Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
(1/61) Tests of adrenal insufficiency.

AIM: In suspected adrenal insufficiency, the ideal test for assessing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is controversial. Therefore, three tests were compared in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. METHOD: Responses to the standard short Synacthen test (SSST), the low dose Synacthen test (LDST), and the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration were measured in 32 patients. A normal response to the synacthen test was defined as a peak serum cortisol of >/= 500 nmol/l and/or incremental concentration of >/= 200 nmol/l. The sensitivity and specificity of the 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration compared with other tests was calculated. RESULTS: Three patients had neither an adequate peak nor increment after the SSST and LDST. All had a serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration of < 200 nmol/l. Eight patients had abnormal responses by both criteria to the LDST but had normal responses to the SSST. Three reported amelioration of their symptoms on hydrocortisone replacement. Twenty one patients had a normal response to both tests (of these, 14 achieved adequate peak and increment after both tests and seven did not have an adequate peak after the LDST but had a normal increment). The lowest 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration above which patients achieved normal responses to both the LDST and SSST was 500 nmol/l. At this cut off value (compared with the LDST), the serum 08:00 hour cortisol concentration had a sensitivity of 100% but specificity was only 33%. CONCLUSION: The LDST revealed mild degrees of adrenal insufficiency not detected by the SSST. The value of a single 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration is limited.  (+info)

(2/61) Effect of multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids on pituitary-adrenal function in preterm infants.

AIM: To evaluate the pituitary-adrenal function of preterm infants whose mothers received multiple courses (8 or more doses) of antenatal dexamethasone. METHODS: The pituitary-adrenal function of 14 preterm infants whose mothers received eight or more doses of antenatal dexamethasone were assessed using the human corticotrophin releasing hormone (hCRH) stimulation test when 7 days (n = 14) and 14 days old (n = 12). During each test, blood samples were taken at 0 (baseline), 15, 30 and 60 minutes after an intravenous bolus dose of hCRH (1 microg/kg). The corresponding hormone concentrations were compared between days 7 and 14, and with various associated factors. RESULTS: The baseline (0 min) plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone concentration was significantly higher at day 14 than at day 7 (p = 0.036). None of the corresponding poststimulation (15, 30, and 60 min) hormone concentrations was significantly different between the two time epochs. When the association between the hormone concentrations and the number of antenatal dexamethasone doses received by the mothers was assessed, a significant negative correlation was observed in serum cortisol concentrations at 15 and 30 min on day 14 (r = -0.59, p = 0.04 and r = -0.60, p = 0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The absence of a significant difference in poststimulation hormone concentrations between days 7 and 14 in this cohort of infants, and the similarity of their hormone responses with those of older children and adults, suggests that no severe pituitary-adrenal suppression had occurred. None the less there was evidence of mild adrenal suppression in some of the treated infants. Vigilance in monitoring blood pressure, electrolytes and signs of adrenal suppression in infants whose mothers receive multiple courses (8 or more doses) of antenatal dexamethasone is required, as some of them might have diminished adrenal reserve.  (+info)

(3/61) Adrenal insufficiency in septic shock.

BACKGROUND: Functional adrenal insufficiency has been documented in critically ill adults. OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence of adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock, and to evaluate its effect on catecholamine requirements, duration of intensive care, and mortality. SETTING: Sixteen-bed paediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital. METHODS: Thirty three children with septic shock were enrolled. Adrenal function was assessed by the maximum cortisol response after synthetic adrenocorticotropin stimulation (short Synacthen test). Insufficiency was defined as a post-Synacthen cortisol increment < 200 nmol/l. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 33%. The incidence of adrenal insufficiency was 52% and children with adrenal insufficiency were significantly older and tended to have higher paediatric risk of mortality scores. They also required higher dose vasopressors for haemodynamic stability. In the survivor group, those with adrenal insufficiency needed a longer period of inotropic support than those with normal function (median, 3 v 2 days), but there was no significant difference in duration of ventilation (median, 4 days for each group) or length of stay (median, 5 v 4 days). Mortality was not significantly greater in children with adrenal insufficiency than in those with adequate adrenal function (6 of 17 v 5 of 16, respectively). CONCLUSION: Adrenal insufficiency is common in children with septic shock. It is associated with an increased vasopressor requirement and duration of shock.  (+info)

(4/61) Expression of adrenocorticotropin receptor gene in adrenocortical adenomas from patients with Cushing syndrome: possible contribution for the autonomous production of cortisol.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether inhibition of endogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion in patients with Cushing syndrome affects the expression of the ACTH receptor (ACTH-R) gene in adrenocortical adenoma and attached atrophic normal gland. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: ACTH increases adrenal cell growth and steroidogenesis by means of ACTH-R. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that expression of ACTH-R is upregulated by its own ligand ACTH in several species. In patients with Cushing syndrome resulting from adrenocortical adenoma, there is autonomous production of cortisol from the adenoma. This strongly inhibits endogenous ACTH secretion, giving rise to the speculation that the expression of the ACTH-R gene in these patients is also suppressed. However, previous studies have shown that administration of exogenous ACTH to these patients leads to a further increase in the production of cortisol, suggesting the expression of functional ACTH-R in the adenoma. The authors, therefore, examined the expression of the ACTH-R gene in these patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients with Cushing syndrome were studied. Glucocorticoid excess resulting from autonomous production from the adenomas was ascertained, and unilateral adrenalectomy was performed. The levels of ACTH-R and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNAs were determined by Northern blot analysis. The entire coding region of the ACTH-R gene in these patients was sequenced. RESULTS: ACTH-R mRNA abundance in the attached atrophic normal adrenals was suppressed and invariably less than that in the normal gland obtained from a patient with renal cancer. However, the expression of ACTH-R mRNA was not suppressed in any of the adenomas. Expression of ACTH-R mRNA in the adenomas was four- to sixfold greater than that in the attached atrophic gland. No mutation in the coding sequence of the ACTH-R gene in the adenoma was detected in any of the patients. The mRNA in the adenomas appeared to be translated into functionally active receptor because intramuscular administration of ACTH resulted in significant increases in plasma cortisol before surgery but not 3 months after surgery. In addition, there was a positive linear correlation between the expressions of ACTH-R and P450scc mRNAs in the adenoma tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Suppressed ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing syndrome results in reduction of the ACTH-R mRNA expression in nonneoplastic adrenocortical cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of ACTH-R expression might be different in adenoma. Persistent expression in the adenoma of ACTH-R alone, even in the absence of ACTH, might result in increased basal adenyl cyclase activity, as observed in the case of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, and thereby might play a role in the autonomous production of cortisol.  (+info)

(5/61) Effect on adrenal function of topically applied clobetasol propionate (Dermovate).

Thirty-nine patients (15 outpatients and 24 inpatients) with a variety of skin diseases affecting variable areas of the body surface were treated with clobetasol propionate ointment (Dermovate). Before and after treatment the adrenal response to an intramuscular injection of tetracosactrin was rested and additional 9 am plasma cortisol levels were measured at intervals during treatment. A satisfactory initial therapeutic response was achieved in almost all cases during the trial period. When more than 50 g of ointment a week was used a significant number of patients developed adrenal suppression. WHen less than 50 g per week was used any suppression tended to be transtion. These cysts may be the cause of this condition, producing abnormal amounts of ovarian steroids which modify the pituitary response. Futher studies are needed, however, to determine this possibility.  (+info)

(6/61) Evaluation and management of adrenal masses.

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of abdominal imaging has led to increased detection of adrenal tumors. The significance of these masses, as well as the optimal management approach to treatment, has generated some controversy regarding further evaluation and therapy. METHODS: The authors reviewed the literature regarding the evaluation and management of these masses, particularly adrenal incidentalomas. Based on their institutional experience, they propose a diagnostic, evaluation, and management algorithm for treating adrenal masses. RESULTS: Appearance and clinical history should indicate how to perform the biochemical evaluation, keeping in mind that the presence of pheochromocytomas must be ruled out. Radiological evaluation by CT or MRI provides useful parameters to identify malignant lesions. Surgery is indicated for masses that are larger than 5 cm in diameter or suspected of malignancy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be used when other extra-adrenal malignancies are suspected and after pheochromocytoma has been ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: Careful analysis of each adrenal mass is essential to effectively avoid potential problems. Guidelines to manage patients with adrenal masses are needed.  (+info)

(7/61) Evaluation of low dose ACTH stimulation test in suspected secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.

BACKGROUND: Several studies in the last few years have shown that the standard 250 micro g dose used in ACTH stimulation test may be very high and have suggested that a dose of 1 micro g may be sufficient for evaluating hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. AIMS: To evaluate the role of low dose ACTH stimulation test in patients with suspected Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency (SAI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients of suspected SAI with a documented pituitary lesion and seven normal healthy controls were included in the study. All the subjects underwent ACTH stimulation test with standard high dose (HD= 250 microg) and low dose (LD= 1 microg) ACTH. Insulin Induced Hypoglycaemia (IIH) test was done in 7 out of 9 patients in whom the results of the two tests were discordant. The cut off for normal HD stimulation test was taken as peak cortisol response > 18 microg/dl and for LD test, either a cortisol response of > 18 microg/dl or an increment of more than 7 micro g/dl over the basal value at any time during the test, on the basis of response observed in controls. RESULTS: 22/31 patients (74%) in SAI group showed concordant results with both tests, whereas nine patients had discordant results. These nine patients showed AI with LD ACTH, but HD ACTH test showed a normal response. In 7 of these 9 patients who underwent IIH, AI was confirmed in 6. CONCLUSION: The LD ACTH stimulation test seems to be better than HD ACTH stimulation test for evaluating HPA axis in patients with suspected SAI. When basal cortisol is normal, LD ACTH stimulation test detects subtle SAI.  (+info)

(8/61) Prospective examination of adrenocortical function in advanced AIDS patients.

In human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant pathogen. The adrenal gland is a preferential site of CMV disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, glucocorticoid replacement is often not selected because of the risk of exacerbating underlying infection. To evaluate the need for glucocorticoid replacement in these patients, we performed a prospective study to investigate the adrenal function in 60 advanced AIDS patients. Their adrenal function including rapid ACTH test (RAT), basal plasma ACTH level, and daily urinary free cortisol level was evaluated. Approximately 25% of the patients turned out to be abnormal in this evaluation. Almost 60% of the patients could be followed up for one year or until their death. Using the follow-up data, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Excretion of urinary free cortisol with normal RAT was comparable to normal controls, whereas patients with abnormal RAT excreted significantly lower urinary free cortisol. During hospitalization, 14 patients with normal RAT had febrile episode. During the febrile period the concentration of the urinary free cortisol level increased by 2.2 times. This study suggests that glucocorticoid replacement is necessary for AIDS patients suspected as clinically adrenal insufficiency, and that the dose of glucocorticoid replacement might be increased during sick days in AIDS patients with abnormal adrenal function.  (+info)

*  List of MeSH codes (E01)
... adrenal cortex function tests MeSH E01.370.374.100 --- blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.370.374.355 --- glucose tolerance ... ovarian function tests MeSH E01.370.374.600 --- pituitary-adrenal function tests MeSH E01.370.374.605 --- pituitary function ... lactose tolerance test MeSH E01.370.372.460 --- liver function tests MeSH E01.370.372.600 --- pancreatic function tests MeSH ... placental function tests MeSH E01.370.378.620 --- pregnancy tests MeSH E01.370.378.620.620 --- pregnancy tests, immunologic ...
*  Insulin tolerance test
This procedure is performed to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and sometimes for other purposes. An ITT is usually ... ACTH elevation causes the adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Normally, both cortisol and GH serve as counterregulatory ... In subjects with no adrenal reserve an Addisonian crisis may occur. For cortisol stimulation, the ACTH stimulation test has ... ACTH stimulation test Hypopituitarism Triple bolus test Greenwood FC, Landon J, Stamp TC (1965). "The plasma sugar, free fatty ...
*  24-Dehydrocholesterol reductase
... of the gene occurs in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients and overexpression has been observed in adrenal gland ... Twenty-six tests were carried out on mutant mice and two significant abnormalities were observed. Few homozygous mutant embryos ... van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism". Genome ... The remaining tests were carried out on heterozygous mutant adult mice and no further abmornalities were observed. ...
*  Adrenal tumor
The adrenal cortex is composed of three distinct layers of endocrine cells which produce critical steroid hormones. These ... which regulates blood pressure and kidney function, and certain sex hormones. Both benign and malignant tumors of the adrenal ... This can result in expensive additional testing and invasive procedures to rule out the slight possibility of an early ... An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ...
*  List of dog diseases
It is possible not to see any symptoms of the disease until the adrenal cortex is 90% dysfunctional. Addison's can occur when ... the system the adrenal gland does not function at 100%. The system senses sufficient levels of these hormones in the body and ... Skin testing has proved unreliable, and a trial of a hypoallergenic diet is usually used for diagnosis. Follicular dysplasia is ... According to a study performed in the Tucson and Phoenix area, 28% of dogs will test positive for exposure to the fungus by two ...
*  Aldosterone
... is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is essential for sodium ... Aldosterone is a function of the inverse of the sodium intake as sensed via osmotic pressure. The slope of the response of ... the ACTH stimulation test, which is sometimes used to stimulate the production of aldosterone along with cortisol to determine ... Hu C, Rusin CG, Tan Z, Guagliardo NA, Barrett PQ (June 2012). "Zona glomerulosa cells of the mouse adrenal cortex are intrinsic ...
*  Adrenoleukodystrophy
The white matter of the brain, the Leydig cells of the testes and the adrenal cortex are the most severely affected systems. ... follow-up of these patients has shown that it does not improve adrenal function. For patients where an appropriate match for a ... When ALD is suspected based on clinical symptoms, the initial testing usually includes plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA ... The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex, and the Leydig cells in ...
*  Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex: The role of the renin-angiotensin system: Angiotensin is involved in ... The ACTH stimulation test is sometimes used to stimulate the production of aldosterone along with cortisol to determine if ... The plasma concentration of sodium: Aldosterone is a function of the inverse of the sodium intake as sensed via osmotic ... Aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone synthase ...
*  Releasing and inhibiting hormones
... it is also created elsewhere in the brain and the adrenal cortex as a neurotransmitter to affect many other systems. The ... Synthetic TRH is also used by physicians as a test of TSH reserve in the pituitary gland as it should stimulate the release of ... Such activity is only one of many functions that they have (such as neurotransmitter and receptor antagonist roles), and they ... inhibits release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH and also has many other functions. There is a neuropeptide called ...
*  ACTH receptor
Gallo-Payet N (May 2016). "60 YEARS OF POMC: Adrenal and extra-adrenal functions of ACTH". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. ... Fifteenth Conference on the Adrenal Cortex (Adrenal 2012) League City, Texas June 19 - 22, 2012. 371 (1-2): 114-23. doi:10.1016 ... Lipolytic activity due to melanocortin receptors has been demonstrated in several types of test animals: rats and hamsters ... ACTH receptor is primarily found in the zona fasciculata of the human adrenal cortex. Binding of the receptor by ACTH ...
*  Adrenal insufficiency
... overproduction of cortisol Insulin tolerance test - another test used to identify sub-types of adrenal insufficiency Adrenal ... Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex is caused by an immune reaction against the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (a phenomenon ... the adrenal glands atrophy (physically shrink), and can take months to recover full function after discontinuation of the ... Axis the entire axis must be tested by way of ACTH stimulation test, CRH stimulation test and perhaps an Insulin Tolerance Test ...
*  Adrenocorticotropic hormone
These are mainly not associated with the pituitary-adrenal axis. MC2R is the ACTH receptor. While it has a crucial function in ... This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of the adrenal cortex. The long term actions of ACTH include ... Corticorelin Dexamethasone suppression test I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (December 6, 2012). Concise Dictionary of ... ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex ...
*  Stress in early childhood
The HPA system is responsible for producing glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex; the main glucocorticoid in humans is the ... They had more trouble navigating tests of short-term memory as well. The region of the brain that is most affected by increased ... Cognitive functioning is greatly impaired. Children who had experienced more intense and lasting stressful events in their ... and decreased sensitivity of the adrenal cortex to ACTH. Also, the availability of adult support for young children helps ...
*  Cell-free fetal DNA
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the adrenal cortex lacks appropriate corticosteroid synthesis ... Paternity testing Prenatal DNA paternity testing is commercially available. The test can be performed at nine weeks gestation.[ ... epigenetic modifications (heritable modifications that change gene function without changing DNA sequence) can be used to ... Allyse, M.; Sayres, L. C.; King, J. S.; Norton, M. E.; Cho, M. K. (2012). "Cell-free fetal DNA testing for fetal aneuploidy and ...
*  Cushing's syndrome
When any of these tests is positive, CT scanning of the adrenal gland and MRI of the pituitary gland are performed to detect ... Cortisol is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland from a region called the zona fasciculata in response to ACTH. Elevated ... If the pituitary was affected, other medications may be required to replace its lost function. With treatment, life expectancy ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ...
*  E-box
The binding specificity of different E-boxes is found to be essential in their function. E-boxes with different functions have ... In 1991, researchers tested whether c-Myc could bind to DNA by dimerizing it to E12. Dimers of E6, the chimeric protein, were ... A total of 320 E-box-controlled genes are found in the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus), liver, aorta, adrenal, WAT (white adipose ... tissue), brain, atria, ventricle, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, BAT (brown adipose tissue), and calvarial bone. E-box ...
*  Steroid
... and testosterone are produced in the adrenal cortex.[citation needed] Estradiol, estrone and progesterone are made primarily in ... The major classes of steroid hormones, as noted above (with their prominent members and functions), are the Progestogen, ... biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more or the isolation of "analytical ... some testosterone is also produced in the adrenal cortex).[citation needed] Estradiol is converted from testosterone directly ( ...
*  Anterior pituitary
Proper functioning of the anterior pituitary and of the organs it regulates can often be ascertained via blood tests that ... Then, this acts on the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids such as cortisol. These glucocorticoids act back on the ... does not signal the adrenal cortex to produce a sufficient amount of cortisol. This is a life-threatening condition. ... In addition, secondary adrenal insufficiency can be caused by hypo-secretion of ACTH which, in turn, ...
*  Laboratory rat
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Laboratory mouse Animal testing on rodents Morris water maze Rat genome database Vandenbergh, J. G. (1 January 2000). "Use of ... The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ...
*  Androgen
... the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androstenedione (A4) is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries. While androstenediones are ... is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol. It is the primary precursor of natural estrogens. DHEA is ...
*  Corticosterone
... is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. It is of minor ... In multiple studies, the formation of LTM (tested 24 h later) was found to be enhanced by corticosterone in some studies, while ... increased corticosterone in early life compromises the birds cognitive functioning (problem solving, association of visual cue ... which is the most superficial region of endocrine cells in the adrenal cortex. Corticosterone is the precursor molecule to the ...
*  Adrenocortical carcinoma
... (ACC, adrenal cortical carcinoma, adrenal cortical cancer, adrenal cortex cancer, etc.) is an ... Expression of the h19 gene is markedly reduced in both nonfunctioning and functioning adrenal cortical carcinomas, especially ... Hormonal syndromes should be confirmed with laboratory testing. Laboratory findings in Cushing syndrome include increased serum ... There are several relatively rare variants of adrenal cortical carcinoma: Oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma Myxoid adrenal ...
*  Pregnenolone
It is described in the context of medical use as an "adrenal cortex hormone" or a glucocorticoid for the treatment of ... Neurosteroids affect synaptic functioning, are neuroprotective, and enhance myelinization. Pregnenolone and its sulfate ester ... Drug Test Anal. 3 (5): 283-90. doi:10.1002/dta.281. PMID 21538944. Sripada RK, Marx CE, King AP, Rampton JC, Ho SS, Liberzon I ... Pregnenolone is produced mainly in the gonads, adrenal glands, and the brain. Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism ...
*  Endocrine disruptor
Stoner HB (December 1953). "Effect of 2,2-bis (parachlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD) on the adrenal cortex of the rat". ... Since the theory involves the effects of these substances on a functioning system, animal testing is essential for scientific ... Similarly, proof that these effects occur in humans would require human testing, and such testing also has opposition. After ... Full scale testing will examine effects not only in mammals (rats) but also in a number of other species (frogs, fish, birds ...
*  Li-Fraumeni syndrome
... brain or adrenal cortex) regardless of age at diagnosis and/or a first or second degree relative with any cancer diagnosed ... Chène, P. (2001). "The Role of Tetramerization in p53 function" (online, print review). Oncogene. 20 (21): 2611-2617. doi: ... Genetic counseling and genetic testing are used to confirm that somebody has this gene mutation.[citation needed] Once such a ... This syndrome is also known as the sarcoma, breast, leukaemia and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome. The syndrome is linked to ...
*  LECT2
Furthermore, its levels in these tissues often change as a function of various diseases. These findings indicate that LECT is ... They may have histological evidence of LECT2 amyloid deposition in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, and adrenal glands of ... Kidney biopsy shows the presence of LECT2-based amyloid predominantly in the renal cortex interstitium, glomeruli, and ... and better results for glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In a study of 200 individuals in Japan, serum LECT2 levels ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone - definition of adrenocorticotropic hormone by The Free Dictionary  Adrenocorticotropic hormone - definition of adrenocorticotropic hormone by The Free Dictionary
a hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of steroids in the cortex of the adrenal... ... Two tests of HPA-axis function--basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion and dynamic stimulation to assess adrenal ... adrenocorticotropic hormone - a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex. ACTH, ... a hormone of the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of steroids in the cortex of the adrenal glands. ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/adrenocorticotropic+hormone
Adrenocorticotrophin synonyms, adrenocorticotrophin antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Adrenocorticotrophin synonyms, adrenocorticotrophin antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
... stimulation as a screening test for impaired hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function: sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ... a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex. Synonyms. *ACTH ... implications for the low-dose short adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test ... in comparison with the high-dose (250 microgram) test.. Relationship between cortisol increment and basal cortisol: ...
more infohttp://www.freethesaurus.com/adrenocorticotrophin
Addisons disease - Wild By Nature - Huntington  Addison's disease - Wild By Nature - Huntington
Adrenal insufficiency occurs when at least 90% of the adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal glands) has been destroyed. ... Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin ... Astragalus: Preliminary research reports that Astragalus containing herbal formulas may protect adrenal function, however the ... ACHT, autoimmune disease, autoimmune disorder, autoimmunity, adrenal cortex, adrenal glands, adrenal hormones, ...
more infohttp://www.wildbynature.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=D272A3B93180420D908E136E9D7E775D&DocID=allergy-addisonsdisease
Addisons disease - Wilkinson Health Services / Non-retail  Addison's disease - Wilkinson Health Services / Non-retail
Adrenal insufficiency occurs when at least 90% of the adrenal cortex (outer layer of the adrenal glands) has been destroyed. ... Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test: If the patient tests positive to the ACTH test, a corticotropin ... Astragalus: Preliminary research reports that Astragalus containing herbal formulas may protect adrenal function, however the ... ACHT, autoimmune disease, autoimmune disorder, autoimmunity, adrenal cortex, adrenal glands, adrenal hormones, ...
more infohttp://www.wilkinsonpharmacy.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=CA16677413FA4D59A0FF53842F6ED4E5&DocID=allergy-addisonsdisease
Addison Disease Guidelines: Guidelines Summary  Addison Disease Guidelines: Guidelines Summary
Recent studies White and Arlt examined the prevalence of and risk factors for adrenal crisis in patients with Addison... ... Function of the adrenal cortex: protocol for the rapid ACTH test. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ... an insulin hypoglycemia test should be administered. The initial test to find the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency should ... Diseases of the adrenal cortex. In: Fauci A, Brunwald E, Martin JB, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-guidelines
Addison Disease Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes  Addison Disease Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes
Recent studies White and Arlt examined the prevalence of and risk factors for adrenal crisis in patients with Addison... ... Function of the adrenal cortex: protocol for the rapid ACTH test. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical ... and lymphocytic infiltration of the adrenal cortex, usually with sparing of the adrenal medulla. This accounts for more than 80 ... Diseases of the adrenal cortex. In: Fauci A, Brunwald E, Martin JB, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-clinical
Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. Edition No. 4  Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. Edition No. 4
Laboratory Evaluation of Thyroid Function 37. Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla 38. Laboratory Testing in Pregnancy ... Vitamins and Trace Elements: Functions and Assessment of Status through Laboratory Testing 42. Inborn Errors of Metabolism 43. ... Laboratory Evaluation of Kidney Function 32. Blood Gas and Critical Care Testing 33. Water and Electrolyte Balance 34. ... Market tested and trusted through multiple editions, this must-have reference is known as the "white book" and has been updated ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4790344/contemporary-practice-in-clinical-chemistry
Cosyntropin - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses  Cosyntropin - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Because of its rapid effect on the adrenal cortex it may be utilized to perform a 30 minute test of adrenal function (plasma ... A suggested method for a rapid screening test of adrenal function has been described by Wood and Associates (1). A control ... It has been established that 0.25 mg of Cosyntropin will stimulate the adrenal cortex maximally and to the same extent as 25 ... When presumptive adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed by a subnormal Cosyntropin test, further studies are indicated to determine ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/pro/cosyntropin.html
DailyMed - COSYNTROPIN- cosyntropin injection, powder, for solution  DailyMed - COSYNTROPIN- cosyntropin injection, powder, for solution
Because of its rapid effect on the adrenal cortex it may be utilized to perform a 30 minute test of adrenal function (plasma ... A suggested method for a rapid screening test of adrenal function has been described by Wood and Associates (1). A control ... It has been established that 0.25 mg of cosyntropin will stimulate the adrenal cortex maximally and to the same extent as 25 ... When presumptive adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed by a subnormal cosyntropin test, further studies are indicated to determine ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=39af194b-c854-4abf-893a-a47856fe42a1
Cortisol Tests (Blood, Urine, Saliva) | Healthhype.com  Cortisol Tests (Blood, Urine, Saliva) | Healthhype.com
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands. It has diverse functions influencing ... There are three main methods of testing the cortisol levels and this includes a blood test, urine test and saliva test. ... However other tests should also be done to confirm the diagnosis.. Dexamethasone Suppression Test. This test involves ... Low Cortisol Tests. If Addison's disease is suspected then the ACTH stimulation test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. The ...
more infohttps://www.healthhype.com/cortisol-tests-blood-urine-saliva.html
1 - Forex trading northern ireland  1 - Forex trading northern ireland
Adrenal cortex Abnormalities of adrenal hormone measurements Drugs may interfere with tests of adrenal function. 8-47a to c) as ... Dissolution test for lipophilic solid dosage forms. And Buss, Africa, the Middle East, forex trading northern ireland Europe, ... However, the PPP test is not widely used due to its semi-quan- titative nature and significant operator-dependence. My only ... Injection: the test solution and reference solution (b). For example, it was reported that deletion of the MsrA gene in mice ...
more infohttp://forexicreg.com/forex-trading-northern-ireland.html
Acupoint specificity on acupuncture regulation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function | BMC Complementary and...  Acupoint specificity on acupuncture regulation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal cortex axis function | BMC Complementary and...
It is also the key element of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis(HPAA). The effect of acupuncture is transmitted ... The acupoints on Gallbladder Channel and the acupoints innervated by the same spinal cord segments as the adrenal gland ... whether these specificity acupoints regulate HPAA function. The endpoints of measurement include corticosterone (CORT) level in ... The open field test was conducted on the -1th, 23th and 29th days of the study in the rats. The sucrose consumption test was on ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-015-0625-4
Adrenal Cortex - 60 Vegetarian Capsules  Adrenal Cortex - 60 Vegetarian Capsules
After a 4 point saliva test confirmed adrenal issues, my doctor suggested Adrenal Cortex by Thorne Research and it has worked ... Capsules by Thorne Research help the body by providing pure adrenal cortex tissue to support healthy adrenal function. This can ... Adrenal cortex tissue extracts‚ such as those included in Adrenal Cortex by Thorne Research‚ play a valuable supporting role in ... Adrenal cortex by Thorne Research was specifically designed to provide you with adrenal cortex tissue‚ which can help support ...
more infohttps://www.pureformulas.com/adrenal-cortex-60-vegetarian-capsules-by-thorne-research.html?N=4294855119
List of MeSH codes (E01) - Wikipedia  List of MeSH codes (E01) - Wikipedia
... adrenal cortex function tests MeSH E01.370.374.100 --- blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.370.374.355 --- glucose tolerance ... ovarian function tests MeSH E01.370.374.600 --- pituitary-adrenal function tests MeSH E01.370.374.605 --- pituitary function ... lactose tolerance test MeSH E01.370.372.460 --- liver function tests MeSH E01.370.372.600 --- pancreatic function tests MeSH ... placental function tests MeSH E01.370.378.620 --- pregnancy tests MeSH E01.370.378.620.620 --- pregnancy tests, immunologic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(E01)
Free Medical Flashcards about biochem test 2 2011  Free Medical Flashcards about biochem test 2 2011
Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... Free flashcards to help memorize facts about biochem test 2 2011. ... ACTH induces the adrenal cortex to synthesize glucocorticoids, mineral corticoids and the androgen precursor ... What is the function of prostaglandins?. Prostaglandins function as mediators of inflammation and pain. ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-674385
Blood test done. What does the report say?  Blood test done. What does the report say?
You will see that DHEAS is low, under function of adrenal cortex may be Addisson desease or hypopituitrism, you can guide, ... There ard better tests to diagnose both central and primary adrenal insufficiency. Obesity and adrenal insufficiency donot go ... DHEAS is not a reliable test for adrenal insufficiency and it is very rarely used in the workup of adrenal insufficiency. ... Thanks, Test report mentioning tests of Calcium,CO2 Cortisol etc were already attached under test report TYPED B and other ...
more infohttps://www.healthcaremagic.com/premiumquestions/Blood-test-done-What-does-the-report-say/36193
Essential Endocrinology | SpringerLink  Essential Endocrinology | SpringerLink
Testing Adrenocortical Function C. R. Kannan. Pages 239-248 * Hyperfunction of the Adrenal Cortex ... the ultimate testing ground where clinical diagnoses stand or fall. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4899-1692-1
Our Products | AMPHASTAR  Our Products | AMPHASTAR
With Cortrosyn's rapid effect on the adrenal cortex, it may be utilized to perform a 30-minute test of adrenal function (plasma ...
more infohttp://www.amphastar.com/our-products.html
Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
Cushing syndrome; adrenal gland diseases; adrenal cortex function tests © Copyright 2015 - Revista Colombia Médica. Alternative ... Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés ... Uso del muestreo venoso adrenal en un paciente con un síndrome de Cushing adrenal. Builes-Montaño, Carlos Esteban; Villa-Franco ... The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal ...
more infohttp://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=rc15017&lang=en
Pathology Flashcards by Annabel Groome | Brainscape  Pathology Flashcards by Annabel Groome | Brainscape
2. anti-adrenal cortex antibody. 3. antibody to double stranded DNA 4. anti-centromere antibody. 5. anti-TTG antibody. 6. anti- ... Physical examination is normal, but liver function tests reveal: Total bilirubin = 36umol/l (0-17umol/l). ALT = 28U/l (0-31U/l) ... 2. anti-adrenal cortex antibody. 3. antibody to double stranded DNA 4. anti-centromere antibody. 5. anti-TTG antibody. 6. anti- ... 2. anti-adrenal cortex antibody. 3. antibody to double stranded DNA 4. anti-centromere antibody. 5. anti-TTG antibody. 6. anti- ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pathology-3284665/packs/5188064
  • Lymphoma may occasionally involve the adrenal glands, but primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is very rare and only few cases have been reported. (hindawi.com)
  • Since metastatic malignant disease was suspected a positron-emission-tomography scan was performed only showing significant uptake in the adrenal glands. (hindawi.com)
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rare whereas secondary involvement of the adrenal glands in nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often and is present in approximately 25% of cases [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisone in the adrenogenital syndrome associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: an attempt to explain and correct its disordered hormonal pattern. (springer.com)
  • Other cases are due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or an adenoma (tumor) of the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is of minor importance in humans, except in the very rare case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucocorticoids like cortisol has a wide range of effects in the body including regulating the metabolism of foods, immune function and stress response. (healthhype.com)
  • The corticosteroids, including most synthetic steroid drugs, with natural product classes the glucocorticoids (which regulate many aspects of metabolism and immune function) and the mineralocorticoids (which help maintain blood volume and control renal excretion of electrolytes) Anabolic steroids, natural and synthetic, which interact with androgen receptors to increase muscle and bone synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid dementia syndrome describes the signs and symptoms of hippocampal and prefrontal cortical dysfunction, such as deficits in memory, attention, and executive function, induced by glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the condition generally falls under the classification of Cushing's syndrome, the term "steroid dementia syndrome" is particularly useful because it recognizes both the cause of the syndrome and the specific effects of glucocorticoids on cognitive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regions of the brain with a high density of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) including the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to elevated circulating levels of glucocorticoids even in the absence of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific studies have mainly focused on the impact of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus because of its role in memory processes and on the prefrontal cortex for its role in attention and executive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • With prolonged suppression, the adrenal glands atrophy (physically shrink), and can take months to recover full function after discontinuation of the exogenous glucocorticoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are adrenal dysgenesis (the gland has not formed adequately during development), impaired steroidogenesis (the gland is present but is biochemically unable to produce cortisol) or adrenal destruction (disease processes leading to glandular damage). (wikipedia.org)
  • Helps adrenal fatigue symptoms. (pureformulas.com)
  • Very severe symptoms may arise at times of stress when an adrenal crisis occurs. (healthhype.com)
  • Further, the more precise terminology clearly distinguishes the condition from full-blown Cushing's syndrome, which is extremely broad regarding the causes (endogenous or exogenous, pituitary or adrenal) and the multitude of symptoms (ranging from skin disorders to osteoporosis), and from hypercortisolemia, which identifies neither the source nor the symptoms of excess circulatory cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms include deficits in verbal and non-verbal memory working memory attention sustained concentration executive function psychomotor speed academic or occupational performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of bilateral tumours can be distinguished according to size and aspect of the nodules: primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease which can be sporadic or part of Carney complex and primary bilateral macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in humans, cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid that is produced primarily in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we investigated in a rat model of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) whether these specificity acupoints regulate HPAA function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients in acute adrenal crisis most often have prominent nausea, vomiting, and vascular collapse. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenal crisis requires emergency medical treatment, which includes intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone infusions. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Both tumors may also arise from extra-adrenal sites, specifically, in the paraganglia of the sympathetic chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decade of experience as a teacher and physician in the field of endo- crinologyhas impressed on me that the process of "simplification" rests on four basic principles: an understanding of endocrine concepts, the application of these concepts to the understanding of diseases, the transference of knowl- edge to clinical situations, and the integration of the patient with the labo- ratory, the ultimate testing ground where clinical diagnoses stand or fall. (springer.com)
  • Thus, we assessed in humans the independent effects of the circadian system and the behavioral cycle (including fasting/feeding and sleep/wake cycles) on metabolic, autonomic, and endocrine function. (pnas.org)
  • This test should not be performed on children outside a specialist pediatric endocrine unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory Testing in Pregnancy and Reproductive Disorders 39. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Adrenal tissue may be destroyed by metastatic cancer or other disorders (amyloidosis and sarcoidosis ). (healthcommunities.com)
  • Furthermore, the evaluation of HRV during deep breathing is a highly sensitive and reliable test for early detection of parasympathetic dysfunction in a wide range of autonomic disorders [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen to determine if the adrenal glands are small in size, indicating destruction, or enlarged, indicating infiltration by an independent disease process. (healthcommunities.com)