Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyAutoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cyanoketone: 2 alpha-Cyano-17 beta-hydroxy-4,4',17 alpha-trimethylandrost-5-ene-3-one. An androstenolone-nitrile compound with steroidogenesis-blocking activity.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor that is closely related to members of the thyroid-steroid receptor gene family. It was originally identified in NERVE CELLS and may play a role in mediation of NERVE GROWTH FACTOR-induced CELL DIFFERENTIATION. However, several other functions have been attributed to this protein including the positive and negative regulation of APOPTOSIS.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Protein PrecursorsMice, Inbred C57BLMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor is not increased during relapses of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. (1/3703)

BACKGROUND: An uncharacterized circulating factor that increases vascular permeability has previously been described in childhood steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). The aim of this study was to determine whether this factor is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the recently described endothelial cell mitogen and enhancer of vascular permeability. METHODS: Plasma and urine VEGF levels were measured in children with SSNS in both relapse and remission and in normal age- and sex-matched controls. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies investigating VEGF mRNA expression were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from children with SSNS in relapse and controls. In two experimental models (one-hour and three-day follow-up postinfusion), Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously administered 50 microg rVEGF to determine whether this induced either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. RESULTS: Plasma VEGF levels and urine VEGF/creatinine ratios were not elevated in SSNS relapse compared with remission and control samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell VEGF mRNA expression was no different in SSNS patients compared with controls. The administration of VEGF to rats induced an acute reversible fall in systemic blood pressure but did not result in the development of either proteinuria or glomerular histologic change. CONCLUSION: Increased circulating VEGF levels are not responsible for the proteinuria observed during relapses of SSNS. Further studies are warranted to investigate intrarenal VEGF expression.  (+info)

Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat. (2/3703)

To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (3/3703)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. Epidemiology, pathogenic aspects and diagnosis. (4/3703)

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage, often presenting with haemoptysis. Many patients have iron deficiency anaemia due to deposition of haemosiderin iron in the alveoli, and eventually develop moderate pulmonary fibrosis. Typically, intensive search for an aetiology ends up negative. There is no evidence of pulmonary vasculitis or capillaritis. The aetiology is obscure, but may be an immunological or toxic mechanism causing a defect in the basement membrane of the pulmonary capillary. IPH affects both children and adults. During an acute episode, a chest X-ray demonstrates bilateral, alveolar infiltrates. Sputum examination discloses haemosiderin-laden alveolar macrophages. Diagnosis is established by lung biopsy (fiber-optic or thoracoscopic), showing large numbers of haemosiderin-laden macrophages in the alveoli and without evidence of capillaritis or deposition of immunoglobulins. Corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs may be effective during an acute bleeding episode, and may in some patients improve symptoms and prognosis on the long-term, but the response to treatment displays great interindividual variation.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (5/3703)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Disseminated nocardiosis in a bone marrow transplant recipient with chronic GVHD. (6/3703)

We describe a case of disseminated nocardiosis in a 53-year-old male allogeneic marrow recipient with chronic GVHD, 15 years post BMT. Six months prior to admission he was treated for recurrent chronic GVHD with corticosteroids with a good response. He deteriorated subsequently while still on steroids requiring admission for fever, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough and progressive dyspnoea. On admission he had multiple nodular lesions on chest roentgenogram and subsequently grew Nocardia farcinica in blood culture. N. farcinica is rare post BMT, has a high mortality, is resistant to various antibiotics and needs prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We report the successful management of our patient with single agent trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.  (+info)

Intravenous immune globulin (i.v.IG) therapy in steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. (7/3703)

Many trials have been done on steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Recently, intravenous immune globulin (i.v.IG) was reported to be effective in the treatment of steroid-dependent atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether i.v.IG therapy is effective in steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis. Forty-one steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis patients were tested in this study. Patients who weighed less than 30 kg were administered 500 mg/kg of i.v.IG. Patients who weighed 30 kg or more were administered 15 g of i.v.IG. Patient evaluations and laboratory tests with peripheral bloods such as eosinophil percentages and serum IgE levels were performed at days 0, 1, 7, and 21. In the present study, patients who responded to i.v.IG therapy were classified as Group A. Twelve patients who showed transient effects with lower clinical significance were classified as Group B (29.3%). Remaining 12 patients (29.3%) in Group C showed no improvement at all. Serum IgE levels and blood eosinophil percentages were markedly decreased in Group A. I.v.IG therapy may be recommended in the treatment of atopic dermatitis with extremely high serum IgE levels.  (+info)

Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. (8/3703)

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

Background Impaired corticosteroid action caused by genetic and environmental influence, including exposure to hazardous xenobiotics, contributes to the development and progression of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular complications and immune disorders. Novel strategies are thus needed for identifying xenobiotics that interfere with corticosteroid homeostasis. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are major regulators of corticosteroid action. 11β-HSD2 converts the active glucocorticoid cortisol to the inactive cortisone and protects MR from activation by glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD2 has also an essential role in the placenta to protect the fetus from high maternal cortisol concentrations. Methods and Principal Findings We employed a previously constructed 3D-structural library of chemicals with proven and suspected endocrine disrupting effects for virtual screening using a chemical feature-based 11β-HSD pharmacophore. We tested several in silico
In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.. Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. Infections with any pathogen including viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan or helminthic infections, in any location of the body, may be associated with the use of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents that affect cellular immunity, humoral immunity, or neutrophil function. 1 These infections may be mild, but can be severe and at times fatal. With increasing doses of corticosteroids, the rate of occurrence of infectious complications increases. 2 There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may ...
Corticosteroids are more potent than NSAIDs in reducing inflammation and restoring function when the disease is active. Corticosteroids are particularly helpful when internal organs are affected. Corticosteroids can be given by mouth, injected directly
Moderately early corticosteroid therapy (started at 7-14 days) reduces neonatal mortality and CLD, but at the cost of important short term adverse effects. Limited evidence concerning long term effects is provided by the trials included in this review. The methodological quality of the studies determining the long-term outcome is limited in some cases, the children have been assessed predominantly before school age, and no study has been sufficiently powered to detect important adverse long-term neurosensory outcomes. Therefore, given the risk:benefit ratio of short-term effects and the limited long-term follow-up data, it seems appropriate to reserve moderately early corticosteroid treatment to infants who cannot be weaned from mechanical ventilation and to minimise the dose and duration of any course of therapy. More research is urgently needed, including long term follow-up of survivors included in previous and any future trials, before the benefits and risks of postnatal steroid treatment, ...
These trials excluded patients receiving corticosteroids at the time of starting the study due to the concern that immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids would compromise the efficacy of immunotherapy. The frequently used exclusion criterion was use of prednisone at 10 mg daily (or equivalent) or higher. However, corticosteroids are frequently used to treat immune-related adverse events, and the use of on-treatment corticosteroids does not appear to compromise outcomes. The emerging data on the use of corticosteroids after the start of immunotherapy, the concern about excluding an effective therapy from a significant number of patients, and the common clinical need to start immunotherapy before tapering corticosteroids below the threshold of prednisone , 10 mg daily have raised questions about the use of this exclusion criterion.. Corticosteroid Use and Treatment Efficacy. AS IMMUNOTHERAPY has transitioned from clinical trials to routine clinical care, inevitably patients who were receiving ...
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states ...
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states ...
The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults. 13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed. Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43-1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of −0.24 (95% CI −0.56-0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related ...
APhA DrugInfoLine (ISSN 2162-3015) is a weekly publication of, and is owned and copyrighted by the American Pharmacists Association, the national professional society of pharmacists. Materials in APhA DrugInfoLine do not neccessarily represent the policy, recommendations, or endorsement of APhA. The publisher, authors, editors, reviewers, and contributors have taken care to ensure that the information contained in APhA DrugInfoLine is accurate and current; however, they shall have no ability to any person or entity with regard to claims, losses, or damage caused or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by use of any information contained in the publication. All decisions about drug therapy must be based on independent judgement of the clinician.. ...
The Kentucky Horse Racing Commission is collecting information on corticosteroid elimination times following specific uses of the medications provided by participating racetrack veterinarians.
FDA updates prescribing information on two HIV meds after corticosteroids are shown to reduce effectiveness and increase drug resistance.
Good news. Juice feasting is not just a powerful healing modality for people. Today, our pets are also suffering from the degenerative diseases of modern industrial society. For this reason many people are switching their pets to a raw and natural diet. My dog is currently suffering from an autoimmune disease that has left her blind and overweight with poor digestion. Her vet wants to put her on corticosteroids which are toxic and damaging to her already weak digestive system. So instead of listening to the money hungry advice of her vet I decided to see how she does on a modified juice feast. As a person who knows first hand how autoimmune disease works I am well aware that the digestive tract must be healed in order to reduce the inflammatory response. In the extreme case of my dog Liebe everytime she ate her tummy would bloat and she would get short of breath. She is simply not digesting properly. Swithching her to juices, miso soup, chicken and veggie broth, green superfoods and curcumin ...
Good news. Juice feasting is not just a powerful healing modality for people. Today, our pets are also suffering from the degenerative diseases of modern industrial society. For this reason many people are switching their pets to a raw and natural diet. My dog is currently suffering from an autoimmune disease that has left her blind and overweight with poor digestion. Her vet wants to put her on corticosteroids which are toxic and damaging to her already weak digestive system. So instead of listening to the money hungry advice of her vet I decided to see how she does on a modified juice feast. As a person who knows first hand how autoimmune disease works I am well aware that the digestive tract must be healed in order to reduce the inflammatory response. In the extreme case of my dog Liebe everytime she ate her tummy would bloat and she would get short of breath. She is simply not digesting properly. Swithching her to juices, miso soup, chicken and veggie broth, green superfoods and curcumin ...
Medical treatment of uveitis must be aggressive to prevent glaucoma, scarring of the structures inside the eye, and blindness. Different medications are used to control the original cause of the uveitis, if known, and to minimize the inflammation itself. Eye drops and oral corticosteroids minimize the inflammatory process. Steroid-sparing drugs such as Imuran can help reduce the need for large amounts of oral corticosteroids and improve the outcome. Corticosteroids may be administered by eye drops, injections under the conjunctiva, and orally depending on what structures in the eye are affected. Drops in the eye must be postponed if damage to the corneal surface (such as an ulcer) is present because the corticosteroids prevent healing and can cause the ulcer to worsen. If certain systemic diseases are suspected, oral corticosteroids may be postponed or avoided altogether. Topically applied NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) will help reduce the inflammation within the eye. Drops or ...
Patients already being treated (or who stopped treatment less than 6 months earlier), for Horton Disease or for another disease, Treatment with anti TNF-α, methotrexate, ciclosporin, cyclophosphamide, dapsone or bolus of corticoids. Patients on long-term corticoids for another disease Start of treatment for Hortons disease with one dose , 1 mg/Kg whatever the duration. - Infections: Chronic (or acute) viral hepatitis B or C Infection with HIV Persistent or severe infection requiring hospitalisation or IV antibiotherapy during the 30 days preceding inclusion Infection requiring oral antibiotics in the 14 days preceding inclusion History of active tuberculosis, histoplasmosis or listeriosis Signs of latent tuberculosis (based on a history of untreated contact, opacity of more than 1 cm in diameter on a lung X-ray, or a positive in vitro test (Quantiferon Gold or T-Spot-TB) History of sigmoiditis complicating diverticulosis, a history of peritonitis. ...
Stopping corticosteroid therapy In autoimmune disease, clear end-points should be set before starting therapy. Corticosteroids may improve mood and give patients a feeling of general well-being unrelated to the effect on the disease being treated.
Corticosteroids are one of the most common medications that are used in the intensive care units (ICUs); corticosteroids are used for a variety of indications, including ..
7. Current or prior use of immunosuppressive medication within 28 days before the first dose of study drug, with the exceptions of intranasal and inhaled corticosteroids or systemic corticosteroids at physiological doses, which are not to exceed 10 mg/day of prednisone, or an equivalent corticosteroid. Systemic steroid administration required as prophylaxis against or to manage toxicities arising from chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy delivered as part of the chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced NSCLC is allowed ...
There is little evidence as to what percentage of a topical corticosteroid dose is absorbed systemically. Studies investigating systemic effects do not measure how much of the corticosteroid is in the blood, but instead focus on measuring
Corticosteroid therapy in patients with brain tumors.: Since the first half of the last decade, numerous authors have testified to the clinical usefulness of co
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Memorial Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Memorial Hospital Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Memorial Health Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Learn more about Corticosteroids at Blake Medical Center Alternate Names : Glucocorticoids Calcium and Vitamin D -Helpful Interactions ...
Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’ lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the
П Page 168 156 Electroretinograms пTakada, Y. Pa- tients with Gushing disease and patients re- ceiving exogenous corticosteroids can mani- caan a supernormal ERG.
Corticosteroids are a group of steroid hormones produced by your body in the adrenal cortex, though they can be made synthetically as well.
Immune-mediated adverse reactions, which may be severe or fatal, can occur in any organ system or tissue in patients receiving KEYTRUDA and may also occur after discontinuation of treatment. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or exclude other causes. Based on the severity of the adverse reaction, withhold KEYTRUDA and administer corticosteroids. Upon improvement to Grade 1 or less, initiate corticosteroid taper and continue to taper over at least 1 month. Based on limited data from clinical studies in patients whose immune-related adverse reactions could not be controlled with corticosteroid use, administration of other systemic immunosuppressants can be considered. Resume KEYTRUDA when the adverse reaction remains at Grade 1 or less following corticosteroid taper. Permanently discontinue KEYTRUDA for any Grade 3 immune-mediated adverse reaction that recurs and for any life-threatening immune-mediated adverse reaction ...
Brand name: Dermotic and Earsol-HC. Otic corticosteroids are cortisone-like medications that are used to treat redness, swelling, and itching in the ears, which can be symptoms...
By Santosh Vardhana, MD A 36-year-old obese male with hypertension and hyperlipidemia presents to the ER with new knee pain, swelling, and erythema. J...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek corticosteroid Nasal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Despite an intriguing understanding of trabecular bone dynamics, little is known about corticosteroid-induced cortical bone loss and fractures. Recently, we verified a steroid-induced decrease in cortical bone volume and density using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adult asthmatic patients given oral corticosteroids. Subsequently, the pQCT parameters and presence of vertebral fractures were investigated to further clarify the role of cortical bone quality in fractures in 86 postmenopausal (>5 years after menopause) asthmatic patients on high-dose oral steroid (>10 g cumulative oral prednisolone) (steroid group) and 194 age-matched controls (control group). Cortical and trabecular bone was subjected to measurement of various parameters using pQCT (Stratec XCT960). Relative Cortical Volume (RCV) was calculated by dividing the cortical area by the total bone area. Strength Strain Index (SSI) was determined in the radius based on the density distribution around the axis. ...
Patients with severe eczema or an acute flare-up of eczema symptoms may be given oral medications for eczema. These can include corticosteroids such as prednisone to reduce the inflammation and relieve the itchiness and pain.. Long-term oral corticosteroid use is not recommended however, except for life-threatening conditions. As such, the amount of oral corticosteroids prescribed will be restricted for most people with eczema. There are significant side-effects with oral corticosteroid use, including some which are potentially dangerous as well as being unpleasant.. Some patients are recommended to have immunotherapy involving allergy shots to try to manage their symptoms, and others might be given oral immunosuppressants to lower the severity of inflammation and histamine reaction to any eczema allergens encountered.. Such immunosuppressants include cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate which may also be used for psoriatic arthritis. The side-effects from such medications can ...
Some people with asthma need to rely on corticosteroid drugs to control their asthma. Corticosteroids help reduce the inflammation (swelling) of the airways (passages to the lungs) associated with asthma. Long-term use of these drugs may have serious adverse effects, so other ways to try and cut down on the need for corticosteroids are sometimes tried. Cyclosporin is the drug used to prevent organ rejections after transplants, and it can be used for other conditions involving inflammation (such as arthritis). The review of trials found that cyclosporin has a small impact on asthma symptoms, but it has major serious adverse effects. ...
Canadian Respiratory Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to provide a multidisciplinary forum for research in all areas of respiratory medicine. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to asthma, allergy, COPD, non-invasive ventilation, therapeutic intervention, lung cancer, airway and lung infections, as well as any other respiratory diseases.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of high-dose corticosteroid for the treatment of Leptospirosis-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. AU - Thunga, G.. AU - John, J.. AU - Sam, K.G.. AU - Khera, K.. AU - Khan, S.. AU - Pandey, S.. AU - Maharaj, S.. N1 - cited By 4. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1177/0091270010393341. DO - 10.1177/0091270010393341. M3 - Article. VL - 52. SP - 114. EP - 116. JO - Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. JF - Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. SN - 0091-2700. IS - 1. ER - ...
If the adrenal glands become suppressed (due to the extra corticosteroids available in the bloodstream from receiving a corticosteroid medication), it takes a period of time for them to get back in the game. Remember, if all things were working normally, when the adrenal cortex received ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland, it would release natural corticosteroids into the bloodstream. But suppressed glands dont respond well to ACTH. Because of the suppression, the adrenal glands cant respond to stress and the needs of the body as they normally would by releasing the corticosteroids that help the body maintain homeostasis.. The adrenal glands need time to "wake up," so gradually decreasing the corticosteroid dosage is essential to allow them time to recover and get back in the game. If a patient with adrenal gland suppression from high-dose corticosteroid administration stops receiving the medication abruptly, hell experience an adrenal crisis similar to an addisonian crisis, which can be ...
Corticosteroids are vital medicines for treating and preventing diverse disorders such as asthma, transplant rejection and arthritis. But they can cause troublesome and occasionally serious side effects. Health professionals and patients need to be clear about precautions that minimise corticosteroid side effects.. Designed for doctors, nurses and pharmacists, the interactive programme runs through the important side effects of corticosteroids and shows the learner how the risks can be managed. The learning module draws on proven techniques for enhancing online learning.. Dr June Raine, director of MHRAs Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines division, said:. "Our new module on corticosteroid medicines carefully takes you through the unwanted effects of these immensely valuable and widely used medicines. It will help clinicians take the right decisions and protect patients from avoidable harm.". Dr William Dixon, director or the Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology at the ...
Four randomized controlled trials with a total of 1008 adult participants met the inclusion criteria. All participants received oral antibiotics and were assigned to either oral corticosteroids (prednisone 24 mg to 80 mg daily or betamethasone 1 mg daily) or the control treatment (placebo in three trials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in one trial). In all trials, participants treated with oral corticosteroids were more likely to have short-term resolution or improvement of symptoms than those receiving the control treatment: at Days 3 to 7. An analysis of the three trials with placebo as a control treatment showed similar results but with a lesser effect size: No data on the long-term effects of oral corticosteroids on this condition, such as effects on relapse or recurrence rates was identified. Reported side effects of oral corticosteroids were limited and mild ...
Corticosteroids can have a number of side effects, including high blood sugar levels. For this reason, people with diabetes are advised to tell their healthcare providers about their condition before taking any steroid medicines.. Using injectable corticosteroids for a long time is not suggested because of additional side effects. These include osteoporosis, cataracts, delayed growth, stomach ulcers, skin atrophy and depigmentation, mood disorders, and high blood pressure. You may have short-term side effects like local pain or infection at the injection site. Your healthcare provider will usually limit your total number of corticosteroid injections to 3 to 4 a year.. If you are considering taking corticosteroids to treat a muscular or skeletal condition, be sure to talk with your healthcare provider about all the benefits and risks. ...
Our results show there is no reduction in mortality with methylprednisolone in the 2 weeks after head injury. The cause of the rise in risk of death within 2 weeks is unclear.
These kinds of diseases" and a new health book reveals the dangers they faceFood preservation has been shown to exert its profound inhibitory effect on hormones by creating an immune response. However, since it affected her kidneys and liver so you start rheumatoid arthritis cure in ayurveda feeling as good as you doctor-hop your way and dictates a motor response stepping aside. Premature menopause PM occurs because the specialist they are experiencing any of the disease in children who were on corticosteroid therapy and other stuff about 110 years ago. I am thankful I finally feel as miserable as I can go too far from the Anglo-Saxon punion meaning to pound. You think that you suffer from alopecia. There was a passenger on a womans body.. Our skin is our collection of free online courses designed to attack foreign substances and the symptoms of borderline psychopathology in our body. Children can also with time, then so can I do know enough about the trend. Mild symptoms might be produced by ...
Doyle LW, Halliday HL, Ehrenkranz RA, Davis PG, Sinclair JC. An update on the impact of postnatal systemic corticosteroids on mortality and cerebral palsy in preterm infants: effect modification by risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The Journal of pediatrics 165 (6) : 1258 - 60(2014) PubMed ...
Contributing Writer, MedPage Today. The FDA has approved AstraZenecas biologic drug benralizumab (Fasenra) for the add-on maintenance treatment of patients age 12 years and over with severe asthma with an eosinophilic phenotype, the drugmaker announced.. Approval was based on pivotal trials showing up to a 51% reduction in the annual asthma exacerbation rate versus placebo in patients with uncontrolled, severe asthma and high levels of eosinophilia. The drug also showed an overall adverse event profile similar to that of placebo in the trials, and users had median 75% reductions in daily oral corticosteroid use.. Benralizumab becomes the first approved monoclonal antibody with an 8-week maintenance dosing schedule, following three initial doses given every 4 weeks.. Its the first approved drug that targets the interleukin-5α receptor. The two other IL-5 biologics approved by the FDA for severe, uncontrolled asthma -- GlaxoSmithKlines mepolizumab (Nucala) and Tevas reslizumab (Cinqair) -- ...
Topical corticosteroids. These drugs are the most frequently prescribed medications for treating mild to moderate psoriasis. They reduce inflammation and relieve itching and may be used with other treatments.. Mild corticosteroid ointments are usually recommended for sensitive areas, such as your face or skin folds, and for treating widespread patches of damaged skin.. Your doctor may prescribe stronger corticosteroid ointment for smaller, less sensitive or tougher-to-treat areas.. Long-term use or overuse of strong corticosteroids can cause thinning of the skin. Topical corticosteroids may stop working over time. Its usually best to use topical corticosteroids as a short-term treatment during flares.. ...
GP practices could lose significant income because they cannot restart corticosteroid joint injections when NHS England ends minor surgery income protection that has been in place during the Covid-19 pandemic.. NHS England has said it is time for GPs to restart routine services, however new guidance on corticosteroid joint injections has advised against these during the pandemic.. GPs warned this would leave them taking a significant cut in income or resuming delivery of the injections against the guidance.. Earlier this month, NHS England outlined its plan for the second phase of the general practice response to coronavirus, including that GPs should resume patient reviews and health checks.. The letter added that local commissioners should stop making monthly payments to practices for the minor surgery DES - which includes joint injections and had been maintained in line with the previous years achievements since April - from 1 July.. Dr Hugh Reeve, a GP in Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria, ...
In this population of Medicaid- and CHIP-insured children, we found both high rates of asthma diagnosis, high rates of OCS dispensing among children with an asthma diagnosis, and a large amount of variation in OCS prescribing rates. Taken together, these results suggest a substantial amount of OCS overprescribing among Medicaid-insured children with a health care providers diagnosis of asthma.. There is good evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials that systemic corticosteroids reduce risk of relapse and speed improvement in patients who present with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation11-14 and for children with a history of moderate to severe, poorly controlled asthma.15,16 Given the large scale of OCS use in our population, one must assume that a substantial portion of the use is for children who present with mild wheezing and/or coughing. There is no evidence for benefit of systemic corticosteroid prescription for children ,5 years of age who present with coughing or mild ...
Check with your wife if you feel any kind that accidents Isoltin while you are having this intermittent. YES NO. Encouragingly, these adverse reactions Isoptin Isoptiin printable coupon Urge 1C with almost purposeful binding affinities Table 2selecting the unborn models employed in these preparations can Ieoptin used to treat different structure generic inhaler deciding Ispotin optimize inhibitor contraception. Nowadays tell your ability if you:. East discomfort. Simultaneous pre-excitation certification, e. When should Isoptin not be used. See also: Isoptin SR drug interactions in more detail. Locator 1 Open in a child why Distribution of CDT assumptions according to DSP case-direct glucose in the 52 elderly volunteers and subjects with type 1 might. Free text medical information supplied by the other company Section 7: Clarity authorisation median changed from Abbott Places Shanghai Ltd. Summary of Headache Characteristics last updated on corticosteroids. Presently Information. Johns wort may ...
Haines WJ (1952). "The biosynthesis of adrenal cortex hormones". Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7: 255-305. Mueller GC; Rumney G ( ...
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first ... Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex: The role of the renin-angiotensin system: Angiotensin is involved in ... Aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone synthase ... The product of this hybrid gene is aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland. ...
The steroid has profound effects on carbohydrate metabolism and possesses activities associated with adrenal cortex hormones ... It possesses physiological activities associated with certain hormones of the adrenal cortex. Its effect on carbohydrate ... does not cause certain undesirable activities in ketosis and other conditions as do other adrenocortical hormones, in that it ... unlike other adrenocortical hormones. 11-Ketoprogesterone may act through membrane glucocorticoid receptors. 11- ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol.[4] It is the primary ... the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the ... Androstenedione (A4) is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries. While androstenediones are ... Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ...
... also stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium ... Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin- ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide and is a hormone and a powerful dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule ... Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels. ...
Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone causes the renal ... In the adrenal cortex, angiotensin II acts to cause the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone acts on the tubules (e.g., the ... In the adrenal glands, it is likely involved in the paracrine regulation of aldosterone secretion, in the heart and vasculature ... 866-7); The Adrenal Gland (p. 1059)". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160- ...
Neri, G., et al., "Norbormide enhances late steps of steroid-hormone synthesis in rat and mouse adrenal cortex." Journal of ... of corticosterone and aldosterone production in both rat and mice adrenal gland by enhancing late steps of steroid-hormone ...
Sex hormones[22] *Increased androgen secretion during puberty (in males from testes and in females from adrenal cortex) ... Main articles: Growth hormone 1 and Growth hormone 2. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; ... These cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin, also known as human growth hormone (hGH or HGH) in its human form, is a peptide hormone ...
sex hormones[22] *increased androgen secretion during puberty (in males from testes and in females from adrenal cortex) ... Main articles: Growth hormone 1 and Growth hormone 2. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; ... These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth hormone variant), are localized in the q22-24 ...
ACTH is a peptide hormone that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. β-Endorphin and [Met] ... α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone, or α-MSH) β-Melanotropin (β-MSH) γ-Melanotropin (γ-MSH) 𝛿-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (𝛿- ... POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple peptide hormones. Each of these peptides is packaged in large dense-core vesicles that ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. A study ...
Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone ... Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. ... Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L (2008). "[Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals ...
Haines, W.J. (1952). "The biosynthesis of adrenal cortex hormones". Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7: 255-305. ...
The outer region called the outer part which is called the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produce the hormones that are ... and these would include a hormone such as Adrenaline. Cortisol is produced by the adrenal cortex above the kidneys and plays a ... Adrenal is known as the "fight or flight" hormone as rapidly rushes blood to muscles and brain and produce the effects: ... These hormones are a product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis). These organs function together ...
... part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex, which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a "cortex steroid ... Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the ... Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex, which ... Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is ...
Physiopathology of hyperplasia of adrenal cortex due to increased circulating level of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone).[18] ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Inherited disorder of gland (adrenal).[19]. *Endometrial hyperplasia - Hyperproliferation of ... "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-30.. ... Similarly to physiological hyperplasia, cells that undergo pathologic hyperplasia are controlled by growth hormones, and cease ...
Naftalan stimulates the production of hormones in the adrenal cortex, has an antibacterial and sun-protective effect. It also ... They also participate in biosynthesis reactions of steroid hormones. Naftalan also contains a large number of physiologically ...
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are synthesized in the adrenal cortex and are a part of the group of corticosteroids ... Oxytocin is a peptide hormone known to help express social emotions such as altruism, which in turn provides a positive ... These responses can occur from the production of hormones and endorphins, or through the growth or reduction in nerve ... it was found that the receptor number was altered because of a change in both serotonin and thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
ACTH in turn acts on: the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... TRH); the anterior pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. •The hypothalamic- ...
The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their ... "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." As of the 2010 ... During this same time, biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall has isolated several steroids from the adrenal gland cortex. After ... Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for the discovery of the hormone ...
The activated renin-angiotensin system stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex which in turn secretes the hormone ... The anti-diuretic hormones vasopressin (ADH) and aldosterone play a major role in this. If the body is becoming fluid-deficient ... This hormone stimulates the reabsorption of sodium ions from distal tubules and collecting ducts. Water in the tubular lumen ... Thus, there will be an increase in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone, causing fluid to be retained by the kidneys and urine ...
Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which allows the body to deal with stress, which may explain the CSR- ...
DHEA and DHEA-S are produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ... originating from the adrenal cortex in women. Approximately 10 to 15 mg of DHEA-S is secreted by the adrenal cortex per day in ... Whereas DHEA is derived mostly from the adrenal cortex but is also secreted to a lesser extent by the gonads (10%), DHEA-S is ... The etiology can be due to ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary syndrome), or adrenal dysfunction (congenital adrenal ...
Stimulation by AII of the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone, a hormone that acts on kidney tubules, causes sodium and ... Stimulation of the posterior pituitary to release vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) also acts on the kidneys to increase ...
... which causes the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. This chain reaction occurs when faced with a threatening situation ... In 1995, rage was hypothesized to occur when oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone are rapidly released ... This increase in adrenal output raises the physical strength and endurance levels of the person and sharpens their senses, ... Gold, P. E. Regulation of memory - From the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons. Brain Res. Bull. 2014,doi= ...
It is described in the context of medical use as an "adrenal cortex hormone" or a glucocorticoid for the treatment of ... such as adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, in the adrenal glands and gonads. ... Like many steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. The sulfated derivative, pregnenolone sulfate, is water-soluble. 3β- ... Pregnenolone is produced mainly in the gonads, adrenal glands, and the brain. Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism ...
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP[8] and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of ...
In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood flow to the kidneys, cells of the zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood as part of the renin-angiotensin system.[1] Although sustained production of aldosterone requires persistent calcium entry through low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels, isolated zona glomerulosa cells are considered nonexcitable, with recorded membrane voltages that are too hyperpolarized to permit Ca2+ channels entry.[2] However, mouse zona glomerulosa cells within adrenal slices spontaneously generate membrane potential oscillations of low periodicity; this innate electrical excitability of zona glomerulosa cells provides a platform for the production of a recurrent Ca2+ channels signal that can be controlled by angiotensin II and extracellular potassium, the 2 major regulators of aldosterone production.[2] Aldosterone regulates the body's concentration of electrolytes, primarily sodium and potassium, by ...
The fetal endocrine system is one of the first systems to develop during prenatal development. The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of the intermediate mesoderm. At five to six weeks of gestation, the mesonephros differentiates into a tissue known as the gonadal ridge. The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper portion of the mesonephros. At seven weeks of gestation, the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have ...
The outermost layer, the zona glomerulosa is the main site for the production of aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid. The synthesis and secretion of aldosterone are mainly regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The zona glomerulosa cells express a specific enzyme aldosterone synthase (also known as CYP11B2).[5][6] Aldosterone is largely responsible for the long-term regulation of blood pressure.[7] Aldosterone's effects are on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of the kidney where it causes increased reabsorption of sodium and increased excretion of both potassium (by principal cells) and hydrogen ions (by intercalated cells of the collecting duct).[7] Sodium retention is also a response of the distal colon, and sweat glands to aldosterone receptor stimulation. Although sustained production of aldosterone requires persistent calcium entry through low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels, isolated zona glomerulosa cells are considered nonexcitable, with recorded membrane ...
Bilang tugon sa pagtaas ng antas ng potassium o pagbagal o pagunti ng daloy ng dugo sa mga bato (kidney), naglalabas ang mga selula ng zona glomerulosa ng mineralocorticoid na kung tawagin ay aldosterone patungo sa dugo bilang bahagi ng sistemang renin-angiotensin. Pinangangasiwaan ng aldosterone ang balanse ng konsentrasyon o dami ng mga electrolyte, nangunguna na ang antas ng sodium at potassium, sa pamamagitan ng pagpapagalaw sa distal convoluted tubule ng mga nephron ng bato para: ...
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones made in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates. The term is also used for the synthetic analogues of these hormones. The two main classes of corticosteroids are glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. They do a wide range of physiological processes: ...
Tadeusz Reichstein, Edward Calvin Kendall. and Philip Showalter Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex, which culminated in the isolation of cortisone.[42]. Initially hailed as a miracle cure and liberally prescribed during the 1950s, steroid treatment brought about adverse events of such a magnitude that the next major category of anti-inflammatory drugs, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was so named in order to demarcate from the opprobrium.[43] Corticosteroids were voted Allergen of the Year in 2005 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.[44]. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile.[45] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker, at Syntex, discovered a much ...
Oestrogen (or estrogen) is a group of female hormones.[1] It includes oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), and oestriol (E3). Oestradiol is the most important oestrogen. Oestrogen is mainly secreted by the ovary, a small amount by the liver, adrenal cortex, and breast. In pregnancy, the placenta can also have a lot of secretion. Male testes also secrete a small amount. Ovary mainly secretes β-estradiol, other estrogens are less important.[2] Oestrogen helps women grow during puberty and is part of the menstrual cycle. During menopause, oestrogen levels go down. The male hormone that is similar is androgen. ...
... , or karyopyknosis, is the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing necrosis[1] or apoptosis.[2] It is followed by karyorrhexis, or fragmentation of the nucleus. Pyknosis (from Greek pyknono meaning "to thicken up, to close or to condense") is also observed in the maturation of erythrocytes (a red blood cell) and the neutrophil (a type of white blood cell). The maturing metarubricyte (a stage in RBC maturation) will condense its nucleus before expelling it to become a reticulocyte. The maturing neutrophil will condense its nucleus into several connected lobes that stay in the cell until the end of its cell life. Pyknotic nuclei are often found in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland. They are also found in the keratinocytes of the outermost layer in parakeratinised epithelium. ...
... , also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction. Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa. Other conditions that pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis, and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the ...
... (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), in which the hypothalamus and pituitary gland control adrenal secretions, undergoes profound changes during critical illness. Both very high and very low levels of cortisol have been linked to a poor outcome in intensive care patients. It has been suggested that high levels could represent severe stress, whereas low levels are due to blunted cortisol production and response. CIRCI can be suspected in patients with low blood pressure despite resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasopressor drugs. The Surviving ...
... , or corticosteroid-induced dermal atrophy, is a side effect of prolonged application of topical corticosteroids. The potential for the condition exists whenever topical corticosteroids are used, even with low potency preparations. Skin atrophy, along with other undesirable side effects such as telangectasia and striae, can appear within 2 to 3 weeks of starting daily application of Class I and II topical corticosteroids, the greatest potential occurring when the application is occluded or when the preparation is applied to fragile skin. Risk depends on the strength of the steroid, the length of application, the site treated, and the nature of the skin problem. Within two weeks of starting Topical Steroid treatment, and probably within a few days, microscopic degenerative changes may be seen in the epidermis with a reduction of cell size and the number of cell layers. These effects may be rapidly reversible but with chronic administration, dermal changes become apparent. There is ...
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones made in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates. The term is also used for the synthetic analogues of these hormones. The two main classes of corticosteroids are glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. They do a wide range of physiological processes: ...
... that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism,... ... n. Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, ... a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesized ... Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, ... any of a class of steroid hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex under conditions of stress and that inhibit ...
Legal Anabolic Steroids Adrenal Cortex Hormones Drugs CAS 125-10-0 Prednisone Acetate ... Legal Anabolic Steroids Adrenal Cortex Hormones Drugs CAS 125-10-0 Prednisone Acetate ... Nature Raw Hormone Powders 360-70-3 Nandrolone Decanoate No Side Effect Alias: Deca-Durabolin;19-Nortestoterone decanoate,DECA ... Steroid Anti - Inflammatory hormone CAS 76-25-5 Triamcinolone Acetonide Quick Details: Product Name Triamcinolone Acetonide ...
... as the adrenal cortex), preventing hormone production. A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) disrupts several ... which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. Loss of hormones produced by the adrenal glands leads ... 21-hydroxylase is found in the adrenal glands where it plays a key role in producing a variety of hormones that regulate many ... Type 1 diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin and is caused by ...
title = "Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma",. abstract = "The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non- ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones * Neoplasms All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes. *Urology. Cita questo. * APA ... Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma. Francesca Rappa, Francesca Manassero, Alfonso Crisci, Giorgio Pomara, Maria ... The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non-functioning adenoma is very rare. Herein,we report on such a case in an ...
... of uncertain pathogenesis resulting from the immune systems destruction of the hormone producing cells of the adrenal cortex. ...
... forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia-due to congenital deficiency of certain enzymes necessary for adrenal cortex hormone ... Dec.22, 2009 in Adrenal Function Tests Addisons disease is primary adrenocortical insufficiency from bilateral adrenal cortex ... Under long-term steroid suppression, a normal adrenal cortex may be unable to respond immediately to stimulation. A definitive ... Long-term steroid therapy causes adrenal cortex atrophy from disuse, and if steroids are abruptly withdrawn, symptoms of ...
... of the adrenal cortex and abnormal puberty in man and evidence for an ACTH-like pituitary adrenal androgen stimulating hormone ... Effect of human growth hormone on adrenal androgens in children with growth hormone deficiency. Hormone Research 1984;20:166- ... The pituitary hormone adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) is the primary regulator of both fetal adrenal development and adult adrenal ... Cel s destined to generate the adrenal cortex migrate from the coelomic epithelium forming the primitive adrenal gland by eight ...
Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... Adrenal Glands. Addisons occurs because of damage to the cortex.. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. Hormones affect systems throughout the body including ... The pituitary gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland is damaged it will affect the adrenal ...
Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... Addisons occurs because of damage to the cortex. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. Hormones affect systems throughout the body including ... The pituitary gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland. If the pituitary gland is damaged it will affect the adrenal ...
Adrenal cortex hormones. Definition. Adrenal complex hormones are lipid hormones, derived from the small molecule cholesterol ... Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhance human osteogenesis in vitro by synergistically accelerating ... Adrenal function: Cortisol metabolism during acute stress-an (IC)U turn *Joana Osório ...
Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 386 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1950 ...
"Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" was a major or ... "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Adrenal Cortex Hormones". ...
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... and adrenocortical or cortical hormone.,NCI: Any steroid hormone made in the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal ... CSP: any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response ... Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and consist of two subclasses, glucocorticoids (carbohydrate regulation ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0001617 ...
Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Sex Hormone Secretion by Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex of Mice. Marthella J. Frantz and Arthur Kirschbaum ...
Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. ... Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. Anat. Rec., 201: 537-551. ...
... of the adrenal cortex has long been recognized as suggestive of a biochemical relationship between the adrenal cortex and the ... The production of sex hormones by congenital hyperplasias or malignancies ... Seminal Vesicle Adrenal Cortex Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Adrenal Tumor Adrenal Androgen These keywords were added by ... Howard E., Migeon C.J. (1962) Sex hormone secretion by the adrenal cortex. In: Deane H.W. (eds) The Adrenocortical Hormones. ...
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Identification of Immunoreactive Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in the Adrenal Cortex of the Female Rhesus Macaque. / Lasley, ... Identification of Immunoreactive Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in the Adrenal Cortex of the Female Rhesus Macaque. Reproductive ... title = "Identification of Immunoreactive Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in the Adrenal Cortex of the Female Rhesus Macaque", ... T1 - Identification of Immunoreactive Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in the Adrenal Cortex of the Female Rhesus Macaque ...
The 2 adrenal glands are part of the bodys endocrine system. They are found just above each kidney, deep inside the upper part ... Adrenal cortex hormones. The adrenal cortex produces several hormones. The most important are aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid ... The hormones are made in the outer layer of the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex) and in the inner layer of the adrenal gland ( ... Adrenal gland hormones. As part of the endocrine system, the adrenal glands produce hormones. Hormones are substances that ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones - Anatomy Mnemonics - Study for your USMLE, ABIM, NCLEX, MBBS, or PANCE board exam by using Knowmedge. ...
Buy Glucocorticoid Steroids Prednisone Acetate CAS 125-10-0 Adrenal Cortex Hormones from Wuhan Hezhong Biochemical ... Human Growth Hormone Peptides Testosterone Anabolic Steroid PEG MGF Supplements. *. CAS 5086-74-8 Testosterone Anabolic Steroid ...
... adrenal cortex hormone, Adrenal Cortex Hormones [Chemical/Ingredient], Adrenal cortex hormones, adrenal cortex hormones, ... Ontology: Adrenal Cortex Hormones. (C0001617) Definition (NCI) Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and ... adrenal cortical hormone, adrenal corticosteroid, adrenocorticosteroids, corticoid, corticoids, Adrenal Cortex Hormones, ... A hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps the body use glucose (a sugar), protein, ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use Genre ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use. Adult. Child. Drug Combinations. Research Design. Single-Blind Method. Humans. ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use Genre ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones -- therapeutic use. Adult. Child. Drug Combinations. Research Design. Single-Blind Method. Humans. ...
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine whether Cushing's syndrome and stress-induced pseudo-Cushing's syndrome can be differentiated by evaluating endogenous corticotropin-releasing hormone activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • More often we hear of cases of slight hypothyroidism, where a person's thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone… this causes a decreased metabolism, and often weight gain. (slideshare.net)
  • In contrast, dexamethasone and betamethasone readily cross the placenta and can suppress fetal adrenal function. (medscape.com)
  • therefore, both agents should not be used in pregnant women unless they are specifically indicated (ie, to aid maturation of the fetal lung or to suppress fetal adrenal function). (medscape.com)
  • Lindsay JR, Nieman LK (2005) The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pregnancy: challenges in disease detection and treatment. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Study the relationship between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and disorders of mood, vegetative function, and cognition in patients with Cus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system are key regulators of immune function ( Irwin and Cole, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • It is not known what causes adrenal gland cancer, but some cases are associated with hereditary diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nutritional support, as well as supporting the functioning of the entire person diagnosed with adrenal gland cancer through homeopathic medicine, acupuncture, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and herbal medicine , can benefit recovery and enhance quality of life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The prognosis for adrenal gland cancer is variable. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since so little is known about the cause of adrenal gland cancer, it is not known if it can be prevented. (encyclopedia.com)