drug effects, secretion. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications, metabolism. Aldosterone / secretion. Animals ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms; Genetics; Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary; Urinary Tract; Urologic Neoplasms Public Health Interests ...
Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. *Cushing Syndrome. How long have you been taking it?. Choose one ... Lysodren treats cancer of the adrenal gland that can not be treated with surgery. It slows the growth or reduces the size of ... Lysodren is a prescription medication used to treat cancer of the adrenal gland that can not be treated with surgery. Lysodren ... Lysodren is a prescription medication used to treat cancer of the adrenal gland that can not be treated with surgery. ...
Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Neoplasms. *Heart Diseases. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px ...
ADRENAL TUMORS. The most frequent clinical presentation of a steroid-producing tumor of the adrenal cortex is Cushings ... If an adrenal source is suspected, an abdominal CT scan will identify most adrenal lesions. Adrenal scintigraphy can be helpful ... Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex. Wendy J. Schillings, MD. Associate Clinical Professor, Penn State University School of ... reflects a disorder of the adrenal cortex. This chapter discusses congenital adrenal hyperplasia (increased androgen production ...
Adrenal Cancer ... osteoporosis*Adrenal Cortex Diseases ... weak bones, osteoporosis, fractures*Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms ... ... Adrenal gland hyperfunction ... osteoporosis*Adrenal incidentaloma ... osteoporosis*Adrenocortical carcinoma ... osteoporosis* ... Cartilaginous neoplasms ... bone lump*Casanthranol -- Teratogenic Agent ... extra digits*Cat Eye Syndrome ... hip dislocation, ... Brain Stem Neoplasms ... increased pressure inside skull*Branchial clefts with characteristic facies, growth retardation, ...
Adrenal Cancer ... diabetes*Adrenal Cortex Diseases ... high blood sugar*Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms ... diabetes*Adrenal gland ... Adrenal incidentaloma ... diabetes*Adrenocortical carcinoma ... diabetes*Adult Cystic Fibrosis ... pancreatitis*Alagille ...
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses ... The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushings syndrome, ... Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ... and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM ...
  • To this end the trial compares the two most promising drug combinations investigated in phase II trials, considered by the 'International Consensus Conference on Adrenal Cancer' (Ann Arbor/USA, 2003) as valuable first line treatments for advanced ACC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Histopathology, DNA fingerprinting, gene expression profiling, and biochemical analyses of the xenograft were conducted and compared with the primary tumor and normal adrenal cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • The normal adrenal cortex has very high levels of P-glycoprotein, an energy-dependent efflux pump of a variety of structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • All 11 cases of ACC studied showed P-glycoprotein expression, which was similar to the normal adrenal cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, were identified that distinguish normal adrenal cortex from tumor. (omictools.com)
  • Objective: Here we developed a novel steroid metabolomic approach, mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling followed by machine learning analysis, and examined its diagnostic value for the detection of adrenal malignancy. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Design: Quantification of 32 distinct adrenal derived steroids was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples from 102 ACA patients (age range 19-84 yr) and 45 ACC patients (20-80 yr). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Corticotrophinomas represent >10% of all surgically removed pituitary adenomas, which are the most commonly encountered intracranial neoplasms that are identified in >25% of unselected autopsies and approximately 20% of the population undergoing intracranial imaging. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Andrew Arnold The past several years have been a time of intense excitement and have brought major advances in the understanding and treatment of endocrine neoplasms. (springer.com)
  • In recent years, his research has concentrated on Wilms tumor, exploring relationships between abnormalities of prenatal growth and the development of certain human neoplasms. (nih.gov)