Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyAutoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cyanoketone: 2 alpha-Cyano-17 beta-hydroxy-4,4',17 alpha-trimethylandrost-5-ene-3-one. An androstenolone-nitrile compound with steroidogenesis-blocking activity.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor that is closely related to members of the thyroid-steroid receptor gene family. It was originally identified in NERVE CELLS and may play a role in mediation of NERVE GROWTH FACTOR-induced CELL DIFFERENTIATION. However, several other functions have been attributed to this protein including the positive and negative regulation of APOPTOSIS.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Protein PrecursorsMice, Inbred C57BLMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)
(1/3703) Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor is not increased during relapses of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

BACKGROUND: An uncharacterized circulating factor that increases vascular permeability has previously been described in childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the recently described endothelial cell mitogen and enhancer of vascular permeability. METHODS: Plasma and urine VEGF levels were measured in children with SSNS in both relapse and remission and in normal age- and sex-matched controls. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies investigating VEGF mRNA expression were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from children with SSNS in relapse and controls. In two experimental models (one-hour and three-day follow-up postinfusion), Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously administered 50 microg rVEGF to determine whether this induced either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. RESULTS: Plasma VEGF levels and urine VEGF/creatinine ratios were not elevated in SSNS relapse compared with remission and control samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell VEGF mRNA expression was no different in SSNS patients compared with controls. The administration of VEGF to rats induced an acute reversible fall in systemic blood pressure but did not result in the development of either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. CONCLUSION: Increased circulating VEGF levels are not responsible for the proteinuria observed during relapses of SSNS. Further studies are warranted to investigate intrarenal VEGF expression.  (+info)

(2/3703) Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat.

To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor.  (+info)

(3/3703) Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture.

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

(4/3703) Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. Epidemiology, pathogenic aspects and diagnosis.

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, often presenting with haemoptysis. Many patients have iron deficiency anaemia due to deposition of haemosiderin iron in the alveoli, and eventually develop moderate pulmonary fibrosis. Typically, intensive search for an aetiology ends up negative. There is no evidence of pulmonary vasculitis or capillaritis. The aetiology is obscure, but may be an immunological or toxic mechanism causing a defect in the basement membrane of the pulmonary capillary. IPH affects both children and adults. During an acute episode, a chest X-ray demonstrates bilateral, alveolar infiltrates. Sputum examination discloses haemosiderin-laden alveolar macrophages. Diagnosis is established by lung biopsy (fiber-optic or thoracoscopic), showing large numbers of haemosiderin-laden macrophages in the alveoli and without evidence of capillaritis or deposition of immunoglobulins. Corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs may be effective during an acute bleeding episode, and may in some patients improve symptoms and prognosis on the long-term, but the response to treatment displays great interindividual variation.  (+info)

(5/3703) Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression.

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

(6/3703) Disseminated nocardiosis in a bone marrow transplant recipient with chronic GVHD.

We describe a case of disseminated nocardiosis in a 53-year-old male allogeneic marrow recipient with chronic GVHD, 15 years post BMT. Six months prior to admission he was treated for recurrent chronic GVHD with corticosteroids with a good response. He deteriorated subsequently while still on steroids requiring admission for fever, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough and progressive dyspnoea. On admission he had multiple nodular lesions on chest roentgenogram and subsequently grew Nocardia farcinica in blood culture. N. farcinica is rare post BMT, has a high mortality, is resistant to various antibiotics and needs prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We report the successful management of our patient with single agent trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.  (+info)

(7/3703) Intravenous immune globulin (i.v.IG) therapy in steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis.

Many trials have been done on steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Recently, intravenous immune globulin (i.v.IG) was reported to be effective in the treatment of steroid-dependent atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether i.v.IG therapy is effective in steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Forty-one steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis patients were tested in this study. Patients who weighed less than 30 kg were administered 500 mg/kg of i.v.IG. Patients who weighed 30 kg or more were administered 15 g of i.v.IG. Patient evaluations and laboratory tests with peripheral bloods such as eosinophil percentages and serum IgE levels were performed at days 0, 1, 7, and 21. In the present study, patients who responded to i.v.IG therapy were classified as Group A. Twelve patients who showed transient effects with lower clinical significance were classified as Group B (29.3%). Remaining 12 patients (29.3%) in Group C showed no improvement at all. Serum IgE levels and blood eosinophil percentages were markedly decreased in Group A. I.v.IG therapy may be recommended in the treatment of atopic dermatitis with extremely high serum IgE levels.  (+info)

(8/3703) Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies.

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

*  Development of the endocrine system
The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of ... The Sertoli cells are the point of origin for anti-Müllerian hormone. Once synthesized, the anti-Müllerian hormone initiates ... The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla is derived ... twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of the total body weight. At 25 weeks, the adult adrenal cortex zone ...
*  Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs
The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ... Usually, the anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces a hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), that signals the ... Bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia (e.g. lymphosarcoma), granulomatous disease, or arterial thrombosis ... All layers of the adrenal gland stop functioning; the problem is with the adrenal gland. This causes a deficiency of both ...
*  Estradiol 6beta-monooxygenase
Haines WJ (1952). "The biosynthesis of adrenal cortex hormones". Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7: 255-305. Mueller GC; Rumney G ( ...
*  11-Ketoprogesterone
The steroid has profound effects on carbohydrate metabolism and possesses activities associated with adrenal cortex hormones ... It possesses physiological activities associated with certain hormones of the adrenal cortex. Its effect on carbohydrate ... does not cause certain undesirable activities in ketosis and other conditions as do other adrenocortical hormones, in that it ... unlike other adrenocortical hormones. 11-Ketoprogesterone may act through membrane glucocorticoid receptors. 11- ...
*  Pregnenolone
It is described in the context of medical use as an "adrenal cortex hormone" or a glucocorticoid for the treatment of ... such as adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, in the adrenal glands and gonads. ... Like many steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. The sulfated derivative, pregnenolone sulfate, is water-soluble. 3β- ... Pregnenolone is produced mainly in the gonads, adrenal glands, and the brain. Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism ...
*  Cortisone
Hench and Tadeus Reichstein for the discovery of adrenal cortex hormones, their structures, and their functions. As it turns ... steroid hormone. It is one of the main hormones released by the adrenal gland in response to stress. In chemical structure, it ... For cortisol to be released from the adrenal gland, a cascade of signaling occurs. Corticotropin-releasing hormone released ... which relays the signal to the adrenal cortex. Here, the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, in response to ACTH, secrete ...
*  Behavioral endocrinology
The outer region called the outer part which is called the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produce the hormones that are ... and these would include a hormone such as Adrenaline. Cortisol is produced by the adrenal cortex above the kidneys and plays a ... Adrenal is known as the "fight or flight" hormone as rapidly rushes blood to muscles and brain and produce the effects: ... These hormones are a product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis). These organs function together ...
*  Myelolipoma
This might occur because of the actions of adrenal cortex hormones, or of hormones released by the pituitary gland that act on ... Most do not produce any adrenal hormones. Most are only discovered as a result of investigation for another problem. When ... A macroscopic photograph of an adrenal myelolipoma. A remnant of the adrenal gland can be seen at the top The cut surface shows ... 2008). "Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature". ...
*  Angiotensin
... also stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium ... Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin- ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide and is a hormone and a powerful dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule ... Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels. ...
*  Naftalan oil
Naftalan stimulates the production of hormones in the adrenal cortex, has an antibacterial and sun-protective effect. It also ... They also participate in biosynthesis reactions of steroid hormones. Naftalan also contains a large number of physiologically ...
*  Renin-angiotensin system
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone causes the renal ... In the adrenal cortex, angiotensin II acts to cause the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the tubules (e.g., the ... In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion, in the heart and vasculature ... 866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160- ...
*  Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of ... This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of the adrenal cortex. The long term actions of ACTH include ... ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ... Glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal cortex work to inhibit CRH secretion by the hypothalamus, which in turn decreases ...
*  Adrenal gland
... the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla, both of which produce hormones. The adrenal cortex is the outermost layer of ... Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla. The adrenal cortex itself is divided into ... The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal cortex is devoted to production of hormones, namely aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens. The outermost zone of the ...
*  Corticosteroid
... part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex, which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a "cortex steroid ... Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the ... Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex, which ... Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is ...
*  Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first ... Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex: The role of the renin-angiotensin system: Angiotensin is involved in ... Aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone synthase ... The product of this hybrid gene is aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland. ...
*  Secondary hypertension
Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. ... Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L (2008). "[Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals ...
*  Adrenal tumor
... and certain sex hormones. Both benign and malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex may produce steroid hormones, with important ... The adrenal cortex is composed of three distinct layers of endocrine cells which produce critical steroid hormones. These ... An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... Adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex which are extremely common (present in 1-10% of persons at ...
*  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
ACTH in turn acts on: the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... TRH); the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ...
*  Norbormide
Neri, G., et al., "Norbormide enhances late steps of steroid-hormone synthesis in rat and mouse adrenal cortex." Journal of ... of corticosterone and aldosterone production in both rat and mice adrenal gland by enhancing late steps of steroid-hormone ...
*  Androgen
... is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol. It is the primary precursor of natural estrogens. DHEA is ... the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the ... Androstenedione (A4) is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries. While androstenediones are ... This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the ...
*  Philip Showalter Hench
The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their ... "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." As of the 2010 ... During this same time, biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall has isolated several steroids from the adrenal gland cortex. After ... Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for the discovery of the hormone ...
*  Tropic hormone
... stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids. Luteinizing hormone (LH) - stimulates the release of steroid hormones ... Tropic hormones are hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target. Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted ... Tropic hormones are contrasted with non-tropic hormones, which directly stimulate target cells. Tropic hormones from the ... Endocrine system Non-tropic hormone Trophic hormone naturalthyroidmedication.org Purves, William K.; David Sadava; Gordon H. ...
*  Adrenocortical hormone
... the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland. These ... Androgens, or sex hormones, are synthesized in the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona reticularis. These ... Mineralocorticoid hormones are synthesized in the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona glomerulosa. Their ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ...
*  Stressor
... adrenocorticotropic hormone) ->adrenal cortex secretes various stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) ->stress hormones (30 varieties ... After which, the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Mental and social stressors may affect behavior and how individuals ...
*  University of Virginia School of Medicine
... demonstrated that the adrenal cortex contained a hormone, not epinephrine, which influenced carbohydrate storage and metabolism ... 1976 - Michael O. Thorner, M.B.B.S., D.Sc., professor of medicine, discovered a new hypothalamic hormone, growth hormone ... 1971 - 1981 - Alfred G. Gilman, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pharmacology discovered G-proteins, cellular mediators of hormone ... releasing hormone. Thorner received the 1995 NIH General Clinical Research Centers Award for his work in clinical ...
*  Cushing's syndrome
... adrenocorticotropic hormone). Excessive ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce high levels of cortisol, producing the ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ... Cortisol is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland from a region called the zona fasciculata in response to ACTH. Elevated ... Tumors outside the normal pituitary-adrenal system can produce ACTH (occasionally with CRH) that affects the adrenal glands. ...
*  Fluid balance
The activated renin-angiotensin system stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex which in turn secretes the hormone ... The anti-diuretic hormones vasopressin (ADH) and aldosterone play a major role in this. If the body is becoming fluid-deficient ... This hormone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium ions from distal tubules and collecting ducts. Water in the tubular lumen ... Thus, there will be an increase in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone, causing fluid to be retained by the kidneys and urine ...
Looking for adrenal corticoid? Find out information about adrenal corticoid. Any steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex of vertebrates. Any steroid with properties of an adrenal cortex steroid Explanation of adrenal corticoid
Background Impaired corticosteroid action caused by genetic and environmental influence, including exposure to hazardous xenobiotics, contributes to the development and progression of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular complications and immune disorders. Novel strategies are thus needed for identifying xenobiotics that interfere with corticosteroid homeostasis. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are major regulators of corticosteroid action. 11β-HSD2 converts the active glucocorticoid cortisol to the inactive cortisone and protects MR from activation by glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD2 has also an essential role in the placenta to protect the fetus from high maternal cortisol concentrations. Methods and Principal Findings We employed a previously constructed 3D-structural library of chemicals with proven and suspected endocrine disrupting effects for virtual screening using a chemical feature-based 11β-HSD pharmacophore. We tested several in silico
Background Impaired corticosteroid action caused by genetic and environmental influence, including exposure to hazardous xenobiotics, contributes to the development and progression of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular complications and immune disorders. Novel strategies are thus needed for identifying xenobiotics that interfere with corticosteroid homeostasis. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are major regulators of corticosteroid action. 11β-HSD2 converts the active glucocorticoid cortisol to the inactive cortisone and protects MR from activation by glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD2 has also an essential role in the placenta to protect the fetus from high maternal cortisol concentrations. Methods and Principal Findings We employed a previously constructed 3D-structural library of chemicals with proven and suspected endocrine disrupting effects for virtual screening using a chemical feature-based 11β-HSD pharmacophore. We tested several in silico
Abstract Systemic and topical corticosteroids constitute an important part in the treatment of children with uveitis, because of their rapid therapeutic onset. Patients with anteri..
Corticosteroids are more potent than NSAIDs in reducing inflammation and restoring function when the disease is active. Corticosteroids are particularly helpful when internal organs are affected. Corticosteroids can be given by mouth, injected directly
The biochemical and metabolic effects of the corticosteroids cannot be easily related to their desired anti-inflammatory and antiallergic therapeutic actions. Ordinarily, the corticosteroids have no place in the treatment of uncomplicated rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroid therapy is most important in those disorders requiring prolonged, high-dose and short-term intensive therapy. The complications of corticosteroid therapy can be largely reduced if the underlying disease permits alternate-day therapy. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system is potentially the most hazardous complication of high-dose, prolonged corticosteroid therapy. This complication can be avoided by the institution of alternate-day therapy but it can become manifest up to 6 months after cessation of therapy. ...
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare, serious fungal infection commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. The precise incidence of IA has not been documented, and reported incidence rates vary widely. Some typical risk factors for IA include hematopoietic stem-cell transplants, long-term corticosteroid therapy, hematologic malignancies, and HIV. The lungs are the most frequent site of IA; consequently, symptoms and clinical manifestations are typically pulmonary. Because of the high risk of fatality, IA management with the appropriate agents must commence as quickly as possible. Voriconazole is the first-line empirical therapy recommended by Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines; if there is no clinical response, then salvage therapy with other azoles, echinocandins, or amphotericin B lipid formulations should be administered. Read more.. ...
A deficiency of calcium at osteoblastic level was the principal cause for the reduced mineralisation of the wide osteoid seams (as reflected by the reduced distance between the tetracycline lines). The reasons for the unavailability of calcium at cellular level were multi-factorial. The low 25(OH)D concentration was the result of the lack of sun exposure and contributed to a reduced uptake of dietary calcium. Long-term corticosteroid therapy inhibited intestinal mineral uptake and reduced osteoblast mediation of mineralisation. Intestinal parasitic competition for dietary mineral added another parameter to the complex pathogenesis. The lack of loading of the skeleton due to the bedridden state of the patient was furthermore a potent stimulus for mineralised bone loss, a phenomenon particularly relevant to the growing skeleton.6 As some degree of mineralisation occurred during the period of hospitalisation (reflected by the broad mineralisation front of recent onset) a dietary deficiency before ...
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states ...
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states ...
The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults. 13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed. Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43-1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of −0.24 (95% CI −0.56-0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related ...
The Kentucky Horse Racing Commission is collecting information on corticosteroid elimination times following specific uses of the medications provided by participating racetrack veterinarians.
Known or suspected congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive therapy such as anti-cancer chemotherapy or radiation therapy within the preceding 6 months, or long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy (prednisone or equivalent for more than 2 consecutive weeks within the past 3 months ...
These findings in rodents are similar to those reported previously for other beta-adrenergic agonist drugs. Advair HFA Side Effects Center. Call your advaiir for preventive treatment if you are exposed to advair a corticosteroid pox or advai. This drug is advair a corticosteroid at a higher level co-pay. Breathe out through your mouth and push as much air from your lungs as you can. In rare cases, patients on inhaled fluticasone propionate, a component of Advair HFA, may present with systemic eosinophilic conditions.. There are no data from controlled trials on advair a corticosteroid use of salmeterol by nursing mothers. Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. Advair HFA contains both fluticasone propionate and ocrticosteroid. View explanations for tiers and. Starting dosage is based on prior asthma therapy and disease severity.. ...
Good news. Juice feasting is not just a powerful healing modality for people. Today, our pets are also suffering from the degenerative diseases of modern industrial society. For this reason many people are switching their pets to a raw and natural diet. My dog is currently suffering from an autoimmune disease that has left her blind and overweight with poor digestion. Her vet wants to put her on corticosteroids which are toxic and damaging to her already weak digestive system. So instead of listening to the money hungry advice of her vet I decided to see how she does on a modified juice feast. As a person who knows first hand how autoimmune disease works I am well aware that the digestive tract must be healed in order to reduce the inflammatory response. In the extreme case of my dog Liebe everytime she ate her tummy would bloat and she would get short of breath. She is simply not digesting properly. Swithching her to juices, miso soup, chicken and veggie broth, green superfoods and curcumin ...
Good news. Juice feasting is not just a powerful healing modality for people. Today, our pets are also suffering from the degenerative diseases of modern industrial society. For this reason many people are switching their pets to a raw and natural diet. My dog is currently suffering from an autoimmune disease that has left her blind and overweight with poor digestion. Her vet wants to put her on corticosteroids which are toxic and damaging to her already weak digestive system. So instead of listening to the money hungry advice of her vet I decided to see how she does on a modified juice feast. As a person who knows first hand how autoimmune disease works I am well aware that the digestive tract must be healed in order to reduce the inflammatory response. In the extreme case of my dog Liebe everytime she ate her tummy would bloat and she would get short of breath. She is simply not digesting properly. Swithching her to juices, miso soup, chicken and veggie broth, green superfoods and curcumin ...
Medical treatment of uveitis must be aggressive to prevent glaucoma, scarring of the structures inside the eye, and blindness. Different medications are used to control the original cause of the uveitis, if known, and to minimize the inflammation itself. Eye drops and oral corticosteroids minimize the inflammatory process. Steroid-sparing drugs such as Imuran can help reduce the need for large amounts of oral corticosteroids and improve the outcome. Corticosteroids may be administered by eye drops, injections under the conjunctiva, and orally depending on what structures in the eye are affected. Drops in the eye must be postponed if damage to the corneal surface (such as an ulcer) is present because the corticosteroids prevent healing and can cause the ulcer to worsen. If certain systemic diseases are suspected, oral corticosteroids may be postponed or avoided altogether. Topically applied NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) will help reduce the inflammation within the eye. Drops or ...
Patients already being treated (or who stopped treatment less than 6 months earlier), for Horton Disease or for another disease, Treatment with anti TNF-α, methotrexate, ciclosporin, cyclophosphamide, dapsone or bolus of corticoids. Patients on long-term corticoids for another disease Start of treatment for Hortons disease with one dose , 1 mg/Kg whatever the duration. - Infections: Chronic (or acute) viral hepatitis B or C Infection with HIV Persistent or severe infection requiring hospitalisation or IV antibiotherapy during the 30 days preceding inclusion Infection requiring oral antibiotics in the 14 days preceding inclusion History of active tuberculosis, histoplasmosis or listeriosis Signs of latent tuberculosis (based on a history of untreated contact, opacity of more than 1 cm in diameter on a lung X-ray, or a positive in vitro test (Quantiferon Gold or T-Spot-TB) History of sigmoiditis complicating diverticulosis, a history of peritonitis. ...
Stopping corticosteroid therapy In autoimmune disease, clear end-points should be set before starting therapy. Corticosteroids may improve mood and give patients a feeling of general well-being unrelated to the effect on the disease being treated.
Corticosteroids are one of the most common medications that are used in the intensive care units (ICUs); corticosteroids are used for a variety of indications, including ..
Systemic administration of corticosteroids causes atrophy of the adrenal glands and suppression of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis. Thus, care must be taken when transferring patients from systemic steroid treatment to Ventnaze Aqueous as abrupt withdrawal of the exogenous corticosteroids can produce a hypoadrenal state. Patients receiving systemic corticosteroid treatment should continue with the treatment for a week after starting with Ventnaze. Thereafter, the dose of systemic treatment should be gradually reduced ...
There is little evidence as to what percentage of a topical corticosteroid dose is absorbed systemically. Studies investigating systemic effects do not measure how much of the corticosteroid is in the blood, but instead focus on measuring
Corticosteroid therapy in patients with brain tumors.: Since the first half of the last decade, numerous authors have testified to the clinical usefulness of co
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Memorial Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Memorial Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Oak Hill Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Grand Strand Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Grand Strand Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Blake Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Largo Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Blake Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
П Page 168 156 Electroretinograms пTakada, Y. Pa- tients with Gushing disease and patients re- ceiving exogenous corticosteroids can mani- caan a supernormal ERG.
Corticosteroids are a group of steroid hormones produced by your body in the adrenal cortex, though they can be made synthetically as well.
Brand name: Dermotic and Earsol-HC. Otic corticosteroids are cortisone-like medications that are used to treat redness, swelling, and itching in the ears, which can be symptoms...
By Santosh Vardhana, MD A 36-year-old obese male with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presents to the ER with new knee pain, swelling, and erythema. J...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek corticosteroid Nasal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Despite an intriguing understanding of trabecular bone dynamics, little is known about corticosteroid-induced cortical bone loss and fractures. Recently, we verified a steroid-induced decrease in cortical bone volume and density using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adult asthmatic patients given oral corticosteroids. Subsequently, the pQCT parameters and presence of vertebral fractures were investigated to further clarify the role of cortical bone quality in fractures in 86 postmenopausal (>5 years after menopause) asthmatic patients on high-dose oral steroid (>10 g cumulative oral prednisolone) (steroid group) and 194 age-matched controls (control group). Cortical and trabecular bone was subjected to measurement of various parameters using pQCT (Stratec XCT960). Relative Cortical Volume (RCV) was calculated by dividing the cortical area by the total bone area. Strength Strain Index (SSI) was determined in the radius based on the density distribution around the axis. ...
Some people with asthma need to rely on corticosteroid drugs to control their asthma. Corticosteroids help reduce the inflammation (swelling) of the airways (passages to the lungs) associated with asthma. Long-term use of these drugs may have serious adverse effects, so other ways to try and cut down on the need for corticosteroids are sometimes tried. Cyclosporin is the drug used to prevent organ rejections after transplants, and it can be used for other conditions involving inflammation (such as arthritis). The review of trials found that cyclosporin has a small impact on asthma symptoms, but it has major serious adverse effects. ...
Canadian Respiratory Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to provide a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention, lung cancer, airway and lung infections, as well as any other respiratory diseases.
The activity of the adrenal cortex may have a profound influence on the normal maintenance of lymphoid tissue. Dougherty and White (1) demonstrated, in 1943, that adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) caused lymphoid atrophy in mice. In 1944 Heilman and Kendall (2) reported that the administration of Compound E® (11-dehydro-17-hydroxycorticosterone) resulted in regression of lymphosarcoma implanted in female mice. Thereafter corticosteroid therapy was widely used in acute and chronic leukemia. Pearson and associates (3, 4), Spies and coworkers (5), and Stickney, Heck, and Watkins (6) observed transient regressions of lymphadenopathy in Hodgkins disease after the administration of ACTH and low doses of ...
If the adrenal glands become suppressed (due to the extra corticosteroids available in the bloodstream from receiving a corticosteroid medication), it takes a period of time for them to get back in the game. Remember, if all things were working normally, when the adrenal cortex received ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland, it would release natural corticosteroids into the bloodstream. But suppressed glands dont respond well to ACTH. Because of the suppression, the adrenal glands cant respond to stress and the needs of the body as they normally would by releasing the corticosteroids that help the body maintain homeostasis.. The adrenal glands need time to "wake up," so gradually decreasing the corticosteroid dosage is essential to allow them time to recover and get back in the game. If a patient with adrenal gland suppression from high-dose corticosteroid administration stops receiving the medication abruptly, hell experience an adrenal crisis similar to an addisonian crisis, which can be ...
Four randomized controlled trials with a total of 1008 adult participants met the inclusion criteria. All participants received oral antibiotics and were assigned to either oral corticosteroids (prednisone 24 mg to 80 mg daily or betamethasone 1 mg daily) or the control treatment (placebo in three trials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in one trial). In all trials, participants treated with oral corticosteroids were more likely to have short-term resolution or improvement of symptoms than those receiving the control treatment: at Days 3 to 7. An analysis of the three trials with placebo as a control treatment showed similar results but with a lesser effect size: No data on the long-term effects of oral corticosteroids on this condition, such as effects on relapse or recurrence rates was identified. Reported side effects of oral corticosteroids were limited and mild ...
Corticosteroids can have a number of side effects, including high blood sugar levels. For this reason, people with diabetes are advised to tell their healthcare providers about their condition before taking any steroid medicines.. Using injectable corticosteroids for a long time is not suggested because of additional side effects. These include osteoporosis, cataracts, delayed growth, stomach ulcers, skin atrophy and depigmentation, mood disorders, and high blood pressure. You may have short-term side effects like local pain or infection at the injection site. Your healthcare provider will usually limit your total number of corticosteroid injections to 3 to 4 a year.. If you are considering taking corticosteroids to treat a muscular or skeletal condition, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider about all the benefits and risks. ...
These kinds of diseases" and a new health book reveals the dangers they faceFood preservation has been shown to exert its profound inhibitory effect on hormones by creating an immune response. However, since it affected her kidneys and liver so you start rheumatoid arthritis cure in ayurveda feeling as good as you doctor-hop your way and dictates a motor response stepping aside. Premature menopause PM occurs because the specialist they are experiencing any of the disease in children who were on corticosteroid therapy and other stuff about 110 years ago. I am thankful I finally feel as miserable as I can go too far from the Anglo-Saxon punion meaning to pound. You think that you suffer from alopecia. There was a passenger on a womans body.. Our skin is our collection of free online courses designed to attack foreign substances and the symptoms of borderline psychopathology in our body. Children can also with time, then so can I do know enough about the trend. Mild symptoms might be produced by ...
Contributing Writer, MedPage Today. The FDA has approved AstraZenecas biologic drug benralizumab (Fasenra) for the add-on maintenance treatment of patients age 12 years and over with severe asthma with an eosinophilic phenotype, the drugmaker announced.. Approval was based on pivotal trials showing up to a 51% reduction in the annual asthma exacerbation rate versus placebo in patients with uncontrolled, severe asthma and high levels of eosinophilia. The drug also showed an overall adverse event profile similar to that of placebo in the trials, and users had median 75% reductions in daily oral corticosteroid use.. Benralizumab becomes the first approved monoclonal antibody with an 8-week maintenance dosing schedule, following three initial doses given every 4 weeks.. Its the first approved drug that targets the interleukin-5α receptor. The two other IL-5 biologics approved by the FDA for severe, uncontrolled asthma -- GlaxoSmithKlines mepolizumab (Nucala) and Tevas reslizumab (Cinqair) -- ...
Topical corticosteroids. These drugs are the most frequently prescribed medications for treating mild to moderate psoriasis. They reduce inflammation and relieve itching and may be used with other treatments.. Mild corticosteroid ointments are usually recommended for sensitive areas, such as your face or skin folds, and for treating widespread patches of damaged skin.. Your doctor may prescribe stronger corticosteroid ointment for smaller, less sensitive or tougher-to-treat areas.. Long-term use or overuse of strong corticosteroids can cause thinning of the skin. Topical corticosteroids may stop working over time. Its usually best to use topical corticosteroids as a short-term treatment during flares.. ...
In this population of Medicaid- and CHIP-insured children, we found both high rates of asthma diagnosis, high rates of OCS dispensing among children with an asthma diagnosis, and a large amount of variation in OCS prescribing rates. Taken together, these results suggest a substantial amount of OCS overprescribing among Medicaid-insured children with a health care providers diagnosis of asthma.. There is good evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials that systemic corticosteroids reduce risk of relapse and speed improvement in patients who present with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation11-14 and for children with a history of moderate to severe, poorly controlled asthma.15,16 Given the large scale of OCS use in our population, one must assume that a substantial portion of the use is for children who present with mild wheezing and/or coughing. There is no evidence for benefit of systemic corticosteroid prescription for children ,5 years of age who present with coughing or mild ...
how long will effexor withdrawal last Steroid medication can weaken your order immune system, making it easier for you election to get an infection. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. It can treat low corticosteroid levels, or other conditions in patients with normal corticosteroid levels, such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, and breathing disorders. Panting, commercial vomiting, diarrhea, ulceration of the digestive tract, lethargy Aggression Delayed healing). Long-term use of steroids may lead to bone loss (osteoporosis especially if you smoke, if you do not exercise, if you do not get enough vitamin D or calcium in your diet, or if you have a family history of osteoporosis. It also suppresses the immune system. Give a list of all your medicines to any healthcare provider who treats you. Long-term high doses of steroids can cause thinning skin, easy bruising, body shape changes, increased body hair and ...
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids often induce steroid psychosis, a collection of heterogeneous syndromes with different pathophysiologic mechanisms. To date, no study has focused specifically on recurrent corticosteroid-induced mood disorders and consider
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Systemic Corticosteroid, Corticosteroid, Betamethasone, Dexamethasone, Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, Methylprednisolone, Prednisolone, Prednisone.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes to asthma exacerbations and development of inhaled corticosteroid insensitivity. Complete resistance to systemic corticosteroids is rare and most patients lie on a continuum of steroid responsiveness. The objective of this study was to examine the sensitivity of combined ovalbumin- (Ova) and LPS-induced functional and inflammatory responses to inhaled and systemic corticosteroid in conscious guinea-pigs, to test the hypothesis that the route of administration affects its sensitivity. Guinea-pigs were sensitised to Ova and challenged with inhaled Ova alone or combined with LPS. Airways function was determined by measuring specific airways conductance via whole-body plethysmography. Airways hyperresponsiveness to histamine was determined pre- and 24h post-Ova challenge. Airways inflammation and underlying mechanisms were determined from bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts and lung tissue cytokines. Vehicle or dexamethasone was administered by once-daily ...
The adrenal glands dont really get tired in the way that you might expect. What happens is that, after a period of chronic stress, your body starts to run out of the hormone precursor material that it uses to make certain hormones.
The lab was able to show in patient samples that elevated levels of phosphorylated MSK1 and/or phosphorylated TAK-1 correlates with resistance to corticosteroid treatment. They also showed in an in-vitro model that treatment with a TAK-1 inhibitor was able to reverse the steroid resistance.
The discovery of corticosteroids at Mayo Clinic earned the Nobel Prize in 1950. A new Mayo study shows they are still a common treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, even as newer drugs with fewer ...
The discovery of corticosteroids at Mayo Clinic earned the Nobel Prize in 1950. A new Mayo study shows they are still a common treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, even as newer drugs with fewer ...
The negative effects and decreased responsiveness from long-term corticosteroid treatment are potential risks. Being quite unsightly, eczema is also a reason for an individual to withdraw in a social circle. Eczema arises because of environmental factors such as exposure to substances having harsh chemicals. As a pharmacist, I do not advocate for or against the use of herbal products, and I am aware that millions of consumers worldwide use some form of herbal product with eczema cure home remedies without conventional medicine.
Corticosteroid excess is associated with changes in memory and hippocampal structure. A consistent finding during corticosteroid exposure or following stress is...
Corticosteroids have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect and can be taken as tablets or injections by people with AS.. If a particular joint is inflamed, corticosteroids can be injected directly into the joint. Youll need to rest the joint for up to 48 hours after the injection.. Its usually considered wise to have a corticosteroid injection up to three times in one year, with at least three months between injections in the same joint. This is because corticosteroids injections can cause a number of side effects, such as:. ...
Studies of implementation have revealed that hospitals are not fully implementing the guidelines. However, studies based on the implementation of the guidelines have demonstrated decreased mortality rates. The use of corticosteroids in septic shock is a controversial subject, with many trials using high-dose corticosteroids failing to demonstrate an improvement of survival rates. However, studies of the use of low-dose corticosteroids have given mixed results. The identification of pathogens must be achieved as quickly and accurately as possible, as treatment delays lead to increases in mortality, morbidity, and cost. Relatively new areas of investigation for the treatment of sepsis include the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as ramipril, candesartan, captopril, and enalapril, and macrolides, such as azithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and telethromycin ...
Corticosteroid treatment affects H. influenzae clearance by antibiotic treatment in the mouse airwayA, B Mice infected intranasally with 1 × 108 CFU H. in
The rationale for the use of vitamin D derivatives in the treatment of psoriasis is based on the observation that patients with hypocalcemia often develop various forms of psoriasis, most notably the pustular form. In one case, a patient who had
The goal of topical corticosteroid therapy is to maximise the clinical benefits of this highly effective group of drugs, while minimising their adverse effects. Many types of steroid-induced skin...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at West Florida Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at West Florida Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Daily treatment with inhaled corticosteroids can reduce breathing problems in pre-school-aged children at high risk for asthma but they do not prevent the development of persistent asthma in these children.
Treatment with corticosteroids is prescribed in patients with COPD in order to improve the obstructive syndrome, alleviate the shortness of breath and the associated discomfort and there is evidence that such treatment is not only beneficial but sometimes even lifesaving 76, 77. A meta-analysis on the use of oral corticosteroid treatment (prednisolone between 30 mg·day−1 for 7 days and 60 mg·day−1 tapered to 20 mg·day−1 over 8 weeks) in patients with stable COPD found an effect size from 0-38%, depending on the outcome measures (0% when the outcome measures were arterial blood gas, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung, or subjective changes, 38% when outcome was assessed by the 12‐min walking distance, peak expiratory flow rate and dyspnoea score) 76. When the authors of the meta-analysis averaged the effect size and used FEV1 as criterion, it became obvious that oral corticosteroid therapy had a 20% improvement effect (10% more than for the placebo group) 76.. A ...
Prednisone is a medication often used solely or with different medicines for treating the side effects of low level of corticosteroid or the absence of specific substances which are generally created in the body and are required for proper functioning. Prednisone is additionally used to treat different conditions in patients with ordinary corticosteroid levels. These conditions incorporate certain sorts of joint pain; serious hypersensitive responses; different sclerosis (a malady in which the nerves dont work appropriately); lupus; and certain conditions that influence the skin, eyes, lungs, kidneys, thyroid, stomach, blood, and other internal organs. Prednisone is additionally now and again used to treat the manifestations of specific sorts of disease. Prednisone can be classified as corticosteroids. It attempts to treat patients with decreased levels of corticosteroids by supplanting steroids that are ordinarily delivered characteristically by the body. It attempts to treat different ...
Learn more about Spinal Corticosteroid Injection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctor...
Learn more about Spinal Corticosteroid Injection at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctor...
Learn more about Spinal Corticosteroid Injection at West Hills Hospital DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctor If Any...
|p|Corticosteroid injections can reduce inflammation, relieving pain and improving function and mobility. Find out when they are used and the risks involved.|/p|
Learn more about Spinal Corticosteroid Injection at Wesley Medical Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctor If ...
Comments, concepts and statistics about Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study.
De Pellegrin A, Rossanese A, Bilato C, Cancian M, Ossi E.Severe carditis in an undiagnosed Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 25 (Suppl. 44): S-109 abstr. P-XII-117, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2007 - ItalyGoogle Scholar ...
Patients afflicted with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD can be effectively treated and experienced reduced mortality risk when treated with inhaled corticosteroids, as per a study appearing in the CHEST, which is a peer-reviewed journal of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP).. COPD patients who make use of inhaled corticosteroids benefit from improved survival rates as per Christine Macie, MD, FCCP, Cambridge Hospital, Ontario, Canada and author of this study.. COPD patients administered with inhaled steroids are relatively in a better position than those not using it, as per Dr. Macie. It was also revealed in the study that cardiovascular related deaths were reduced by as much as 38% and a 25% reduced all-cause mortality rate was noticed among patients administered with inhaled corticosteroids within thirty days of discharge from the hospital.. ...
Fall in BP may occur due to mass destruction of microfilariae and adult worms. The reaction can be minimized by starting with a low dose, and by giving antihistaminics or corticosteroids at the time of starting the treatment. Renal impairment.. ...
Adalimumab (Humira®) helps treat non-infectious intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis (NIPPU), according to findings from an open-label clinical trial extension, VISUAL-III
Health, ...WEDNESDAY April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Inhaled corticosteroids can ac...U.S. researchers examined the medical records of 15768 COPD patients ...The all-cause death rate after 30 days was 10.2 percent for inhaled co...Overall patients not treated with inhaled corticosteroids were about ...,Inhaled,Meds,May,Save,COPD/Pneumonia,Patients,Lives,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Minority children in our sample were somewhat less likely to have used inhaled corticosteroids in the 4 weeks before their ED visit, and they were equally likely to be discharged on inhaled corticosteroids. This is particularly noteworthy considering black and Hispanic childrens histories of greater hospitalizations and ED visits, which logically suggests that they are most in need of inhaled corticosteroids.38 Our multivariate analyses indicated that being discharged on inhaled corticosteroids was most strongly influenced by the patients description of the current attack rather than health care utilization. If the emergency physicians who treated the patients in our study had prescribed inhaled corticosteroids on the basis of emergent or urgent health care utilization, then most of the black and Hispanic children in our sample would have been discharged on an inhaled corticosteroid. Others have repeatedly found similar trends highlighting the relative deficits in preventive and ...
Immunomodulatory therapy should be considered early, because NSAIDs or a short course of oral corticosteroids may be sufficient for symptom remission in recent-onset cases, whereas those with long-standing symptoms often require more intensive and prolonged immunotherapeutic interventions, the authors write.
This web site is intended for Australian residents and is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Information and interactions contained in this Web site are for information purposes only and are not intended to be used to diagnose, treat,
Are some inhaled corticosteroids superior to others? What is suggested in combination with Symbicort, but in place of Prednisone?
CHEST A Pooled Analysis of FEV 1 Decline in COPD Patients Randomized to Inhaled Corticosteroids or Placebo* Joan B. Soriano, MD, PhD; Don D. Sin, MD, FCCP; Xuekui Zhang, MSc; Pat G. Camp, MSc; Julie A.
The main role of corticosteroid medications is to control inflammation. Steroid medications are chemically similar to many of your bodys naturally produced hormones. These medications work by
Class: Corticosteroid Generic Name: Prednisolone (pred-ni-ZOE-lone) Trade Name: Delta-Cortef®, Orapred®, Pediapred®, Prelone® How is this drug used? Prednisolone is FDA approved for the palliation of lymphomas and leukemias, as well as for the relief or treatment of several symptoms that may be caused by cancer. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have […]. ...
If there is a class of drug more commonly used and with more severe side effects than corticosteroids, Im not sure what it would be other than antidepressants.
HPLC Application #18919: Corticosteroids Analysis on Luna 5u CN 150 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Luna® 5 µm CN 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4255-E0
The researchers found that the inhaled corticosteroids appeared to slow the growth of the children in the treatment group; however, this effect appeared to be temporary. The difference in growth rate was significant between the two groups during the first year of the study, but not during the second year of treatment. During the third-year observation period, the children who had been regularly treated with inhaled corticosteroids grew more quickly than the children who had not received inhaled corticosteroids. Overall, the children in the placebo group grew an average of 1.1 cm more than the children in the treatment group after two years, but by the end of the three-year study, the difference in average increase in height dropped to 0.7 cm ...
Five-year follow-up of a young male patient is presented. Total external ophthalmoplegia developed 1 week after an upper respiratory tract infection. After 3 years of the course, hyperthyreosis and clinical signs of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy occurred. Hashimotos thyroiditis and ultrastructural signs of mitochondrial damage of striated muscle were found by histological investigations. The paresis of the external ocular muscles recovered after long-term corticosteroid treatment. On the basis of clinical symptoms and histological results, the authors supposed that an immunological reaction had caused mitochondrial damage in the striated muscles, which also resulted in thyroiditis. This case history points that autoimmune mechanism more frequently might participate in the pathogenesis of chronic external ophthalmoplegia, and the symptoms might precede organ-specific or perhaps systemic autoimmune disorders.. ...
An Australian review into a lack of monitoring of the long-term effects of corticosteroids, which are commonly prescribed as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication, has fuelled a renewed call for clinicians, pharmacists and patients to work together and take preventative steps to minimise risk of bone loss and fracture, particularly in older people.. The findings, published yesterday in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research (JPPR), the flagship research publication of the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia (SHPA), advises risk monitoring, vitamin D and calcium supplements and fracture prevention therapy should be considered when oral corticosteroids are used for longer than one month.. Corticosteroids are commonly prescribed to mitigate chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), among others.. First author Dr Kerrie Westaway from the School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences at the ...
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Treatment with methylprednisolone began a mean of 1.1 days after starting antibiotic therapy (83% vs 36%, P , 0.024) {ARI 47%; NNT 2, CI 1 to 14; RRI 129%, CI 13% to 463%}*. 9 patients (75%) survived to hospital discharge in the corticosteroid group compared with 2 (18%) in the control group (P , 0.008) {this absolute risk improvement of 57% means that 2 patients would need to be treated (NNT) with corticosteroids (compared with placebo) to have 1 additional patient survive to hospital discharge, 95% CI 1 to 6; the relative risk improvement was 313%, CI 40% to 1402%}*. 9 patients (82%) in the placebo group compared with 3 (25%) in the corticosteroid group had respiratory failure (P , 0.008). {Absolute risk reduction 57%; 2 patients would need to be treated with corticosteroids (compared with placebo) to prevent 1 additional case of respiratory failure, CI 1 to 6; relative risk reduction 69%, CI 29% to 89%.}* More patients assigned to corticosteroids (10 vs 4 on placebo) completed 21 days of ...
Treatment with methylprednisolone began a mean of 1.1 days after starting antibiotic therapy (83% vs 36%, P , 0.024) {ARI 47%; NNT 2, CI 1 to 14; RRI 129%, CI 13% to 463%}*. 9 patients (75%) survived to hospital discharge in the corticosteroid group compared with 2 (18%) in the control group (P , 0.008) {this absolute risk improvement of 57% means that 2 patients would need to be treated (NNT) with corticosteroids (compared with placebo) to have 1 additional patient survive to hospital discharge, 95% CI 1 to 6; the relative risk improvement was 313%, CI 40% to 1402%}*. 9 patients (82%) in the placebo group compared with 3 (25%) in the corticosteroid group had respiratory failure (P , 0.008). {Absolute risk reduction 57%; 2 patients would need to be treated with corticosteroids (compared with placebo) to prevent 1 additional case of respiratory failure, CI 1 to 6; relative risk reduction 69%, CI 29% to 89%.}* More patients assigned to corticosteroids (10 vs 4 on placebo) completed 21 days of ...
Wong HR, Cvijanovich NZ, Allen GL, et al. Corticosteroids are associated with repression of adaptive immunity gene programs in pediatric septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Apr 15;189(8):940-6. RATIONALE: Corticosteroids are prescribed commonly for patients with septic shock, but their use remains controversial and concerns remain regarding side effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of adjunctive…
Inhaled corticosteroids. These anti-inflammatory drugs are the most effective medications for asthma. They reduce inflammation in your airways and prevent blood vessels from leaking fluid into your airway tissues. Corticosteroids help decrease the frequency of your attacks and reduce the need for other medications you may use to control your symptoms. Because inhaled corticosteroids control most forms of asthma by delivering medication directly to your airways, they have a lower risk of side effects than are associated with oral corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids include fluticasone (Flovent), budesonide (Pulmicort), triamcinolone (Azmacort), flunisolide (Aerobid) and beclomethasone (Qvar). Advair Diskus is a combination inhaler containing fluticasone and salmeterol.. Side effects associated with inhaled corticosteroids can include hoarseness or loss of voice, oral yeast infections (thrush), and cough. Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may slightly increase the risk of skin ...
Importance: Daily use of inhaled corticosteroids is a widely recommended treatment for mild persistent asthma in children. There is concern that, similar to systemic corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids may have adverse effects on bone health. Objective: To determine whether there is an increased risk of bone fracture associated with inhaled corticosteroid use in children with asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based nested case-control study, we used health administrative databases to identify a cohort of children aged 2 to 18 years with a physician diagnosis of asthma between April 1, 2003, and March 31, 2014, who were eligible for public drug coverage through the Ontario Drug Benefit Program (Ontario, Canada ...
Methods 318 patients diagnosed with LN between 1990 and 2015 were included in the study. We defined remission as prolonged when lasting ≥5 consecutive years. (proteinuria ≤0,03 g/L and serum creatinine ≤133,6 µmol/L) Three levels of remission were defined using the SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K): complete remission: no disease activity in corticosteroid-free and immunosuppressant-free patients; clinical remission off corticosteroids: serologically active clinical quiescent (SACQ) disease in corticosteroid-free patients and clinical remission on corticosteroids: SACQ disease in patients taking prednisone 5-10 mg/24 hour. Damage was measured by the SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI). ...
Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids can produced reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for clinical glucocorticosteroid insufficiency. This may occur during treatment or upon withdrawal of the topical corticosteroid. Because of the potential for systemic absorption, use of topical corticosteroids may require that patients be periodically evaluated for HPA axis suppression. Factors that predispose a patient using a topical corticosteroid to HPA axis suppression include the use of more potent steroids, use over the large surface areas, use over prolonged periods, use under occlusion use on an altered skin barrier, and use in patients with live failure.. An ACTH stimulation test may be helpful in evaluating patients for HPA axis suppression. If HPA axis suppression is documented, an attempt should be made to gradually withdraw the drug, to reduce the frequency of application, or to substitute a less potent steroid. Manifestations of adrenal ...
Patients on long-term oral corticosteroids have an increased risk of low bone mass and fragility fractures. Fracture risk rises soon after commencement of corticosteroid therapy and it is possible that these agents adversely influence bone architecture disproportionately to their effect on bone mass. The best means of assessing bone status in patients using corticosteroids remains uncertain, but quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus may provide evidence of microarchitectural changes not detected by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Patients with Crohns disease have an increased risk of low bone mineral density (BMD), the etiology of which is multifactorial but includes corticosteroid use. We studied 118 consecutive patients with Crohns disease, 21 of whom used continuous oral corticosteroids, 70 of whom were intermittent users, and 27 who had never used the drug. All patients received DXA of the lumbar spine, hip and calcaneus and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus. The different
We examined mortality risks between corticosteroid users and non-users among patients with perforated diverticular disease. One-year mortality risk for current users of corticosteroids was 47.6%, double that of non-users after adjustment for confounders. One-year mortality risk was even higher for new corticosteroid users: 52.5%. Thus, corticosteroid use was clearly associated with an increased mortality risk for patients with perforated diverticular disease, continuing until at least 1 year after diagnosis, regardless of corticosteroid dose.. This is the first large cohort study comparing mortality risks between corticosteroid users and non-users among patients with perforated diverticular disease. The advantage of the cohort approach is the ability to calculate absolute mortality risks, which can inform clinical practice. Our study showed that corticosteroid use is a strong indicator for 1-year mortality. An earlier study of patients with perforated peptic ulcer disease reported a 30-day ...
Background: We previously showed that the long-acting beta agonist (LABA) salmeterol as inhalation powder or metered-dose inhaler improves lung-function parameters assessed by impulse oscillometry (IOS) in 2- to 5-year-old children with reversible-airway disease within 15 minutes. Objective: We studied 12- to 45-year-olds with mild persistent asthma in order to compare the onset and extent of peripheral airway effects following the first dose and after 4 weeks dosing with two inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA combinations: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 115/21 and budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5. Methods: Thirty subjects with mild persistent asthma using only an as-needed short-acting beta-agonist (albuterol) who had at least a 40% change in integrated low-frequency reactance postalbuterol were selected and randomized to receive either fluticasone propionate/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol (15 subjects each). We collected three to six IOS replicates at baseline, at 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, and 240
Systemic corticosteroids can cause edema and weight gain. Recovery of HPA axis function is generally prompt and complete upon discontinuation of the topical corticosteroid. Micafungin: Leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia have been associated with micafungin. How to use triamcinolone acetonide topical Use this medication only on the skin. Isotretinoin: Both isotretinoin and corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis during chronic use. Are you sure you only want to order?. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Potassium Salts: Concomitant use of systemic sodium chloride, especially at high doses, and corticosteroids may result in sodium and fluid retention. I am Xream Taking. Oral and dental paste preparations are used for treating aphthous ulcers. The protective emollient helps to treat and prevent dry skin.. ...
Placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the ocular efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were eligible for inclusion in the review. Ocular efficacy could be assessed as a primary or secondary outcome or as part of a non-nasal symptom score (which included three ocular symptoms such as eye-itching, eye tearing, eye redness and ear/palate itching). Eligible intranasal corticosteroids were beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone furoate, fluticasone propionate, mometasone furoate and triamcinolone acetonide.. Ten of the included studies compared intranasal corticosteroids to placebo and also included an active comparator arm (another intranasal corticosteroids or antihistamine). Included patients included both males and females with mild to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis at baseline. Seasonal allergic rhinitis was due to various allergens (such as birch, ragweed, grass and mountain ...
The results of the present study show that frequent exacerbations in difficult-to-treat asthma are invariably associated with one or more contributing factors other than asthma itself. Apart from younger age and shorter asthma duration, frequent exacerbations in these patients were strongly associated with psychological dysfunctioning (OR 10.8), recurrent respiratory tract infections (OR 6.9), gastro-oesophageal reflux (OR 4.9), severe nasal sinus disease (OR 3.7) and OSA (OR 3.4). Furthermore, atopic patients, in particular those with specific IgE to house dust mite or cockroach, had ,10-fold increased odds for frequent exacerbations when compared with nonatopic patients. Psychological dysfunctioning and severe chronic sinus disease were the only independent contributing factors associated with frequent exacerbations, with adjusted ORs of 11.7 and 5.5, respectively. These findings emphasise the high prevalence of mostly unidentified contributing factors in difficult-to-treat asthmatic patients ...
Twenty-five patients with severe childhood asthma were treated with beclomethasone dipropionate. 21 of these children were receiving oral corticosteroid therapy in addition to disodium cromoglycate.. Of the total treated, 21 children improved or maintained their asthma status on this treatment over an average period of 4 months, and were able to reduce and stop their regular oral corticosteroid dosage, but 4 children had to revert to their original therapy.. No systemic or local toxic effects were experienced by any of the children.. Beclomethasone dipropionate appears to be an effective drug in the treatment of severe childhood asthma in those patients who need corticosteroid therapy in addition to disodium cromoglycate.. ...
Adrenal insufficiency hyponatremia - New Doctor Insights  Adrenal insufficiency hyponatremia - New Doctor Insights
... and winds up destroying the adrenal cortex, so that the adrenals can no longer make cortisol, or other hormones. As is true for ... The immune system mistakenly makes antibodies targeting one or more proteins in the adrenal cortex, ... Raff on adrenal insufficiency hyponatremia: One cause of adrenal insufficiency, addisons disease, is an auto-immune disorder. ... Adrenal cortex: The adrenal cortex makes lots of hormones. Very important are cortisol and aldosterone which help maintain life ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/adrenal-insufficiency-hyponatremia
Addisons disease - Wild By Nature - Huntington  Addison's disease - Wild By Nature - Huntington
... adrenal cortex, adrenal glands, adrenal hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone, aldosterone, corticotropin, corticotropin ... Adrenal insufficiency occurs when at least 90% of the adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal glands) has been destroyed. ... The disease occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and, in some cases, the hormone ... Secondary adrenal insufficiency: Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands are healthy, but factors ...
more infohttp://www.wildbynature.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=D272A3B93180420D908E136E9D7E775D&DocID=allergy-addisonsdisease
Addisons disease - Wilkinson Health Services / Non-retail  Addison's disease - Wilkinson Health Services / Non-retail
... adrenal cortex, adrenal glands, adrenal hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone, aldosterone, corticotropin, corticotropin ... Adrenal insufficiency occurs when at least 90% of the adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal glands) has been destroyed. ... The disease occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and, in some cases, the hormone ... Secondary adrenal insufficiency: Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands are healthy, but factors ...
more infohttp://www.wilkinsonpharmacy.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=CA16677413FA4D59A0FF53842F6ED4E5&DocID=allergy-addisonsdisease
Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma  Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma
... low production rates per tumor volume when compared to the very efficient hormone production of the small native adrenal cortex ... However, changes in hormone production can occur. When patients present with initial hormone excess, these hormone levels ... adrenal cortical or medullary tumor (i.e., with autonomous adrenal hormone production). Initial screening for hypercortisolism ... the source of hypercortisolism is always the adrenal cortex. However, cortisol release can be autonomous (ACC, adrenal adenoma ...
more infohttp://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/endocrinology-metabolism/adrenal-cortical-carcinoma/article/595716/
Diagnostic Test for Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency  Diagnostic Test for Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiency
... contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.. ... A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24 ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/diseases/IDG:D1116
Adrenal cortex hormones - Latest research and news | Nature  Adrenal cortex hormones - Latest research and news | Nature
Adrenal cortex hormones. Definition. Adrenal complex hormones are lipid hormones, derived from the small molecule cholesterol ... Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically accelerating ... Adrenal function: Cortisol metabolism during acute stress-an (IC)U turn *Joana Osório ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/subjects/adrenal-cortex-hormones?error=cookies_not_supported&code=5b9fe739-c63d-4308-bc02-78826e52ae0e
Tadeus Reichstein - Nobel Lecture: Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones - NobelPrize.org  Tadeus Reichstein - Nobel Lecture: Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones - NobelPrize.org
Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 386 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1950 ...
more infohttps://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1950/reichstein/lecture/
Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst  Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" was a major or ... "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Adrenal Cortex Hormones". ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Adrenal%20Cortex%20Hormones
CONCEPT Adrenal Cortex Hormones  CONCEPT Adrenal Cortex Hormones
... and adrenocortical or cortical hormone.,NCI: Any steroid hormone made in the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal ... CSP: any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response ... Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and consist of two subclasses, glucocorticoids (carbohydrate regulation ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0001617 ...
more infohttp://linkedlifedata.com/resource?uri=http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0001617
Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Internal Medicine Board Review Questions | Knowmedge  Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Internal Medicine Board Review Questions | Knowmedge
Adrenal Cortex Hormones - Anatomy Mnemonics - Study for your USMLE, ABIM, NCLEX, MBBS, or PANCE board exam by using Knowmedge. ...
more infohttp://knowmedge.com/medical_mnemonics/Anatomy_mnemonics/Adrenal-Cortex-Hormones/895
Sex hormone secretion by the adrenal cortex | Springer for Research & Development  Sex hormone secretion by the adrenal cortex | Springer for Research & Development
... of the adrenal cortex has long been recognized as suggestive of a biochemical relationship between the adrenal cortex and the ... The production of sex hormones by congenital hyperplasias or malignancies ... Seminal Vesicle Adrenal Cortex Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Adrenal Tumor Adrenal Androgen These keywords were added by ... Howard E., Migeon C.J. (1962) Sex hormone secretion by the adrenal cortex. In: Deane H.W. (eds) The Adrenocortical Hormones. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-88385-9_5
Systemic Corticosteroid  Systemic Corticosteroid
... adrenal cortex hormone, Adrenal Cortex Hormones [Chemical/Ingredient], Adrenal cortex hormones, adrenal cortex hormones, ... Ontology: Adrenal Cortex Hormones. (C0001617) Definition (NCI) Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and ... adrenal cortical hormone, adrenal corticosteroid, adrenocorticosteroids, corticoid, corticoids, Adrenal Cortex Hormones, ... A hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps the body use glucose (a sugar), protein, ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/endo/Pharm/SystmcCrtcstrd.htm
Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice | Cancer Research  Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice | Cancer Research
Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice. Marthella J. Frantz and Arthur Kirschbaum ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/9/5/257.article-info
Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia - Pudney - 2005 - The...  Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia - Pudney - 2005 - The...
Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. ... Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. Anat. Rec., 201: 537-551. ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ar.1092010310/references
Emergency Department Corticosteroid Use for Allergy or Anaphylaxis Is Not Associated With Decreased Relapses.  - PubMed - NCBI  Emergency Department Corticosteroid Use for Allergy or Anaphylaxis Is Not Associated With Decreased Relapses. - PubMed - NCBI
Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Grant support. *Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820033
Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell-depleted stem cell grafts.  - PubMed - NCBI  Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell-depleted stem cell grafts. - PubMed - NCBI
Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Secondary source ID. *ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00914940. Grant support. *U10 HL069294/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053664
Corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: meta-analysis | The BMJ  Corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: meta-analysis | The BMJ
... adrenal cortex hormones; osteoarthritis; knee; injections, intra-articular; and randomized controlled trial, and the non-MeSH ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/328/7444/869.full
Plus it  Plus it
... adrenal cortex hormones; osteoarthritis; knee; injections, intra-articular; and randomized controlled trial, and the non-MeSH ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/328/7444/869
RCSB PDB - ASD Ligand Summary Page  RCSB PDB - ASD Ligand Summary Page
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the testis, but also in the ovary and the adrenal cortex. Depending on the ... 4-androstenedione is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/ligand/ASD
  • These hormones regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and many other vital functions, including response to stress and infection. (portsmouthhospital.com)
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